The Handbook of Mentoring at Work: Theory, Research, and Practice

Handbooks

Edited by: Belle Rose Ragins & Kathy E. Kram

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  • Back Matter
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  • Part I: Introduction

    Part II: Mentoring Research: Past Present and Future

    Part III: Mentoring Theory: Applying New Lenses and Perspectives

    Part IV: Mentoring in Practice: Programs and Innovations

    Part V: Integration

  • Copyright

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    Dedication

    This book is dedicated to our models of mentoring:

    To our parents’ who planted the seeds of wisdom, gave us the gift of guidance, and nourished us with their love;

    To our families’ for their unwavering support, love, and patience; and

    To the beautiful memory of Ellen Fagenson Eland, a mentor who transformed hearts as well as minds.

    Preface

    Cultivating the Garden of Mentoring

    A little over 20 years ago, the first seeds of mentoring research were planted in a foundational book: Mentoring at Work (Kram, 1985). More than 20 years of research and exploration in the field of mentoring have now passed, and it is time for us to step back and assess where we have been, where we are, and where we need to go in the field. It is time for us to take a “bird's-eye view⇝ of the landscape of mentoring, to plant new seeds, break new theoretical ground, and design sound bridges between the practice and study of mentoring and other developmental relationships. The Handbook of Mentoring at Work was designed to meet these goals by chronicling the current state of the field and by cultivating new directions for theory, research, and practice in the field of mentoring.

    As we pondered how best to approach this task, we realized that the field of mentoring may be likened to a garden. Some parts of the garden have been carefully cultivated by mentoring scholars and have blossomed and matured over the past 20 years, while other parts hold great promise but have been relatively neglected. (One could even argue that parts of the mentoring garden have been overwatered and over fertilized!). We soon came to recognize that for our mentoring garden to flourish, we need a soil that is theoretically rich with the cross fertilization of ideas from related disciplines; new tools that reflect seismic changes in technology, organizational structures, and career paths; and, most important, a vision for the future that unveils a landscape rich with opportunities for research grounded in theory but driven by practice.

    Toward that end, we invited a stellar group of scholars and practitioners to become “landscape designers⇝ in the garden of mentoring. Our garden offers three paths. First, to understand the current state of the field, we invited mentoring scholars, who represent virtually every key contributor in the field, to offer their unique insights to this volume. We asked these scholars to chronicle the current state of research in their areas and to offer fresh new visions for future research that cultivates and grows the field of mentoring.

    Second, we sought to enrich and broaden the theoretical soil of mentoring by inviting leading scholars in related fields to apply their theoretical lenses to the discourse on mentoring. These scholars planted fresh new seeds that enrich the garden of mentoring and extend the horizons of mentoring to incorporate new theoretical perspectives.

    Third, to craft vital new bridges between the study and practice of mentoring, we asked leading practitioners in the field to share their best practices and their innovative new approaches in the practice of mentoring. Because mentoring research needs to both inform and be informed by practice, we asked these contributors to identify research that needs to be done to address the changing practice of mentoring. Their chapters offer the critical perspective that growth in the garden of mentoring requires not only the careful cultivation of both practice and research but also the complementary crossfertilization of needs, knowledge, and practice that yields important new hybrids of developmental relationships.

    Combined, the three paths cultivated in this volume offer rich insight into where we have been, provocative new ideas for where we can go, and practical perspectives on the best way to get there. We hope this volume offers the reader a vision of a richly landscaped garden of mentoring: a garden in which mentoring research, theory, and practice can flourish.

    Belle and Kathy

    Acknowledgments

    This book represents the collective efforts of so many remarkable individuals. First, we are grateful to an extraordinary doctoral student, Amy Klemm Verbos, who took on the massive role of coordinating this book project. She is competence personified, and we are grateful for her dedication, creativity, foresight, and patience in working with the contributors to ensure the smooth and timely flow of submissions, revisions, and finalized chapters. We would also like to thank Robin Baker for her insightful and effective editorial work. Special thanks go to the Lubar School of Business at the University of Wisconsin Milwaukee, to the Boston University School of Management, and to Sage Publications for providing funding support for this project. Last, but certainly not least, we would like to thank the contributors to this volume for their collective wisdom, experience, and insight. We asked our contributors to give their very best to this venture, and their response was nothing less than amazing.

  • Name Index

    About the Editors

    Belle Rose Ragins is a Professor of Management at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Her research focuses on mentoring and diversity in organizations and has been published in such journals as Academy of Management Journal, Academy of Management Review, Academy of Management Executive, Journal of Applied Psychology, Journal of Management, and Psychological Bulletin. She is coeditor of Exploring Positive Relationships at Work: Building a Theoretical and Research Foundation (with Jane Dutton) and coauthor of Mentoring and Diversity: An International Perspective (with David Clutterbuck). She has served on the editorial review boards of the Academy of Management Journal, Personnel Psychology, Journal of Vocational Behavior, Group & Organizational Management, and Journal of Applied Psychology. Dr. Ragins has received a number of national awards for her research, including the Academy of Management Mentoring Legacy Award, the Sage Life-time Achievement Award for Scholarly Contributions to Management, the American Society for Training and Development Research Award, and the American Psychological Association Placek Award. She was awarded the first visiting research fellowship at Catalyst and was research advisor for 9-to-5, the National Association of Working Women. She was also a founder and the research director of the UWM Institute for Diversity Education and Leadership (IDEAL). Dr. Ragins is a fellow of the Society for Industrial Organizational Psychology, the Society for the Psychology of Women, the American Psychological Society, and the American Psychological Association. Her joys include morning runs along Lake Michigan with her adopted dogs, Wally and Greta, and exploring the American wilderness with her husband Erik.

    Kathy E. Kram is Professor of Organizational Behavior at the Boston University School of Management and Everett W Lord Distinguished Faculty Scholar. Her primary interests are in adult development, mentoring, developmental networks, leadership development, and relational learning in organizations. In addition to her book Mentoring at Work, she has published in such journals as Academy of Management Journal, Academy of Management Review, Harvard Business Review, Leaders in Action, Qualitative Sociology, Journal of Management Inquiry, and Organizational Dynamics. Her research, consulting, and writing are aimed at understanding the role of a variety of developmental relationships in enhancing leadership effectiveness and individual development throughout the life course. During 2000–2001, she served as the H. Smith Richardson Jr. Visiting Research Scholar at the Center for Creative Leadership (CCL). She is a founding member of the Center for Research on Emotional Intelligence in Organizations (CREIO) and received the first Academy of Management Mentoring Legacy Award. She is currently serving on the Board of Governors at the Center for Creative Leadership and on the editorial boards of Journal of Applied Behavioral Science and Academy of Management Learning and Education. Professor Kram teaches undergraduate, MBA, and executive MBA courses in global management, leadership, and team dynamics. She consults with private and public sector organizations on a variety of talent development concerns. She enjoys traveling, hiking, and listening to music with her husband, Peter, and her son, Jason.

    About the Contributors

    Tammy D. Allen is Professor of Psychology at the University of South Florida. She has published extensively and has presented internationally on the topic of mentoring. Her mentoring research has received national awards, such as the 2006 ASTD Research Award, and has been funded by agencies such as the Society for Human Resources Foundation. She is coeditor of The Blackwell Handbook of Mentoring: A Multiple Perspectives Approach. Dr. Allen's expertise includes consulting with organizations with regard to the design, delivery, and evaluation of formal mentoring programs. She is associate editor for Journal of Occupational Health Psychology and serves on the editorial boards of Journal of Applied Psychology, Personnel Psychology, and Journal of Vocational Behavior. She is an active member of several professional associations and was the 2007 conference program chair for the Society of Industrial and Organizational Psychology.

    S. Gayle Baugh is Associate Professor of Management at the University of West Florida. Her primary areas of research are career development, especially mentoring, leadership, and gender and diversity in organizations. She has published over a dozen articles in journals such as Career Development International, Group and Organization Management, the Journal of Applied Social Psychology, and the Journal of Vocational Behavior, and has made presentations regularly at the Academy of Management, the Southern Management Association, and the Southwest Academy of Management. She is a past division chair of the Gender and Diversity in Organizations Division of the Academy of Management and a past president of the Southwest Academy of Management. She serves on the editorial board for Career Development International, Journal of Business and Psychology, Journal of Management, and Journal of Managerial Psychology.

    Stacy D. Blake-Beard is Associate Professor of Management at the School of Management at Simmons College. She is also research faculty at the Center for Gender in Organizations. Her primary research areas are mentoring relationships at the intersection of gender and race and formalized mentoring programs. She has published in a number of journals, including Academy of Management Executive, Journal of Management Development, Psychology of Women Quarterly, and Journal of Career Development. She is on the Executive Committee of the Academy of Management and Gender and Diversity in Organizations Division and is past chair of the Academy of Management's Mentoring Committee. She is on the editorial board of the Business Journal of Hispanic Research. Prior to joining Simmons, she was an assistant professor at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. She has also worked in sales and marketing at Procter & Gamble and in corporate human resources at Xerox.

    Richard E. Boyatzis is Professor in the Departments of Organizational Behavior and Psychology at Case Western Reserve University and in Human Resources at ESADE. Before becoming a professor, he was CEO of McBer and Company for 11 years and COO of Yankelovich, Skelly, & White for 2 years. He is the author of more than 100 articles on behavior change, leadership, competencies, and emotional intelligence. His books include The Competent Manager, Transforming Qualitative Information (in 2 languages), and Innovations in Professional Education (with Scott Cowen and David Kolb), and he is coauthor of the international best seller Primal Leadership, with Daniel Goleman and Annie McKee, published in 28 languages and, most recently, Resonant Leadership: Renewing Yourself and Connecting With Others Through Mindfulness, Hope, and Compassion (with Annie McKee, published in 16 languages).

    Merridee L. Bujaki is Chair of and an Associate Professor in the Accounting, Finance, and Management Information Systems section at the School of Management, University of Ottawa. Her primary research areas are women in management, voluntary disclosures in corporate annual reports, and accounting history. She has published articles in Women in Management Review, Applied Psychology: An International Review, Journal of Accounting Literature, and Accounting Perspectives, as well as several professional accounting magazines. Previously, she worked as a chartered accountant.

    Dawn E. Chandler is an Assistant Professor of Management at California Polytechnic State University. Her research interests include mentoring, developmental networks, and, more generally, careers. Of particular interest is “relational savvy,⇝ protégé adeptness with developmental relationships, which she examined in her dissertation study. She has coauthored articles in Journal of Organizational Behavior, Action Research Journal, and Career Development International. Prior to joining academia, Dawn worked for 4 years as a financial recruiter in Boston and San Jose, California.

    Georgia T. Chao is an Associate Professor of Management at the Eli Broad Graduate School of Management at Michigan State University. Her primary research interests lie in the areas of organizational socialization, career development, mentoring, and international organizational behavior. She was recently appointed to an American Psychological Association (APA) Presidential Task Force on mentoring. Her responsibilities included developing a resource guide on mentoring, running a mentoring workshop, and managing a formal mentoring program. She is a fellow of the APA and of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP). She serves on four editorial boards and recently served as chair of APAs Committee on International Relations in Psychology. In 1995, she won the Academy of Management's Outstanding Publication Award in Organizational Behavior. She was elected and served on executive committees to the Academy of Management's Career and Human Resources divisions as well as the executive committee of SIOP.

    Cary Cherniss is Professor of Applied Psychology at Rutgers University and Director and Cochair of the Consortium for Research on Emotional Intelligence in Organizations. His primary research areas are emotional intelligence, leadership, and planned organizational change. His research has been funded by such resources as the National Institute of Mental Health and the U.S. Office of Population Affairs. He has written six books and more than 60 journal articles and book chapters, including Promoting Emotional Intelligence in Organizations. He is a member of the Academy of Management, a fellow of the American Psychological Association, and former president of its division of Community Psychology, and he has consulted for such public and private sector companies as AT&T, American Express, Johnson & Johnson, and Colgate-Palmolive.

    David Clutterbuck is visiting professor at Sheffield Hallam University's Coaching and Mentoring Research Unit and at Oxford Brookes University's coaching and mentoring faculty. He cofounded the European Mentoring and Coaching Council, where he chairs the United Kingdom and pan-European research committees. He led the international team, which developed the International Standards for Mentoring Programmes in Employment. He is the author/coauthor of nearly 50 books, including 11 in the field of coaching and mentoring. He is senior partner of Clutterbuck Associates, an international consultancy providing practical support for organizations implementing programs of coaching and/or mentoring. He is currently completing the first longitudinal and cross-sectional study of developmental mentoring, at Kings College London. His research interests focus on the development of good practice in creating and sustaining a coaching and mentoring culture and on the development of corporate governance in the public sector. He is currently compiling an online encyclopedia of coaching and mentoring.

    Thomas W. Dougherty is the Hibbs/Brown Chair of Business and Economics, Professor of Management, and doctoral coordinator for management at the University of Missouri-Columbia. His current primary research interests include mentoring, networking, and career success in organizations. He has also published work in other areas, including interviewer decision making, recruitment, role stress, job burnout, and employee turnover. He has taught human resource management to undergraduate and graduate students in several countries, including China, Romania, and Ireland. His book Human Resource Strategy: A Behavioral Perspective for the General Manager (with G. F. Dreher) was published by McGraw-Hill/Irwin in 2002.

    George F. Dreher is Professor of Business Administration in the Kelley School of Business at Indiana University-Bloomington. He recently was a visiting scholar at Hong Kong University of Science and Technology. His current research addresses the role of race, ethnicity, age, and gender in accounting for selection, promotion, and retention decisions in organizational settings (with a focus on managerial and executive talent pool management). His research has been published in journals such as Academy of Management Journal, Academy of Management Review, Journal of Applied Psychology, Journal of Organizational Behavior, Personnel Psychology, Human Relations, and Journal of Vocational Behavior. He also has coauthored three books and numerous other papers and book chapters. Currently, he serves as vice president on the board of directors for Options for Better Living (an organization devoted to helping individuals with developmental disabilities live more independent lives).

    Lillian T. Eby is Professor of Psychology and Fellow at the Institute for Behavioral Research at the University of Georgia. Her research program focuses on career-related issues, such as workplace mentoring, job-related relocation, career success, the work-family interface, and gender issues in organizations. She has published over 50 research articles and book chapters, and her work appears in such outlets as Personnel Psychology, Journal of Applied Psychology, and Journal of Vocational Behavior. She is on the editorial boards of Personnel Psychology, Journal of Vocational Behavior, and Group and Organizational Management and is the current associate editor for Personnel Psychology (2007–2010). Lillian is also the principal investigator on a project funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse, which is examining the relationship between mentoring relationships and employee turnover in substance abuse treatment centers.

    Ellen A. Ensher is an Associate Professor of Management at Loyola Marymount University. Dr. Ensher, with coauthor Susan Murphy, wrote Power Mentoring: How Mentors and protégés Get the Most Out of Their Relationships (Jossey-Bass, 2005). Dr. Ensher has published over 40 articles and book chapters and has made over 100 professional presentations. She has published in many academic journals, including the Academy of Management Executive, Human Resource Development Quarterly, Journal of Career Development, Journal of Vocational Behavior, and Organizational Dynamics. She has also published in practitioner magazines, including Training and Development, Training, Leadership Excellence, and Success Magazine. She has been quoted on the topic of mentoring in the New York Times, in the Wall Street Journal, and by the Associated Press. She has appeared as a guest on several radio and TV shows in Chicago, New York, and San Diego.

    Ellen A. Fagenson-Eland (deceased) was Professor of Management at George Mason University. She was an internationally recognized scholar in the field of diversity and mentoring. She authored over 50 publications in the leading journals of our field and edited the groundbreaking book Women in Management: Trends, Issues, and Challenges in Managerial Diversity. She served on many editorial boards, including Academy of Management Journal and Academy of Management Executive, where she also served as an associate editor. She was a past division chair for the Academy of Management Gender and Diversity in Organizations Division and served on the board of the Academy's Careers Division and Mentoring Committee. In recognition of her outstanding contributions to our profession, Dr Fagenson-Eland received numerous awards, including the Academy of Management Mentoring Best Practice Award, the GDO Janet Chusmir/Sage Award for Service, the Academy of Management Journal Outstanding Service Award, and the Careers Division Best Paper Award. The list of her many accomplishments is too long to chronicle, and we will miss her most for her passion for justice, her wisdom, and her outstanding sense of humor.

    Joyce K. Fletcher is Distinguished Research Scholar, at the Center for Gender in Organizations at the Simmons School of Management and a Senior Research Scholar at the Jean Baker Miller Training Institute, Wellesley College. She uses feminist theory to study a wide range of workplace issues and is a frequent speaker at national and international conferences on the topic of women, power, and leadership. She is the coauthor of a widely read Harvard Business Review article, “A Modest Manifesto for Shattering the Glass Ceiling⇝ and author of Disappearing Acts: Gender, Power, and Relational Practice at Work (MIT Press), a book that explores the subtle dynamics that often disappear women's leadership behavior at work.

    Katherine Giscombe is Senior Director in Research and head of the Women of Color Practice Area at Catalyst. Previously, she supported marketing and new product development in a variety of Fortune 500 companies. She is a member of the Academy of Management and has published on career development, mentoring, the business case for diversity, and glass and concrete ceiling issues. Other research interests include economic mobility issues among middle class African Americans. As a Catalyst media spokesperson, she has been interviewed by National Public Radio, CNN-FN, CBS Radio, Boston Globe, San Francisco Chronicle, and Essence, among others. Honors include selection in 2005 by the Network Journal as one of “25 Influential Black Women in Business.⇝ She is on advisory boards for Black Enterprise Women of Power Summit, Working Mother Media Best Companies for Women of Color, Women's Inter-Cultural Exchange, and Girl Scouts Girls and Leadership Study.

    Veronica M. (Ronnie) Godshalk is an Associate Professor in the Department of Management and Organization at the Pennsylvania State University School of Graduate Professional Studies. Dr. Godshalk teaches courses in organizational behavior, corporate innovative strategies, career management, and communication skills. She received the 2000 Arthur L. Glenn Award for Faculty Teaching Innovation. Dr. Godshalk's research interests include issues surrounding career management, mentoring, stress, and the intersection of work and nonwork domains. In 2000, she published a book, Career Management, with coauthors Jeff Greenhaus and Gerry Callanan, and is currently working on a fourth edition. She is an active member and presenter in professional associations, such as the Academy of Management and the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology. Dr. Godshalk had worked in the computer industry in sales and sales management prior to entering academia and has been a consultant for several Fortune 500 companies.

    Jeffrey H. Greenhaus is Professor and William A. Mackie Chair in the Department of Management at Drexel University's LeBow College of Business. His research, which focuses on work-family relationships and career dynamics, has been published in many of the field's leading journals. In addition, Jeff is coauthor of Career Management (Thomson Learning), now in its third edition, and Work and Family’ Allies or Enemies (Oxford); and he is coeditor of Integrating Work and Family: Challenges and Choices for a Changing World (Quorum) and the Encyclopedia of Career Development (Sage). He serves on the editorial review boards of Human Relations, Journal of Managerial Issues, Journal of Organizational Behavior, and Journal of Vocational Behavior.

    Victoria A. Guthrie is Honorary Senior Fellow at the Center for Creative Leadership and continues to be connected to the center through global adjunct work. She has more than 30 years of international experience in executive development, coaching, and global leadership development and has designed and conducted programs for the center and an array of organizations and clients in North America, Europe, and Asia. She has authored a number of publications relating to her areas of expertise in coaching and feedback; organizational and individual purpose, strategy, and leadership; learning; and understanding trade-offs. She serves on the executive committee for the Rotary Youth Leadership Program at Guilford College as program designer and advisor and on the Morehead Foundation Scholarship Selection Central Committee at the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill. Previously, she was with Xerox Corporation.

    Douglas T. (Tim) Hall is the Morton H. and Charlotte Friedman Professor of Management in the School of Management at Boston University. He has held faculty positions at Yale, York, Michigan State, and Northwestern universities, as well as visiting positions at Columbia, Minnesota, Boston College, and the U.S. Military Academy at West Point. Tim the author of Careers In and Out of Organizations (Sage, 2002). He is the coauthor, with Brad Harrington, of Career Management and Work-Life Integration (Sage, 2007), The Career Is Dead’ Long Live the Career, as well as other books and articles on careers and management. He is a recipient of the American Psychological Association's Ghiselli Award for research design, the ASTD's Walter Storey Professional Practice Award, and the Academy of Management's Everett C. Hughes Award for Career Research. He is currently the H. Smith Richardson Jr. Visiting Fellow at the Center for Creative Leadership.

    Monica C. Higgins is Associate Professor of Leadership and Organizations at Harvard University's Graduate School of Education. Her primary areas of research are leadership and career development, with a particular focus on the relational context in which development occurs. Professor Higgins's book Career Imprints: Creating Leaders Across an Industry (2005) examines the leadership development of executives in the biotechnology industry. In addition, she has a longitudinal project under way on the career choices and developmental networks of the Harvard Business School class of 1996. Her research has appeared in journals such as Academy of Management Review, Organization Science, Journal of Applied Behavioral Sciences, Strategic Management Journal, and Journal of Organizational Behavior. Prior to her academic career, she worked as a consultant for Bain & Company and for Harbridge House, an international organizational change consulting firm.

    Pamela J. Kalbfleisch is Professor and Director of the School of Communication at the University of North Dakota. Her research reflects an active interest in personal relationships and communication. She has published six books and more than 50 articles and book chapters. She serves as the founding editor of Journal of Native Aging and Health, a collaboration between the University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Center for Rural Health, School of Communication, and National Resource Center on Native American Aging.

    Robert Kegan is the William and Miriam Meehan Professor of Adult Learning and Professional Development at the Harvard University Graduate School of Education. At Harvard, he is also educational chair of the Institute for Management and Leadership in Education (for leaders in higher education), codirector of the Change Leadership Group (for leaders in K-12 education), and codirector of a joint program between the school of education and the school of medicine for those leading educational reform in the health professions. The recipient of numerous honorary degrees and awards, his 30 years of research and writing on adult development have contributed to the recognition that ongoing psychological development after adolescence is at once possible and necessary to meet the demands of modern life. His seminal books, The Evolving Self and In Over Our Heads, have been published in several languages throughout the world.

    Melenie J. Lankau is Associate Professor of Management in the Terry College of Business at the University of Georgia. Her research interests include mentorship, diversity, and work/family issues in the workplace. She has presented over 30 conference papers at annual meetings for the National Academy of Management, Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Eastern Academy of Management, and Southern Management Association. She has also published 18 articles in leading academic journals such as Academy of Management Journal, Journal of Management, Leadership Quarterly, Journal of Organizational Behavior, and Journal of Vocational Behavior. One of her articles was recently recognized by the Center for Families at Purdue University and the Center for Work and Family at Boston College for high-quality work-family research. She currently serves on the board of the Southern Management Association and the editorial boards of Journal of Management and Group & Organization Management.

    Felissa K. Lee is Assistant Professor of Management in the College of Business at Marquette University. Her research interests and publications are in the areas of personality and motivation, mentoring relationships, and career self-management. She has published articles in various journals, including Journal of Applied Psychology, Journal of Vocational Behavior, and Harvard Business Review. She teaches or has taught courses in organizational behavior, human resource management, career planning, and behavioral change.

    Cynthia D. McCauley is a senior fellow at the Center for Creative Leadership and its former vice president of leadership development. Her research has focused on how developmental experiences (job assignments, developmental relationships, 360-degree feedback, and formal development programs) contribute to leader development and effectiveness. She is currently exploring leadership as a collective organizational capacity. She has written numerous articles and book chapters for scholars, HR professionals, and practicing managers and has codeveloped several management feedback instruments. Along with Ellen Van Velsor, she is coeditor of The Center for Creative Leadership Handbook of Leadership Development. She is an associate editor for Leadership Quarterly and for Human Resource Planning.

    Eileen M. McGowan is the Director of the Field Experience Program, Coordinator of the Spencer Training Grant, Director of Doctoral Student Professional Development, and lecturer on education at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. Her work focuses on the establishment, implementation, maintenance, and evaluation of mentoring programs; her research interests are also centered on formal mentoring relationships, specifically within the higher education and public education sectors. She is a principal at Mentoring Strategies, a private consulting firm that has done extensive work with the Boston public schools, Harvard's Urban Superintendent's Program, New Leaders for New Schools, and Harvard Principals Program. Internationally she has been affiliated with the HERS (Higher Education Resource Services) South Africa Program. Her interest in mentoring can be traced back to her early work in primary special education and mentor teacher training at Lesley University.

    Carol McKeen is Professor of Organizational Behavior and Accounting and Director of the Queen's Advanced Accounting Program at the School of Business, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada. Her consulting experience has included work with Price Waterhouse, Bank of Montreal, and Corrections Canada, relating to the retention of high-performing women. She has received extensive funding for her research from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada and has published extensively in the areas of women's careers and life satisfaction as well as mentoring. Recent research has focused on cross-cultural comparisons of women's careers in Canada and China. She serves on the editorial board of Women in Management Review and on the national board of the Canadian Women's Foundation.

    Stacy E. McManus is a management consultant at Monitor Executive Development, a member of Monitor Group. Prior to joining Monitor, she was an assistant professor at the Molson School of Business at Concordia University in Montreal and a visiting fellow at Harvard University, where she also taught courses in management and coauthored several Harvard Business School cases, including the best-selling Ritz-Carlton Hotel Co. Her scholarly research includes work on research methods, performance appraisal, and mentoring relationships with publications in Journal of Vocational Behavior and Academy of Management Review. An active member of the Academy of Management, she is past chair of the academy's mentoring committee and has regularly chaired symposia and presented research on topics including mentoring, leadership, career development, and research methods.

    Susan Elaine Murphy is Associate Professor of Psychology at Claremont McKenna College and the Associate Director of the Henry R. Kravis Leadership Institute in Claremont, California, and is also an Adjunct Professor at Claremont Graduate University. She has published over 30 articles and book chapters on leadership, leadership development, and mentoring. Her most recent publication with Dr. Ellen Ensher is the book Power Mentoring: How Successful Mentors and protégés Get the Most Out of Their Relationships (Jossey-Bass, 2005). Her other recent works include two edited books, The Future of Leadership Development (with Ron Riggio; Lawrence Erlbaum, 2003) and Work-Family Balance to Work-Family Interaction: Changing the Metaphor (with Diane Halpern; Lawrence Erlbaum, 2005). She previously worked for Battelle as a research scientist consulting in the areas of leadership and management education, as well as organizational change for clients in the United States and Japan.

    Audrey Murrell is Associate Professor of Business Administration, Psychology, Public, and International Affairs at the University of Pittsburgh's Katz School of Business. She conducts research on the individual and organizational strategies that advance the careers of women in organizations with a special emphasis on topics such as mentoring, breaking the “glass ceiling,⇝ workplace diversity, and ending workplace discrimination. This research has been published widely in journals such as the Academy of Management Journal, Journal of Vocational Behavior, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Career Development International, Business & Society, and Sex Roles and in popular media outlets such as the Wall Street Journal, Atlanta Journal and Constitution, Pittsburgh Business Times, Cleveland Plain Dealer, Black Enterprise, and Vida Executive (in Brazil). Dr. Murrell is the author (along with Crosby and Ely) of the book titled Mentoring Dilemmas: Developmental Relationships Within Multicultural Organizations, published by Lawrence Erlbaum.

    Regina M. O'Neill is Associate Professor of Management at the Sawyer Business School at Suffolk University. Her primary research areas are mentoring, diversity, leadership, and career development. She has published in a number of journals, including Academy of Management Journal, Strategic Management Journal, Journal of Management Inquiry, Career Development International, Educational and Psychological Measurement, Journal of Managerial Issues, Journal of Business Ethics, and Human Resource Management Journal. Her consulting experience includes designing and delivering mentoring programs for career development, diversity, and leadership succession planning for a variety of organizations, including financial services companies, nonprofit organizations, educational institutions, and hospitals. Prior to her academic career, she worked as an auditor for a large international firm, and she is a licensed CPA in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.

    Lynn P-Sontag is the President and Chief Executive Officer of MENTTIUM Corporation. She was the lead developer of MENTTIUM's mentoring models and launched the first-ever global cross-company mentoring program. She has spent 15 years consulting with Fortune 500 companies on their mentoring and key talent initiatives. Lynn received the Twin Cities Business Journals prestigious Women Changemakers award in 2004. She currently sits on the Advisory Board of the Human Capital Institute. Prior to MENTTIUM, she spent 15 years at 3M Corporation leading their executive development initiatives.

    Joyce E. A. Russell is a Distinguished Tyser Teaching Fellow and a Senior Executive Education Fellow in the Robert H. Smith School of Business at the University of Maryland. Prior to joining UM, she was a tenured full professor in the College of Business Administration at the University of Tennessee. At both institutions, she received numerous teaching and research awards from students and faculty. Dr. Russell has published over 50 articles, books, or book chapters and has presented her research at national and regional conferences. She served as the associate editor for Journal of Vocational Behavior and on the editorial boards of Journal of Applied Psychology, Human Resource Management Review, and Performance Improvement Quarterly. She is an active member of the Academy of Management, American Psychological Association, American Society for Training and Development, Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, and the Society for Human Resource Management.

    Terri A. Scandura is Professor of Management at the University of Miami. Dr. Scandura's fields of interest include leadership, mentorship, and research methods. She has authored numerous articles, published in Journal of Applied Psychology, Industrial Relations, Academy of Management Journal, Journal of Management, Journal of International Business Studies, Journal of Organizational Behavior, Leadership Quarterly, Educational and Psychological Measurement, Research in Organizational Behavior, Journal of Vocational Behavior, and others. She is a member of the American Psychological Association (APA) and the Academy of Management. She is past president of the Southern Management Association and past division chair of the Research Methods Division of the Academy of Management. She is an associate editor of Journal of Management, Group & Organization Management, and Journal of International Business Studies.

    Romila Singh is Assistant Professor of Management at the Sheldon B. Lubar School of Business at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Her research focuses on understanding the dynamics among different aspects of employees' career development such as work-life balance challenges, mentoring experiences, the effects of diversity on career experiences, and a variety of person environment fit issues. Her research has or will appear in journals such as Journal of Applied Psychology, Journal of Management, and Journal of Vocational Behavior. She has also authored and coauthored several refereed book chapters, most notably for the Encyclopedia of Applied Psychology and the Encyclopedia of Career Development.

    John J. Sosik is Professor of Management and Organization and Professor-in-Charge of the Master of Leadership Development program at the Pennsylvania State University, Great Valley School of Graduate Professional Studies, where he has received awards for excellence in research, faculty innovation, and teaching. He has published over 70 academic articles, book chapters, and proceedings and delivered about 60 academic conference presentations since 1995; and he has conducted training and organizational development programs for profit and nonprofit organizations. He is associate editor of Group & Organization Management and also serves on the editorial board of Leadership Quarterly.

    Eric M. Stone is a 2007 MBA candidate in the Wharton School's Health Care Management Program at the University of Pennsylvania. A Joseph Wharton Fellowship recipient, he is actively involved in campus and community leadership, mentoring, and nonprofit initiatives. He previously held marketing and business development roles with Medtronic, Model N, and Trilogy and ran an independent marketing strategy and organizational change consultancy serving corporate and nonprofit organizations in the United States and abroad. While a master's student at Harvard Graduate School of Education, he cofounded two mentoring organizations, including Harvard's Student-Alumni Mentoring Initiative (SAMI). He serves in various nonprofit volunteer leadership capacities, including vice chair of Livnot U'Lehibanot's Alumni Board and director and committee chair of the Harvard Alumni Association (HAA) Board.

    David Thomas is H. Naylor Fitzhugh Professor of Business Administration, Senior Associate Dean, Director of Faculty Recruiting and Unit Head of Organizational Behavior at Harvard Graduate School of Business Administration. He is a recognized thought leader in the area of strategic human resource management. His research addresses issues related to executive development, cultural diversity in organizations, leadership, and organizational change. Thomas is coauthor of the best-selling Harvard Business Review article “Making Differences Matter: A New Paradigm for Managing Diversity.⇝ His book Breaking Through: The Making of Minority Executives in Corporate America (with John Gabarro) has met with critical acclaim in reviews by academics and journalists and is the recipient of the Academy of Management's George R. Terry Book Award for outstanding contribution to the advancement of management knowledge and practice. Thomas is the 2006 recipient of the Academy of Management's Mentoring Legacy Award.

    Daniel B. Turban is the holder of the Stephen Furbacher Professorship and currently serves as the Chair of the Department of Management in the College of Business at the University of Missouri-Columbia. His research interests include mentoring relationships, organizational recruitment, job search processes, and personality and motivation. He has published over 35 articles in various journals, including Academy of Management Journal, Journal of Applied Psychology, Journal of Vocational Behavior, and Journal of Applied Social Psychology. He is serving or has served on the editorial boards of Academy of Management Journal, Journal of Applied Psychology, and Personnel Psychology.

    Kimberly Vappie, Esq., is the Chief Operating Officer of MENTTIUM Corporation and provides the strategic direction for the organization. She has extensive expertise helping Fortune 500 companies initiate and implement innovative mentoring solutions. Kim received the Twin Cities Business Journals prestigious Women Change makers award in 2004. Currently, she is an advisory board member of the Human Capital Institute. She co-chairs the Program Committee for Minnesota Women Lawyers and also serves as a committee member for the Minnesota Multicultural Forum. While receiving her law degree, she served as a labor and employment law fellow and served on the executive council of the American Bar Association Labor and Employment Law Section. Prior to MENTTIUM, Kim worked in human resources and employee relations for Target Corporation and Prudential.

    Connie R. Wanberg is a Professor of Human Resources and Industrial Relations and the Director of the Industrial Relations Center at the Carlson School of Management at the University of Minnesota. Wanberg has been recognized as a leading scholar in management research in the areas of unemployment, job search behavior, employee socialization, and employee development. She is on the editorial review boards for Personnel Psychology, Journal of Applied Psychology, and Human Performance. Her research has been funded by a variety of agencies, including National Institute of Mental Health, Department of Labor, and the Society for Human Resource Management Foundation.


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