Handbook of Workplace Violence
Publication Year: 2006
In the Handbook of Workplace Violence, editors E. Kevin Kelloway, Julian Barling, and Joseph J. Hurrell Jr. bring together the contributions of leading researchers to provide summaries and unique perspectives on current theory, research, and practice relating to workplace violence. This is the only up to date resource currently available to provide a comprehensive overview of the current state of knowledge regarding all aspects of workplace violence and aggression.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
Part I: Perspectives on Workplace Violence
- Chapter 1: Editors' Introduction to Part I
- Chapter 2: Violence as Instrumental Behavior
- Chapter 3: Emotions, Violence, and Counterproductive Work Behavior
- Chapter 4: Prevalence of Workplace Aggression in the U.S. Workforce: Findings From a National Study
Part II: Sources and Forms of Workplace Violence
- Chapter 5: Editors' Introduction to Part II
- Chapter 6: Workplace Emotional Abuse
- Chapter 7: Workplace Bullying
- Chapter 8: Violence in Nursing
- Chapter 9: School Violence
- Chapter 10: Workplace Violence in the Police
- Chapter 11: Crossing the Line: Violence on the Picket Line
- Chapter 12: Public-Initiated Violence
- Chapter 13: The Battlefield as Workplace: Violence in Warfighting
- Chapter 14: Violence in Peacekeeping
- Chapter 15: Community Sources of Workplace Violence
- Chapter 16: The Consequences of Partner Violence on Employment and the Workplace
- Chapter 17: Sexual Harassment in the Workplace: A Look Back and a Look Ahead
- Chapter 18: Young Workers
- Chapter 19: A Case of Cyberdeviancy: Cyberaggression in the Workplace
Part III: Prevention and Intervention
- Chapter 20: Editors' Introduction to Part III
- Chapter 21: Organizational Response to Workplace Violence
- Chapter 22: The Experience of Victims: Using Theories of Traumatic and Chronic Stress to Understand Individual Outcomes of Workplace Abuse
- Chapter 23: Critical Incident Stress Debriefing and Workplace Violence
- Chapter 24: Screening and Selecting Out Violent Employees
- Chapter 25: Training as a Workplace Aggression Intervention Strategy
- Chapter 26: Preventing Insider-Initiated Workplace Violence
In the Handbook of Workplace Violence, editors E. Kevin Kelloway, Julian Barling, and Joseph J. Hurrell Jr. bring together the contributions of leading researchers to provide summaries and unique perspectives on current theory, research, and practice relating to workplace violence. This is the most up-to-date resource available providing a comprehensive overview of the current state of knowledge regarding all aspects of workplace violence and aggression.
Part I summarizes the leading theoretical perspectives on violence and aggression and provides prevalence estimates for aggression and violence in North American workplaces.
Part II focuses on leading experts in the field summarizing what is known about the sources of workplace violence (e.g., partner violence, communal violence, industrial relations violence, public-initiated violence) forms of aggression in the workplace (e.g., emotional abuse, workplace bullying, cyber-aggression) and populations (e.g., occupations, youth) at special risk for workplace violence and aggression.
Part III considers the experience of victims as well as individual (e.g., critical incident stress debriefing) and organizational (e.g., selection, training) interventions designed to prevent, or ameliorate the consequences of workplace violence.
This is a valuable resource for researchers and practitioners in the fields of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Human Resources, Health Psychology, Public Health, and Employee Assistance Programs. It is also an excellent textbook for graduate courses in Organizational Behavior, Occupational Health Psychology, and Organizational Psychology.
Copyright © 2006 by Sage Publications, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Handbook of workplace violence / editors: E. Kevin Kelloway, Julian Barling, Joseph J. Hurrell, Jr.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 0-7619-3062-0 (cloth)
1. Violence in the workplace. 2. Violence in the workplace—Prevention. I. Kelloway, E. Kevin. II. Barling, Julian. III. Hurrell, Joseph J.
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
05 06 07 08 09 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Acquisitions Editor: Al Bruckner
Editorial Assistant: MaryAnn Vail
Production Editor: Diane S. Foster
Copy Editor: Robert Holm
Typesetter: C&M Digitals (P) Ltd.
Proofreader: Scott Oney
Indexer: Will Ragsdale
Cover Designer: Candice Harman
To Debra, who has the compassion and strength to help others “survive the day.”—EKK
To my father, Lawrence, who was killed at work in 1960.—JB
To my wife, Marilyn, whose patience and dedication to teaching children with disabilities has helped to make the world a better place.—JJH[Page viii]
About the Editors[Page 685]
E. Kevin Kelloway holds an appointment as Professor of Management and Psychology in the Sobey School of Business, Saint Mary's University. He is a prolific researcher having published over 100 articles, book chapters, and technical reports. His research interests include occupational health psychology, leadership, the development and measurement of work attitudes and values, unionization, and the management of knowledge workers. He is coauthor of The Union and Its Members: A Psychological Approach (Oxford University Press, 1992), Using Flexible Work Arrangements to Combat Job Stress (John Wiley, 1998), and Management of Occupational Health and Safety (3rd ed., Nelson, 2005) and the author of Using LISREL for Structural Equation Modeling: A Researcher's Guide (Sage, 1998). With Dr. Julian Barling (Queen's University), he edited a book series, Advanced Topics in Organizational Psychology (Sage) and has coedited the volume Young Workers: Varieties of Experience (APA, 1999). Most recently he coedited The Handbook of Work Stress (Sage Publications, 2004). He serves on the editorial boards of both the Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science and the Journal of Occupational Health Psychology. As a consultant, he maintains an active practice consulting to private and public sector organizations on issues related to leadership, performance management, and measurement of employee attitudes and performance.
Julian Barling, PhD, is Professor and Associate Dean, Queen's School of Business, a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada, and Queen's Research Chair at Queen's University. He is the author of several books, including Employment, Stress and Family Functioning (John Wiley, 1990) and The Union and Its Members: A Psychological Approach (with Clive Fullagar and Kevin Kelloway, Oxford University Press, 1992). He coedited The Psychology of Workplace Safety (APA, 2003) and was senior editor of The Handbook of Work Stress (Sage, 2004). In addition, he is the author or editor of well over 125 research articles and book chapters and serves on the editorial boards of the Journal of Applied Psychology, Leadership and Organizational Development Journal, and Stress Medicine. He was the editor of the Journal of Occupational Health Psychology and chair of the American Psychological Association's Task Force on Workplace Violence.
[Page 686]From 1989 to 1991, he was the chairperson of the Advisory Council on Occupational Health and Safety to the Ontario Minister of Labour.
Joseph J. Hurrell Jr., PhD, is currently a consultant in the area of occupational health and safety and was formerly a researcher at the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Before leaving NIOSH in January of 2005, he served as the Associate Director for Science for the Division of Surveillance, Hazard Evaluations and Field Studies. In this position, he was responsible for the scientific quality of research generated by over 180 occupational health researchers. He received his PhD from Miami University in 1982 and was an adjunct faculty member at Xavier University. He has had a long-standing research interest in the health and safety consequences of occupational stress and has published numerous scientific articles and edited six books on the topic. He is a cofounder of the Journal of Occupational Health Psychology and served as its coeditor for 6 years. He currently serves as a member of the American Psychological Association's National Task Force on Occupational Violence.
About the Contributors[Page 687]
Collette Arens Bates is currently finishing her PhD in the Sam M. Walton College of Business at the University of Arkansas. Her research interests include work-family conflict, social support, sexual harassment, and gender diversity and differences.
Lynn Bowes-Sperry is Associate Professor of Management at Western New England College. Her research, which focuses on the areas of sexual harassment, ethical decision making, and organizational justice, has been published in journals such as Academy of Management Review, Journal of Management, Human Resources Management Review, Small Group Research, and Group and Organization Management. Her work also appears in several edited books such as The Handbook of Gender and Work and Misbehavior and Dysfunctional Attitudes in Organizations. She has held several leadership roles in the Gender and Diversity Division of the Academy of Management. She received her PhD in business administration from the University of Connecticut.
James E. Cameron is Associate Professor in the Department of Psychology at Saint Mary's University in Halifax, Nova Scotia, where he has taught since 1999. He received a PhD degree in social-personality psychology from York University in Toronto. Most of his previous and current research is concerned with social identity, or the contribution of various group memberships— including gender, nation, and organization—to the self. He is particularly interested in the nature and consequences of social identification with respect to intergroup attitudes, collective action, psychological well-being, and globalization. Hs article “A Three Factor Model of Social Identity” was recently published in Self and Identity.
Victor M. Catano is Professor and Chairperson of Psychology at Saint Mary's University, Halifax, Nova Scotia. He is the first author of Recruitment and Selection in Canada, one of the leading texts in the field of human resource management. He served for 8 years as Editor of Canadian Psychology, the flagship journal of the Canadian Psychological Association. In recognition of his contributions to the science and practice of psychology in Canada, he was elected a Fellow by the Canadian Psychological [Page 688]Association and an Honorary Member by Canadian Forces Personnel Selection Officers Association. He was recently awarded the Canadian Psychology Association's Award for Distinguished Contributions to Education and Training and the Canadian Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology's Award for Distinguished Contributions to Industrial and Organizational Psychology.
Cary L. Cooper, CBE, is Professor of Organizational Psychology and Health at Lancaster University, England. He is President of the British Academy of Management, Founding Editor of the Journal of Organizational Behavior, and an Academician of the Academy for the Social Sciences. He is a Fellow of the British Psychological Society, Royal Society of Medicine, Royal Society of Health, Royal Society of Arts, and the Academy of Management. He was awarded the Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire by the Queen in June 2001 for his contribution to occupational safety and health. He is the author or editor of over 100 books and several hundred scholarly articles.
Lilia M. Cortina is Assistant Professor of Psychology and Women's Studies at the University of Michigan. She received her PhD in clinical-community psychology from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in 1999. Her research addresses sexual harassment, incivility, and gender in organizations, focusing in particular on factors that mitigate or exacerbate the impact of victimization on employees' psychological and occupational health. Her work has appeared in such journals as the Journal of Applied Psychology, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, and Psychology of Women Quarterly. She currently serves on the editorial boards of the Journal of Applied Psychology, Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, and Psychology of Women Quarterly.
Aria L. Day, PhD, is an Associate Psychology professor at Saint Mary's University. She received her BA in Psychology from the University of Manitoba, and her MASc and PhD in industrial/organizational psychology from the University of Waterloo. She is a founding member of both the CN Centre for Occupational Health and Safety and the Centre for Leadership Excellence. Her current research activities involve the areas of organizational and employee health and well-being (in terms of workplace aggression, stress, coping, and work-family balance), selection practices, emotional intelligence, and leadership, and she is a reviewer for several scholarly journals. Her teaching activities involve psychometrics and assessment, organizational psychology, human resources management, and statistics. She has extensive consulting experience for several private and public organizations, in terms of developing and administering organizational surveys, conducting structured selection interviews, administering and validating employment tests, providing performance feedback, conducting job analyses, reviewing and developing employment equity plans, and evaluating selection procedures.
[Page 689]Joerg Dietz is Associate Professor in the Richard Ivey School of Business at the University of Western Ontario. He earned his PhD in organizational behavior at Tulane University's A. B. Freeman School of Business. His current research interests include employee-customer linkages in service organizations, contextual models of workplace aggression, and prejudice and discrimination in the workplace. He has published articles in journals such as the Academy of Management Journal, Journal of Applied Psychology, and Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes.
Theresa Domagalski is Associate Professor of Management in the College of Business at the Florida Institute of Technology in Melbourne, Florida. She received her PhD from the University of South Florida in management and organizational behavior. Her current research interests include emotions in organizations, the relationship between gender and status, and the use of film and literary genres as methodological and pedagogical tools for understanding organizations. Her work is published in Human Relations, Organizational Analysis, Organization & Environment, and Journal of Management Inquiry.
Kathryne E. Dupré received her PhD in organizational behaviour from Queen's University (Kingston, Ontario). She joined the faculty of business administration at Memorial University of Newfoundland in 2003 where she teaches in the areas of organizational behavior and human resource management. She received her MSc in industrial/organizational psychology from Saint Mary's University (Halifax, Nova Scotia) and her honors BA in psychology from Queen's University. Her research interests include workplace aggression, employee safety, occupational stress, and young employees' experiences in the workplace. Her recent research involves investigating the prediction and spillover of workplace aggression within and across contexts, as well as the escalation of workplace aggression. Her work has been published in the Journal of Applied Psychology and Handbook of Stress, Medicine and Health and presented at several national and international conferences.
LCol Kelly M. J. Farley earned his PhD in social psychology from Carleton University and is a researcher and analyst in the Shape Army Culture Project located at the National Defence Headquarters in Ottawa. He is the author of several papers in the area of stress in operations and the human dimension of operational readiness. His current research interests include military organizational culture issues such as the right of association, the “social contract,” and the role of the regimental system in the development of army culture.
Richard B. Felson is Professor of Crime, Law, and Justice and of Sociology at Pennsylvania State University. He is currently doing research on domestic violence, race differences in assault, alcohol use by offenders and victims, and the response of the criminal justice system to different types of assault. His articles have appeared in Criminology, Journal of Marriage and Family, Social Psychology Quarterly, and Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. His books, including Violence and Gender Reexamined and [Page 690]Violence, Aggression, and Coercive Actions (with J. Tedeschi) were published by the American Psychological Association.
Suzy Fox is Associate Professor in the Institute of Human Resources and Industrial Relations, Graduate School of Business, Loyola University Chicago, where she teaches organizational behavior, global human resource management, and ethics of employment and diversity. She received her PhD in industrial/organizational psychology and MBA from the University of South Florida. Current research projects include studies of emotional and behavioral responses to job stress, counterproductive work behavior, relations between subtle/symbolic/modern racism and workplace bullying (racial/ethnic bullying), and international comparisons of professionally successful women. With Paul Spector, she coedited Counterproductive Work Behavior: Investigations of Actors and Targets. She has published in the Journal of Vocational Behavior, Journal of Organizational Behavior, Organizational Dynamics, Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, Human Resource Management Review, International Review of Selection and Assessment, Personnel Psychology, and Handbook of Organization Studies. She just completed 3 years as associate editor of Human Relations.
Lori Francis is currently Assistant Professor in the Department of Psychology at Saint Mary's University in Halifax, Nova Scotia. She received a PhD in industrial/organizational psychology from the University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada. She has broad research interests in organizational psychology, including occupational health and safety and workplace fairness. She is a member of Saint Mary's University's Centre for Leadership Excellence as well as the CN Centre for Occupational Health and Safety.
Michael R. Frone, PhD, is a Senior Research Scientist at the Research Institute on Addictions and Research and Associate Professor of Psychology, State University of New York at Buffalo. He has published extensively in leading journals on work-family dynamics; the work-related predictors and outcomes of employee mental health, physical health, and substance use; and the developmental outcomes of youth employment. He is coeditor of The Psychology of Workplace Safety (APA, 2004) and The Handbook of Work Stress (Sage, 2004). He is associate editor of the Journal of Occupational Health Psychology and has served on the editorial boards of the Journal of Applied Psychology, Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, Journal of Organizational Behavior, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, and Organizational Research Methods. With funding from the National Institutes of Health, he recently completed a large national telephone survey of workplace health and safety.
Harjinder Gill is Assistant Professor in the Psychology Department at the University of Guelph. She completed her graduate studies in industrial and organizational psychology at the University of Western Ontario. Her [Page 691]research focuses on issues of fairness and aggression in the workplace. She has presented her work at peer-reviewed conferences and in journals.
Theresa M. Glomb is the Carlson Professor of Human Resources and Industrial Relations in the Carlson School of Management at the University of Minnesota. She received her PhD in industrial/organizational psychology from the University of Illinois in 1998 and her BA in psychology from DePaul University in 1993. She has conducted research and published in the areas of anger and aggressive behaviors in organizations, emotional labor, emotional expression in organizations, sexual harassment, and job attitudes and behaviors. She has published in outlets such as the Journal of Applied Psychology, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Academy of Management Journal, and Journal of Occupational Health Psychology. She has been teaching masters and doctoral students in the human resources and industrial relations program at the University of Minnesota in the areas of staffing, training and development, motivation, and organizational behavior.
Steven R. Harvey is Professor and Department Chair at the Williams School of Business, Bishop's University in Lennoxville, Quebec. In addition, he is an adjunct graduate faculty member with the Department of Psychology at the Université de Sherbrooke where he serves as adviser to students in the doctoral program. He earned his PhD in industrial and organizational psychology from the University of Guelph in 1996. His research interests span various domains of organizational psychology including occupational stress, health and well-being, young workers' experiences, organizational leadership, and psychological harassment and violence in the workplace. His academic work, both in English and in French, has been published as book chapters, conference proceedings, and in several journals including, among others, Canadian Psychology, Journal of Business and Psychology, Work & Stress, and the Journal of Occupational Health Psychology.
M. Sandy Hershcovis is a PhD candidate in management, specializing in organizational behavior, at Queen's University. Her research examines the predictors, outcomes, and prevention of workplace aggression. She has conducted two meta-analytic reviews of the field of workplace aggression. The first meta-analysis examines the situational and individual predictors of insider-initiated aggression and the target-specific nature of such aggression. The second meta-analysis examines the attitudinal, health, and behavioral outcomes of experienced aggression from insiders and outsiders of the organization. Her work has appeared in book chapters as well as peer-reviewed journals, including the Journal of Applied Psychology.
Michelle Inness is Assistant Professor at the University of Alberta, School of Business. She is currently completing her PhD at Queen's University School of Business with a specialization in organizational behavior. Her research interests include a wide range of topics related to employee well-being, such as workplace aggression, occupational health and safety, job attitudes, and [Page 692]unique groups of workers such as peacekeepers. Her work has appeared in the Journal of Applied Psychology and the British Journal of Social Psychology.
Loraleigh Keashly is a Social-Organizational Psychologist and Associate Professor at Wayne State University. She is currently Academic Director, MA in Dispute. For the past 20 years, her research and practice has focused on conflict and conflict resolution at the interpersonal, group, and intergroup levels. Her current research focus is the nature of, and the personal and organizational effects of, emotionally abusive behaviors in the workplace. She has published a number of articles in the past 11 years on this topic that have appeared in venues such as Violence and Victims, Work & Stress, Journal of Emotional Abuse, Journal of Healthcare Management, Employee Rights and Employment Policy Journal, and several edited volumes. She has a particular interest in the role of organizational structure and culture in the facilitation or mitigation of emotionally abusive behavior among employees with an eye to developing and evaluating prevention and intervention efforts. She also has extensive experience as a consultant and trainer in conflict analysis and resolution.
Elizabeth Kelley is Assistant Professor of Management at the School of Business Administration, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia. Her primary research focus is leadership, particularly in the remote environment. Her most recent research has examined the effect of context on remote leader-member relationships. Secondarily, she has published in the area of the role of context in the development of management theory.
Marilyn Lanza is a Nurse Researcher and Psychotherapist. She has done extensive research, writing, and lecturing on assaultive patients. She was the first researcher to document staff reactions to being assaulted. Many hospitals now offer counseling to their assaulted staff based upon her work. Her current research includes factors contributing to blame placement, simulation methodologies to study assault, development of clinical pathways for use of the community meeting as a prevention of or intervention to assaultive behavior, and a treatment model for psychodynamic group psychotherapy as an intervention for assaultive men and batterers. She has developed, psychometrically validated, and published four instruments: The Assault Response Questionnaire (ARQ), Assault Rating Scale (ARS), Patient Assault Vignettes, and Aggression Observation Scale for Group Psychotherapy (AOSGP). She is a member of the American Psychiatric Association Task Force on Clinician Safety, is the 1994 recipient of Massachusetts Nurses' Association Research Award and the Distinguished Nurse Research Award, and the AHEC Nursing Research Award, 2000. She served on the Massachusetts Governor's Commission on Quality Improvement and Violence Task Forces, both locally and nationally. In her current position as Nurse Researcher, she is responsible for a national VA study: Violence Assessment, Mitigation, and Prevention.
[Page 693]Manon Mireille LeBlanc teaches Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management in the Williams School of Business at Bishop's University (Lennoxville, Quebec). She is also pursuing a PhD in organizational behavior from Queen's University (Kingston, Ontario). She received her honors BA in psychology from Concordia University (Montreal, Quebec) and her MA in industrial/organizational psychology from the University of Guelph (Guelph, Ontario). Her research interests include employee safety, occupational stress, and workplace violence. Her dissertation is focused on the effects of intimate partner violence on women's employment. She has coauthored three book chapters, and she has published in peer-reviewed journals, including the Journal of Applied Psychology.
TK Logan is currently an Associate Professor in the Department of Behavioral Science at the University of Kentucky with an appointment in the Center on Drug and Alcohol Research. She has been funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) and by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) and has completed several drug court program evaluations as well as studies focused on intimate partner violence and divorce; intimate partner violence and custody outcomes; stalking victimization and perpetration; health and mental health status, barriers, and service use among women; HIV risk behavior; and health, mental health, substance use, and victimization among rural and urban women. She is senior author on several books focused on victimization, mental health, and substance abuse among women and is also coauthoring an evaluation text.
Catherine Loughlin was recently appointed Canada Research Chair in Management at the Sobey School of Business. She completed her PhD in industrial/organizational psychology at Queen's University and held a Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC) Post-doctoral Fellowship there in the Business School before teaching in management at the University of Toronto. She has published papers in the Journal of Experimental Psychology, Journal of Organizational Behavior, and Journal of Applied Psychology and coauthored book chapters on work stress, workplace health and safety, and the quality of youth employment. She is a reviewer for journals including the Journal of Applied Psychology and the Journal of Occupational Health Psychology. She has consulted for the government of Canada and private industry on leadership, work stress, occupational health, and the future workforce. Her latest SSHRC grant supports leadership research on women in management (with Dr. K. Arnold, 2005-2008).
Caroline Macke, MSW, is pursuing a doctoral degree in social work at the University of Kentucky. While working as a research assistant for Dr. Jennifer E. Swanberg, her research activities have focused predominantly on domestic violence and employment. In addition, she is interested in attachment theory, particularly as it pertains to violent relationships. Before earning her MSW at the University of Kentucky, she was awarded a [Page 694]bachelor's degree in economics, business, and international studies, as well as an associate's degree in political science at Thomas More College.
Jane Mullen is an Assistant Professor of Organizational Behaviour and Human Resource Management at Mount Allison University, New Brunswick, Canada. She received her PhD in Business Administration (Management) from Saint Mary's University. Her research interests include transformational leadership, occupational health and safety, and workplace violence.
Anne M. O'Leary-Kelly is the William R. and Cacilia Howard Chair in Management in the Department of Management at the University of Arkansas. She received her PhD in organizational behavior from Michigan State University in 1990. Her research interests include the study of aggressive work behavior (violence, sexual harassment) and individual attachments to organizations (psychological contracts, identification). Her work has appeared in, among others, the Academy of Management Review, Academy of Management Journal, Journal of Applied Psychology, Journal of Management, and Journal of Organizational Behavior. She has been a corecipient of the Outstanding Publication in Organizational Behavior Award and the Dorothy Harlow Outstanding Paper Award given by the Academy of Management; a corecipient of the Richard A. Swanson Award for Excellence in Research from the American Society for Training and Development; and a corecipient of the Ralph C. Hoeber Award for Excellence in Research for work in the American Business Law Journal. She currently serves on the Executive Committee of the Organizational Behavior Division of the Academy of Management.
Stephen B. Perrott is Associate Professor of Psychology at Mount Saint Vincent University in Halifax, Nova Scotia. He served as a constable in the Halifax Police Department from 1976 to 1986 and completed his doctorate in clinical psychology at McGill University in Montreal in 1992. His research focuses at the interface of clinical, social, and criminal justice psychology with a special focus on policing issues. While maintaining a part-time clinical practice, he has increasingly focused upon international development, including a sex tourism project in the Philippines and a peer health program in the Gambia. He is currently project director of a 6-year, $1 million project funded by the Canadian International Development Agency promoting community-based policing and restorative justice with the Gambia Police Force.
Charlotte Rayner is Professor of Human Resource Management at Portsmouth Business School, UK. She has been involved in research into bullying at work since the mid-1990s, when she completed the first major UK survey for the BBC. She has continued to research this topic, including a set of surveys for Britain's largest trade union, UNISON, in 1997 and 2000. She has recently published a book, Workplace Bullying: What We Know, Who Is to Blame and What Can We Do? with Cary Cooper and Helge Hoel. She has a PhD from Manchester, an MBA from City University Business [Page 695]School, and a first degree in psychology from Newcastle, and she is a Fellow of the RSA. She writes on the topic of bullying at work and negative behavior generally for professional and academic publications. She is particularly interested in prevention strategies. (Email: firstname.lastname@example.org)
Aaron C. H. Schat is Assistant Professor of Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management at the DeGroote School of Business at McMaster University. He received his BA from Redeemer University College and his MA and PhD in industrial-organizational psychology from the University of Guelph. His research interests include the nature, antecedents, and consequences of aggressive behavior at work and workplace aggression and violence intervention strategies. He is a member of the Academy of Management, Canadian Psychological Association, American Psychological Association, Canadian Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, and the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology.
Irvin Sam Schonfeld is Professor of Psychology and Education at the City University of New York and a Lecturer in Psychiatry at Columbia University. He completed his doctoral degree at the CUNY Graduate Center and completed a postdoctoral degree in epidemiology at Columbia. He has published in Developmental Psychology, Child Development, Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, and Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs. His current interests include impact of working conditions on the health and morale of teachers, antisocial conduct in youth, and methodological issues in research.
Paul E. Spector is Professor of Industrial-Organizational Psychology and the Industrial-Organizational Psychology Doctoral Program Director at the University of South Florida. His work has appeared in many journals, including Academy of Management Journal, Journal of Applied Psychology, Journal of Management, Journal of Organizational Behavior, Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, Journal of Vocational Behavior, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Personnel Psychology, and Psychological Bulletin. At present he is the Point/Counterpoint editor for Journal of Organizational Behavior and is on the editorial boards of Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, Organizational Research Methods, and Personnel Psychology. In 1991, the Institute for Scientific Information listed him as one of the 50 highest-impact contemporary researchers (of over 102,000) in psychology worldwide.
Jennifer E. Swanberg is Assistant Professor at the College of Social Work, University of Kentucky. Her research focuses on the relationships between work, family, and organizational effectiveness, especially among understudied populations, including low-wage workers, victims of intimate partner violence, informal caregivers, and workers employed in nonprofit public organizations. She has published in journals such as Work, Family and Community, Nonprofit Management & Leadership, Journal of Economic [Page 696]and Family Issues, Trauma, Violence & Abuse, and Journal of Occupational Health Psychology. She has been funded by the Ford Foundation and the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation.
Sean Tucker is a PhD candidate in the Queen's School of Business at Queen's University. His research interests include workplace safety, workplace aggression, apologies, shared leadership, and labor history.
Terrance Weatherbee currently teaches at the F. C. Manning School of Business at Acadia University and is a PhD candidate in the midst of completing his dissertation. Before entering the academy, he had 24 years of experience as a manager in both private and public sector organizations, the majority of which were in the area of corporate training and organizational change or restructuring, usually driven by the introduction of new technologies. Consequently, his research interests primarily focus on the uses of technology with specific concentration on the emergent, and often organizationally unforeseen, negative postintroduction effects, such as “technostress” or “cyberaggression.” Additional areas of research include the historical evolution of business schools and business education from both institutional and critical perspectives. He has held positions in both the Sobey School of Business at Saint Mary's University and the F. C. Manning School of Business at Acadia University.