Handbook of Urban Studies

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Edited by: Ronan Paddison

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  • Part I: Identifying the City

    Part II: The City as Environment

    Part III: The City as People

    Part IV: The City as Economy

    Part V: The City as Organized Polity

    Part VI: Power and Policy Discourses in Postmodern Cities

    Part VII: Cities in Transition

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    Preface

    The arrival of the new millennium was marked by another major milestone in the history of humankind: for the first time half, and according to some censuses slightly more than a half, of the world's population live in cities. Among the advanced economies this rapid development of cities spans some 200 years, whereas in the less developed economies it is much more recent in origin. Indeed, it is in the latter that urbanization, including the development of mega-cities with populations of more than 8 million, has been the most spectacular, and in which the prospects for future urban growth are likely to continue to focus, in some cases - China, for example - to a daunting scale. Yet, if the scale of urban growth in the developing world has eclipsed that of the advanced economies, the deepening effects of globalization ensure the continued domination of the cities in the north in the world economy.

    Accompanying this growth of cities has been the development of academic endeavour aimed at understanding cities. While the proper study of cities is little over 100 years old, linked closely to the development of the social sciences, urban analysis has become a multi-faceted, eclectic body of knowledge embracing a wide range of disciplines. Reflecting this breadth and eclecticism is the variety of academic journals covering the study of cities, the majority of which are devoted to specific disciplinary perspectives or facets of urban life. Journals devoted to urban analysis in any holistic sense are far outnumbered by those which cover the field from a disciplinary perspective, including geography, economics, culture, law, planning and anthropology. Other journals focus on a particular aspect of urban life, such as education or the regeneration of urban economies.

    The paradox is that as much as the study of cities has become increasingly specialized, and to a degree fragmented, there is a growing need for a more holistic appreciation of the city. Recognition of the interdependent nature of cities and of urban living, as, explicitly, in the currently fashionable concept of the sustainable city, lends weight to the notion that while urban analysts tend to be of necessity specialists in a particular aspect of the city, the need to appreciate the wider implications of urban development and change has increased.

    The Handbook of Urban Studies is an attempt to meet such a need. While the volume does not pretend to embrace in any encyclopaedic sense the field of urban studies -even were this possible - the essays span the major disciplines which have sought to unravel an understanding of the city. The Handbook represents a distillation of the knowledge of the field, synthesizing the existing literature while representing the diversity of issues which are generated by urban development.

    Approaching the Field of Urban Studies

    One of the immediate problems raised - and an issue which is discussed in different ways in the early chapters of this volume - is that what might be termed the field of urban studies has fuzzy boundaries and lacks any unified consensus as to its definition. Even the definition of what constitutes a city is itself contested. Part of the problem here stems from the fact that by their nature cities can and have been studied from different perspectives. Where these perspectives relate to the different social science disciplines, it is only to be expected that disciplinary viewpoints will prioritize particular types of questions. Further, social science disciplines frequently work within different epistemologies.

    These differences need to be seen as a strength. Cities are multi-faceted, and any volume attempting to reflect the breadth of issues raised by urban development will need in turn to reflect these different disciplinary approaches. Economists, geographers, political scientists, economic historians, sociologists and others need to be represented. Similarly the different paradigms through which cities have been studied -including positivist, behavioural, political economy and poststructuralist - need to be embraced, approaches which even if in some cases contradictory, collectively have had a cumulative effect on building an understanding of the city.

    To understand cities, then, it is necessary to take account of the diversity of different forms of analysis, historical as well as contemporary. Cities are too diverse for them to be capable of being understood through a single perspective. It is this rationale, above all, which has underlain the editorial approach adopted in this handbook.

    Organization of the Handbook

    The organization of the Handbook is structured around seven sections. An introductory chapter examining how cities have been studied is followed by Section I, which takes up definitional issues of the city and city living. Subsequently, the volume focuses on specific aspects of the city, followed by a final section, which by focusing on cities in three different world regions aims to take account of the diversity of urban development and change.

    Part I is foundational - how are cities to be defined, how are they delimited in physical, economic and social terms and how are they represented to us through literature. These are broad but fundamental issues, moving us from the ‘factual’ to the more discursive. We can no more expect consensus on the definition of what constitutes the city as we could expect novelists (or other artists) to agree on how the city should, and could, be represented. Such issues will always be the subject of debate.

    The following Parts, IIV, forming the bulk of the Handbook, examine different specific aspects of the city. The presentation is divided into sections, examining successively the city as environment, as people, as economy, and as polity, with Part VI devoted to the analysis of power and policy discourses in the contemporary city.

    Where much of the discussion in the previous sections tends to focus on the experience of urban development in the advanced economies, the final section of the Handbook is devoted to looking at the urban experience in other contrasting regions of the world.

    Key Decisions on Presentation

    An edited volume which aims to do justice to such a diverse field as that of urban studies inevitably involves the making of decisions which mould presentation. Diversity is a source of richness, but it also creates major problems forcing an editor to include certain approaches and issues, and hence exclude others. Given the overall limitations of the size of the volume set by the publishers exclusions become inevitable.

    One key editorial decision taken at the outset was to give contributors a relatively generous word length in which to operate. This has enabled authors to develop theoretical and empirical arguments in greater depth. Obviously, such a decision has had an impact on the range of topics which could be covered, excluding the separate consideration of a range of issues such as health and education. On the other hand, by extending the word length and by identifying those key issues of the city, housing, transport, sustainability, crime, social segregation and so forth, the presentations are able to achieve a degree of depth in their treatment of topics which in many cases have been the subject of (smaller!) edited volumes in their own right.

    Editorial decisions need to respond to diversity in other ways. Other edited volumes on the city - though less ambitious in scope than the Handbook - have had to make similar decisions on the format of the volume, for example, as to whether the approach taken should be more geographical or more systematic in focus. Recent emphases on localization within an increasingly globalized world have re-emphasized the uniqueness of cities, highlighting how geography matters. It is not implausible to imagine a Handbook of Urban Studies which was organized wholly around a selection of cities which represented different ‘positions’ in the global economy.

    Such a presentation would give maximum currency to the uniqueness of cities and of urban development. Yet, it would deny the fact that there are underlying issues, and processes, common to cities; if their manifestation is unique, their analysis and resolution is not. Further, any more systematically (or generically) focused analysis needs to draw on empirical example(s) for demonstration or verification. Focusing on the issues and processes common to cities, and particularly those which are critical to understanding how they function and change, does not, and indeed should not, exclude the discussion of specific cities.

    Even so, and bearing in mind the word and overall constraints within which authors and the editor were working, key decisions on presentation became necessary. Thus, the emphasis of the Handbook draws on urban conditions in the more advanced economies. While some urban analysts have begun to talk in terms of the convergence of urban issues and problems in northern and southern economies, with some justification, fundamental differences in the processes underpinning urban structure and change persist. Of course, there is the added point that we know a lot more about cities in the more developed economies. Yet, this is not to deny that ideally a fuller treatment of cities in the developing world in a yet larger volume would be warranted. It is for this reason that the final section is devoted to looking at cities in different regions. Again, there is no attempt here to achieve blanket geographical coverage - Latin America and the Middle East, for example, are excluded. Nevertheless, by looking at three regions occupying very different ‘positions’ in the global economy it is possible to begin to grasp the diversity of the urban experience.

    Acknowledgements

    Editing a major volume such as this would not be possible without the contribution of the authors, the editorial board and the publishers. At the outset of the exercise the editorial board provided valuable comments on the overall structure and approach of the volume, suggesting in some cases how key gaps might be filled and potential authors to approach. Of course, the volume would not have been possible without the willing cooperation of the authors, responding to editorial suggestions on the contents of their chapters and to comments on drafts.

    In a venture of this size, and with the number of authors involved, it was perhaps inevitable that the road to receiving completed drafts was not always smooth. Altogether, completing the volume became a more protracted exercise than either I or the publishers, not to mention the authors who had completed their chapters, would have wished. Several commissioned authors failed to meet extended deadlines, and rather than sustain major gaps in the volume, new authors were approached. In one case a new author needed to be found because of the death of the intended contributor. These problems resulted in inevitable delays, and I am grateful to all those who participated in the exercise for their patience, not least the publishers who allowed the authors to update their chapters (where necessary) at proof stage.

    Of the many individuals who have helped in the production of this volume special mention must be made to those at Sage, particularly Simon Ross and Rosemary Campbell. Simon (who has since moved to a more senior position in another publishing house) initiated the proposal and provided enthusiasm and support throughout. Rosemary entered towards the end of the process, ensuring production and relieving me of a number of tasks at times when my university commitments were mounting. Thanks are also due to Bill Lever, my co-Managing Editor on the journal Urban Studies who was instrumental in formulating the structure of the volume. Equally, Isabel Burnside, Editorial Assistant on the journal, gave freely of her support and encouragement, ensuring that the infrastructural help necessary to ensure that authors were kept in touch was provided.

    RonanPaddisonUniversity of Glasgow

    Notes on Contributors

    Louis Albrechts is Professor of Planning at the Catholic University of Leuven. He is editor of European Planning Studies and past president of the Association of European Schools of Planning. From 1992 to 1996 he was responsible for the structure plan for Flanders and from 1999 to 2000 he was coordinator of the transport plan for Flanders. He has published widely on regional issues, planning matters and on transportation questions. His current research is focused on public involvement in planning, changes in governance and integrated territorial planning and policies. He is presently co-editing a book entitled The Changing Institutional Landscape of Planning.

    Stephen J. Bailey is Professor of Public Sector Economics at Glasgow Caledonian University. He has published widely in the field of local government economics and local government finance, including journal articles, book chapters and books dealing with intergovernmental grants, local taxation, charges, public choice theory and local government reform etc. His books include: Local Government Economics: Principles and Practice (1999), Public Sector Economics: Theory, Policy and Practice (1995) and Local Government Charges: Policy and Practice (1993, with P. Falconer and S. McChlery).

    Mark Boyle is Lecturer in Geography at the University of Strathclyde and is Chair of the Urban Geography Research Group of the RGS-IBG His recent publications have been in the area of the politics of local economic development, including papers in Environment and Planning A (1997, 1999), Progress in Planning (2000), Political Geography (2000) and The Growth Machine Concept: twenty years on (1999). He is book review editor for Space and Polity.

    Roberto Camagni is Professor of Economics and Urban Economics at the Politecnico of Milan. He has been Head of the Department for Urban Affairs at the Presidency of the Council of Ministers, Rome, under the Prodi Government. He is the President of the GREMI, an international association for the study of innovative environments or ‘milieux’, located in Paris, Sorbonne University. He has been President of AISRe, the Italian Section of the Regional Science Association, and a Member of the Council of the ASRDLF, the French Regional Science Association. He is the author of a textbook on urban economics in Italian, published also in French by Economica, Paris and forthcoming in Spanish.

    Roberta Capello is Associate Professor of Regional and Urban Economics at the University of Molise, and of Economics at the Politecnico of Milan. She has been National Secretary of AISRe, the Italian Section of the Regional Science Association. She is a member of the Organising Committee of the European Regional Science Association and is the Treasurer of the same Association. She is a member of NECTAR, an international research network on Transport, Communication and Regional Development, and of GREMI, Groupe de Recherche Européen sur les Milieux Innovateurs. She has a PhD in Economics at the Free University of Amsterdam.

    Tony Champion is Professor of Population Geography at Newcastle University. His research interests include urban and regional changes in population distribution and composition, with particular reference to counterurbanization and population deconcentration in developed countries and the policy implications of changes in local population profiles. He is the author of Population Matters: The Local Dimension (1993) and coauthor of The Population of Britain in the 1990s (1996). Previous publications include Migration Processes and Patterns (1992), People in the Countryside (1991), Contemporary Britain: AGeographical Perspective (1990) and Counterurbanization (1989).

    Joe T. Darden is Professor of Geography and Urban Affairs at Michigan State University. He received his PhD in urban geography at the University of Pittsburgh in 1972. From 1971 to 1972 he was a Danforth Foundation Fellow at the University of Chicago. He received Michigan State University's Distinguished Faculty Award in 1984. His research interests are racial residential segregation and neighbourhood socio-economic inequality in multi-racial, white-dominated societies. He is the author of more than 100 publications, including the co-authored Detroit: Race and Uneven Development (1987). From 1997 to 1998 he was a Fulbright Scholar in the Department of Geography at the University of Toronto. He is presently writing a book entitled, Toronto: The Significance of White Supremacy in a Canadian Metropolis.

    William Denayer graduated with a PhD in political science at the State University of Leyden (his thesis being on the political theory of Hannah Arendt). His interests are now in political philosophy (Arendt, Heidegger, Latour), internationalization and the restructuring of the welfare state, poverty and cities and actor network theory. He is a research fellow at the Department of ‘Space and Society’ at the University of Ghent, Belgium.

    Ray Forrest is Professor of Urban Studies at the University of Bristol and Visiting Professor at the City University of Hong Kong. He has published extensively on housing, urban and related issues. Books include Selling the Welfare State: The Privatisation of Public Housing (with Alan Murie), Home Ownership: Differentiation and Fragmentation (with Alan Murie and Peter Williams) and Housing and Family Wealth: Comparative International Perspectives (with Alan Murie). His current research interests include the role of the residential neighbourhood in contemporary society and cross-national comparative analysis of economic instability and the housing market.

    William H. Frey, is Research Scientist on the Faculty of the Population Studies Center at the University of Michigan. He is also Senior Fellow of Demographic Studies at the Milken Institute in Santa Monica, CA. He has written widely on issues relating to migration, population distribution and the demography of metropolitan areas. He is the author of Regional and Metropolitan Growth and Decline in the United States (with Alden Speare, Jr, 1988) and Metropolitan America: Beyond the Transition (1990).

    Michael Goldsmith is Professor of Government and Politics at the University of Salford. He is the author of several books and articles in the fields of comparative local government and urban politics, including (with H. Wolman) Urban Politics and Policy (1992) and with K. K. Klaussen (eds) Europeanisation and Local Government (1997). His current research interests and writing are concerned with the impact of globalization on local governments; metropolitan government; and the relationship between the size of governmental units and democratic performance.

    Mohamed Halfani is Senior Lecturer at the Institute of Development Studies in the University of Dar es Salaam. His field of research is institutional revitalization and local governance, with a special focus on urban development. Currently, he is serving as Director of Cabinet at the Organization of African Unity (OAU) in Addis Ababa.

    Chris Hamnett is Professor of Human Geography at King's College London. Previously he was Professor of Urban Geography at the Open University. He has held a number of visiting appointments including the Banneker Professorship at the Center for Washington Area Studies, George Washington University, Washington DC, Norman Chester Senior Research Fellow, Nuffield College Oxford and Visiting Research Fellow at the Netherlands Institute of Advanced Studies. He is the author of numerous papers in the areas of housing and social change, the home ownership market in Britain, wealth and inequality in global cities. He is the author or coauthor of Cities, Housing and Profits, Winners and Losers: the Home Ownership Market in Modern Britain and co-author of Shrinking the State: The Political Underpinnings of Privatisation and Safe as Houses: Housing Inheritance in Britain. He is also the editor or co-editor of numerous other books including Housing and Labour Markets.

    Tom Hart is an Honorary Research Fellow in the Department of Economic and Social History at the University of Glasgow. With degrees in history and law he has specialized in transport and regional history and in comparative urban studies. He maintains major interests in contemporary and future transport policies, fiscal issues and settlement patterns and has written extensively on sustainable development and links between transport, environmental, economic and social policies. He chairs the Scottish Transport Studies Group and was an invited participant in the OECD Vancouver Conference on Sustainable Transportation in 1996.

    J. Vernon Henderson is Eastman Professor of Political Economy at Brown University. He is currently doing research on systems of cities, industrial location, urban productivity, environmental regulation, development of urban sub-centres, as well as tax and public service competition among cities, focusing on the United States, Indonesia and Korea. Professor Henderson is on the editorial boards of the Journal of Urban Economics, Regional Science and Urban Economics and Journal of Economic Growth. He is a member of the National Bureau of Economic Research and the Boston Research Data Center of the US Census Bureau and has done research work for the National Science Foundation, Guggenheim Foundation, Earhart Foundation and the World Bank. He recently served as a team member of the World Development Report 1999–2000, with its focus on political decentralization and urbanization in developing countries.

    Grigoriy Kostinskiy is Senior Research Fellow at the Institute of Geography, Russian Academy of Science. His interests are in social and economic geography, urban studies and the theory of geography. He is a corresponding member of the Commission on History of Geographical Thought, International Geographical Union. He is editor of the book Russia and the CIS: Disin-tegrational and Integrational Processes. Among his practical investigations are the social assessment studies for the World Bank.

    William F. Lever is Professor of Urban Studies at the University of Glasgow. With a first degree in human geography and a doctorate in demography from Oxford University, he has researched industrial change and urban policy in Britain, Europe and North America. He has authored or edited several books on urban economic regeneration and is currently working on urban competitiveness in Scotland and Europe, and on the effects of market enlargement in the EU He has worked for the EU, OECD and government. He is currently a Director of the European Urban Institute and a Managing Editor of the journal Urban Studies.

    Paula D. McClain is Professor of Political Science and Law at Duke University. A Howard University PhD, her primary research interests are in racial minority group politics, particularly inter-minority political and social competition, and urban politics, especially public policy and urban crime. Her most recent articles have appeared in the Journal of Politics, American Political Science Review and American Politics Quarterly. West-view Press published the second edition update of her most recent book, ‘Can We All Get Along?’: Racial and Ethnic Minorities in American Politics (co-authored with Joseph Stewart, Jr) in early 1999. She is a past vice-president of the American Political Science Association, and past president of the National Conference of Black Political Scientists, served as Program Co-Chair for the 1993 annual meeting of the American Political Science Association and served as Program Chair for the 1999 annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association.

    Linda M. McDowell is Professor of Economic Geography at University College London. Her interests are in urban and economic geography, especially in new forms of work in cities. She is currently undertaking a project funded by the Joseph Rowntree Foundation about young men's labour market entry and precarious forms of employment. Her recent publications include Capital Culture (1997) and Gender, Identity and Place (1999) and she is also joint editor (with Joanne Sharp) of A Feminist Dictionary of Human Geography (1999).

    Susanne MacGregor is Professor of Social Policy at Middlesex University, London. She has written extensively on urban issues and urban policy. Her publications include Tackling the Inner Cities (edited with Ben Pimlott, 1991) and Transforming Cities: Contested Governance and New Spatial Divisions (edited with Nick Jewson, 1997). She has recently conducted joint research on community development and drugs prevention; neighbourhood images and regeneration experiences; policies on social security, poverty and social exclusion; and women at risk in cities. She is currently Programme Co-ordinator for the UK Department of Health's Drugs Misuse Research Initiative.

    Donald McNeill is a lecturer in Human Geography at the University of Southampton. He is currently conducting research into cultural and political identity in the European city, with particular reference to Paris, Madrid and Barcelona.

    Peter Nijkamp is Professor of Regional Economics and Economic Geography at the Free University, Amsterdam. He has published extensively on urban and regional issues, on transportation questions and on environmental and resource matters. At present he is vice-president of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Sciences.

    Ronan Paddison is Professor of Geography at the University of Glasgow and Managing Editor of Urban Studies. He is currently working on an ESRC project on urban competitiveness and social cohesion in Central Scotland. He has published widely on the themes of urban participation and decentralization, on which he has completed research projects for central and local governments.

    Robert J. Rogerson is Senior Lecturer and Head of Department in the Department of Geography at the University of Strathclyde, and is Director of the Quality of Life Research Group based in the University. He has published widely on issues associated with urban quality of life, including contributions to Urban Quality of Life: critical issues and options (1999), Planning for a better quality of life in cities (2000), Progress in Planning (1996, 2000) and Urban Studies (1999). His main research interests include the role of quality of life in urban regeneration and community development, and the analysis of property developers in shaping urban developments. He acts as the European representative on the International Quality of Life Network, and is journal editor of Applied Geography.

    Saskia Sassen is Professor of Sociology at the University of Chicago and Centennial Visiting Professor at the London School of Economics. Her most recent books are Guests and Aliens (1999) and Globalization and its Discontents (1998). The Global City is coming out in a new updated edition in 2000. Her books have been translated into 10 languages. Her edited book, Cities and their Cross-Border Networks, sponsored by the United Nations University, will appear in 2000. She is completing her research project on ‘Governance and Accountability in a Global Economy’.

    Peter Saunders is Professor of Sociology at the University of Sussex, UK, and he has also held visiting positions at universities and research institutes in Australia, New Zealand, Germany and the USA. His book Social Theory and the Urban Question represented a major contribution to the development of a ‘new urban sociology’ in the 1980s, and he has also published influential works on home ownership, urban politics, British politics, privatization, capitalism, social stratification and social mobility.

    Douglas V. Shaw is Associate Professor of Public Administration and Urban Studies at the University of Akron, Akron, OH. He has published in the areas of immigration, ethnic tensions, transportation and public culture. He is author of Immigration and Ethnicity in New Jersey History (1994).

    James Simmie is Professor of Innovation in the School of Planning at Oxford Brookes University. He worked previously at University College London and the School of Land Management and Development at the University of Reading. His books include Citizens in Conflict (1974), Power, Property and Corporatism (1981) and Planning at the Crossroads (1991). He has also edited major research collections such as Yugoslavia in Turmoil (1991), Planning London (1994), and Innovation, Networks and Learning Regions? (1996). His current research is focused on innovation and its contributions to urban and regional endogenous local economic growth. Major projects include ‘Innovation Clusters and Competitive Cities in the UK and Europe’. This forms a part of the ESRC programme on ‘Cities: Competitiveness and Cohesion’.

    David W. Smith obtained his BA and MA from the Department of Geography, at the University of Aberystwyth. After a brief encounter with the Department of Geography at Glasgow University (1966–68), David moved to the University of Hong Kong (1968–73) where he took up a lectureship. Here, he obtained his PhD, which was part of a large interdisciplinary study initiated by the History, Sociology and Law departments of HKU David's study examined and analysed the accommodation provision by the then colonial administration, comparing it with that of Singapore, an independent state. While in Hong Kong, he became interested in Southeast Asia and the subject of development. A brief sojourn at Durham University (1973–75) enabled him to work on a project with Bill Fisher which centred on accommodation/needs in the gececondu areas of Ankara. In 1975, he took up a post as Research Fellow in the Department of Geography, RSPacS, ANU, Canberra and extended his geographical interests to include Pacific Asia. A joint project with Gerry Ward and Terry McGee on the processes of the industrialization of food in the Pacific Island economies also increased his interests in development processes. In Australia he researched the Aboriginal fringe camps of Alice Springs and began to focus his thoughts on marginalization and internal-colonialism. After five years in Canberra (1975–80) David and his family returned to the UK and to the Geography Department at Keele University where, via the British Council, links were established with the Departments of Geography in Zimbabwe and later, Fiji. The link with Zimbabwe helped to develop his notions of urban sustainability and urban food production. While in Keele, he was anxious to maintain some links with Southeast Asia, wishing ultimately to research in Vietnam, an emerging independent state where development and its multi-faceted forms could be observed at an early stage. Thus he began a joint research project in Singapore. At Keele he obtained his Senior Lectureship (1985) and later his Personal Chair (1988). In 1995 he became Professor of Economic Geography at Liverpool University, where he remained until his death in December 1999. In 1996 he was presented with the Sir Edward Heath Award for his contribution to Development Studies. It was unfortunate that the latter years, from 1996 onwards, were clouded by the knowledge of his illness which preyed on him both mentally and physically. Before his death, and to his credit, he managed to complete the reworking of his book, The Third World City, which was published posthumously in May 2000. His success as an academic, as a team player and as a teacher and researcher, has not passed unremarked. His written works stand as testament.

    Richard Stren is Professor of Political Science and former director of the Centre for Urban and Community Studies at the University of Toronto. Over the past 30 years he has carried out research in many African cities, including Mombasa, Nairobi, Dar es Salaam, Abidjan and Makurdi. Currently he is working on comparative themes involving Africa, Latin America and Asia.

    Aidan While is a research officer at the Centre for Urban Development and Environmental Management at Leeds Metropolitan University. His research interests have centred on the changing role of the state in urban and regional economic development.

    J.W.R. Whitehand is Professor of Urban Geography and Head of the Urban Morphology Research Group in the University of Birmingham, UK. His publications include The Changing Face of Cities and The Making of the Urban Landscape. He edits the international journal Urban Morphology and is a member of the Council of the International Seminar on Urban Form. He was formerly Chairman of the Urban Geography Study Group of the Institute of British Geographers and Editor of Area.

    Colin C. Williams is Senior Lecturer in Economic Geography at the Department of Geography, University of Leicester. His research interests cover the geographies of informal economic activity, the theory and practice of the ‘new localism’ and formulating policy initiatives to rebuild social capital. His books include A Helping Hand: Harnessing Self-Help to Combat Social Exclusion (1999), Informal Employment in the Advanced Economies: Implications for Work and Welfare (1998), both co-authored with Jan Windebank, Consumer Services and Economic Development (1997) and Examining the Nature of Domestic Labour (1988).

    Peter Williams is Visiting Professor at the Centre for Urban Studies, University of Bristol, and Deputy Director General at the Council of Mortgage Lenders, London, UK. His research interests cover housing policy, housing markets, housing history and urban change. His books include Gentrification of the City (edited with Neil Smith), Class and Space (edited with Nigel Thrift), Home Ownership Differentiation and Fragmentation (with Ray Forrest and Alan Murie) and Surviving or Thriving? Managing Change in Housing Organisations. He is Policy Review Editor for Housing Studies.

    Jan Windebank is Senior Lecturer in French Studies and Associate Fellow of the Political Economy Research Centre (PERC) at the University of Sheffield. Jan's research interests cover cross-national research methodology, gender divisions of work and Anglo-French comparisons of women's work situations. Her books include Women's Work in France and Britain: Practice, Theory and Policy (1999), A Helping Hand: Harnessing Self-help to Combat Social Exclusion (1999), Informal Employment in the Advanced Economies: Implications for Work and Welfare (1998) (both co-authored with Colin Williams), and The Informal Economy in France (1991).

    Hana Wirth-Nesher is Associate Professor of English at Tel Aviv University and Coordinator of the Samuel L. and Perry Haber Chair on the Study of the Jewish Experience in the United States. She is the author of City Codes: Reading the Modern Urban Novel, and the editor of What is Jewish Literature?, New Essays on ‘Call It Sleep’, and the forthcoming Cambridge Companion to Jewish American Literature. She has published numerous essays on the work of nineteenth- and twentieth-century writers, including Charles Dickens, Mark Twain, Henry James, Joseph Conrad, James Joyce, Virginia Woolf, Isaac Bashevis Singer, Philip Roth, Franz Kafka, D.M. Thomas, and Cynthia Ozick.

    Zachary Zimmer is currently a Research Associate in the Policy Research Division of the Population Council in New York. He graduated with a PhD from the Population Studies program at the University of Michigan in 1998 and subsequently spent two years as an Assistant Professor in the Department of Sociology at the University of Nevada-Las Vegas. His primary areas of interest include the demography of health and ageing in Asian societies and his research has been published in a variety of demographic and gerontological journals.


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