The SAGE Handbook of Sociology


Edited by: Craig Calhoun, Chris Rojek & Bryan Turner

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  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Part 1: Theory and Method

    Part 2: The Axial Processes of Society

    Part 3: Primary Debates

  • Introduction

    Sociology has evolved greatly since it's inception as an academic discipline. It has diverged into numerous strands often flowing in disparate directions – so much so that today the notion of canonical sociology has become widely disputed. The field of sociology at present approximates to one of multi-paradigmatic complexity in which many approaches to theory must be distinguished and situated. In addition, the discipline has had to confront new challenges from globalization, the shift of interest from production to consumption, the rise of new social movements, the challenge of bio-engineering, the collapse of a ‘presently existing socialist alternative’ and much else besides.

    The new SAGE Handbook of Sociology aims to address these new developments, while at the same time providing an authoritative guide to theory and method, the key sub-disciplines and the primary debates of today. To undertake this ambitious project three leading figures in the field of sociology were selected as editors to bring together the foremost exponents of the different strands that contribute towards the makeup of modern sociology. Drawn from both sides of the Atlantic the contributors have been commissioned to utilise the most up to date research available to provide a critical, international analysis of their area of expertise. The result is this essential resource collection that not just reflects upon the condition of sociology today but also looks to future developments in the discipline. The Handbook will be invaluable to not just all sociologists but to a wide variety of students and researchers across the social sciences.


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    Gary L. Albrecht is Professor of Public Health and of Disability and Human Development at the University of Illinois at Chicago. His current work focuses on the quality of life of disabled persons and the political economy of disability His most recent books are the Handbook of Social Studies in Health and Medicine (with Ray Fitzpatrick and Susan Scrimshaw, Sage, 2000) and the Handbook of Disability Studies (with Katherine Seelman and Michael Bury, Sage, 2001), both of which have been released in softback in 2003. He is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), in 2003 a Visiting Fellow at Nuffield College, University of Oxford, and scholar in residence at Maison des Sciences de l'Homme (MSH) and Centre de Recherche Médecine Maladie et Sciences Sociales (CERMES), Paris.

    David E. Apter is Henry J. Heinz Professor Emeritus of Comparative Political and Social Development and Senior Research Scientist, Yale University. Before coming to Yale he taught at Northwestern University, the University of Chicago and the University of California at Berkeley where he was Director of the Institute of International Studies. Professor Apter is currently a fellow of the Center for Comparative Culture at Yale. He has done research on politics and development in many parts of the world and written case studies on Ghana, Uganda, Japan and China. He has also written extensively on comparative politics. His book, Choice and the Politics of Allocation, was the recipient of the Woodrow Wilson Award of the American Political Science Association.

    Paul Atkinson is Distinguished Research Professor in Sociology at Cardiff University, UK. He is Associate Director of the ESRC Research Centre on Social and Economic Aspects of Genomics. His main research interests are the sociology of medical knowledge and the development of qualitative research methods. His publications include: Ethnography: Principles in Practice (with Martyn Hammersley, Routledge, 1983 and 1995), The Clinical Experience (Ashgate, 1981 and 1997), The Ethnographic Imagination (Routledge, 1990), Understanding Ethnographic Texts (Sage, 1992), Medical Talk and Medical Work (Sage, 1995), Fighting Familiarity (with Sara Delamont, Hampton, 1995), Making Sense of Qualitative Data (with Amanda Coffey, Sage, 1996), Sociological Readings and Re-Readings (Ashgate, 1996) and Interactionism (with William Housley, Sage 2003). Together with Sara Delamont he edits the journal Qualitative Research. He was co-editor of The Handbook of Ethnography (Sage, 2002). His ethnographic study of an international opera company is published as Everyday Arias: Making Opera Work (Alta Mira, 2005). He is an Academician of the Academy for the Learned Societies in the Social Sciences.

    Craig Calhoun is President of the Social Science Research Council and University Professor of Social Sciences at New York University, where he was previously Chair of the Sociology Department. He received his doctorate from Oxford University and taught at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill from 1977 to 1996, where he was also Dean of the Graduate School and founding Director of the University Center for International Studies. His publications include Nationalism (University of Minnesota Press, 1997), Critical Social Theory: Culture, History and the Challenge of Difference (Blackwell, 1995), The Roots of Radicalism (University of Chicago Press, forthcoming) and the co-edited anthologies Understanding September 11th (New Press, 2002) and Lessons of Empire? (New Press, 2004). He was the editor of Sociological Theory from 1994 to 1999 and is currently editing a history of sociology in America for the American Sociological Association's Centennial.

    Stewart R. Clegg is a Professor at the University of Technology, Sydney, and Director of ICAN Research (Innovative Collaborations, Alliances and Networks Research), a Key University Research Centre of the University. He also holds Visiting Professorships at the University of Aston Business School, Maastricht University, and the Vrije Universiteit of Amsterdam.

    Born in Bradford, England, he migrated to Australia in 1976, after completing a first degree at the University of Aston (1971) and a Doctorate at Bradford University (1974). Previously he held positions at the University of St Andrews, Scotland; University of New England; University of Western Sydney, in all of which he was Professor and Head of Department, and Griffith University, Brisbane, where he was Reader.

    He has written extensively on power and organizations. His most recent books are Debating Organization: Point-Counterpoint in Organization Studies (with Robert Westwood, Blackwell, 2003) and Managing and Organizations: An Introduction to Theory and Practice (with Martin Kornberger and Tyrone Pitsis, Sage, 2005). He publishes regularly in leading journals such as the Academy of Management Education and Learning, Organization Science, Organization Studies, Organization, Human Relations and Administrative Science Quarterly.

    Randall Collins is Professor of Sociology at the University of Pennsylvania. Recent publications include Interaction Ritual Chains (Princeton University Press, 2004) and Macro-History: Essays in Sociology of the Long Run (Stanford University Press, 1999).

    Dalton Conley is Professor of Sociology and Public Policy at New York University and Director of NYU's Center for Advanced Social Science Research (CASSR). He is also Adjunct Professor of Community Medicine at Mount Sinai School of Medicine and a Research Associate at the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER).

    His scholarly research focuses on how socio-economic status is transmitted across generations and the public policies that affect that process. In this vein, he studies siblings' differences in socio-economic success, racial inequalities, the measurement of class and social status, and how health and biology affect (and are affected by) social position. Conley is author of Being Black, Living in the Red: Race, Wealth and Social Policy in America (winner of the American Sociological Association 1997 Dissertation Award), Honky, a sociological memoir, and The Starting Gate: Birth Weight and Life Chances (with Kate Strully and Neil G. Bennett). His most recent book is The Pecking Order: Which Siblings Succeed and Why (Pantheon Books, 2004).

    Nick Crossley is a Reader in Sociology at the University of Manchester, UK. He works in the areas of embodiment, social movements and social theory. He has published a number of books and articles on these areas, including The Social Body(Sage, 2001) and Making Sense of Social Movements (Open University Press, 2002). He is currently working on a book about reflexive embodiment in late modernity.

    Charles Crothers is Professor of Sociology at Auckland University of Technology, having previously been Chair of Sociology at the University of Natal, Durban. Earlier postings included periods in the Departments of Sociology at the University of Auckland, Victoria University of Wellington and the Ministry of Works and Development. His interests lie particularly in the theory of social structure, its history and the sociology of its production, and its applicability in the analysis of settler societies, such as New Zealand and South Africa. Related writing is on Robert K. Merton and recent trends in sociology, including its traditions.

    Sara Delamont is Reader in Sociology at Cardiff University, UK, and an Academician of the Academy for the Learned Societies in the Social Sciences. She was the first woman to be President of the British Education Research Association, and the first woman to be Dean of Social Sciences at Cardiff. Her research interests are educational ethnography, the anthropology of the Mediterranean and Brazil, and gender. Of her twelve published books the best known is Interaction in the Classroom (Methuen, 1976 and 1983), her favourites are Knowledgeable Women (Routledge, 1989) and Appetities and Identities (Routledge, 1995). Her most recent books are Fieldwork in Educational Settings (Routledge, 2002), Feminist Sociology (Sage, 2003) and Key Themes in Qualitative Research (with Paul Atkinson and Amanda Coffey, Alta Mira, 2003). She is co-editor of the journal Qualitative Research with Paul Atkinson. She is currently doing an ethnography of capoeira teaching in the UK.

    Gerard Delanty is Professor of Sociology in the University of Liverpool, UK. His books include Inventing Europe: Idea, Identity, Reality (Macmillan, 1995), Rethinking Irish History: Nationalism, Identity, Ideology (with P. O'Mahony, Macmillan, 1998), Social Science: Beyond Constructivism and Realism (Open University Press, 1997), Social Theory in a Changing World (Polity Press, 1999), Modernity and Postmodernity: Knowledge, Power and the Self (Sage, 2000), Citizenship in a Global Age (Open University Press, 2000), Challenging Knowledge: The University in the Knowledge Society (Open University Press, 2001), Nationalism and Social Theory (Sage, 2002), Community (Routledge, 2003) and Rethinking Europe (with C. Rumford, Routledge, 2005).

    Wendy Griswold is Professor of Sociology and Comparative Literary Studies at Northwestern University. Recent books include Bearing Witness: Readers, Writers, and The Novel in Nigeria (Princeton University Press, 2000) and Cultures and Societies in a Changing World, 2nd edition (Pine Forge, 2004), which has been translated into Japanese and Italian.

    John A. Hall is Professor of Sociology, James McGill Chair and Dean of Arts at McGill University. He is the author of several books, including Powers and Liberties: Liberalism, Coercion and Consent, and of forthcoming edited collections on the work of Michael Mann, the state of Denmark and civil society.

    Patricia Hill Collins is Charles Phelps Taft Professor of Sociology at the Department of African American Studies, University of Cincinnati. Professor Collins received her BA and PhD degrees in sociology from Brandeis University, and an MAT degree from Harvard University. A social theorist, her research and scholarship have dealt primarily with issues of race, gender, social class, sexuality and/or nation specifically relating to African American women. Her first book, Black Feminist Thought: Knowledge, Consciousness, and the Politics of Empowerment, won the Jessie Bernard Award of the American Sociological Association for significant scholarship in gender, and the C. Wright Mills Award of the Society for the Study of Social Problems. She is also the author of Race, Class, and Gender: An Anthology (edited with Margaret Andersen, currently in its fifth edition) and Fighting Words: Black Women and the Search for Justice. Her fourth book, Black Sexual Politics: African Americans, Gender, and the New Racism, was published by Routledge in 2004. She is currently completing a book of essays titled From Black Power to Hip Hop: Essays on Racism, Nationalism, and Feminism, to be published by Temple University Press in 2005.

    Charles Hirschman is Boeing International Professor in the Department of Sociology and the Daniel J. Evans School of Public Affairs at the University of Washington. He received his PhD from the University of Wisconsin in 1972 and then taught at Duke University (1972 to 1981) and Cornell University (1981 to 1987) before joining the faculty at the University of Washington in 1987. He is the author of Ethnic and Social Stratification in Peninsular Malaysia (American Sociological Association, 1975), the co-editor of Southeast Asian Studies in the Balance: Reflections from America (Association for Asian Studies, 1992), and The Handbook of International Migration: The American Experience (Russell Sage Foundation, 1999), and has written more than one hundred articles and book chapters on demography, race and ethnicity, social stratification, and Southeast Asia. He is the current (2005) president of the Population Association of America.

    Geoffrey Ingham is Fellow and Director of Studies in Social and Political Sciences, Christ's College, Cambridge and teaches in the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, University of Cambridge. Over the recent past he has published numerous articles on the sociology of money in Economy and Society, British Journal of Sociology, Acta Sociologica and Journal of Classical Sociology; his book The Nature of Money (Polity) was published in 2004.

    Karin Knorr Cetina is Professor of Sociology at the University of Konstanz (DE), Visiting Professor at the University of Chicago, and a member of the Institute for World-Society Studies, University of Bielefeld, Germany. In addition to her three degrees, she has received several honours, including Vienna University's Fellowship for the Gifted and she was a Ford Foundation Post-Doctoral Fellow, a member of the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, president of the International Society for Social Studies of Science, and she is a future member of the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences in Palo Alto, CA. She has published numerous papers and books, including Epistemic Cultures: How the Sciences Make Knowledge (1999, Harvard University Press), which received the Ludwik Fleck Prize of the Society for Social Studies of Science and the Robert K. Merton Prize of the American Sociological Association. Among other things, she is currently working on global financial markets and preparing a book that analyses postsocial developments and the impact of the life sciences on social and cultural change in Western societies.

    David Lyon is Director of the Surveillance Project and Professor of Sociology at Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada. His main research and writing are in the area of the social aspects of communication and information technologies with particular reference to surveillance, religion and culture, and social theory. His most recent work in each area is Surveillance after September 11 (Polity Press, 2003); Jesus in Disneyland (Polity Press, 2000) and Postmodernity (Open University Press, 1999). See

    Siniša Malešević is a Lecturer in the Department of Political Science and Sociology, National University of Ireland, Galway His recent publications include The Sociology of Ethnicity (Sage, 2004), Ideology, Legitimacy and the New State (Frank Cass, 2002), and the co-edited volumes Making Sense of Collectivity (Pluto, 2002) and Ideology after Poststructuralism (Pluto, 2002).

    Jan Nederveen Pieterse, Professor of Sociology at University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, specializes in transnational sociology with research interests in globalization, development studies and intercultural studies. He taught in the Netherlands and Ghana, and as visiting professor in Japan, Indonesia, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Thailand. He is associate editor of several journals and Fellow of the World Academy of Art and Science. Recent books are Globalization or Empire? (Routledge, 2004), Globalization and Culture: Global Mélange (Rowman and Littlefield, 2003) and Development Theory: Deconstructions/Reconstructions (Sage, 2001). Website

    Elspeth Probyn has taught media studies, sociology and literature in Canada and the United States, and is now the Professor of Gender Studies at the University of Sydney, Australia. Her work focuses on questions of identity, sexuality and bodies. She has been constantly interested in what people think and do with their bodies, from eating and sex, to emotions and writing. Her books include Sexing the Self (Routledge, 1993), Outside Belongings (Routledge, 1996), Carnal Appetites (Routledge, 2000) and Sexy Bodies (co-edited with Elizabeth Grosz, Routledge, 1995). Her latest book, Blush: Faces of Shame (University of Minnesota Press, and UNSW Press, 2005) focuses on shame as a positive force in society. She is also interested in ethics, the media and popular culture, and recently co-edited Remote Control (with Catharine Lumby, Cambridge University Press, 2003), a book on media ethics, and new forms of television such as reality TV and food shows.

    Adrian E. Raftery is Professor of Statistics and Sociology, and founding Director of the Center for Statistics and Social Sciences at the University of Washington in Seattle. He was born in Ireland and obtained his BA in Mathematics (1976) and his MSc in Statistics and Operations Research (1977) both at Trinity College, Dublin. He obtained a doctorate in mathematical statistics in 1980 from the Université Pierre et Marie Curie in Paris, France. He was a Lecturer in Statistics at Trinity College, Dublin from 1980 to 1986, and since then has been on the faculty at the University of Washington. Raftery has published over 100 articles in peer-reviewed statistical, sociological and other journals. His research focuses on Bayesian model selection and Bayesian model averaging, model-based clustering, inference for deterministic simulation models, and statistical methodology for sociology, demography and the environmental and health sciences. He is a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, a Fellow of the American Statistical Association, an elected Member of the Sociological Research Association, a winner of the Population Association of Americas Clifford C. Clogg Award, and a winner of the American Sociological Association's Paul F. Lazarsfeld Award for Distinguished Contribution to Knowledge. He is also a former coordinating and applications editor of the Journal of the American Statistical Association and a former editor of Sociological Methodology.

    Roland Robertson is Distinguished Service Professor of Sociology at the University of Pittsburgh and Professor of Sociology and Global Society at the University of Aberdeen, UK. One of the world's pioneers in the study of globalization, he has also published extensively in the sociology of religion and culture, as well as social theory. He has served on the editorial boards of the Journal of Mathematical Sociology, the Review of Religious Research, Sociological Analysis (recently renamed The Sociology of Religion), Theory, Culture and Society, the Journal of International Communication, Globalizations and Citizenship Studies. Recent publications include Globalization: Social Theory and Global Culture (Sage, 1992), Global Modernities (with Mike Featherstone and Scott Lash, Sage 1995) and Globalization: Critical Concepts in Sociology (with Kathleen E. White, six volumes, Routledge, 2003). His work has been translated into numerous languages.

    Chris Rojek is Professor of Sociology and Culture at Nottingham Trent University. His most recent books are Celebrity (2001), Stuart Hall (2003), Frank Sinatra (2004) and Leisure Theory: Principles and Practice (2005).

    Saskia Sassen is the Ralph Lewis Professor of Sociology at the University of Chicago, and Centennial Visiting Professor at the London School of Economics. Her latest book is Territory, Authority and Rights: From Medieval to Global Assemblages (Princeton University Press, 2005). She has just completed for UNESCO a five-year project on sustainable human settlement for which she set up a network of researchers and activists in over 30 countries. Her most recent books are the edited Global Networks, Linked Cities (Routledge, 2002) and the co-edited Socio-Digital Formations: New Architectures for Global Order. (Princeton University Press, 2005). The Global City came out in a new fully updated edition in 2001. Her books are translated into sixteen languages. She serves on several editorial boards and is an advisor to several international bodies. She is a Member of the Council on Foreign Relations, a member of the National Academy of Sciences Panel on Cities, and Chair of the Information Technology and International Cooperation Committee of the Social Science Research Council (USA). Her comments have appeared in The Guardian, The New York Times, Le Monde Diplomatique, The International Herald Tribune and The Financial Times, among others.

    Mike Savage is Professor of Sociology and Director of the ESRC Centre for Socio-Cultural Change at the University of Manchester. He has research interests in the areas of social stratification, urban sociology and historical sociology. Recent publications include Class Analysis and Social Transformation (Open University Press, 2000), and Globalization and Belonging (with Gaynor Bagnall and Brian Longhurst, Sage, 2004). He is currently working on a project, Cultural Capital and Social Exclusion, with Tony Bennett, Elizabeth Silva and Alan Warde, conducting a survey on cultural taste, knowledge and participation in the UK which will lead to a major book on social inequality and culture.

    Richard Sennett trained with David Riesman, Erik Erikson and Oscar Handlin at Harvard. His intellectual life as an urbanist came into focus through the time he spent at the Joint Center for Urban Studies of Harvard and MIT. The two unifying themes of this work and writing are how people interpret the social structures in which they dwell and the relation of social structure to visual design.

    His earliest book, Families Against the City, was a study of the relation between family structure and social mobility in nineteenth-century Chicago. Subsequent books explored urban culture more largely: The Uses of Disorder, The Fall of Public Man, The Conscience of the Eye and Flesh and Stone. Further books address work, welfare and class in the city: The Hidden Injuries of Class, The Corrosion of Character and Respect. Authority is an essay in political theory which does not have a specifically urban focus; this book addresses the tools of interpretation by which people recast raw power into either legitimate or illegitimate authority.

    He is currently working on two large projects, the first about cultural materialism, the second a large-scale history of urban design. In the public realm, he founded and directed for a decade, the New York Institute of the Humanities which has served as a working space for artists and intellectuals. He chaired a United Nations commission on urban development and design and as president of the American Council on Work, he led a forum, sponsored by the Rockefeller Foundation, for researchers trying to understand the changing pattern of American labour. Most recently he helped create the Cities Programme at the London School of Economics, which aims to bridge the divide between training, research and consultancy in urban design.

    Roger Silverstone is Professor of Media and Communications at the London School of Economics. His recent publications include: Television and Everyday Life (Routledge, 1994), Why Study the Media? (Sage, 1999), Media, Technology and Everyday Life in Europe (Ashgate, 2005) and Morality and Media (Polity, in press).

    Don Slater is Reader in Sociology at the London School of Economics. His recent books include Consumer Culture and Modernity (Polity, 1997) Market Society (with Fran Tonkiss, Polity, 2000), The Internet: An Ethnographic Approach (with Daniel Miller, Berg, 2000) and The Technological Economy (with Andrew Barry, Routledge, in press 2005). His research interests include consumption and economic sociology, ethnographic studies of new technologies in non-Western regions and visual sociology.

    Heinz Steinert is Professor of Sociology at the J.W Goethe-University Frankfurt-am-Main. He received his doctorate (in psychology) from Vienna University, had psychoanalytic training in Vienna and was founding Director of the Vienna Institut für Rechts- und Kriminalsoziologie and visiting professor at the University of Melbourne and New York University. His research interests are criminology, deviance and social exclusion; culture industry, sociology of art (mainly twentieth century) and music (mainly jazz); Symbolic Interactionism and Critical Theory (several books on Adorno). His most recent publications are Welfare Policy from Below: Struggles Against Social Exclusion in Europe (co-editor, Ashgate, 2003) and Culture Industry (Cambridge, 2003).

    Bryan Turner is a Professor in the Asian Research Institute and the Department of Sociology at the National University of Singapore. He was Professor of Sociology at the University of Cambridge (1998–2005). He has held professorial and research positions in Australia, the Netherlands and Germany. He is the founding editor of the journal Citizenship Studies, founding co-editor (with Mike Featherstone) of Body & Society and founding co-editor (with John O'Neill) of the Journal of Classical Sociology. His research interests range over the sociology of the body, rights and citizenship, civil society and voluntary associations, and the sociology of religion. His early publications on Islam include Weber and Islam (Routledge, 1974), Marx and the End of Orientalism (Allen & Unwin, 1978) and Religion and Social Theory (HEB, 1983). His recent publications include Society and Culture (with Chris Rojek, Sage, 2001), Profiles in Contemporary Social Theory (with Anthony Elliott, Sage, 2001), and Classical Sociology (Sage, 1999). He published Generations, Culture and Society (with June Edmunds, OUP, 2002) and edited Generational Consciousness: Narrative and Politics (with June Edmunds, Rowman & Littlefield, 2002). He edited Islam. Critical Concepts in Sociology (Routledge, 2003). His most recent publication is The New Medical Sociology (W.W. Norton, 2004). He is currently editing the Cambridge Dictionary of Sociology.

    Jonathan H. Turner is Distinguished Professor of Sociology at the University of California at Riverside. He is primarily a general sociological theorist, with substantive interests in stratification, ethnic relations, social institutions, emotions and biosociology. He is the author of some 29 books and many articles and chapters. His works have been translated into most major languages. He is currently writing in the area of emotions, neurology of the brain and evolutionary sociology.

    Sylvia Walby is a Professor in the Institute for Women's Studies at Lancaster University. She has been Professor of Sociology in the University of Leeds and the University of Bristol, UK and was the founding Director of the Gender Institute at the LSE. Her recent research has been funded by the Luxembourg Presidency of the EU, the Economic and Social Research Council, the Department for Trade and Industry Women and Equality Unit, the Equal Opportunities Commission and the Home Office. Her books include: Gender Transformations (Routledge, 1997), Theorizing Patriarchy (Blackwell, 1990) and Patriarchy at Work (Polity Press, 1986). Papers from her ESRC-funded seminar series on ‘Gender Mainstreaming’ are being published in special issues of Social Politics and the International Feminist Journal of Politics in December 2005. Her next book, Complex Social Systems: Theorizations and Comparisons in a Postcolonial Global Era (Sage, forthcoming 2006), integrates gender relations into the heart of social theory using complexity theory.

    Kathleen E. White is an independent consultant specializing in research and writing on topics relating to globalization, education and international academic exchanges. Currently based in Aberdeen, Scotland, she has had a long career in teaching, curriculum development and higher education administration. She was a founder and long-serving Director of the Pennsylvania Governor's School for International Studies at the University of Pittsburgh as well as the first Director of the Maryland Summer Center for International Studies. In recent years she has held visiting appointments at the UNESCO Institute on Cultural Pluralism, Candido Mendes University, Rio de Janiero, Brazil; at Koc University, Istanbul, Turkey; and at the University of Nuoro, Sardinia, Italy. She is the co-editor (with Roland Robertson) of the six-volume compendium, Globalization: Critical Concepts in Sociology (Routledge, 2003) and co-author of a number of articles and chapters on globalization, glocalization, and global education.

    Steve Yearley is Professor and Chair of Sociology at the University of York, UK and Senior Research Fellow of the Stockholm Environment Institute. He works on environmental sociology and the sociology of science and focuses in particular on areas where these topics overlap. He is the author of many books, including: Making Sense of Science (Sage, 2004) and Cultures of Environmentalism (Palgrave, 2004).


    This was a complex book to assemble and the editors would like to thank Kay Bridger for her help in easing the task. Kay played an indispensable role in processing the various chapters, in their diverse states of readiness from contributors who live and work in many different countries around the world. That the Handbook was ever finished at all, is a tribute to her resourcefulness and grace.

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