The SAGE Handbook of Sociolinguistics


Edited by: Ruth Wodak, Barbara Johnstone & Paul Kerswill

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  • Part 1: History of Sociolinguistics

    Part 2: Sociolinguistics and Social Theory

    Part 3: Language Variation and Change

    Part 4: Interaction

    Part 5: Multilingualism and Contact

    Part 6: Applications

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    List of Contributors

    Peter Auer received his academic training at the universities of Cologne, Manchester and Constance, where he also worked as an Assistant Professor of General Linguistics. From 1992 to 1998, he was Professor of German Linguistics at the University of Hamburg. Since 1998, he has held a Chair of German Linguistics at the University of Freiburg (Germany). He is currently one of the directors of the Freiburg Institute for Advanced Studies. Auer has done extensive research on bilingualism, phonology and dialectology, prosody, interaction and spoken language from a syntactic point of view. With Li Wei, he is joint editor of The Handbook of Multilingualism and Multilingual Communication (de Gruyter, 2007). Among his recent publications on bilingualism are ‘Bilingual conversation’, in Nikolas Coupland and Adam Jaworski (eds), The New Sociolinguistics Reader (Palgrave Macmillan, 2009) and ‘The monolingual bias in bilingualism research, or: why bilingualism is (still) a challenge for linguistics’, in Monica Heller (ed.), Bilingualism: A Social Approach (Palgrave Macmillan, 2007).

    David Barton is Professor of Language and Literacy in the Department of Linguistics at Lancaster University and Director of the Lancaster Literacy Research Centre. Current interests include the changing nature of literacy in contemporary society, literacy and social justice, research methodologies, and reading and writing. His main publications have been concerned with rethinking the nature of literacy (e.g. Literacy, Blackwell, The Anthropology of Writing, Continuum), carrying out detailed studies of everyday literacies (Local Literacies, Routledge; Situated Literacies, Routledge; Letter Writing as a Social Practice, John Benjamins) and the relations of literacy and learning (Beyond Communities of Practice, Cambridge University Press; Literacy, Lives and Learning, Routledge; Improving Learning in College, Routledge).

    Tim Berard is Associate Professor of Sociology at Kent State University, Ohio, USA. His research draws on ethnomethodology and membership categorization analysis, and addresses a constellation of issues including relations between micro practices and macro social structures, group relations such as race relations and gender relations, and substantive issues of crime and law including hate crimes, racial/ethnic profiling, and institutions’ disparate impact on minorities. His publications include: ‘From concepts to methods: on the observability of inequality’, Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 35(3): 236–56 (2006); ‘Rethinking practices and structures’, Journal for the Philosophy of the Social Sciences, 35(2): 196–230 (2005); and ‘On multiple identities and educational contexts: remarks on the study of inequalities and discrimination’, Journal of Language, Identity and Education, 4(1): 67–76 (2005).

    Anne-Claude Berthoud is Full Professor of Linguistics, Head of the Linguistics Department, and Chair of the Language Policy Committee at the University of Lausanne. She is coordinator of the European DYLAN project (2006–11), President of the Swiss Academy of Humanities, Vice-president of the Swiss Research Foundation and Vice-president of the European Language Council. Her main research fields are pragmatics, interactional linguistics, second language learning and multilingualism. She has conducted several research projects on interaction and second language learning and acted as an expert for national research programmes. Her publications include ‘Le projet DYLAN “Dynamiques des langues et gestion de la diversité”: Un aperçu’, Sociolinguistica, 22: 171–85 (2008); ‘Regards croisés sur un plurilinguisme à inventer’, Cahiers de l'ILSL, 23 (Université de Lausanne, 2008); ‘Mehrsprachigkeit als Kaleidoskop des Wissens’, in Georges Lüdi, Kurt Seelmann and Beat Sitter-Liver (eds), Sprachminderheit — Einsprachigkeit-Mehrsprachigkeit; and Probleme und Chancen sprachlicher Vielfalt (Freiburg: Paulus-Verlag/Academic Press, and Stuttgart: Kohlhammer Verlag).

    Brigitta Busch is Professor for Applied Linguistics in the Institute of Linguistics at the University of Vienna. She is also a researcher and teacher in the PRAESA Centre at the University of Cape Town. From 1999 to 2003, she was head of the Centre for Intercultural Studies at the University of Klagenfurt. During her work as an expert for the Council of Europe's Confidence-Building Measures Programme, she was involved in a number of intercultural projects in Eastern and South-Eastern Europe. Her main research interests focus on sociolinguistics (multilingualism), discourse analysis, media policies and intercultural communication. Recent publications include ‘Reflecting social heteroglossia and accommodating diverse audiences: a challenge to the media’, in Michal Krzyżanowski and Aleksandra Galasinńiska (eds), Discourse and Transformation in Central and Eastern Europe. Basingstoke: Palgrave. pp. 43–59 (2009); ‘Changing media spaces: the transformative power of heteroglossic practices’, in Clare Mar-Molinero and Patrick Stevenson (eds), Language Ideologies, Policies and Practices: Language and the Future of Europe. pp. 206–20 (Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2006); and Sprachen im Disput. Medien und Öffentlichkeit in multilingualen Gesellschaften. (Klagenfurt, Celovec: Drava, 2004).

    Malcolm Coulthard is Professor of Forensic Linguistics and Director of the Centre for Forensic Linguistics at the University of Aston in Birmingham, England. He is probably still best known for his work on the analysis of spoken and written discourse, but since the late 1980s he has become increasingly involved with forensic applications of linguistics. He has written expert reports in over 200 cases and given evidence on author identification three times in the Courts of Appeal in London, as well as in lower courts in England, Germany, Hong Kong and Northern Ireland. Recent publications include (with Alison Johnson) An Introduction to Forensic Linguistics: Language in Evidence (2007); and A Handbook of Forensic Linguistics (2010).

    Robin Dodsworth is Assistant Professor of English at North Carolina State University. She received a PhD in Linguistics from the Ohio State University in 2005, and held the position of Assistant Research Scientist at the University of Maryland before moving to NC State in 2007. Her research focuses on linguistic variation, social class, networks and sociophonetics. She is currently investigating front vowel systems in Raleigh, NC. Publications include ‘Modeling social class in variationist sociolinguistics’, Language and Linguistics Compass (forthcoming); and (with Christine Mallinson) ‘Revisiting the need for new approaches to social class in variationist sociolinguistics’, Special issue of Sociolinguistic Studies, ‘Analysing language to understand social phenomena’ (2009).

    Susan Ehrlich is a Professor of Linguistics at York University, Toronto, Canada. She works in the areas of discourse analysis, language and gender, and language and the law. She is the author of Representing Rape: Language and Sexual Consent (London: Routledge 2001) and is the editor of Language and Gender: Major Themes in English Studies. (London: Routledge 2008) and (with Alice Freed) ‘Why Do You Ask?’: The Function of Questions in Institutional Discourse. (New York: Oxford University Press 2009).

    José Antonio Flores Farfán studied linguistics at the University of Amsterdam, where he defended his dissertation on Nahuatl-Spanish contact sociolinguistics. His research interests include the pragmatics of indigenous languages, discourse analysis, language ideologies, language planning and educational linguistics, and especially the revitalization of endangered languages. Together with local speakers he has produced materials in different formats, especially for children, including DVDs, videos, audio and books, which are disseminated at the community level in workshops oriented to empowering the use of endangered languages and their speakers. His publications include: Variación, Ideologías y Purismo Lingüístico. El caso del mexicano o náhuatl. (forthcoming); ‘Sociolinguistics in Mexico: defining new agendas’, in Martin Ball (ed.), Sociolinguistics Around the World. A Handbook (forthcoming); and ‘Early and contemporary Nahuatl texts in sociolinguistic perspective’, Sociolinguistic Studies, (1–3): 415–33 (2007).

    Robert Garot is an Assistant Professor of Sociology at John Jay College in New York. His research focuses on the dilemmas of the poor and those who funnel their access to needed goods and services. Currently he is studying how undocumented immigrants in Italy cope with living outside the law. He was the recipient of a Calandra Institute Fellowship for the study of Italian society for autumn, 2009. His book Who You Claim: Performing Gang Identity in School and on the Streets, has been recently published by New York University Press.

    Alexandra Georgakopoulou is Professor of Discourse Analysis & Sociolinguistics at King's College London. She has (co-)authored 8 books in the areas of conversational storytelling, language and identities, and language and new media. She has recently developed small stories research as a new way of doing narrative analysis, a detailed discussion of which can be found in her monograph Small Stories, Interaction and Identities (2007, John Benjamins).

    Cynthia Gordon is Assistant Professor of Communication and Rhetorical Studies at Syracuse University. She uses theories and methods of discourse analysis, especially of interactional sociolinguistics, to investigate how meanings, relationships, and identities are created in everyday family talk. Her current research interests include family-based reality television programmes and everyday family health communication. She is the author of Making Meanings, Creating Family: Intertextuality and Framing in Family Interaction (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009) and (with Deborah Tannen and Shari Kendall) editor of Family Talk: Discourse and Identity in Four American Families (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007).

    Tim Grant is Deputy Director of the Centre for Forensic Linguistics at Aston University. His consultancy primarily involves authorship analysis and he has worked in many different contexts including investigations into sexual assault, murder and terrorist offences. His research into text messaging analysis was awarded the 2008 Joseph Lister Prize by the British Science Association. He publishes on forensic linguistics and forensic psychology.

    Gregory R. Guy has been Professor of Linguistics at New York University since 2001, following previous appointments at Sydney, Cornell, Stanford and York. His research interests include language variation and change, language and social class, and theoretical models of linguistic variation. He has done original sociolinguistic research in Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, the Dominican Republic, New Zealand and the United States. Publications include (co-author) Sociolingüística Quantitativa (São Paulo: Parábola), (lead editor) Towards a Social Science of Language (Amsterdam: Benjamins), and a series of papers in Language Variation and Change dealing with formal models of sociolinguistic variation.

    Kirk Hazen is Professor in the Department of English at West Virginia University. He focuses his research on language variation in American English, primarily writing about Southern US varieties and English in Appalachia. He promotes sociolinguistic goals by presenting dialect diversity programs to numerous communities, including future health professionals, social workers, and service organizations. Recent publications include a history of variationist sociolinguistics (in Bayley and Lucas (2007) Sociolinguistic Variation: Theory, Methods, and Application), an analysis of (ING) variation in Appalachia (American Speech 83:2), and an overview of sociolinguistics in the United States of America (in Ball (2010), Sociolinguistics Around the World).

    Marlis Hellinger is Professor Emerita of English Linguistics at Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany. Her main research interests are in language and gender, contrastive linguistics, contact linguistics, applied linguistics and pidgin and creole linguistics. Among her publications are three volumes (with Hadumod Bussmann) on Gender Across Languages: The Linguistic Representation of Women and Men (Amsterdam: Benjamins 2001, 2002, 2003) and (with Anne Pauwels) Language and Communication: Diversity and Change (Berlin: de Gruyter, 2007).

    Anna Holzscheiter is a Postdoctoral Fellow at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, carrying out a research project on the power of discourses in global HIV/AIDS policymaking. She is also Lecturer in International Relations at Freie Universität Berlin, where she is currently on study leave. Her research interests include discourse analysis in international political studies, multi-dimensional power theories and discourse, the role of non-state actors in world politics, global childhood politics and children's rights, and HIV/AIDS. She is author of ‘Discourse as capability: non-state actors’ capital in global governance’, Millennium, 33(3): 723–46 (2005) and The Transformative Power of Transnational Discourse: Children's Rights in International Politics (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, forthcoming).

    Anthea Irwin is Programme Leader of the BA (Hons.) Media & Communication degree at Glasgow Caledonian University. She researches discourse reproduction and identity construction in both conversational and media data. Her publications include ‘London adolescents reproducing power/knowledge: “you know” and “I know”’, Language in Society, 35:4 (2006); ‘Now you see me, now you don't: adolescents exploring deviant positions’, in P. Pichler and E. Eppler (eds), Gender and Spoken Interaction (Palgrave Macmillan 2009) and ‘Race and ethnicity’, in N. Blain and D. Hutchison (eds), The Media in Scotland (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press 2008).

    Gabrielle Ivinson is a Senior Lecturer in the School of Social Sciences, Cardiff University. Her doctoral thesis brought together Bernstein's sociology of pedagogy with Moscovici's theory of social representations. With Gerard Duveen, she has written a number of papers on Bernstein's work as it applies to the primary school classroom, including ‘Classroom structuration and the development of representations of the curriculum’, British Journal of Sociology of Education, 26(5): 627–42, (2005); and ‘Children's recontextualisations of pedagogy’, in R. Moore et al., (eds), Knowledge, Power and Educational Reform: Applying the Sociology of Basil Bernstein (London, New York: Routledge Taylor Francis Group, 2006). With Patricia Murphy, she wrote Rethinking Single Sex Teaching (McGraw Hill, Open University, 2007), which uses a socio-cultural approach to investigate how gender emerges in everyday classroom practice.

    Barbara Johnstone is Professor of Rhetoric and Linguistics at Carnegie Mellon University and editor of Language in Society. Her recurrent interests have to do with how people evoke and shape places in talk and with what can be learned by taking the perspective of the individual on language and discourse. Her current work is about dialect and locality in the Pittsburgh (USA) area. She is the author of Repetition in Arabic Discourse (Benjamins 1990); Stories, Community, and Place: Narratives from Middle America (Indiana UP 1990); The Linguistic Individual (Oxford 1996); two textbooks, Qualitative Methods in Sociolinguistics (Oxford 2001) and Discourse Analysis (Blackwell 2008) and many articles and book chapters.

    Shari Kendall is Associate Professor of Linguistics in the Department of English at Texas A&M University. Her research addresses the discursive construction of gendered, professional and parental identities in work and family discourse; the constitution of gender and sexuality in legal contexts, the media, and everyday contexts; and the theoretical frameworks of framing, positioning and interactional sociolinguistics. Recent publications include ‘The balancing act: framing gendered parental identities at dinnertime’ in Language in Society and ‘Father as breadwinner/mother as worker: Discursively positioning parental and professional identities’ in Family Talk: The Discourse of Four American Families.

    Paul Kerswill is Professor of Sociolinguistics at Lancaster University, and has a special interest in dialect contact and new dialect formation. He became interested in dialectology while working on a farm in Norway, and subsequently directed projects in Bergen, Durham, Cambridge, Milton Keynes, Reading and Hull. His current and most recent projects are on the emergence of new varieties among young people in inner-city London: Linguistic Innovators: The English of Adolescents in London and Multicultural London English: The Emergence, Acquisition and Diffusion of a New Variety, both funded by the Economic and Social Research Council and with Jenny Cheshire as Co-Investigator. Recent publications include the edited volume (with Peter Auer and Frans Hinskens) Dialect Change: Convergence and Divergence in European Languages (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 2005) and (with Eivind Torgersen and Sue Fox) ‘Reversing ‘drift’: innovation and diffusion in the London diphthong system’, Language Variation and Change (2008).

    Paul Kockelman is Assistant Professor of Anthropology at Barnard College, Columbia University, New York. Recent publications include: ‘Meaning and time: translation and exegesis of a Q'eqchi'-Maya Myth’, Anthropological Linguistics, 49(3/4): 308–87 (2009), ‘Inalienable possession as grammatical category and discourse pattern’, Studies in Language, 31(1): 25–68 (2009) and ‘A semiotic ontology of the commodity’, Journal of Linguistic Anthropology, 16(1): 76–102 (2006).

    Helga Kotthoff is Professor in the Department of German Linguistics at Freiburg University in Germany. She has worked in the fields of applied, German and anthropological linguistics, primarily on questions of interaction analysis, gender studies, sociolinguistics and ethnography of communication. Her current research includes interactional sociolinguistics, German as a foreign language, conversational humour and irony, second language acquisition and gender and intercultural communication studies. She teaches and publishes on all these subjects.

    Krzysztof Kredens received his MA in English Studies and PhD in English Linguistics from the University of ódź’, Poland. He is a Lecturer in Applied Linguistics in the School of Languages and Social Sciences at Aston University, UK. His academic interests include corpus linguistics, translation studies and social applications of linguistics, particularly in legal and forensic contexts. His main interest lies with the linguistics of the individual speaker and its implications for forensic authorship analysis. He is a practising public service interpreter. Recent publications include the edited volume (with Stanislaw Goźdź-Roszkowski) Language and the Law: International Outlooks (Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang 2007) and (with Ruth Morris) “A Shattered Mirror?” Interpreting in legal contexts outside the courtrooom’, in M. Coulthard and A. Johnson (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Forensic Linguistics.

    Tore Kristiansen is Professor of Sociolinguistics at Copenhagen University's Department of Scandinavian Research, Section of Dialectology, and its Centre for Studies of Language Change in Real Time (LANCHART). His main research interest lies in the ideological and social psychological aspects of language contact situations (dialects or accents vs standards in particular, but also national languages vs English). His most recent work in this field is ‘The macro-social meanings of late-modern Danish accents’, Acta Linguistica Hafniensia, 41 (2009). His (co-)edited books and journal issues include (with Peter Garrett and Nikolas Coupland) ‘Subjective processes in language variation and change’, Acta Linguistica Hafniensia, 37 (2005) and (with Lars Vikør) Nordiske språkhaldningar: Ei meiningsmåling [Nordic Language Attitudes: An Opinion Poll] (Oslo: Novus, 2006).

    Carmen Lee is Assistant Professor in the Department of English at the Chinese University of Hong Kong. Her research interests include social aspects of language and literacy, linguistic practices on the Internet, and multilingual identities. Over the past few years, she has published book chapters and journal articles on literacy practices in various digital media, including electronic mail, instant messaging and mobile phone texting. She is currently carrying out a research project on the literacies in Web 2.0 writing spaces such as weblogs and Facebook.

    Constant Leung is Professor of Educational Linguistics in the Department of Education and Professional Studies at King's College London. He is Director of two MA programmes: MA English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, and MA Assessment in Education. He is also Deputy Head of Department. His research interests include additional/second language education in ethnically and linguistically diverse societies, English as an Additional Language in school contexts, content and language integration, language assessment, language policy and teacher professional development. Recent publications include ‘Convivial communication: recontextualizing communicative competence’, International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 15(2), 119–44; ‘Integrating school-aged ESL learners into the mainstream curriculum’, in J. Cummins and C. Davison (eds), The International Handbook of English Language Teaching. pp. 249–69 (New York: Springer, 2007) and (with J. Lewkowicz) ‘Expanding horizons and unresolved conundrums: language testing and assessment’, TESOL Quarterly, 40(1), 211–34 (2006).

    Georges Lüdi is Full Professor of French Linguistics, Head of the French Department and past Dean of the Faculty of Arts at Basel University. He has conducted several third-party financed research projects with a focus on forms of (emergent) multilingualism and language contact in Switzerland, using both qualitative and quantitative methods; currently he acts as deputy coordinator of the European DYLAN project (2006–11). He has chaired a group of experts mandated to propose a whole language policy for Switzerland (1997–8), the Swiss Linguistic Society, and the Swiss Association for Applied Linguistics; he has also served as a Member of the Executive Board of the International Association for Applied Linguistics, AILA, and been awarded the distinction of Officer in the Ordre National du Mérite, by the French Government. He has authored numerous scientific publications on linguistic aspects of migration, multilingualism, second language teaching and learning, and workplace communication, including ‘Multilingual repertoires and the consequences for linguistic theory’, in Kristin Bührig and Jan D. ten Thije (eds), Beyond Misunderstanding: Linguistic Analyses of Intercultural Communication, pp. 11–42 (Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2006), ‘The Swiss model of plurilingual communication’, in Jan D. ten Thije and Ludger Zeevaert (eds), Receptive Multilingualism: Linguistic Analyses, Language Policies and Didactic Concepts pp. 159–78 (Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2007) and (with Bernard Py) ‘To be or not to be … a plurilingual speaker’, International Journal of Multilingualism, 6(2):154–67 (2009).

    Christine Mallinson is Assistant Professor in the Language, Literacy and Culture Program and Affiliate Assistant Professor in the Gender and Women's Studies Program at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County. Her research investigates English language variation, region, class, race/ethnicity, gender and education, focusing in particular on how these factors intersect in the lives and experiences of speakers of African American English and Southern US English. Her recent publications include ‘Sociolinguistics and sociology: Current directions, future partnerships’, in Language and Linguistics Compass (2009). She is also the co-author (with Anne H. Charity Hudley) of a forthcoming book on language variation for K-12 educators (Multicultural Education Series, Teachers College Press).

    William M. Marcellino is a PhD student in Rhetoric at Carnegie Mellon University. He is interested in military discourse, in particular how US military members make use of discourse in ways different from civilians. His work combines ethnographic method with theoretical models of the emergence of grammar and culture.

    Luisa Martín Rojo is Full Professor of Linguistics at the Universidad Autónoma (Madrid, Spain), Member of the International Pragmatic Association Consultation Board (2006–11), and Member of the Scientific Board of the CRITICS Foundation (Centre for Research into Text/Talk, Information, and Communication in Society). Her current work is focused on the management of cultural and linguistic diversity in Madrid schools, analysing how inequality is constructed, naturalized and legitimized through discursive practices. In this field, she heads the following projects: ‘A socio-pragmatic analysis of intercultural communication in education: towards integration in schools’ and ‘Multilingualism in schools: a critical sociolinguistic analysis of educational linguistics programs in the Madrid region’. Dr. Martín Rojo is also a member of the editorial boards of Discourse & Society and Spanish in Context, among other international academic journals. Recent publications include Constructing inequality in multilingual classrooms (Mouton de Gruyter 2010).

    Christian M. I. M. Matthiessen is Chair Professor and Head of the Department of English and Associate Dean of the Faculty of Humanities at the Hong Kong Polytechnic University. He has degrees in linguistics from Lund University (BA) and UCLA (MA, PhD), where he became familiar with ethnomethodology and conversation analysis, and he has been involved in major text-based research projects since 1980. His research has covered a wide range of areas, including analysis of many kinds of discourse, register analysis and description, the development of Rhetorical Structure Theory (with Bill Mann and Sandy Thompson), the description of English and other languages spoken around the world, language typology and comparison, translation studies, ‘institutional linguistics’, computational linguistics, the evolution of language, and systemic functional theory. His books include (with John Bateman) Systemic Linguistics and Text Generation: Experiences from Japanese and English (1991), Lexicogrammatical Cartography: English Systems (1995); (with J. R. Martin and Clare Painter) Working with Functional Grammar (1997), (with M. A. K. Halliday) Construing Experience: A Language-Based Approach to Cognition (1999), (with M. A. K. Halliday) Introduction to Functional Grammar (revised version of Halliday's book, 2004), and (with M. A. K. Halliday) Systemic Functional Grammar: A First Step into the Theory (2009). Edited volumes include (with Alice Caffarel and J. R. Martin) Functional Typology (2004) and (with Ruqaiya Hasan and Jonathan Webster,) Continuing Discourse on Language (2005 and 2007).

    Norma Mendoza-Denton is Associate Professor of Linguistic Anthropology at the University of Arizona-Tucson in the Departments of Anthropology and Linguistics. Her research interests include sociophonetics, language and ethnicity, language and gender, language and gesture, migration, youth subcultures and video ethnography. Recent publications include: Homegirls: Language and Cultural Practice among Latina Youth Gangs (Wiley-Blackwell, 2008) and ‘Sociolinguistic extensions of exemplar theory’, in J. Cole and J. Hualde (eds), Laboratory Phonology 9 (Mouton de Gruyter, 2007).

    Florian Menz is Professor of Applied Linguistics and Sociolinguistics at the University of Vienna. Combining CDA with sociological systemic approaches, his main research interests include organizational language use, with a focus on medical and business institutions, gender and power-related aspects of interaction, and interactional representations of pain. Recent publications include (with Johanna Lalouschek) “I just can't tell you how much it hurts.” Gender-relevant differences in the description of chest pain’, in Françoise Salager-Meyer and Maurizio Gotti (eds), Medical discourse. Lang 2006. pp. 135–54, (with Johanna Lalouschek and Andreas Gstettner) Effiziente ärztliche Gesprächsführung. Optimierung kommunikativer Kompetenz in der ambulanten medizinischen Versorgung. Ein gesprächsanalytisches Trainingskonzept (Münster: Lit-Verlag, 2008) and (with Ali Al-Roubaie) ‘Interruptions, status, and gender in medical interviews: the harder you brake, the longer it takes’, Discourse & Society, 19(5): 645–66 (2008).

    Terttu Nevalainen is Professor and Chair of English Philology at the University of Helsinki and the Director of the Research Unit for Variation, Contacts and Change in English, a National Centre of Excellence funded by the Academy of Finland. Her research interests include historical sociolinguistics, corpus linguistics and language change. She is the author (with H. Raumolin-Brunberg) of Historical Sociolinguistics: Language Change in Tudor and Stuart England Published by Pearson Education, (2003) and a co-editor of Types of Variation Published by Benjamins, (2006) and The Dynamics of Linguistic Variation Published by Benjamins, (2008). Dr. Nevalainen is one of the compilers of the Helsinki Corpus of English Texts and the director of the project ‘Sociolinguistics and Language History’, which has produced the Corpus of Early English Correspondence. She also has some eighty publications on English historical sociolinguistics.

    Theodossia-Soula Pavlidou is Professor of Linguistics (with specialization in pragmatics and sociolinguistics) at the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, where she has held numerous offices, including a long-standing directorship of the Post-Graduate Studies Programme of the School of Philology. Her interest in language and gender, and women/gender studies, goes back to the late 1970s. Her research also focuses on telephone talk, classroom interaction, politeness and other topics in cross-cultural pragmatics and conversation analysis. She is one of the editors of the Journal of Pragmatics. Recent publications pertaining to gender include two edited volumes (in Greek) Language-Grammatical Gender-Social Gender, 2nd edn. (2006) and Gender Studies: Trends/Tensions in Greece and Other European Countries (2006); also the chapter (in Greek) ‘“We” and the construction of (gendered) collectivities’, in M. Theodoropoulou (ed.), Light and Warmth: In Memory of A.-Ph. Christidis. pp. 437–53 (2008).

    Alastair Pennycook is Professor of Language Studies at the University of Technology, Sydney. He is interested in how we understand language in relation to globalization, colonial history, identity, popular culture and pedagogy. Publications include The Cultural Politics of English as an International Language (Longman, 1994), English and the Discourses of Colonialism (Routledge, 1998), Critical Applied Linguistics: A Critical Introduction (Lawrence Erlbaum, 2001), and Global Englishes and Transcultural Flows (Routledge, 2007). Two recent edited books are (with Sinfree Makoni) Disinventing and Reconstituting Languages. (Multilingual Matters, 2007) and (with Samy Alim and Awad Ibrahim) Global Linguistic Flows: Hip Hop Cultures, Youth Identities, and the Politics of Language (Routledge, 2009). His most recent book, Language as a Local Practice, was published by Routledge in 2010.

    Petra Pfisterer is currently a PhD candidate and works as a researcher at the Institute of Applied Linguistics at the University of Vienna. Her research interests concern sociolinguistics and the media; she has conducted research on minority language media, community radio and multilingualism. Recent publications include (with Judith Purkarthofer and Brigitta Busch) ‘10 Jahre Freies Radio in Österreich. Offener Zugang, Meinungsvielfalt und soziale Kohäsion — Eine explorative Studie’, in RTR (ed.), Nichtkommerzieller Rundfunk in Österreich und Europa, pp. 111–13 (Vienna: Schriftenreihe der Rundfunk und Telekom Regulierungs-GmbH 2009), and (with Sabine Humer) ‘Médias en contexte plurilingue’, in Zohra Bouchentouf-Siagh and Peter Cichon (eds), Le Sénégal — Un Modéle de gestion et de Promotion des Langues Nationales, Pour l'Afrique? Quo Vadis Romania. Schriften für eine moderne Romanistik. pp. 52–63 (Vienna, University of Vienna, 2003).

    Ingrid Piller (PhD, Dresden 1995) is Professor of Applied Linguistics at Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia, where she directed the Adult Migrant English Program Research Centre (AMEP RC) from 2007 to 2008. She is also affiliated with the languages programme at Zayed University, Abu Dhabi, UAE. Her research interests are in intercultural communication, language learning, multilingualism, and how they intersect with social inclusion and justice. She is currently writing a textbook on intercultural communication for Edinburgh University Press, which aims to provide a critical introduction to the field from a sociolinguistic and discourse-analytic perspective. She is the co-founder, together with Kimie Takahashi, of the sociolinguistics portal Language on the Move at

    Julia Sallabank is Lecturer in Language Support and Revitalisation in the Endangered Languages Academic Programme at the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. She has been conducting language documentation and sociolinguistic research in Guernsey, Channel Islands since 2000, and is currently comparing language policies in small island states. Her research interests focus on language policy for endangered and minority languages, language pedagogy for endangered languages and language revitalisation. Her publications include: ‘Guernsey French, identity issues and language endangerment’, in Tope Ominiyi and Goodith White (eds), The Sociolinguistics of Identity (Continuum, 2006) and ‘Prestige from the bottom up: a review of language planning in Guernsey’, in A. J. Liddicoat and R. B. Baldauf Jr. (eds), Language Planning in Local Contexts (Multilingual Matters, 2008). She is co-editor (with Peter Austin) of The Cambridge Handbook of Endangered Languages (2011).

    Mark Sebba is Reader in Sociolinguistics and Language Contact in the Department of Linguistics and English Language at Lancaster University. His research interests are in bilingualism, language contact and multilingual literacies, in particular in language mixing in written media. He has written on code-switching from both a societal and syntactic point of view. His recent book Spelling and Society: The Culture and Politics of Orthography Around the World (Cambridge University Press, 2007) develops a view of orthography as social practice, in which bilingualism and language contact are also centrally involved. Recent publications include ‘Discourses in transit’, in Adam Jaworski and Crispin Thurlow (eds), Semiotic Landscapes: Language, Image, Space (Continuum, 2010), ‘Spelling as a social practice’, in Janet Maybin and Joan Swann (eds), Routledge Companion to the English Language (Routledge, 2009) and ‘On the notions of congruence and convergence in code-switching’, in Barbara E. Bullock and Almeida Jacqueline Toribio (eds). The Cambridge Handbook of Linguistic Code-Switching (Cambridge University Press, 2009).

    Diana Slade is Professor of Applied Linguistics at the University of Technology, Sydney (UTS). Her PhD research was on the analysis of English casual conversation. Diana has over 20 years experience in researching, teaching and publishing in applied linguistics, linguistics and organizational communication. Her major research focus now is on developing and extending theoretical work in these three areas, with a particular focus on the analysis and description of spoken English. Her current research is on emergency communication, describing clinician/patient communication in hospital emergency departments. Her books include (with Scott Thornbury) Conversation: From Description to Pedagogy (Cambridge University Press, 2006), (with Suzanne Eggins) Analysing Casual Conversation (Equinox, UK, 1997) and (with Kalantzis and Cope) Minority Languages and Dominant Culture: Issues of Equity, Education and Assessment (Falmer Press, 1990). She has published extensively in the area of discourse analysis of conversational English and spoken communication in workplace contexts.

    Stef Slembrouck is Professor of English Linguistics and Discourse Analysis at Ghent University. With Mike Baynham, he co-convenes the AILA Research Network on Language and Migration. He has published mainly on the role of socio-discursive processes in the construction of institutional identities (bureaucracy, child protection and health), including the implications of migration-connected multilingualism on the working of institutions. Slembrouck's publications include (with J. Collins and M. Baynham), Globalization and Language in Contact: Scale, Migration, and Communicative Practices (Continuum, 2009), (with C. Hall and S. Sarangi) Language Practices in Social Work: Categorisation and Accountability in Child Welfare (Routledge, 2006) and (with S. Sarangi) Language, Bureaucracy and Social Control (Longman, 1996).

    Bernard Spolsky is Professor Emeritus in the English Department at Bar-Ilan University. Since his retirement in 2000, he has published two monographs, Language policy (2004) and Language Management (2009), both with Cambridge University Press, for whom he is currently editing a 32-chapter Handbook of Language Policy. With Francis Hult, he has also published an edited collection, The Blackwell Handbook of Educational Linguistics (2008). He also edited the 2009 volume of Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, on the topic of ‘Language Policy and Language Assessment’. He received an Honorary Doctorate of Literature from Victoria University of Wellington in 2008.

    Kimie Takahashi is a Postdoctoral Research Fellow in Linguistics Department at Macquarie University, Australia. Her research examines the relationship between bilingualism, second language learning and gender, particularly in the contexts of study overseas, migration and employment. She is currently involved in a multi-site ethnography of the role of multilingualism and language learning in tourism between Australia and Japan (funded by Macquarie University and directed by Ingrid Piller). Her work has appeared in edited volumes and she is the author of Language Desire (Multilingual Matters, forthcoming). She is the co-founder, together with Ingrid, Piller, of the sociolinguistics portal Language on the Move at

    Peter Trudgill is Adjunct Professor of Sociolinguistics at the University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway. He has carried out research on dialects of English, Norwegian, Greek, Albanian and Spanish and has published more than 30 books on sociolinguistics and dialectology. Recent publications include ‘Sociolinguistic typology and complexification’, in G. Sampson, D. Gil and P. Trudgill (eds), Language Complexity as an Evolving Variable (Oxford) and ‘Contact and sociolinguistic typology’, in R. Hickey (ed.). Handbook of Language Contact (Blackwell). He is currently writing a book entitled Language in Contact and Isolation: On the Social Determinants of Linguistic Structure.

    Eva Vetter currently works in research and teaching at the University of Vienna (applied linguistics, language didactics and francophone civilisation) and in the EU-funded multilingualism Network LINEE (Languages in a Network of European Excellence). Her research in social networks relates to her interest in linguistic minorities. She critically reflects on and applies the network approach in her doctoral thesis: Nicht mehr Bretonisch? Sprachkonflikt in der ländlichen Bretagne (Frankfurt: Lang, 1997), in French Plus de Breton? Conflit linguistique en Bretagne rurale (Brest: An Here, 1999). Beyond the focus on regional minorities, her research concerns language teaching and learning, discourse analysis, multilingualism and language policy. Recent publications include (with Rindler Schjerve) ‘Linguistic diversity in Habsburg Austria as a model for modern European language policy’, in ten Thije, Zeevaert (eds.) (2007) Receptive Multilingualism: Linguistic Analyses, Language Policies and Didactic Concepts. Benjamins, pp. 49–70; (with Frings) (eds.) (2008) Mehrsprachigkeit als Schlüsselkompetenz. ibidem and forthcoming: Sprachenbewusstheit von FremdsprachenlehrerInnen: Chance oder Hindernis für einen mehrsprachigkeitsorientierten Unterricht? Schneider.

    Ruth Wodak is Distinguished Professor of Discourse Studies at Lancaster University and has remained affiliated with the University of Vienna, where she became Full Professor of Applied Linguistics in 1991. Besides various other prizes, she was awarded the Wittgenstein Prize for Elite Researchers in 1996. Her research interests focus on discourse studies, gender studies, language and/in politics, prejudice and discrimination, and ethnographic methods in linguistic field work. She is a member of the editorial board of a range of linguistics journals, co-editor of the journals Discourse and Society, Critical Discourse Studies, and Language and Politics, and co-editor of the book series Discourse Approaches to Politics, Society and Culture (DAPSAC). Recent book publications include (with R. de Cillia) Ist Österreich ein ‘deutsches’ Land? (2006), (with M. Krzyżanowski), Qualitative Discourse Analysis in the Social Sciences (2008), (with G. Delanty and P. Jones), Migration, Identity and Belonging (2008), (with H. Heer, W. Manoschek and A. Pollak) The Discursive Construction of History: Remembering the Wehrmacht's War of Annihilation (2008), (with M. Krzyżanowski) The Politics of Exclusion: Debating Migration in Austria (2009), (with R. de Cillia) Gedenken im Gedankenjahr (2009) and The Discourse of Politics in Action: ‘Politics as Usual’ (2009).

    Walt Wolfram is William C. Friday Distinguished University Professor at North Carolina State University, where he also directs the North Carolina Language and Life Project. He has pioneered research on social and ethnic dialects since the 1960s, and he and his staff have conducted more than 3000 sociolinguistic interviews in more than 20 different research communities. Professor Wolfram is particularly interested in the practice of linguistic gratuity, which requires linguists to give back to the communities that fuel their research. He is also concerned with the dissemination of knowledge about language diversity to the public, including the production of television documentaries, the construction of museum exhibits and the development of dialect awareness curricula. Significant publications on fieldwork include (with Reaser and Vaughn) ‘Operationalizing linguistic gratuity: from principle to practice’, Linguistic and Language Compass 3 pp. 1109–34 (2008) and (with R. Fasold) The Study of Social Dialects in American English (1974).

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