Handbook of Theories of Social Psychology: Volume 2
Publication Year: 2012
Subject: Social Psychology (general)
The Handbook of Theories of Social Psychology is an essential resource for researchers and students of social psychology and related disciplines.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 26: Self-Control Theory
- Chapter 27: Self-Verification Theory
- Chapter 28: Implicit Theories
- Chapter 29: Uncertainty-Identity Theory
- Chapter 30: Optimal Distinctiveness Theory: Its History and Development
- Chapter 31: A Cognitive-Neoassociation Theory of Aggression
Part IV: Interpersonal Level of Analysis
- Chapter 32: Need-to-Belong Theory
- Chapter 33: Sociometer Theory
- Chapter 34: Attachment Theory
- Chapter 35: Shared-Reality Theory
- Chapter 36: Equity Theory in Close Relationships
- Chapter 37: The Investment Model of Commitment Processes
- Chapter 38: A Theory of Communal (and Exchange) Relationships
- Chapter 39: Interdependence Theory
Part V: Group and Cultural Level of Analysis
- Chapter 40: A Theory of Cooperation – Competition and beyond
- Chapter 41: The Focus Theory of Normative Conduct
- Chapter 42: System Justification Theory
- Chapter 43: Justice Theory
- Chapter 44: Minority Influence Theory
- Chapter 45: Social Identity Theory
- Chapter 46: Self-Categorization Theory
- Chapter 47: Social Dominance Theory
- Chapter 48: The Common Ingroup Identity Model
- Chapter 49: Social Role Theory
- Chapter 50: Social Representation Theory
- Chapter 51: A Theory of Individualism and Collectivism
Preface and Editorial arrangement © Paul A.M. Van Lange, Arie W. Kruglanski, and E. Tory Higgins 2012
Chapter 26 © Walter Mischel 2012
Chapter 27 © William B. Swann, Jr. 2012
Chapter 28 © Carol S. Dweck 2012
Chapter 29 © Michael A. Hogg 2012
Chapter 30 © Marilynn B. Brewer 2012
Chapter 31 © Leonard Berkowitz 2012
Chapter 32 © Roy F. Baumeister 2012
Chapter 33 © Mark R. Leary 2012
Chapter 34 © Phillip R. Shaver and Mario Mikulincer 2012
Chapter 35 © Gerald Echterhoff 2012
Chapter 36 © Elaine Hatfield and Richard L. Rapson 2012
Chapter 37 © Caryl E. Rusbult, Christopher R. Agnew and Ximena R. Arriaga 2012
Chapter 38 © Margaret S. Clark and Judson R. Mills 2012
Chapter 39 © Paul A.M. Van Lange and Caryl E. Rusbult 2012
Chapter 40 © Morton Deutsch 2012
Chapter 41 © Robert B. Cialdini 2012
Chapter 42 © John T. Jost and Jojanneke van der Toorn 2012
Chapter 43 © Tom R. Tyler 2012
Chapter 44 © Charlan Jeanne Nemeth 2012
Chapter 45 © Naomi Ellemers and S. Alexander Haslam 2012
Chapter 46 © John C. Turner and Katherine J. Reynolds 2012
Chapter 47 © Jim Sidanius and Felicia Pratto 2012
Chapter 48 © Samuel L. Gaertner and John F. Dovidio 2012
Chapter 49 © Alice H. Eagly and Wendy Wood
Chapter 50 © Patrick Rateau, Pascal Moliner, Christian Guimelli, and Jean-Claude Abric 2012
Chapter 51 © Harry C. Triandis and Michele J. Gelfand 2012
First published 2012
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Notes on Editors and Contributors[Page ix]
Jean-Claude Abric is emeritus professor of social psychology at Aix-Marseille University (France) where he directed the Social Psychology Laboratory for 16 years. He initiated one of the major social representation theory frameworks: the “central core theory.” Author of many books on social representations, his research interests include group creativity and social communication. His most recent and famous volumes are Pratiques sociales et représentations [Social Practices and Representations] (PUF, 1994), Méthodes d’étude des représentations sociales [Methods for the Study of Social Representations] (ERES, 2003), and Psychologie de la communication, théories et méthodes [The Psychology of Communication, Theories and Methods] (Armand Colin, 1996).
Christopher R. Agnew is professor and head of the department of psychological sciences at Purdue University. He received his PhD in social psychology from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. His research focuses on close, interpersonal relationships. He has published widely, authoring more than 60 articles and chapters. His research has received funding from the National Institutes of Health and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. Dr. Agnew serves on the editorial boards for the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, and Personal Relationships. He was the recipient of the Early Career Award from the Relationships Researchers Interest Group of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology and is an elected Fellow of the Association for Psychological Science and the American Psychological Association. He is currently President-Elect of the International Association for Relationship Research.
Ximena B. Arriaga is associate professor of psychological sciences at Purdue University. Her doctoral degree is from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, in social psychology. Her primary areas of research are relationship commitment, uncertainty, and partner aggression. Her research has been funded by the National Institute of Mental Health and contributes to the relationships and intimate partner violence literatures. She has served as an associate editor for Personal Relationships and for Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, as well as consulting editor for Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. In addition, Dr. Arriaga has received several teaching awards.
Roy F. Baumeister is Eppes Eminent Scholar and professor of psychology at the Florida State University. He is the author of over 450 scientific publications, including 27 books, and his works are cited over 1,000 times each year in scientific journals. He seeks to understand the basic, encompassing truths of the human condition, and towards that end his research has covered such topics as self and identity, belongingness and rejection, self-control, evil and [Page x]violence, sexuality, gender relations, human nature, decision making, how people find meaning in life, consciousness, and free will.
Leonard Berkowitz is currently Vilas Research Professor Emeritus in the Department of Psychology at the University of Wisconsin–Madison. He received his PhD in psychology from the University of Michigan in 1951. He originated the Cognitive Neoassociation Model of aggressive behavior, which was created to help explain instances of aggression that the Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis could not account for. His research includes American Psychologist (1990), Psychological Bulletin (1989), Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (1987), Psychological Bulletin (1984). He has also been awarded as APA Distinguished Scientific Award for the Applications of Psychology, SESP Distinguished Scientist Award, and APS James McKeen Cattell Fellow Award.
Marilynn B. Brewer is Professor Emeritus of psychology at the Ohio State University and a visiting professor of psychology at the University of New South Wales in Sydney, Australia. Her primary areas of research are the study of social identity, collective decision making, and intergroup relations and she is the author of numerous research articles and books in this area. Dr. Brewer is past-president of the American Psychological Society and recipient of the 2003 Distinguished Scientist award from the Society of Experimental Social Psychology. In 2004 she was elected as a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and in 2007 she received the Distinguished Scientific Contribution award from the American Psychological Association.
Margaret S. Clark is professor at Yale University and, prior to that, was a professor at Carnegie-Mellon University for many years. She is a social psychologist whose research focuses on relationship processes (with a particular interest in providing and seeking responsiveness, non-contingently, within relationships) and on emotion (with a particular interest in the social functions of emotion). She has edited books on relationships, emotion, pro-social behavior, and methodology in personality and social psychology, served as the President of the Society of Personality and Social Psychology and as Chair of the Society of Experimental Social Psychology as well as an associate editor of Psychological Science, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, and Emotion.
Robert B. Cialdini is Regents’ Professor Emeritus of psychology and marketing at Arizona State University. His primary research interests involve social influence and persuasion. His book Influence: Science and Practice (5th ed., Pearson, 2008) has been published in five editions and 26 languages. His newest coauthored book (with Noah Goldstein and Steve Martin) is Yes! 50 Scientifically Proven Ways to be Persuasive (Free Press, 2008).
Morton Deutsch is E.L. Thorndike Professor and Director Emeritus of the International Center for Cooperation and Conflict Resolution (ICCCR) at Teachers College, Columbia University. He studied with Kurt Lewin at MIT's Research Center for Group Dynamics, where he obtained his PhD in 1948. He has been much honored for his pioneering studies in intergroup relations, cooperation-competition, conflict resolution, social conformity, and the social psychology of justice. His books include Interracial Housing, Research Methods in Social Relations, Preventing World War II: Some Proposals, Theories in Social Psychology, The Resolution of Conflict, Applying Social Psychology, Distributive Justice, and The Handbook of Conflict Resolution.[Page xi]
John F. Dovidio is currently professor of psychology at Yale University. He previously taught at Colgate University and at the University of Connecticut. His research interests are in stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination; social power and nonverbal communication; and altruism and helping. He has been president of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues, and the Society for Experimental Social Psychology. Dr. Dovidio has been the recipient of several awards, including the Kurt Lewin Award, the Raymond A. Fowler Mentor Award, and the Award for Distinguished Service to Psychological Science. He recently coedited the Handbook of Prejudice, Stereotyping, and Discrimination (Sage, 2010) and he is coeditor of the journal, Social Issues and Policy Review.
Carol S. Dweck is the Lewis and Virginia Eaton Professor of Psychology at Stanford University. Her research examines the “theories” people use to guide their personal and interpersonal behavior. She is the author of Self-Theories (Psychology Press, 1999) and Mindset (Random House, 2006) and the coeditor of Motivation and Self-Regulation Across the Lifespan (Cambridge University Press, 1998) and the Handbook of Competence and Motivation (Guilford Press, 2005). She has been elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the American Academy of Political and Social Science; and she has recently received the Donald Campbell Award in Social Psychology; the Ann Brown Award in Developmental Psychology; and the Klingenstein Award and the E.L. Thorndike Award in Education. She is using her research to create programs that foster school achievement, self-regulation, and conflict resolution.
Alice H. Eagly is professor of psychology and of management and organizations, James Padilla Chair of arts and sciences, and faculty fellow of the Institute for Policy Research, all at Northwestern University. She is the author, with Shelly Chaiken, of the Psychology of Attitudes (Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1993) and, with Linda Carli, of Through the Labyrinth: The Truth About How Women Become Leaders (Harvard Business School Press, 2007) as well as the coeditor of several volumes. She is the author of numerous articles in Psychological Bulletin, Psychological Review, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Psychology of Women Quarterly, and other journals. She has received the Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award from the American Psychological Association, the Gold Medal for Life Achievement in the Science of Psychology from the American Psychological Foundation, and other awards. Her current research concerns gender and leadership, the evolution of sex differences and similarities, and the influence of feminism on the science of psychology.
Gerald Echterhoff is professor of social psychology at University of Münster, Germany. Previously he worked as postdoctoral fellow at Columbia University, assistant professor at Bielefeld University, visiting professor at the University of Cologne, and professor of psychology at Jacobs University Bremen, Germany. He received his PhD from New School for Social Research, New York in 2000. His research interests include interpersonal communication, shared reality, social influence on memory, social cognition, and cultural contexts of remembering. In a signature field of investigation, he and his lab group study how communication shapes speakers’ own memory and thinking. His research has been published in leading journals such as Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, Psychological Science, Perspectives on Psychological Science, and Social Cognition.[Page xii]
Naomi Ellemers is professor of social and organizational psychology at the University of Leiden, the Netherlands. Her research includes experimental studies as well as applied work in organizations, and addresses a range of topics in group processes and intergroup relations. She has published extensively on a range of topics such as individual mobility and social change, organizational and team commitment, diversity and innovation, work–family issues, stigmatization and career development. She has coedited books on stereotyping, on social identity theory, and on social identity processes in organizations. She has been active as an associate editor (British Journal of Social Psychology, Journal of Personality, and Social Psychology) and on the board of national and international scientific organizations, and has received several prestigious grants and awards for her work.
Samuel L. Gaertner is professor of psychology at the University of Delaware. His research interests focus on understanding and reducing prejudice, discrimination, and racism. He has served on the editorial boards of the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, and Group Processes and Intergroup Relations. Professor Gaertner's research, together with John F. Dovidio, has been supported by grants from the Office of Naval Research, the National Institutes of Mental Health and currently, the National Science Foundation. Together with John Dovidio, he shared the Gordon Allport Intergroup Relations Prize in 1985 and 1998, as well as the Kurt Lewin Memorial Award from the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues, Division 9 of the American Psychological Association.
Michele J. Gelfand is professor of psychology and distinguished university scholar teacher at the University of Maryland, College Park. She received her PhD in social/organizational psychology from the University of Illinois. Gelfand's work explores cultural influences on conflict, negotiation, justice, and revenge; workplace diversity and discrimination; and theory and methods in cross-cultural psychology. Her work has been published in outlets such as the Journal of Applied Psychology, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Academy of Management Review, Academy of Management Journal, and the Annual Review of Psychology. She is the coeditor of The Handbook of Negotiation and Culture (Stanford University Press, 2004) and The Psychology of Conflict and Conflict Management in Organizations (Psychology Press, 2008) and is the founding coeditor of the Advances in Culture and Psychology and Frontiers of Culture and Psychology series.
Christian Guimelli is professor of social psychology at Aix-Marseille University (France) where he manages the “Social Representations” research team of the Social Psychology Laboratory. His areas of research include social representation analysis and methods and the structure and dynamics of social representations. He has published over 70 books, chapters, and journal articles in the field of social representations and is the author of five books including Structures et transformations des représentations sociales [Structure and Transformation of Social Representations] (Delachaux & Niestlé, 1994), and La pensée sociale [Social Thought] (PUF, 1999).
S. Alexander Haslam is professor of social and organizational psychology at the University of Exeter. He is former chief editor of the European Journal of Social Psychology, and currently on the editorial board of eight international journals. His work with colleagues at Exeter and around the world focuses on the study of social identity in social and organizational contexts. This is represented in his most recent books: The New Psychology of Leadership: Identity, [Page xiii]Influence and Power (with Reicher and Platow; Psychology Press, 2011) and Psychology in Organizations: The Social Identity Approach (2nd ed., Sage, 2004). He a Fellow of the Canadian Institute of Advanced Research, and a former recipient of EASP's Lewin Medal.
Elaine Hatfield is a professor of psychology at the University of Hawai'i and past-president of the Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality. In recent years, she has received Distinguished Scientist Awards (for a lifetime of scientific achievement) from the Society of Experimental Social Psychology, the Society for the Scientific Study of Sex, and the University of Hawai'i, and the Alfred Kinsey Award from the Western Region of SSSS. Two of her books have won the American Psychological Association's National Media Award.
E. Tory Higgins is the Stanley Schachter Professor of Psychology, Professor of Business, and Director of the Motivation Science Center at Columbia (where he also received his PhD in 1973). He has received a MERIT Award from the National Institute of Mental Health, the Thomas M. Ostrom Award in Social Cognition, the Donald T. Campbell Award for Outstanding Contributions to Social Psychology (Society of Personality and Social Psychology), and the Lifetime Contribution Award from the International Society for Self and Identity. He has also received the Distinguished Scientist Award from the Society of Experimental Social Psychology, the William James Fellow Award for Distinguished Achievements in Psychological Science (from the American Psychological Society), and the American Psychological Association Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions. He is a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He is also a recipient of Columbia's Presidential Award for Outstanding Teaching.
Michael A. Hogg is professor of social psychology at Claremont Graduate University, Los Angeles. He received his PhD from Bristol. He is a Fellow of numerous associations, including the Association for Psychological Science, the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, and the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues. He is a Fellow of the Academy of the Social Sciences in Australia, and is the 2010 recipient of the Carol and Ed Diener Award in Social Psychology from the Society for Personality and Social Psychology. Foundation editor, with Dominic Abrams, of Group Processes and Intergroup Relations and a former associate editor of the Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, he has published widely on social identity theory, group processes and intergroup relations, and is the author of the Social Identity Theory of Leadership and of Uncertainty-identity Theory.
John T. Jost is professor of social psychology at New York University. His research, which addresses stereotyping, prejudice, political ideology, and system justification theory, has appeared in leading scientific journals and received national and international media attention. He has published over 90 articles and book chapters and four coedited volumes, including Social and Psychological Bases of Ideology and System Justification (Oxford University Press, 2009). Jost has received numerous accolades, including the Gordon Allport Intergroup Relations Prize (three times), Erik Erikson Award for Early Career Research Achievement in Political Psychology, International Society for Self and Identity Early Career Award, Society for Personality and Social Psychology Theoretical Innovation Prize, Society of Experimental Social Psychology Career Trajectory Award, and the Morton Deutsch Award for Distinguished Scholarly and Practical Contributions to Social Justice.
Arie W. Kruglanski is a distinguished university professor at the University of Maryland, College Park. He is recipient of the National Institute of Mental Health Research Scientist [Page xiv]Award, the Senior Humboldt Award, the Donald Campbell Award for Oustanding Contributions to Social Psychology from the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, The University of Maryland Regents Award for Scholarship and Creativity, and the Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award from the Society of Experimental Social Psychology, and is recipient of the Regesz Chair at the University of Amsterdam. He was Fellow at the Center for Advanced Studies in the Behavioral Sciences, and is Fellow of the American Psychological Association and the American Psychological Society. He has served as editor of the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology: Attitudes and Social Cognition, editor of the Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, and associate editor of the American Psychologist. His interests have been in the domains of human judgment and decision making, the motivation-cognition interface, group and intergroup processes, and the psychology of human goals. His work has been disseminated in over 200 articles, chapters and books and has been continuously supported by grants from the National Science Foundation, the National Institute of Mental Health, Deutsche Forschungs Gemeineschaft, the Ford Foundation, and the Israeli Academy of Science. He has recently served as member of the National Academy of Science panels on counterterrorism, and educational paradigms in homeland security. Kruglanski is now a co-director of START (National Center for the Study of Terrorism and the Response to Terrorism), at the University of Maryland.
Paul A.M. Van Lange is professor of social psychology and chair of the department of social and organizational psychology at the VU University at Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Most of his research on human cooperation and trust is grounded in interdependence theory, through which he seeks to understand the functions of forgiveness, generosity, empathy, competition, and general beliefs of human nature in various situations. Van Lange has coauthored the Atlas of Interpersonal Situations (Cambridge University Press, 2003), edited Bridging Social Psychology (Lawrence Erlbaum, 2006), and served as an associate editor for various journals, including the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. He has been a Director of the Kurt Lewin Institute and currently serves as Member and President of the Executive Committee of the Society of Experimental Social Psychology.
Mark R. Leary is professor of psychology and neuroscience at Duke University. He received his PhD in social psychology from the University of Florida and has held positions at Denison University, the University of Texas at Austin, Wake Forest University, and Duke University. His research focuses on social motivation and emotion, particularly the processes by which people think about and evaluate themselves, the effects of self-reflection on emotion and psychological well-being, and how behavior and emotion are influenced by people's concerns with how they are perceived and evaluated by others. He is a Fellow of the American Psychological Association, the Association for Psychological Science, and the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, and is the 2010 recipient of the Lifetime Career Award from the International Society for Self and Identity. He was the founding editor of the journal, Self and Identity, and is currently editor of Personality and Social Psychology Review.
Mario Mikulincer is professor of psychology and dean of the New School of Psychology at the Interdisciplinary Center (IDC) Herzliya, Israel. He has published three books and over 250 journal articles and book chapters and serves as a member of the editorial boards of several personality and social psychology journals. Dr. Mikulincer's main research interests are attachment theory, terror management theory, personality processes in interpersonal relationships, coping with stress and trauma, grief-related processes and prosocial motives and behavior. [Page xv]He is a Fellow of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology and the Association for Psychological Sciences. He received the EMET Prize in Social Science for his contribution to psychology and the Berscheid-Hatfield Award for Distinguished Mid-Career Achievement from the International Association for Relationship Research.
Judson R. Mills taught at Syracuse University, University of Missouri, the London School of Economics, and the University of Texas but spent most time as a professor at the University of Maryland. His research interests included attitude formation and change, emotion, mood and affect, communal relationships, and research methodology. He was a student of Leon Festinger at Stanford University and conducted some of the seminal work on cognitive dissonance theory in the late 1950's. He maintained his interest in and research on that theory for several decades and, together with Eddie Harmon-Jones, edited a book on cognitive dissonance in 1999. He was a devoted mentor to social psychologists including Margaret Clark.
Walter Mischel is the Robert Johnston Niven Professor of Humane Letters in Psychology at Columbia University where he has been since 1983, after 21 years as a professor at Stanford University. He received his PhD in clinical psychology from Ohio State in 1956. His monograph Personality and Assessment (1968) challenged the traditional trait paradigm in psychology and generated research into the nature and implications of person–situation interactions. His cognitive–affective processing system (Psychological Review, 1995), with Yuichi Shoda, provided a model for the analysis of individual differences in interaction with psychological situations, building on empirical findings demonstrating the contextualized expressions of behavioral dispositions. His longitudinal–developmental and experimental studies of the ability to delay gratification identified basic cognitive and attention control mechanisms enabling self-control. He was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 2004, and to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1991, and is past editor of Psychological Review.
Pascal Moliner is professor of social psychology at the University of Montpellier III (France) where he was the director of the Social Psychology Laboratory for many years. His main research areas concern social representations, relationships between social cognition and representations and between images and representations. He is the author or coauthor of many works on these topics: Images et représentations [Images and Social Representations] (PUG, 1996), La dynamique des représentations sociales [Social Representations Dynamics] (PUG, 2001), Les représentations sociales: pratique des études de terrain [Social Representations: Practical Studies] (PUR, 2002), L'identité en psychologie sociale [Social Identity in Social Psychology] (Armand Colin, 2008), Représentations sociales et processus sociocognitifs (Social Representations and Socio-cognitive Processes] (PUR, 2009).
Charlan Jeanne Nemeth is a professor in the Department of Psychology, University of California, Berkeley. Her background includes a BA in mathematics from Washington University in St Louis and a PhD in psychology from Cornell University. Her faculty appointments include the University of Chicago, University of Virginia, and University of British Columbia with visiting appointments in Bristol (England), Paris (France), Trento (Italy), and Mannheim (Germany). Her speciality is influence processes, creativity, and small group decision making and her particular emphasis has been on the role of the outsider and of the value of dissenting viewpoints. Her work has been broadly applied, most notably during jury decision making and the managing of innovation in organisational settings. She was the first [Page xvi]woman and first social scientist to speak at the Oregon Bar Association, her topic being jury decision making and has given invited addresses at Harvard, MIT, Cornell, Northwestern and Yale Business Schools on entrepreneurs, creativity, and mechanisms for increasing innovation. She was a visiting professor at London Business School from 2005–2009 and is the holder of the prestigious Leverhulme Fellowship.
Felicia Pratto is professor of psychology at the University of Connecticut and has served as a visiting professor in the US, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the Netherlands. She received her PhD from New York University. She has served on the executive board of the Society for Experimental Social Psychology, on editorial boards of several journals, and is currently a vice president of the International Society for Political Psychology. She has authored over 100 articles and chapters concerning power, intergroup relations, discrimination and prejudice, stereotyping, and the social–cognitive processes that contribute to these. Her research has employed a variety of methods, ranging from reaction times to games to surveys to archival analysis and her current research examines the dynamics of power, social change, and intergroup violence.
Richard L. Rapson is professor of history at the University of Hawaii. He received his BA from Amherst and PhD from Columbia. He has written more than a dozen books individually and also has coauthored a number of books with his wife, Dr Elaine Hatfield. A scholarly trilogy, published during the 1990s, included Love, Sex, and Intimacy: Their Psychology, Biology, and History (HarperCollins), Emotional Contagion (Cambridge University Press), and Love and Sex: Cross-cultural Perspectives (Allyn & Bacon).
Patrick Rateau is professor of social psychology at the University of Nîmes (France) and permanent member of the Social Psychology Laboratory at Aix-Marseille University (France). His research interests include social representations theory and methods, social comparison, social memory and environmental social psychology. He authored or coauthored several books, chapters, and journal articles on social representations and social thought. Recently, he has coauthored one book: Les représentations sociales: pratique des études de terrain [Social Representations: Practical Studies] (PUR, 2002) with Pascal Moliner and Valérie Cohen-Scali, and coedited one volume: Représentations sociales et processus sociocognitifs, [Social Representations and Socio-cognitive Processes] (PUR, 2009) with Pascal Moliner.
Caryl E. Rusbult (1952–2010) has been a professor of psychology at the University of North Carolina, where she held the J. Ross MacDonald Chair (1997–2003) after which she became professor and chair of the department of social psychology at the VU University at Amsterdam. She adopted an interdependence theoretical approach to the study of close relationships, and developed the investment model of commitment processes to understand relationship maintenance mechanisms, such as accommodation, derogation of alternatives, and personal growth. She coauthored the Atlas of Interpersonal Situations (Cambridge University Press, 2003), served as associate editor of Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, and received several scientific awards, including the Distinguished Career Award (2008) from the International Association for Relationships Research. Caryl Rusbult passed away in 2010.
Katherine J. Reynolds is an associate professor in the department of psychology at the Australian National University in Canberra, Australia. She has published many papers on the prejudiced personality and prejudice and social conflict more generally. More recently, her [Page xvii]research is focused on how and when group memberships (and changes to such groups) come to impact on the individual person (e.g., personality, well-being, self-beliefs). This program of research with its focus on social norms and social influence has expanded into policy areas seeking to affect social and behavioural change (e.g., learning and pro-social behaviour in schools). She is currently an associate editor at Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin and on the editorial board of four other international journals.
Phillip R. Shaver is a distinguished professor of psychology at the University of California, Davis. He has published over 250 scholarly articles and book chapters and coauthored or coedited numerous books including Measures of Personality and Social Psychological Attitudes (Academic Press 1991); Attachment in Adulthood; Handbook of Attachment (2nd ed., Guilford Press, 2008); Prosocial Motives, Emotions, and Behavior (APA, 2009); and Human Aggression and Violence (APA, 2010). His research focuses on attachment theory, close relationships, emotion, and personality development. He is a member of the editorial boards of several journals and a fellow of the American Psychological Association and the Association for Psychological Science. He served as executive officer of the Society of Experimental Social Psychology and president of the International Association for Relationship Research, from which he received a Distinguished Career Award in 2002 and a Mentoring Award in 2010.
Jim Sidanius is a professor in the departments of psychology and African and African American Studies at the Harvard University. He received his PhD at the University of Stockholm, Sweden, and has taught at several universities in the US and Europe, including the Carnegie Mellon University, the University of Texas at Austin, the New York University, the Princeton University, the University of Stockholm, Sweden, and the University of California, Los Angeles. His primary research interests include the interface between political ideology and cognitive functioning, the political psychology of gender, group conflict, institutional discrimination, and the evolutionary psychology of intergroup prejudice. He has authored and published more than 120 scientific papers, and his most important theoretical contribution to date is the development of social dominance theory, a general model of the development and maintenance of group-based social hierarchy and social oppression. Professor Sidanius’ latest books are entitled: Social Dominance: An Intergroup Theory of Social Hierarchy and Oppression (Cambridge University Press, 1999), Racialized Politics: Values, Ideology, and Prejudice in American Public Opinion (University of Chicago press, 2000), Key Readings in Political Psychology (Psychology Press, 2004), and The Diversity Challenge: Social Identity and Intergroup Relations on the College Campus (Russell Sage Foundation, 2008). Prof. Sidanius was also the recipient of the 2006 Harold Lasswell Award for “Distinguished Scientific Contribution in the Field of Political Psychology” awarded by the International Society of Political Psychology, and was inducted into the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2007.
William B. Swann, Jr. is currently a professor of social-personality psychology at the University of Texas at Austin with appointments in the Psychology Department and School of Business. A doctorate of the University of Minnesota, he studies identity and the self, identity negotiation and, most recently, identity fusion. He has also been elected a Fellow of the American Psychological Association and the American Psychological Society. Once a Fellow at Princeton University as well as the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, he has received multiple research scientist development awards from the National Institutes of Mental Health. His research has been funded by awards from the National Science Foundation, the National Institutes of Mental Health, and the National Institute for Drug and Alcohol Abuse.[Page xviii]
Jojanneke van der Toorn is currently a postdoctoral associate in the department of psychology at Yale University. She holds MA degrees in organizational psychology and cultural anthropology from the VU University, Amsterdam and a PhD from New York University. Her research focuses on processes of legitimation and the social psychological mechanisms implicated in social change and resistance to it. Her work has appeared in American Sociological Review, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, and Social Justice Research.
Harry C. Triandis is Professor Emeritus of psychology at the University of Illinois. He was born in 1926. His 1958 PhD is from Cornell University in Ithaca, New York. He received an Honorary Doctorate from the University of Athens, Greece, in 1987. He is the author of Attitudes and Attitude Change (Wiley, 1971), Analysis of Subjective Culture (Wiley, 1972) Interpersonal Behavior (Brooks/Cole, 1977), Variations in Black and White Perceptions of the Social Environment (University of Illinois Press, 1976), Culture and Social Behavior (McGraw-Hill, 1994) and Individualism and Collectivism (Sage, 1995). His most recent (2009) book is Fooling Ourselves: Self-Deception in Politics, Religion, and Terrorism (Praeger, 2008) (This book received the William James Award of Div. 1 of the American Psychological Association). He was the general editor of the six-volume Handbook of Cross-Cultural Psychology (Allyn & Bacon, 1997), and coeditor (with Dunnette and Hough) of Volume 4 of the Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology (Consulting Psychologists Press, 1994).
John C. Turner is an Emeritus Professor in the department of psychology at the Australian National University in Canberra, Australia. His research interests are in social psychology and have covered a number of topics over the years: intergroup relations, prejudice, stereotyping, the nature of the psychological group and group processes, social influence, leadership, power and the self-concept. He has had a longstanding interest in social identity and self-categorization processes since he developed social identity theory with the late Henri Tajfel in the 1970s and originated self-categorization theory in the early 1980s. He was awarded the Henri Tajfel Memorial Medal by the European Association of Experimental Social Psychology in 1999.
Tom R. Tyler is a university professor at New York University. He teaches in the psychology department and the law school. His research explores the dynamics of authority in groups, organizations, and societies. In particular, he examines the role of judgments about the justice or injustice of group procedures in shaping legitimacy, compliance and cooperation. He is the author of several books, including The social psychology of procedural justice (1988); Social justice in a diverse society (1997); Cooperation in groups (2000); Trust in the law (2002); and Why people obey the law (2006).
Wendy Wood is Provost Professor of psychology and business at the University of Southern California. Her research addresses the evolutionary origins of gender differences in social behavior, along with the ways that gender differences and similarities are constructed in social interactions. She also investigates how habits and attitudes guide behavior, so as to understand how people can best regulate and change aspects of their lifestyles. Her work on these topics appears in Psychological Bulletin, Psychological Review, and the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology and has been supported by grants from the National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health, the Rockefeller Foundation, and the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study. She served as associate editor of Psychological Review, Personality and Social Psychology Review, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, and Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin.
Ideas make the world go around – especially good ideas and especially in science. Indeed, science is all about ideas and their implementation in empirical research. This is true for the science of social psychology as well. Indisputably, the quintessential carriers of scientific ideas are theories. It is theories that get to the underlying essences of phenomena and trace their implications for myriads of concrete situations. It is theories that pull the strands of seemingly disparate occurrences and tie them into coherent systems guided by common principles. Good theories are not just practical, as Lewin noted; they are essential to the scientific enterprise. It is, therefore, hardly surprising that from its early beginnings social psychological research has been guided by theories of various kinds. Numerous theoretical frameworks have been added by creative thinkers in the course of time. By now, the field of social psychology is rich in theoretical contributions in its many domains of endeavor. Some social psychological theories have been around for a long time, others for little more than a decade. Some have been tested, revised, and extended, while others have remained in their original form and continued to inspire research on the force of their timeless insights. Some theories have intriguingly morphed into other theories, others remained pristinely faithful to their initial version. Some theories have been wonderfully elaborated and articulated. Others have been adumbrated in vague outline, representing work in progress or diamonds in the rough. In this volume, we are interested in all such theories not only because they provide a comprehensive overview of the theories in social psychology, but also because we felt it is important that authors share with the readers the process of theory construction, development, and nurturance that serves such an important function for science. Here is why.
The process of theorizing, and the skills of theory construction, have been shrouded in a cloak of mystery in our field. They are rarely taught in graduate programs in social psychology, nor do they constitute a recognized and trusted tool in the kit of young researchers. A major purpose of the present project was to demystify the process of theorizing and expose its hidden underbelly and intricate entrails. Indeed, chapters by our contributors reveal how serendipity born of personal circumstances often determines the course that one's theory construction would take; how theory development often requires tenacity, persistence, patience, and “blood, sweat and tears.” Another purpose of the book was to illustrate how the work of theory construction is indispensable to scientific development, and how important and gratifying it can be to those who manage to stay on the course of constructing and testing their theory.
Our own conviction, stemming from our earlier work, and presented in the introductory chapter, has been that theories should be guided by the regulatory ideas of truth, abstraction, progress, and applicability. This notion served as the basis of a research grant, “Social Psychology: Bridging Theory and Application in Society,” (NWO. grant, nr. 400-07-710), awarded by the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research, which gave the first editor extra time to devote to this Handbook. Because of the immensity of the project and common [Page xx]interest in theory, he invited the second and third editors to join in, and they enthusiastically agreed. After initial discussion, we concurred that this volume should carry a unique mission: illuminating theory construction from the inside out. Accordingly, the instructions we gave to our contributors were explicit and precise. We asked authors not only to give an overview of their theory or model, but also touch on three essential aspects: (1) a personalized history of the theory's beginnings and development over time as recounted by the theoretician; (2) the theory's place in the intellectual space in a given domain (i.e., the contribution it makes to the history of ideas on its topic); and (3) the theory's relevance to real-world concerns (i.e., its potential contribution to solving real-world problems). Inevitably, the various chapters in this volume differed in their primary focus, and in the emphasis accorded to each of these aspects. But overall, these three foci are amply represented across the chapters. Of greatest importance, they tell a fascinating tale documenting the challenges, adversities, and joys that theory construction brings its practitioners, and the rich conceptual endowment that it brings our discipline.