Handbook of Strategy and Management


Edited by: Andrew Pettigrew, Howard Thomas & Richard Whittington

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  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
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  • Part One: Mapping a Terrain

    Part Two: Thinking and Acting Strategically

    Part Three: Changing Contexts

    Part Four: Looking Forward

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    Presenting a major retrospective and prospective overview of strategy, this Handbook is an important benchmark volume for management scholars worldwide. The Handbook frames, assesses and synthesizes the work in the field. Chapters are grouped under four specific areas of strategy and management: Mapping a Terrain; Thinking and Acting Strategically; Changing Contexts; and Looking Forward.

    Within these parts, leading international scholars provide historical overviews of the key themes, address the central approaches which have characterized these themes, critically assess the quality of current theory and knowledge, and set out agendas for future theoretical and empirical development.

    The resulting volume is a unique overview of the inputs and dynamics to shape strategy and management and will be crucial reference for academics and students.


    Edward H. Bowman died in 1998 and Chapter 2 in this Handbook is dedicated to his memory. Edward Bowman was an accomplished and influential scholar of management who made many seminal contributions to the strategy field. He was also an effective institution builder. He held degrees from MIT, The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania and Ohio State University and served all three institutions. For a time he was Dean of the College of Business at Ohio State and Deputy Dean at the Wharton School. He was also the Founding Director of the Reginald H. Jones Center for Management Policy, Strategy, and Organization at the Wharton School. In recognition of his contributions, the Wharton School has named a Chair after him and established an annual distinguished speaker series.

    Balaji S. Chakravarthy is Professor of Strategy and International Management and holds the Shell Chair in Sustainable Business Growth at IMD, Lausanne. His research and teaching interests cover three related areas: strategy processes for sustainable business growth, corporate renewal, and the management and sharing of competencies. He has published four books, several case studies and numerous articles on these topics in top journals. Dr. Chakravarthy has a doctorate from Harvard and has taught at the Wharton School, INSEAD, and the University of Minnesota. He serves on the editorial boards of the Strategic Management Journal, Long Range Planning Journal and Strategy & Leadership. He was a member of the Board of Directors of the International Strategic Management Society from 1999 to 2004.

    Karel Cool is BP Professor of European Competitiveness and Professor of Strategic Management at INSEAD. Karel Cool's research, teaching and consulting focus is on problems of industry and competitive analysis (e.g. industry overcapacity, profit dynamics, product standards, critical mass races, value creation, building unique resources). He has published in Management Science, the Strategic Management Journal, Organization Studies, Marketing Letters, Advances in Strategic Management, has edited a book, European Industrial Restructuring in the 1990s (London: Macmillan), 1992 with D. Neven and I. Walter, and has contributed to several books on competitive strategy. He is Associate Editor of the Strategic Management Journal. During the academic year 1995/6 he was Visiting Professor at the Graduate School of Business at the University of Chicago. He is also Visiting Professor at Northwestern University.

    Luís Almeida Costa is Associate Professor of Strategic Management at Faculdade de Economia da Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Portugal, and Visiting Professor at INSEAD, Fontainebleau, France. He received the ‘Licenciatura’ in Economics degree from Universidade Católica Portuguesa, Lisbon, in 1988, and the MSc. and Ph.D. in Management degrees from INSEAD in 1992 and 1994, respectively. Luís Almeida Costa's research and teaching interests are in the area of industry and competitive analysis as well as in the application of game theory to negotiation analysis. He has worked as a consultant and has conducted executive programmes for companies in several industries, such as retailing, pulp and paper, FMCG, and financial services.

    Gerald F. Davis is Wilbur K. Pierpont Professor of Management and Organizations at the Ross School of Business at the University of Michigan. Davis's research examines the influence of politics and social networks on corporate governance. His work appears in Administrative Science Quarterly, Academy of Management Review, American Journal of Sociology, American Sociological Review, Annual Review of Sociology, Journal of Financial Economics, Journal of Management Inquiry, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Organization Science, Research in Organization Behavior, Strategic Organization, and elsewhere.

    Ingemar Dierickx is the Director of the INSEAD executive programme on Negotiation Dynamics. As a negotiator, Professor Dierickx has represented the interests of both individuals and major corporate clients. Professor Dierickx has worked as a consultant and has conducted numerous executive programmes throughout Europe, in the US, Israel, China, Singapore, Indonesia, Australia and New Zealand. In particular, he has worked extensively with leading financial services organisations. Before joining INSEAD, he worked at the Division of Research, Harvard Business School and in the Department of Economics, Harvard University. Ingemar Dierickx holds a Ph.D. in Business Economics from Harvard University and an MBA from the Harvard Business School, where he was a Baker Scholar. He also holds law degrees from the Harvard Law School (LLM) and the Rijksuniversiteit Ghent (Lic. Jur).

    Kathleen M. Eisenhardt, Stanford Warren Ascherman MD Professor of Strategy and Organization at Stanford University. Professor Eisenhardt's interests centre on high-velocity industries and technology-based companies. She is currently studying corporate strategy, including acquisition of entrepreneurial firms, synergies in multi-business corporations, and the concept of boundaries. She is a co-author of Competing on the Edge: Strategy as Structured Chaos, winner of the George R. Terry award for outstanding contribution to management thinking. She has recently published ‘Organizational Boundaries and Theories of Organization’ (with F.M. Santos) in Organization Science and ‘The Seller's Side of the Story: Acquisition as Courtship and Governance as Syndicate in Entrepreneurial Firms’ (with M.E. Graebner) in Administrative Science Quarterly. Professor Eisenhardt is a Fellow of the Academy of Management and the World Economic Forum.

    Ewan Ferlie is Professor of Public Services Management and Head of the School of Management at Royal Holloway, University of London. He was previously at Imperial College Management School, University of London and before that was Deputy Director of the Centre for Corporate Strategy and Change, Warwick Business School. His interests lie in the organization and management of public service organizations, particularly in the health care and higher education sectors. He has written widely on public sector restructuring, the rise of the New Public Management and strategic change processes within the public services. He is also interested in changing professional and managerial roles. He is co-author of two research monographs investigating these issues: Shaping Strategic Change and The New Public Management in Action.

    Raghu Garud's interests lie in exploring the nexus between technology, strategy and organizations. His publications explore path creation, metamorphic change, new organizational forms, economies of substitution, researcher persistence and technology embeddedness. He has co-authored or edited several books on technology: Technological Innovation: Oversights and Foresights (co-edited with Zur Shapira and Praveen Nayyar) (Cambridge University Press); Cognition, Knowledge and Organizations (co-edited with Joseph Porac) (JAI Press) (Oxford University Press); The Innovation Journey (with Andrew H. Van de Ven, Douglas Polley and Suresh Venkatraman, and Path Dependence and Creation (co-edited with Peter Karnoe) (Lawrence Earlbaum Associates) and Managing in the Modular Age: Architectures, Network and Organizations (co-edited with Arun Kumaraswamy and Richard Langlois) (Blackwell Publishers). Raghu is Program Chair of the Technology and Innovation Management division for the 2001 Academy of Management meetings, Washington DC.

    Paul Godfrey is Associate Professor of Strategy at the Marriott School at Brigham Young University. Paul received a bachelor of science degree in political science from the University of Utah, and an MBA and Ph.D. from the University of Washington. He has taught strategy and ethics courses at the Marriott School for the past seven years.

    Paul's research interests lie in the intersection of values and strategy, especially the issues of corporate social responsibility, service-learning, values, mission, and organizational culture and identity, and the moral characteristics of leaders. Paul's work has appeared in the Strategic Management Journal, the Journal of Management Inquiry and the Journal of High Technology Management. He has co-edited two books.

    Rob M. Grant is Professor of Management at Georgetown University. He has also held positions at City University, California Polytechnic, University of British Columbia, London Business School, and University of St Andrews, and was staff economist at the UK Monopolies Commission. His research focuses upon the nature and management of organisational capability, diversification strategy, the knowledge-based view of the firm, and firm strategy within the oil and gas sector. He was born in Bristol, England and studied economics at the London School of Economics. Although initially a specialist in industrial economics, he moved into strategic management during the early 1980s to escape the game theory revolution. He is married with four children and divides his time between London and Washington DC.

    David J. Jeremy is Professor of Business History in the Business School, the Manchester Metropolitan University. His Transatlantic Industrial Revolution: The Diffusion of Textile Technologies between Britain and America, 1790–1830s (1981) received the Dexter Prize for the Society for the History of Technology and the John H. Dunning Prize of the American Historical Association. At the London School of Economics he edited the Dictionary of Business Biography (6 vols. 1984–6). He is the author of Capitalists and Christians: Business Leaders and the Churches in Britain, 1900–1960 (1990); Artisans, Entrepreneurs, and Machines (1998), and A Business History of Britain, 1800–1990s (1998). Currently he is working on an historical study of boardroom culture and governance with special reference to the North West of England. His work has been funded by the Leverhulme Trust and the Economic and Social Research Council.

    Bruce Kogut is the Eli Lilly Professor of Innovation, Business and Society at INSEAD and was formerly the Dr. Felix Zandman Chair at the Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania. Over the years, he has been a visitor at the École Polytechnique, the Stockholm School of Economics, Humboldt University, the Wissenschaftszentrum and the Santa Fe Institute. He recently published The Global Internet (MIT Press, 2003) and co-edited with Peter Cornelius, Corporate Governance and Capital Flows in a Global Economy (Oxford University Press, 2003). He is currently the Scientific Director of the European Institute of Advanced Studies in Management. Bruce works in the areas of direct investment, dynamic networks, corporate governance, and comparative sociology. Most recently, he has focused on privatization and globalization, with papers published by the World Bank, International Monetary Fund, and academic journals.

    Christian Knudsen is a professor of economics of the firm at the Copenhagen Business School. He has published extensively on the methodology of economics, theories of the firm and strategy. Among his more recent books are Rationality, Institutions and Economic Methodology (with Maki and Gustafsson) (London: Routledge) and Towards a Competence Theory of the Firm (with N. Foss) (London: Routledge) His research interests include economic methodology, theories of the firm, sociology of organization and knowledge-based views on strategy. He is currently editing a book (with Haridimos Tsoukas) entitled The Oxford Handbook of Organization Theory: Meta-theoretical Perspectives, to be published by Oxford University Press in 2002. (e-mail: knudsen@rocketmail.com)

    Rita Gunther McGrath is an associate professor in the Management Division at the Columbia Business School in New York City. Her research concerns entrepreneurship, new technologies and new ventures within established organizations. She is currently using real options reasoning to shed new light on traditional theory in these areas. McGrath has won the Academy of Management Review and Research-Technology Management ‘best paper’ awards, and is on the editorial boards of the Strategic Management Journal, the Academy of Management Journal and the Journal of Business Venturing. Her co-authored book, The Entrepreneurial Mindset: Strategies for Continuously Creating Opportunity in an Age of Uncertainty was published in 2000 by the Harvard Business School Press.

    Prior to joining academia, she was a senior technology manager for the City of New York. Her work experience includes the political election arena as well as two entrepreneurial startups. Her Ph.D. is from the Wharton School.

    Constantinos Markides is Professor of Strategic and International Management and holds the Robert P. Bauman Chair of Strategic Leadership at the London Business School. He received his BA (Distinction) and MA in Economics from Boston University, and his MBA and DBA from the Harvard Business School. His research and publications focus on strategic innovation, corporate restructuring, refocusing and international acquisitions. His recent work includes Diversification, Refocusing and Economic Performance (MIT Press, 1995) and All the Right Moves: A Guide to Crafting Breakthrough Strategy (Harvard Business School Press, 1999). His new book (with Paul Geroski), entitled Fast Second: How Smart Companies Bypass Radical Innovation to Enter and Dominate New Markets was published in January 2005 and was shortlisted by the Financial Times for the Management Book of the Year award. His publications have also appeared in journals such as the Harvard Business Review, Sloan Management Review, Leader to Leader, Strategic Management Journal and the Academy of Management Journal.

    Keith Pavitt (died 20 December 2002) was R.M. Phillips Professor of Science and Technology Policy at Sussex University in England. He studied engineering, industrial management, and economics at Cambridge (UK) and Harvard (USA), and then worked at the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in Paris. During his 28 years at the Science Policy Research Unit, he published widely on the management of technology, and science and technology policy. His central research interests were: corporate and public strategies for technical innovation; the nature and measurement of technology; the reasons why countries, companies and sectors differ in their rates and directions of technical change; the usefulness of basic research; the links between public science and private technology in a period of globalisation and the co-evolution of technology and organisation.

    Professor Pavitt advised numerous bodies on policies for technical change. He was a Visiting Lecturer at Princeton University, Visiting Professor at the Universities of Reading, Strasbourg (Louis Pasteur), Padua, Nice, Åalborg, Lyon-Lumière, Paris 13 and Paris-Dauphine, and Visiting Scholar at Stanford University. He was also a main editor of Research Policy.

    Andrew Pettigrew is Professor of Strategy and Organization at Warwick Business School where between 1985 and 1995 he founded and directed the Centre for Corporate Strategy and Change. He has taught and researched at Yale University, London Business School and Harvard Business School where in the academic year 2001–2002 he will be a Visiting Professor. His most recent research includes studies of the boards and directors of the UK's top 500 companies and new forms of organizing and company performance in major corporations in Europe, Japan and the USA.

    He was President of the British Academy of Management (1987–1990) and is a Fellow of both the Academy of Management in the USA and the UK. In 1995 he was the Distinguished Scholar of the Organization and Management Theory Division of the Academy of Management. In 1999 he was elected a Founding Academician of the Academy of Social Sciences.

    Joseph F. Porac is the George Daly Professor in Business Leadership at the Leonard Stern School of Business, New York University. His research interests focus on the cognitive bases of markets and organizations, and he is currently pursuing research on knowledge transfer in organizations, the social construction of CEO reputations, and sensemaking between organizations. His research has appeared in a variety of management journals, and his most recent papers include ‘Are More Resources Always Better for Growth: Resource Stickiness in Market and Product Expansion’ (with Yuri Mishina and Tim Pollock) in Strategic Management Journal (25,1179–97); and ‘The Burden of Celebrity: The Impact of CEO Certification Contests on CEO Pay and Company Performance’ (with James Wade, Tim Pollock and Scott Graffin) in Academy of Management Journal (forthcoming).

    Gordon Rands is an associate professor of management at Western Illinois University (WIU). He has also taught at the Pennsylvania State University and at the University of Minnesota, from which he received his Ph.D. in Business Administration. Dr. Rands also has degrees from the University of Michigan (BS in Natural Resources) and Brigham Young University (Masters of Organizational Behavior). His areas of interest and expertise are business and the natural environment, corporate social responsibility and performance, business ethics, environmental sustainability of colleges and universities, service learning and microenterprise. His research has appeared in the Academy of Management Review, Research in Strategic Management, and other outlets. He is a member of the International Association for Business and Society and of the Academy of Management, and has served as chairperson of the Academy's Organizations and the Natural Environment Interest Group.

    Winfried Ruigrok is a Professor of International Management, Director of the Research Institute for International Management and Academic Director of the MBS programme at the University of St Gallen, Switzerland. He studied political science (BA) and international economic relations (MA) and completed his Ph.D. in international political economy at the University of Amsterdam. He previously worked at the Netherlands Organisation for International Development Cooperation, the European Commission, the Erasmus University Rotterdam and the University of Warwick. He received the 1996 European Association of Evolutionary Political Economy (EAEPE) Mydral Prize. His research interests include multinational restructuring strategies, multicultural top management teams and boards, corporate governance, and the interaction between multinational firms and (international) institutions.

    Filipe M. Santos is Assistant Professor of Entrepreneurship at INSEAD. A native of Portugal, Professor Santos holds a Ph.D. in Management Science and Engineering from Stanford University. He also holds a degree in Economics from NOVA University of Lisbon and a Masters in Management and Strategy from ISEG, Lisbon. His research is at the intersection of strategy, organization theory, and entrepreneurship with a focus on nascent markets. His recent work has appeared in journals such as Organization Science (‘Organizational Boundaries and Theories of Organization’, 2005) and Technological Forecasting and Social Change. His current research examines the processes of market emergence, the determinants of organizational boundaries, and the founding and growth of new ventures.

    Harbir Singh is Professor and Chair of the Management Department at the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania. Dr. Singh joined the Wharton faculty in 1984 after completing his doctorate from the University of Michigan. His research encompasses several areas, including firm scope and performance, effective ways to manage acquisitions and alliances, corporate governance, and processes by which firms cope with the challenges of emerging technologies. He has taught courses in competitive strategy, global strategic management, and corporate development via acquisitions and alliances.

    Dr. Singh is Co-Director of Wharton's Mack Center for Technological Innovation, which sponsors inter-disciplinary research on strategies and processes by which firms create and profit from technological innovations.

    W. Edward Steinmueller, Professor of Information and Communication Policy at SPRU (Science and Technology Policy Research), University of Sussex received his Ph.D. from Stanford University where he was Senior Research Associate and Deputy Director at Stanford Institute of Economic Policy Research. His areas of research include the economics of the information and information technology industries, the economics of science and technology policy, and the relationships among social, organisational, and technological factors in the production and adoption of new technologies. He is internationally known for his work on the integrated circuit, computer, telecommunication, and software industries and is a policy consultant in areas of industrial policy and high technology competition such as intellectual property rights, competition policy and standardisation.

    Mohan Subramaniam is an Associate Professor of strategy at Boston College's Carroll School of Management and specializes in the areas of global strategy, managing multinational companies and the strategic management of knowledge and innovation. He received his DBA from Boston University and an MBA from the Indian Institute of Management at Bangalore. Professor Subramaniam teaches courses focusing on strategy, innovation and managing in a global environment. His research appears in leading management journals including the Academy of Management Journal, Strategic Management Journal, Journal of Management Studies, Management International Review, and the Journal of Product Innovation Management. His research has also received several grants including those from the National Science Foundation and the Carnegie Bosch Institute, and awards from the Academy of Management, Strategic Management Society, McKinsey & Company and the Decision Sciences Institute. Mohan serves on the editorial board of the Journal of Management.

    Howard Thomas is Professor of Management and Dean of Warwick Business School. Previously Dean of the College of Commerce and Business Administration at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA since 1991. Prior to this he held posts as Foundation Professor of Management at the Australian Graduate School of Management in Sydney, as Director of the Doctoral Programme at London Business School, and visiting and permanent posts at institutions such as the European Institute of Management in Brussels, the University of Southern California, the University of British Columbia, the Sloan School of Management, MIT and Kellogg School Northwestern University. Former President of the US Strategic Management Society, past Chair of the Board of the Graduate Management Admissions Council, and Fellow of both the Academy of Management in the US and the UK.

    His current research interests include: competitive strategy, risk analysis, strategic change, international management and decision theory.

    Haridimos Tsoukas is a professor of Organization Theory and Behaviour at the Graduate School of Business, University of Strathclyde and the Athens Laboratory of Business Administration (ALBA). He obtained his Ph.D. at The Manchester Business School and has worked at MBS, Warwick Business School and the University of Essex. He is an associate editor of Organizations Studies, a co-editor of Organization, and a member of the editorial board of Organization Science, Human Relations, and Emergence. He has published widely in several leading journals including the Academy of Management Review, Strategic Management Journal, Organization Studies, Journal of Management Studies, and many more. His research interests include: knowledge-based perspectives on organizations, policy sciences and practical reason, the management of change, and epistemological issues in management studies. He is currently editing a book (with Christian Knudsen) entitled The Oxford Handbook of Organization Theory: Meta-theoretical Perspectives, to be published by Oxford University Press in 2002.

    Michael Useem is William and Jacalyn Egan Professor of Management and Director of the Center for Leadership and Change Management at the Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania. He is the author of Leading Up: How to Lead Your Boss So You Both Win (Random House, 2001), The Leadership Moment: Nine True Stories of Triumph and Disaster and Their Lessons for Us All (Random House, 1998), Investor Capitalism: How Money Managers Are Changing the Face of Corporate America (HarperCollins, 1996), Executive Defense: Shareholder Power and Corporate Reorganization (Harvard University Press, 1993), and The Inner Circle: Large Corporations and the Rise of Business Political Activity in the US and UK (Oxford University Press, 1984).

    Andrew H. Van de Ven is Vernon H. Heath Professor of Organizational Innovation and Change in the Carlson School of Management of the University of Minnesota. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin at Madison in 1972, and taught at Kent State University and the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania before his present appointment. His current research focuses on processes of organizational innovation and change. He is co-author of The Innovation Journey (1999), Organizational Change and Innovation Processes: Theory and Methods for Research (2000), and Handbook of Organizational Change and Innovation (2004) all published by Oxford University Press. Van de Ven was 2000–2001 President of the Academy of Management.

    N. (Venkat) Venkatraman holds the David J. McGrath Jr. Professorship of Management at Boston University School of Management. His research and teaching interests lie at the interface between strategic management and information technology. His current research is on eBusiness strategies for established companies as they embark on competing through the Internet. He is also working on a book on the theme of sustainable business models for the networked economy to be published in early 2002.

    His doctoral thesis was awarded the 1986 AT Kearney Award for Outstanding Research in General Management by the Academy of Management and his doctoral students have won prestigious international awards for their doctoral work. His research papers have appeared in several leading academic journals such as Management Science, Information Systems Research, Academy of Management Review, Academy of Management Journal, Strategic Management Journal, and others. He has won several awards and recognition for his academic work. He was featured as a top-class faculty in Business Week Guide to the MBA Programs (2000). During 1999–2000, he was a Visiting Professor of Management at London Business School.

    David A. Whetten is the Jack Wheatley Professor of Organizational Behavior and Director of the Faculty Center at Brigham Young University. He has served as editor of the Foundations for Organizational Science, and the Academy of Management Review. His pioneering and award-winning management text, Developing Management Skills, co-authored with Kim Cameron, is in its sixth edition. He has been very active in the Academy of Management. In 1994 he received the Academy's Distinguished Service Award, and in 1996 he was elected to a five-year term as a national officer in the Academy, which culminated in the position of President in 2000. In 2004 he received the OMT division's Distinguished Scholar Award.

    Roderick E. White is an associate professor in the general management area at the Richard Ivey School of Business, The University of Western Ontario where, since 1979, he has taught Business Policy, and Strategic Analysis and Action. Rod received his DBA and MBA (with high distinction) from Harvard University and his Honors Bachelors of Arts in Business from The University of Western Ontario (gold medallist).

    His research interests and consulting activities include: the process of strategic renewal, the functioning of top management teams, questions of business strategy – organization relationships within large, complex companies and the strategic management of foreign-owned subsidiaries. Currently, Rod is exploring the origins of social structure, and how this social structure contributes to organizational excellence and strategic renewal. He has an ongoing interest in the financial services industry. Rod has authored or co-authored articles on these and other topics appearing in Academy of Management Review, Harvard Business Review, Business Quarterly, Policy Options, International Studies of Management and Organization, Planning Review, Organization Dynamics and The Strategic Management Journal. He co-authored Business Policy: A Canadian Casebook (2nd, 3rd and 4th editions) and co-edited Building the Strategically Responsive Organization.

    Richard Whittington is the Millman Fellow in Management at New College and Professor in Strategic Management at the Saïd Business School, University of Oxford. He has previously been Reader in Marketing and Strategic Management at Warwick Business School and Visiting Professor at Groupe HEC, Paris. He has published several single or co-authored books, including Corporate Strategies in Recession and Recovery (1989), What Is Strategy – and Does It Matter? (1993/2000), Rethinking Marketing (1999) and The European Corporation (2000). He is Associate Editor of the British Journal of Management and on the editorial boards of Organization Studies and Long Range Planning. His current research is on strategy as social practice, the learning of strategy skills and organizational restructuring.


    For all three editors this Handbook represents the most ambitious publishing project we have so far attempted. As ever, the easy part was the conception, the hard bit was the delivery.

    The idea for the Handbook came from Sue Jones then management editor for Sage Publications in London. She approached Andrew Pettigrew to develop the intellectual concept and structure of the Handbook. We received early advice from Ed Zajac and John McGee. Shortly thereafter Howard Thomas (then Dean at the College of Commerce, University of Illinois) and Richard Whittington agreed to share the editorial responsibilities. When Howard returned to the UK in the summer of 2000, all the editorial team were then located within 50 miles of one another at Warwick and Oxford Universities. This proximity made the team work in drafting the introduction and conclusion that much easier.

    When Sue Jones moved on from Sage she was replaced by Rosemary Nixon who was an equally enthusiastic and experienced editor. Latterly, Kiren Shoman as management editor in London and Gladys Calix-Ferguson in her marketing role at Sage Publications have been enormously helpful and patient in guiding the book through to publication.

    We thank the entire editorial board for their personal support for the Handbook. The authors are, of course, the Handbook, and we thank them wholeheartedly for their creativity and commitment.

    We also wish to acknowledge the special reviewers we called on to help us with this volume. We express our grateful thanks to Andrew Campbell, Stephen Cummings, Charles Galunic, John Gray, Michael Mayer and Joe Tidd.

    Shortly before we commenced the Handbook the very successful Sage Handbook of Organization Studies was published. We took the opportunity to ask Cynthia Hardy and Stewart Clegg for their advice. Most of the mishaps which occurred on their journey to publication were repeated on our journey. Being forewarned did not lessen the pain, but nevertheless thanks for the warnings Cynthia and Stewart.

    At various times and in various ways secretarial and administrative support has been offered by staff at Warwick Business School. We would like to thank Gill Drakeley, Sheila Frost, Gill Robson and Janet Biddle for all their practical help and support.

    We embarked on this Handbook because of a genuine belief that the field of strategic management was at a crossroads, certainly not the last crossroads, but at an important cusp in its development. The authors of the Handbook have confirmed this sense of a turning point and we hope this volume will not just be seen as the mapping of an intellectual terrain, but also as a positive spur for greater critical reflection, more experimentation, and more creativity in strategy and management.

    AndrewPettigrew, HowardThomas and RichardWhittington February 2001
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