The SAGE Handbook of Social Marketing


Edited by: Gerard Hastings, Kathryn Angus & Carol Bryant

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    Editorial Board and Reviewers

    Editorial Board
    • Karine Gallopel, University of Rennes
    • Philip Kotler, Northwestern University
    • François Lagarde, University of Montreal
    • Lynne Doner Lotenberg, Hager Sharp
    • Judith McDivitt, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
    • Susan Middlestadt, Indiana University
    • Gillian Mort, La Trobe University
    • Claudia Parvanta, University of the Sciences in Philadelphia
    • Iain Potter, Health Sponsorship Council
    • Jo Previte, The University of Queensland
    • Adrian Sargeant, Bristol Business School
    • Chuck Weinberg, Sauder School of Business at the University of British Columbia
    • Dana L. Alden, University of Hawaii
    • Thomas Boysen Anker, University of Glasgow Business School
    • Alan Andreasen, Georgetown University
    • Debra Z. Basil, University of Lethbridge
    • Michael D. Basil, University of Lethbridge
    • Abraham Brown, University of Stirling
    • Sameer Deshpande, University of Lethbridge
    • Timothy Dewhirst, University of Guelph
    • Christine Domegan, National University of Ireland, Galway
    • Jeff French, National Social Marketing Centre
    • Karine Gallopel, University of Rennes
    • Janet Hoek, University of Otago
    • Klemens Kappel, University of Copenhagen
    • Nancy R. Lee, Social Marketing Services, Inc.
    • R. Craig Lefebvre, University of South Florida
    • James Lindenberger, University of South Florida
    • Ray Lowry, Newcastle University
    • Anne Marie Mackintosh, University of Stirling
    • Susana Marques, High Institute of Administration and Management, Porto, Portugal
    • Kelli McCormack Brown, University of Florida
    • Robert J. McDermott, The Florida Prevention Research Center
    • Crawford Moodie, University of Stirling
    • Gary Noble, University of Wollongong
    • Guido Palazzo, University of Lausanne
    • Sue Peattie, Cardiff Business School
    • Ken Peattie, Cardiff Business School
    • Petia K. Petrova, Dartmouth University
    • Simone Pettigrew, University of Western Australia Business School
    • Mike Rothschild, University of Wisconsin
    • Carol Schechter, Abt Associates
    • Anne M. Smith, Open University Business School
    • William Smith, Academy for Educational Development
    • Florence Theodore, International Network for Strategic Philanthropy

    About the Authors

    Dana L. Alden completed his PhD at the University of Texas, Austin in 1990 and joined the Marketing Department at the University of Hawaii. His research focuses on global brands, globalisation of consumer culture and healthcare marketing. In 2007, Dana received the Excellence in Global Marketing Research Award from the American Marketing Association. He conducts research on shared patient-physician decision-making and patient decision aids. His work appears in leading journals such as Social Science & Medicine, Journal of Marketing, Journal of International Business Studies and Health Communications. Dr Alden currently holds the William R. Johnson Jr Distinguished Professorship.

    Kathryn Angus has been employed at the Institute for Social Marketing at the University of Stirling in the UK (formerly the Centre for Social Marketing at the University of Strathclyde) for a decade. Her research interests include the impact of commercial marketing on people's health and behaviour; the effectiveness of social marketing; and systematic review methodologies and literature search strategies. With colleagues at the Institute, Dr Angus has recently co-authored articles in the British Medical Journal, the Journal of Social Marketing, Alcohol and Alcoholism and Health Education.

    Thomas Boysen Anker is lecturer in marketing at the University of Glasgow Business School. He holds a BA and MA in philosophy as well as a PhD in marketing ethics from the University of Copenhagen and has worked with the Institute for Social Marketing, University of Stirling, for two years as a visiting researcher. His research in social marketing covers primarily critical social marketing (e.g. analysing the societal impact of alcohol marketing) and social marketing ethics (e.g. ethical challenges in corporate and commercial applications of social marketing). Dr Anker has taught social marketing at the University of Copenhagen and done various workshops on social marketing for local council staff working with public health promotion.

    Debra Z. Basil is an Associate Professor of Marketing and co-founder of the Centre for Socially Responsible Marketing at the University of Lethbridge, where she recently received the University Scholars Award designation. Her research interests include cause-related marketing and the use of fear appeals in social marketing. She co-edited the book Social Marketing Advances in Research and Theory. Recent publications include ‘Using social marketing to encourage towel reuse’ in the Journal of Business Research, ‘Company support for employee volunteering: A national survey of companies in Canada’ in the Journal of Business Ethics, and ‘Guilt and giving: A process model’ in Psychology & Marketing.

    Michael D. Basil is a Professor of Marketing at the University of Lethbridge in Alberta, Canada. He received his PhD in Communication from Stanford in 1992 focused on information processing of messages, especially health communication. His interest in social marketing arose from work with Porter Novelli and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention where he realised that communication is more effective when it begins with an understanding of the behavioural barriers the audience faces and attempts to reduce those barriers. Professor Basil publishes in the fields of health communication, marketing, psychology and public health.

    Jay M. Bernhardt is Department Chairperson and Professor of Health Education and Behavior at the University of Florida, where he serves as Director of the Center for Digital Health and Wellness. Dr. Bernhardt also is Founder and President of Digital Health Impact, Inc. From 2005 to 2010, he served as Director of the National Center for Health Marketing at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Prior to that, Dr Bernhardt was Assistant Professor of Behavioral Sciences and Health Education at Emory University and Assistant Professor of Health Promotion and Behavior at the University of Georgia. He serves on three Editorial Boards and is Associate Editor of Health Education & Behavior.

    Carol A. Bryant is a Distinguished USF Health Professor and Co-Director of the Florida Prevention Research Center at the University of South Florida College of Public Health. For 20 years, she has directed social marketing research on a wide variety of public health projects. With colleagues at the Florida Prevention Research Center, she is developing and evaluating an innovative framework – community-based prevention marketing for designing and tailoring behavior change interventions. In addition to research, Professor Bryant teaches a variety of graduate-level social marketing courses and coordinates the annual Social Marketing and Public Health Conference. Professor Bryant is also founding editor of the Social Marketing Quarterly and senior author of The Cultural Feast: An Introduction to Food and Society.

    Georgina Cairns is a senior lecturer in the Institute for Social Marketing, at the University of Stirling and the Open University. She is leading the development and 2012 launch of a Masters Degree programme in social marketing. Georgina's main research interest is how marketing, public policy, food and alcohol behaviours and cultures combine and interact with one another, to impact health and well-being. Georgina's professional interest in social marketing in developing countries is based on living and working in Asia as the director of a food and health capacity building organisation and as a consultant for many years.

    Robert B. Cialdini is Regents' Professor of Psychology and Marketing at Arizona State University, where he has also been named Distinguished Graduate Research Professor. He has been elected president of the Society of Personality and Social Psychology. Professor Cialdini is the recipient of the Distinguished Scientific Achievement Award of the Society for Consumer Psychology, the Donald T. Campbell Award for Distinguished Contributions to Social Psychology and the Peitho Award for Distinguished Contributions to the Science of Social Influence.

    Sameer Deshpande spent his initial years in India, before moving to North America and earning his PhD from the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Currently, he is an associate professor in Marketing at the Faculty of Management and faculty member of the Centre for Socially Responsible Marketing at the University of Lethbridge. Dr Deshpande research interests include applying social marketing thought to a variety of public health issues. He also offers social marketing workshops and provides consulting to non-profit and government agencies. Dr Deshpande serves on the editorial board of the Journal of Social Marketing.

    Timothy Dewhirst is an Associate Professor in the Department of Marketing and Consumer Studies at the University of Guelph in Canada. His research areas of interest include tobacco marketing and public policy, branding and brand management, sponsorship-linked marketing and social marketing. He has served as an invited consultant for the Attorney General's Office in the state of California, Health Canada, Physicians for a Smoke-Free Canada as well as the World Health Organization, in which he was named as an expert for the elaboration of a template for a protocol on cross-border advertising, promotion and sponsorship (with respect to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control). Professor Dewhirst has served as an expert for the plaintiff's counsel in tobacco litigation. Additionally, he is an Associate Editor of Tobacco Control.

    Christine Domegan is a Senior Lecturer in Marketing at the National University of Ireland, Galway. Dr Domegan researches social marketing and its application to value co-creation, public policy, strategic partnerships and marketing theory through a multi-disciplinary lens. Her current work embraces recycling, men's health, positive ageing, health literacy and science in society. Christine teaches Social Marketing at undergraduate and postgraduate levels in Ireland and the UK, including extensive PhD supervision. Recent social marketing publications, among others, appear in the Journal of Nonprofit and Public Sector Marketing, the Journal of Business and Industrial Marketing and the Irish Journal of Management.

    Rob Donovan is Professor of Behavioural Research in the Faculty of Health Sciences, Adjunct Professor of Social Marketing in the School of Marketing and Principal of Mentally Healthy WA's Act-Belong-Commit campaign at Curtin University. After a career in commercial marketing he returned to academia in the early 1990s. He has a broad range of interests, including alcohol, tobacco and drugs, child abuse, domestic violence, racism and mental health. He is Deputy Chair of the WA Ministerial Council on Suicide Prevention, is currently a Vice-president of the Board of Relationships Australia WA, and represents the Australian government on the World Anti-Doping Agency's Education Committee.

    Jeff French has extensive experience of developing, leading and evaluating behaviour change projects, social marketing programmes and the development of communication strategies at international, national, regional and local level. With over 30 years' experience at the interface between government, public, private and NGO sectors, Jeff has a broad practical and theoretical understanding of national and international health and social development issues. He has published over 80 chapters, articles and books in the fields of behaviour change, social marketing, community development, health promotion and communications. Jeff is a visiting professor at Brunei University and Brighton University and a Fellow at Kings College University London and teaches at four other universities in the UK. Jeff was the Director of Communication and Policy at the Health Development Agency for five years from 2000 to 2005. From March 2005 to July 2009, Jeff set up and managed the National Social Marketing Centre for England. In August 2009, Jeff became the Chief Executive of Strategic Social Marketing Ltd. Professor French is a member of the Editorial Board of the Journal of Social Marketing, the organiser of the World Social Marketing Conference and a member of the Global Social Marketing Association Executive Committee.

    Fiona J. Harris is a Lecturer in Management at the Open University Business School and Deputy Director of ISM-Open. She has worked on a range of social marketing research projects in collaboration with colleagues at the Institute for Social Marketing (ISM) at Stirling in the areas of tobacco control and the impact of alcohol marketing. Dr Harris has a background in applied psychology and her current research interests, alongside social marketing, include sustainable fashion and ethical issues in marketing.

    Gerard Hastings is the first UK Professor of Social Marketing and founder/director of the Institute for Social Marketing ( and Centre for Tobacco Control Research ( at Stirling and the Open University. He researches the applicability of marketing principles like consumer orientation, branding and strategic planning to the solution of health and social problems. Professor Hastings also conducts critical marketing research into the impact of potentially damaging marketing, such as alcohol, tobacco and fast food promotion.

    Ronald Paul Hill has a PhD in business administration from the University of Maryland College Park and is the Richard J. and Barbara Naclerio Endowed Chair, Villanova School of Business and Senior Associate Dean, Intellectual Strategy. He has authored nearly 150 journal articles, book chapters and conference papers on a variety of topics. Areas include restricted consumer behaviour, marketing ethics, corporate social responsibility and public policy. Outlets for this research include Journal of Marketing Research, Journal of Consumer Research, Business and Society, International Journal of Research in Marketing, Human Rights Quarterly, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Harvard Business Review and Journal of Public Policy and Marketing. Dr Hill's term as Editor of the Journal of Public Policy and Marketing extends from 1 July 2006 until 30 June 2012.

    Janet Hoek is a professor in the Department of Marketing at the University of Otago, New Zealand. She has a long-standing interest in the marketing-public policy nexus, particularly tobacco control and food marketing. Professor Hoek has served on several government advisory groups, provided expert advice to government, and her work has appeared in Tobacco Control, the Journal of Advertising Research, the Journal of Business Research, the Bulletin of the World Health Organisation and the Journal of Marketing and Public Policy.

    Sandra C. Jones (BA, MBA, MPH, MAssessEval, PhD) is the Director of the Centre for Health Initiatives, and a Professor in the Faculty of Health & Behavioural Sciences, University of Wollongong. Her research focuses on the relationship between media and health, including the impacts of advertising on health behaviour, and the use of social marketing to improve population health. Professor Jones has conducted extensive research into the nature and effects of alcohol advertising and marketing and has developed, implemented and evaluated a range of health-related social marketing interventions, particularly in the areas of cancer prevention and chronic disease management.

    Klemens Kappel is Associate Professor in Philosophy, Division of Philosophy, Institute of Media, Cognition and Communication. Professor Kappel's current research interests are in social epistemology and general epistemology, but he has a broad range of interests, including applied philosophy, ethics, bioethics and political philosophy.

    Patrick Kenny BBLS, MBS is a lecturer in Marketing in the School of Marketing, Dublin Institute of Technology, Ireland. He is pursuing a PhD at the Institute for Social Marketing in the University of Stirling, where his work focuses on the influence of alcohol marketing and social norms on young people. He is a regular commentator in the Irish media on issues relating to alcohol policy and has also given testimony in court as an expert witness on advertising regulation and ethics. Dr Kenny has been a visiting lecturer in marketing strategy in institutions across Europe and also delivers a wide range of executive training programmes in marketing and strategy to entrepreneurs and managers in the SME sector.

    Philip Kotler is the S.C. Johnson Distinguished Professor of International Marketing at the Kellogg School of Management, Northwestern University. His Marketing Management (13th edn) is one of the world's leading textbooks on marketing, and he has published 50 other books and over 150 articles in leading journals. His research covers strategic marketing, consumer marketing, business marketing, services marketing and social marketing. He has consulted with IBM, Bank of America, Merck, General Electric and Honeywell. He has received honorary doctorate degrees from 12 major universities. Professor Kotler initiated the development of the field of social marketing which deals with environmental, health, educational and community issues.

    Wonkyong Beth Lee is an Assistant Professor of Consumer Behaviour at the University of Western Ontario's DAN Management and Organizational Studies in Canada. Her research has focused on examining the relation between social influence (i.e. culture and norms) and attitudes, particularly in the domain of both consumer and health behaviour. Professor Lee's work has been published in Health Psychology, Tobacco Control and Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin.

    Nancy R. Lee has an MBA and more than 25 years of professional marketing experience, with special expertise in Social Marketing. She is an adjunct faculty member at the University of Washington and the University of South Florida, and owns a small consulting firm, Social Marketing Services, Inc., in Seattle, Washington. She conducts seminars and workshops on social marketing and marketing in the public sector and has participated in the development of more than 100 social marketing campaigns. She has been a guest lecturer at the University of Cape Town in South Africa; the Health Promotion Board in Singapore; Victoria University in Melbourne, Australia; National University of Ireland in Galway; Yale University and Oxford University. She has conducted social marketing workshops for more than 2,000 public sector employees, including most recently for US AID in Jordan and The World Bank. She has been a keynote speaker on social marketing at local and international conferences including ones addressing Public Health, Injury Prevention, Environmental Protection and Poverty Reduction.

    She has coauthored eight books on social marketing with Philip Kotler, the most recent, the 4th Edition of Social Marketing: Influencing Behaviors for Good (SAGE, 2012).

    R. Craig Lefebvre is chief maven at socialShift, Research Professor in the College of Public Health at the University of South Florida, and Lead Change Designer at RTI International. Craig has over 100 publications in the areas of community health promotion, social marketing, social and mobile media and public health and serves on the Editorial Boards of the Journal of Social Marketing and Social Marketing Quarterly. His current work blends design thinking, social and mobile technologies and marketing in social change programmes. Professor Lefebvre publishes the blog On Social Marketing and Social Change [] and is on Twitter ©chiefmaven.

    Lynne Doner Lotenberg, is Vice President, Strategic Planning and Research at Hager Sharp. Ms Lotenberg's major research interests are effective techniques to plan and evaluate marketing and communication efforts to facilitate social change and improve public health. Ms Lotenberg is co-editor of Social Marketing Quarterly and co-author of the first and second editions of Marketing Public Health: Strategies to Promote Social Change.

    Kelli McCormack Brown, PhD, CHES is a professor of health education and behaviour at the University of Florida. Professor McCormack Brown has been able to blend her health education and promotion experience with community-based prevention marketing (CBPM) and, through these efforts, has written numerous peer-reviewed articles on how health education and communities can effectively use social marketing to develop behaviour change interventions.

    Robert J. McDermott has taught in higher education for 35 years. In 1998, he was part of team of scholars awarded a Prevention Research Center by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). He continues to serve as co-Director of that Center. The Florida Prevention Research Center (FPRC) has created and field tested a new model for health behaviour change in communities – community-based prevention marketing (CBPM). Dr McDermott has been a member of the CDC's invited working group on defining Health Education in the 21st Century, a visiting professor at the University of Cologne (Germany) and at the University of Wisconsin, a consultant to the CDC's Division of Adolescent and School Health, for collaboration with the Russian Federation, and a consultant to the European Union's, Health Promotion for Family Caregivers of People with Alzheimer's Disease and Related Mental Disorders Project (1997), and its Communicating AIDS Project (1994). In addition to more than 250 scientific articles, he has written over 50 book chapters, and three books. Dr McDermott is a Fellow of the American School Health Association (1988), the American Academy of Health Behavior (1998), the Royal Institute of Public Health (2002), the American Association for Health Education (2005) and the Royal Society for Health Promotion (2007). In 2004, Dr McDermott founded a new E-journal for the public health community of Florida, the Florida Public Health Review. In 2011 he became Editor of the Journal of School Health.

    Laura MacDonald is a research assistant based in the Institute for Social Marketing at the University of Stirling. She graduated from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine in 2009 with an MSc in Control of Infectious Diseases. Laura is interested in evidence-based health communication, particularly for the prevention and control of communicable diseases.

    Bruce Mackay works for HLSP, a consulting firm in London. He did a PhD on family planning in Kenya, and then spent 15 years in the UK marketing mortgages, insurance and software. Since 1995, he has worked on social marketing of oral contraceptives, condoms and bednets, as well as broader behaviour change for HIV prevention. Dr Mackay's main interest is in how people in poor countries behave as consumers in unregulated healthcare markets – and why most governments and aid donors pretend that these markets do not exist.

    Susana Marques, PhD, was involved, as a researcher, in the Evaluation of Blueprint, a research programme designed and funded by the British Home Office to examine the effectiveness of a multi-component approach to drug education. She concluded her doctoral studies in July 2008 at the University of Stirling, in Scotland, and since September 2009, she is Coordinator Professor in the High Institute of Administration and Management in Porto, Portugal, and a member of iMARKE, a Research Unit in the field of Marketing and Strategy at the University of Minho. Her main research interests are social, relationship and critical marketing.

    Darren Mays is a Research Instructor in the Department of Oncology, Georgetown University Medical Center and Associate Member of the Cancer Control Program of the Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center. His research focuses on behavioral cancer prevention in pediatric populations, with a focus on the application of communication technology-based approaches to health behavior change intervention. Prior to that, he worked at the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and completed his pre-doctoral studies in the Department of Behavioral Sciences and Health Education, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University.

    Gary Noble is Associate Dean and Director of the Centre for Social Marketing at the University of Wollongong, Australia. His research interests include the role and use of social marketing in the area of pro-environmental behaviour change, non-profit marketing and corporate social responsibility. Dr Noble has been a consultant to various government and non-profit organizations in the development of their social marketing interventions and his work has been published in numerous academic journals.

    William D. Novelli is Professor in the McDonough School of Business at Georgetown University. He teaches business and publc policy, nonprofit leadership and management and corporate social responsibility. He oversees the Global Social Enterprise Initiative at the school. Previously, he was CEO of AARP, a membership organization of over 40 million people age 50 and older and the co-founder of Porter Novelli, which began as a social marketing firm and is now a worldwide public relations agency.

    Guido Palazzo is Professor of Business Ethics at the University of Lausanne (Switzerland). His research interests are in corporate social responsibility and (un)ethical decision-making. He is associate editor of Business Ethics Quarterly and European Management Review and member of the editorial board of Academy of Management Review, Journal of Management Studies and Business & Society. Professor Palazzo's work has appeared in journals such as Academy of Management Review, Journal of Management Studies, Business Ethics Quarterly and Journal of Business Ethics.

    Ken Peattie is Professor of Marketing and Strategy at Cardiff Business School and Director of the ESRC-funded BRASS Research Centre based at Cardiff. Ken's main research interests focus on sustainability marketing and social marketing, examining how both companies and the public sector can promote healthy and sustainable behaviours, lifestyles and communities. He has published three books and numerous book chapters and articles in leading journals on these topics. Professor Peattie's most recent book, Sustainability Marketing: A Global Perspective, co-authored with Professor Frank-Martin Belz, was named as the 2010 Business Book of the Year by the German Business Research Association.

    Sue Peattie is a Lecturer in Marketing at Cardiff Business School and an Associate of BRASS Research Centre ( at Cardiff University. She has taught and conducted research in social marketing for the last 20 years and regularly provides advice and expertise to a variety of national and international projects. Most recently she has been working with South Wales Fire and Rescue Service on Project Bernie, an innovative and highly successful project to reduce the incidence of deliberate grass fires in Wales. This involved providing critical guidance and direction to the project from design and delivery through to evaluation.

    Petia K. Petrova is a faculty member at Dartmouth, an author of a number of articles published in the leading psychology and business journals, and a frequent speaker at national and international conferences. As an expert in persuasion, Dr Petrova has consulted for a variety of government and corporate organisations. For her work on resistance to persuasion, Dr Petrova has received the Individual Research Service Award from the National Institutes of Health.

    Simone Pettigrew is Professor of Marketing at the University of Western Australia Business School. Her primary research interests are consumer education and empowerment, with a specific focus on health promotion. Current research projects relate to child obesity, alcohol consumption, ageing and mental health. She is the founder and editor of the Journal of Research for Consumers ( and a co-editor of the first handbook on Transformative Consumer Research. Professor Pettigrew has published in the Journal of Public Policy and Marketing, BMC Public Health, International Journal of Obesity, Journal of Marketing Management, Consumption, Markets and Culture, and Qualitative Market Research.

    Michele Roberts is Assistant Professor of Marketing at the University of Western Australia Business School. Her primary research interests are in the areas of consumer behaviour and advertising, with a particular focus on social marketing. Dr Roberts current research relates to the effects of food marketing on children's diets.

    Michael Saren is Professor of Marketing at the University of Leicester. Having conducted many research projects into various aspects of marketing, technology and consumer innovation over the last 30 years, Professor Saren's recent research has focused on the development of marketing theory, particularly marketing knowledge, culture and relationships. He was a convener of the marketing streams at the Critical Management Studies Conferences, 1999–2011; and one of the founding editors in 2001 of the journal Marketing Theory (Sage Publications). Professor Saren is also co-editor of books on Rethinking Marketing (Brownlie et al., 1999, Sage Publications), Critical Marketing: Defining the Field (Saren et al., 2007, Elsevier) and is author of Marketing Graffiti: The View from the Street (Saren, 2006, Butterworth-Heinemann).

    Carol Schechter is Vice President at Abt Associates. Ms Schechter brings more than 30 years' experience to her work in health communication, behavioural science and social marketing. She received an MA in economics and an MPH in health planning from the University of Michigan.

    Anne M. Smith is Reader in Marketing at the Open University Business School where she has developed social marketing courses including undergraduate, online CPD and Open-learn. Her main research interests focus on the service sector, particularly health. Her studies have examined how consumers evaluate services, the ways in which service design and service quality impact on evaluation and behaviour and how this differs across cultures. Further research by Dr Smith has focused on the nature and determinants of environmentally responsible behaviour and how an internal marketing approach can promote such behaviour within organisations. Dr Smith's work has been published in a number of international journals.

    William Smith is Academy for Educational Development Executive Vice President/Senior Scientist and a Health Literacy Expert.

    Martine Stead is Deputy Director of the Institute for Social Marketing (ISM) at the University of Stirling and the Open University. Established in 1979, the Institute is the UK's leading centre for the academic study of social marketing. Martine's research interests include the development and evaluation of social marketing behaviour change interventions, the effectiveness of social marketing and the processes by which interventions are implemented in real-world settings. Dr Stead also acts as a social marketing adviser to many NGO, public sector and community projects.

    John Strand is Vice President and Director, FHI 360 Center for Social Marketing and Behavior Change. Over the past 25 years, Mr Strand has pursued practical ways to apply marketing and communication strategies in social change programmes in the United States, Africa and Asia. His recent interests include storytelling and framing to promote policy, system and environmental change. Mr Strand received an MEd in international education from Teachers College, Columbia University and is an Editorial Review Board member of Social Marketing Quarterly.

    Rosemary Thackeray, PhD, MPH, is an associate professor in the Department of Health Science at Brigham Young University in Provo, Utah. Her research focuses on social marketing and health communication; she teaches an upper-division social marketing course. She has served as the co-associate editor for the journal Health Promotion Practice, with responsibility for the social marketing department. Prior to joining the faculty at Brigham Young University, Dr Thackeray was employed at the Utah Department of Health. During a sabbatical, Dr Thackeray worked for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Marketing.

    James B. Weaver III is a Senior Health Communications Specialist in the Office of the Associate Director for Communication, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, US Department of Health and Human Services. Before that, he was a Professor of Communication and Psychology at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. He has authored or co-authored dozens of refereed research articles and book chapters and 1 book. Recent publications have appeared in the Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, the American Journal of Preventive Medicine, and the American Journal of Public Health. His program of research is currently focused on health information disparities as component causes of public health outcomes.

    Boe Workman, PhD, is Senior Director of CEO Communications at AARP. He has been writing on aging, public policy and social issues for over 25 years. Dr. Workman is co-author with Bill Novelli of Fifty Plus: Give Meaning and Purpose to the Best Time of Your Life and editor of Voice of an Aging Nation: Selected Speeches of Horace B. Deets and Voice of Social Change: Selected Speeches of Bill Novelli, both published by AARP.

    List of Figures

    • I.1 ‘The Domain of Social Marketing’ 3
    • 1.1 Impact of quit ads on likelihood of quitting or cutting down by smokers' stage of change (from Donovan et al. 1999) 24
    • 9.1 Levels of competitive analysis – childhood obesity from a parent's perspective 140
    • 9.2 Competition matrix 142
    • 9.3 Generic-level competition matrix 143
    • 9.4 Enterprise-level competition matrix 144
    • 9.5 Product-level competition matrix 144
    • 9.6 Brand-level competition matrix 145
    • 9.7 Perceptual map of reliability and fuel efficiency for automobiles 148
    • 10.1 Key variations in the context for social marketing propositions 161
    • 12.1 Diffusion curve of new media 181
    • 13.1 A framework for conducting programme evaluation 194
    • 13.2 Possible typology of factors influencing programme implementation 200
    • 15.1 The interrelatedness of the research process 225
    • 18.1 From social marketing to corporate social marketing 279
    • 20.1 The role of internal marketing in achieving behavioural change: chapter overview 299
    • 20.2 A service design blueprint for a specialist family planning clinic. Developed from Flieβ and Kleinaltenkamp (2004) 302
    • 22.1 Millennium Development Goals summarized 332
    • 23.1 Sustainable consumption behaviour opportunities (Defra, 2007). PT = public transport 353
    • 24.1 Some of the main contextual challenges and uncertainties faced by civil society and some of the possible outcomes. 360
    • 24.2 The three levels of social marketing policy, strategy and implementation 363
    • 24.3 Some key influences on policy 364
    • 24.4 The strategic intervention mix 364
    • 24.5 Understanding citizens' requirements for developing policy and strategy 367
    • 24.6 Examples of how social marketing can assist in the policy development process 367
    • 24.7 The four basic subgroups in terms of their attitudes and beliefs with regard to social marketing 369
    • 24.8 The ‘customer triangle’ © NSMC 370
    • 24.9 The power matrix 371
    • 24.10 Key players supportive action checklist 371
    • 24.11 Influencing governments about the power of social marketing: a checklist of possible actions 372
    • 26.1 Ads that circulated during 2005 as part of the counter-marketing campaign from the government of Ontario, Canada. Used with permission 397
    • 26.2 Print advertising from the American Legacy Foundation's truth youth smoking prevention campaign. The ads circulated during the early 2000s. Courtesy of the American Legacy Foundation 398

    List of Tables

    • 1.1 Behaviour modification strategies 22
    • 2.1 Examples of social determinants of health 33
    • 3.1 Transaction vs relationship marketing 46
    • 3.2 Types of social change, by time and level of partnership 51
    • 3.3 RM key processes and social marketing consequences 52
    • 3.4 Key RM processes and constructs and social marketing implications 57
    • 3.5 Key RM insights/lessons for social marketing 57
    • 5.1 Principles of Design Thinking 85
    • 5.2 Where behavioral economics, design thinking and demarketing might be incorporated into social marketing research and practice 92
    • 12.1 Descriptions, characteristics, and examples of new media 180
    • 12.2 Strategic and practical questions to consider prior to using new technologies for health marketing 183
    • 13.1 Andreasen's benchmark criteria for social marketing 205
    • 15.1 Types of bivariate data analysis 234
    • 15.2 Types of multivariate data analysis 235
    • 17.1 Levels of support for alcohol control policies (proportion of respondents supporting or strongly supporting) 265
    • 24.1 Policy matrix 366
    • 25.1 Frontrunner Race strategies, 2006 383
    • 27.1 Social marketing (SM) topics preferred at a training event 411


    PhilipKotler and Nancy R.Lee

    In the early 1970s, I realized that marketing concepts and tools could be applied to more than goods and services to be sold for a profit. My colleague Gerald Zaltman and I published an article called ‘Social Marketing: An Approach to Planned Social Change.’ We chose the name ‘social marketing’ to show that not all marketing is commercial, that marketing could also be used to influence behaviors that would create net benefits for the individual, community, and society at large. Philip Kotler

    The fact that SAGE publications has commissioned this Handbook signals just how far we've come in the past four decades. In writing this Foreword, Nancy R. Lee and I have found evidence that many of our hopes for the contribution this discipline can make have been realized. Our observations are reflected in the following section, as well as in Box A, a chronology of seminal events. We also take this opportunity to acknowledge where we can mature the field further, and imagine even greater possibilities over the next decade.

    How We've Grown over the past Four Decades
    • From applications almost exclusively for public health issues to ones contributing to injury prevention, environmental protection, community involvement and, most recently, financial well- being.
    • From primarily mass media campaigns to the use of additional marketing tools almost always needed to reduce barriers and increase benefits including developing new products, providing incentives, increasing convenience of access, creating prompts and nudges in the environment and finding more efficient and effective media tactics including edutainment and social media.
    • From a focus on influencing voluntary behaviors to the recognition that we have a role to play in increasing citizen compliance with existing regulations: from not drinking and driving to properly disposing of hazardous waste.
    • From a primarily academic conversation regarding theories and models to blogs, lively discussions and postings of case studies on listserves, formal presentations at conferences and journal articles contributed by practitioners on the frontline responsible for influencing public behaviors.
    • From introductory workshops to social marketing courses at universities to online courses and webinars to certificates in social marketing and to at least two master degree programs.
    • From one annual social marketing in public health conference in the USA to annual conferences around the world, ones that have included keynote speakers and special sessions on applications for protecting the environment and enhancing financial well-being.
    • From a few articles in a variety of academic journals to two exclusive journals for social marketers to more than a dozen books with social marketing in the title.
    • From thinking our only targeting audiences were individuals downstream to a recognition that the same model can be used to influence important others midstream (e.g. friends, family members, teachers, healthcare providers), and those upstream that are critical to supportive environments (e.g. policymakers, corporations).
    • From a reliance on traditional marketing-focused theories to integration of many traditional behavior change theories including behavioral economics, environmental psychology, community mobilization and social norms.
    • From efforts primarily in North America and the UK to ones applying social marketing principles and techniques in most countries throughout the world. The Fostering Sustainable Behaviors listserve, for example, includes more than 8000 members worldwide.
    • From proposals for contractors to provide communications' campaigns to some now specifying a social marketing approach and experience is required.
    • From listserves providing primarily information exchange to a global professional association, anticipated to launch in the spring of 2011 at the second world conference for social marketers. This organization will provide members around the world with enhanced access to training opportunities, resources and professional networking.
    • From no mention of the term in CDC's (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) Healthy People Goals to three related objectives in the most recent 2020 goals: (1) increase the proportion of State health departments that report using social marketing in health promotion and disease prevention programs; (2) increase the proportion of schools of public health and accredited master of public health (MPH) programs that offer one or more courses in social marketing; and (3) increase the proportion of schools of public health and accredited MPH programs that offer workforce development activities in social marketing for public health practitioners.
    What We Would like to See Happen over the Next Decade
    • Social marketing becomes a required course for those seeking a bachelors or masters degree in public health, public administration, environmental studies, international affairs, political science and medicine. We can't imagine a business degree without a required course in marketing. Those involved in influencing citizen or patient behaviors will benefit from this requirement as well.
    • Every newly elected public official receives at least a half-day briefing on social marketing and its relevance and applications for policymakers.
    • Corporations are engaged as partners with social marketers, recognizing opportunities to develop more products that will assist in influencing desired behaviors: for example, vegetables that taste better; indicators in our car that tell us how much that trip we just took cost in gas; applications to estimate our blood alcohol level; litter receptacles that say ‘thank you,’ sunscreen lotions that help prevent cancer but don't keep you from tanning and stickers on fruits and vegetables in the grocery store that indicate how many miles they ‘traveled’ to get there.
    • More commercial sector marketers migrate to the field, just as they have migrated to non-profit organizations and foundations over the past two decades, finding a way to ‘do more good’ with their skills and experience.
    • Organizations including US AID, The World Bank and the United Nations recognize even more than they do today the role that social marketing can play in influencing behaviors that reduce poverty.
    • Governmental agencies create jobs with the title of social marketing; in fact, at national levels there are even Social Marketing Czars.
    • The general public and the media understand the distinction between social media and social marketing.
    • Debates among social marketers regarding the viability of communications-only campaigns fade away, similar to how the marketing field evolved from the sales concept to one that recognizes that in order for an exchange to take place, we must offer potential customers desired benefits that exceed perceived costs compared with competitive alternatives.
  • Afterword

    Social Marketing: A Future Rooted in the past – W. Smith

    The Handbook concludes with an afterword that attempts to look forward and ask what lies ahead for the field of social marketing. Drawing on the experience of 35 years in social marketing as an author and a program manager, Bill Smith proposes that we look for the future in our most basic roots. The afterword begins by outlining some of the more recognizable achievements of social marketing and then asks what really led to these achievements. The answer to this question is the central dilemma of the afterword. While some argue that marketing should focus on its uniqueness and its differences from communication and regulation, Bill Smith argues the opposite. He sees the management capacity of social marketing to integrate regulation, education and facilitation as the best promise for its future. Using the metaphor of a home contractor, he illustrates that the field is both a series of specializations and a management process that holds them together. He makes the case that marketing is unique in the depth of its experience and in its ability to absorb lessons from other disciplines. He ends by suggesting four steps the field must take in the future if it is to live up to this promise. Bill Smith places the future of social marketing in the hands of Adam Smith, who was the first to teach us that the needs of the producer should be considered only with regard to meeting the needs of the consumer.

    Social Marketing: A Future Rooted in the past1


    The enormous array of ideas about social marketing presented in this book can be difficult to navigate. Many of the authors have years of practical experience and have developed strong opinions about what works. Others are leading academics whose lives have been dedicated to understanding and teaching social marketing. The purpose of this afterword is to propose a future for social marketing that integrates many of their seemingly contradictory views into a single unified process of social change: a management process driven by the fundamental belief expressed by Adam Smith that ‘the interest of the producer ought to be attended to, only so far as it may be necessary for promoting that of the consumer’ (Smith and Cannan (ed.), 1904).

    The Achievements

    I have been privileged for more than 30 years to work on social marketing teams from around the world. Like many of the social marketers of my generation I spent years in the villages of Asia, Latin American and Africa trying to understand why mothers gave enemas to children with diarrhea, why men refused to allow their wives to use contraceptives, and why whole villages melted into the hills when immunization teams arrived. It is hard to believe sometimes how far we have come. The icon of that day was the barefoot doctor of China. Public health was training tens of thousands of villagers to act as surrogate health systems, where no health system existed. The word ‘behavior’ was nowhere to be found. The idea that millions of illiterate rural mothers could manage the complex process of rehydrating a child was considered absurd. At the same time men and women in India, Bangladesh, and Thailand were launching a new era in family planning. The notion that people deserved a choice when it came to planning their families was iconoclastic. The marketing of contraceptives – hundreds of millions of contraceptives – was emerging as a viable and exciting alternative to forced sterilization and the ‘rhythm’ method. With the emergence of AIDS, ‘behavior change’ and social marketing became popular instruments to fight a disease that stigmatized, disfigured, and killed.

    During the past 30 years, social marketing has helped to reduce fertility rates, promoted widespread condom use among gay men, saved millions of children from dehydration, improved the quality of immunization services, dramatically reduced smoking, promoted education for girls, and helped a generation in their battle to conserve energy, protect biodiversity, and save the planet.

    The Dilemma

    But exactly what has been responsible for all these achievements? What is social marketing? This has been the most difficult question of all, and many views are expressed by the authors in this Handbook. For some it is anything that human beings do to change other human beings. So, it is not a hurricane, a new disease, a war or a lobotomy, but apparently it is a new law, or a message from the government, a tweet from a friend, or a new contraceptive. Novelli et al. (Chapter 25) articulate a sensible argument for this notion in their excellent discussion of how one of the great advocacy organizations of the world uses social marketing and advocacy together.

    Other authors define social marketing by its motivation, and not its effects. So Anker and Kappel (Chapter 19) discuss what happens when social marketing is undertaken by commercial marketers – and the dangers from the mixed priorities that can occur when the ‘primary’ goal is corporate profit. They do not argue against commercial social marketing, just for caution. This balance seems wise given that the R&D and marketing of commercial products and services such as automobiles, medicines, houses, and the internet can be demonstrated to have an infinitely more positive influence on human life than anything we social marketers can claim. So the fact that their goal is profit does not put commercial marketers beyond the pale – although Dewhirst and Lee (Chapter 26: tobacco), Hoek (Chapter 16: food), and Jones (Chapter 17: alcohol) each remind us that commercial marketing is complicit in many public health problems.

    There is a third view that avoids the issue of how marketing is different from anything else, and simply lists its characteristics: exchange, segmentation, competition, consumer focus, etc. This is helpful, but not really definitional, because many other disciplines use these tools.

    Perhaps the clearest articulation of social marketing has come from our academic leaders who are concerned with the question: ‘What is unique about social marketing?’ They argue convincingly that to define social marketing too broadly dilutes its special power to contribute to social change. Rothschild (1999) described marketing as part of a triad of intervention strategies – education, regulation, and marketing. He describes marketing's unique contribution as facilitation, making it easier for a person to change, versus education, which provides information, and regulation, which uses social control. He argues that all three are important, but if we are to develop our discipline, he says, we must be clear about what we contribute and not be seduced into becoming communicators or regulators.

    If we look at the history of our achievements, however, we see that the tobacco wars were dominated by education and regulatory strategies and the creation and marketing of alternatives like the ‘patch’ were less important. Indeed, almost all of the achievements we claim in social marketing had within them some use of education and regulatory activities. Even the marketing of subsidized contraceptives, which of all our interventions most closely parallels Rothschild expectations, had to deal with importation duties and local advertising and distribution policies to be effective.

    To be honest, when marketing leaves the classroom and enters the real world it becomes a much messier thing. This is just as true of commercial marketing as it is of social marketing. Great companies are very concerned with regulations and policy. They educate and lobby, as well as market. In a small business ‘marketing’ may mean ‘sales’, while at P&G or NIKE it is a philosophy that permeates the entire organization.

    So what then is it?

    Roots and Mission

    For 3000 years kings and priests talked to God and told the people what he said. It is not a coincidence that democracy and capitalism emerged at the same time. The notions that ‘all men are created equal’ cannot survive without the conviction, stated by Adam Smith in 1776 that ‘the interest of the producer ought to be attended to, only so far as it may be necessary for promoting that of the consumer’ (Smith and Cannan (ed.), 1904). As long as the king controls consumption, he controls equality – or the lack of it.

    If marketing is the instrument through which Adam Smith's assertion is to be achieved, then social marketing is the mechanism to achieve that goal for problems which commercial marketing has abandoned. There are yet no products that compete with alcohol, or cigarettes or heroin, so social marketing must find a new way to fight them. There are populations who will not pay full price for condoms, so we must market them at subsidized prices. For those who can afford a condom, there is no condom which provides the pleasure of barebacking it, so we must make condoms seems important in other ways. Social marketing exists to repair flaws in the marketplace that make the commercialization of products or services insufficiently rewarding to pursue.

    In the hullabaloo about the practice of our profession, we cannot lose sight of our purpose. We are here to remind powerful people that Adam Smith was right and help them meet the needs of the consumers as well as the needs of science. I want to argue that the definition and practice of social marketing should be rooted in this principle.

    Today, the new kings and priests are in the legislatures and laboratories. Laws enforce what science discovers. Governments regulate, cajole, pronounce, and nudge. Evidence-based interventions have become our new icons. These interventions are tested as though they were drugs or vaccines to be distributed and injected in populations to protect them from themselves. The new kings believe that awareness of their magic is enough to make people desire it, and that laws are enough to make people tremble before them. Social marketing is here to remind those powers that the people, even people ignorant of their scientific ‘truths’ and their patronizing laws, are there to be served.

    The initial contribution of social marketing to the field of social change was to frame the individual as a consumer with rights, rather than (1) a citizen with obligations, (2) a student to be taught or (3) an audience to be entertained. When you are an irresponsible ‘citizen’ you are fined or jailed, as we rightly do with drunk drivers. When you are a student you are taught the value of fruits and vegetables and expected to give up the saliva-producing depth of your grandmother's pulled pork sandwich. Regulatory and education strategies work, but they have limitations. We cannot regulate all human behavior in a democracy. As for education, people know how to do a great many things that they refuse to do despite their knowledge.

    Our first job was to make it easier for people to change. We produced new products and services that helped people reduce barriers or experience benefits they care about. When a program in Texas blessed car seats to overcome the fears of Hispanic mothers who don't trust gringo technology, when 1 million young women in Madagascar are given a ‘red card’ to open conversation with a boyfriend who is pushing for sex before she is ready, when Honduran mothers are given a life-saving ‘tonic’ which prevents dehydration in babies, or when a limo service offers men who refuse to stop drinking and driving a free ride to the local bar, that's facilitation, driven by the design of products and services which consumers want and can get.

    But, today, there are many of our greatest challenges where facilitation is too expensive and often just not possible. Are we to abandon these challenges to educators and regulators alone or is there still some important thing we can contribute, even when facilitation is too expensive and too difficult?

    Humans are flawed, and so are their systems: so, traffic laws must be obeyed; our food must be protected; our children must be immunized against diseases that affect others; and our environment must be protected against its destruction. Education may fail, but it also works. Mothers told to protect their child from SIDS (sudden infant death syndrome) by laying him on his back, did so without government regulation or new products to make it easier. Millions stopped smoking as they learned about its risks. And, yes, millions more stopped when cigarettes were taxed, distribution systems limited, and tobacco executives demonized.

    In the real world we need regulation, education, and facilitation if we are to interfere with our species tendency toward self-destruction. But how are we to know which we need, at what time in history, and with what other combination?

    A New Perspective on the Social Marketing Process

    I believe that this is our new mission. I will define social marketing as:

    Our most experienced management system for balancing and integrating the application of regulation, education, and facilitation tactics to meet the desires of large-scale populations as they change over time.

    It is an approach which argues that people act on what they know. They obey rules. And they like things to be easy. But no one strategy is sufficient to deal with the complex array of social problems confronting us. Social marketing has taught us that if we listen to people, we can orchestrate our programs and ourselves as facilitators to accelerate and maximize the efficiency of behavior change.

    In marketing circles this will not be a popular view. Marketing academics are right to worry that if we make marketing too broad it will become nothing at all. They argue that marketing should be limited to facilitation strategies and that while communication and regulation work, they are distinct categories. Among practitioners of social marketing the belief that we need regulation, education, and facilitation is very popular, but actual programs too often default to communication or education strategies alone.

    I believe that by focusing on marketing as a management system rather than a discrete tactic for behavior change, we recognize what is already happening and we lay the groundwork for improvements that matter. After 30 years in the field I think social marketing is and ought to be the general contractor for building effective behavior change interventions that serve both society and the individual.

    Social change is like building a house or a community. We need specialists such as carpenters, electricians, and masons. We also need an architect, a plan, a homeowner, and a general contractor (or clerk of works). This is my metaphor to help describe my conviction that we must now be more than a mechanism to facilitate change.

    In this metaphor, the architect is the funding agency. The homeowner is the population who is to benefit from the construction. Did I mention this is public housing? Yes, the homeowner is not actually paying for the house. This impoverishment places them at considerable disadvantage. The specialists include advocates, communicators, researchers, designers, and a plethora of other talents and professions. The plan is often developed by the architect well in advance of contracting the general contractor and often it is not what the homeowner wants. Oh, and he architect under-budgets fundamentals like market research and plows lots of money in accessories to help ‘sell’ the houses.

    An effective social marketer is a general contractor (GC). The GC is the person who understands what professions are needed, when they are needed, how much they cost, and choices that she has in using them to improve efficiency and save money. Most important, the GC is responsible for understanding and pleasing both the architect and the homeowner.

    Many problems of definition stem from the fact that for years we have had electricians or carpenters playing the role of general contractor. An electrician spends a lot of time talking about electrical, the advocate talking about advocacy, the communicator talking about communication, and the designer talking about designing a new condom or a new dating service. It is a rare specialist that makes a great general contractor.

    Why is Marketing So Special?

    Marketing is special for several critical reasons. Marketing is eclectic and assimilates knowledge from any discipline that meets the needs of the consumer. It is experienced, with vast resources dedicated to studying its effectiveness. It is ubiquitous and adapts itself to whatever problem is important. And it is disciplined when it is applied professionally.

    Social problems vary tremendously in their complexity, their level of readiness to respond to influence, and the tools we have available to address them. New theories, new tools, and new technologies are emerging all the time. Many of these new tools are marketed as ‘the answer’ to all the complexities of social change. Social media is the latest fad promising unparalleled advantages in networking and sharing. Tools are not the answer. But systems that integrate them are. And what other systems do we have?

    In the 1970s and 1980s, health promotion emerged as an integrating system for public health. Environmentalists have focused on ‘system theory’ as an integrating function. Transportation and law enforcement talk of the ‘Three Es’: education, enforcement, and engineering. Each sector reflects the needs of the particular clusters of behaviors they address.

    But none of these have the history, discipline, or experience of marketing, the core discipline from which social marketing pulls its strength. No other discipline has invested the vast sums of money and talent in understanding how people behave and how to efficiently influence their behavior. So pervasive has marketing become in modern life, that it is often mis-used to manipulate rather than serve. Like democracy itself, it may be terrible, but it is better than ‘all those other forms that have been tried from time to time’.

    As I pointed out, this is a controversial view in the community of social marketers. It rejects the classical definition of social marketing so eloquently described by Mike Rothschild as decidedly distinct from both communication and regulatory strategies. Mike is right to worry that a broad definition will lead to sloppy and undisciplined interventions. But I want to propose we reconsider that narrow, if valuable, distinction, in favor of an emphasis on what Adam Smith's concept of marketing really means: organizing around the needs of consumers rather than the producers.

    I want to argue that our true competitors are not education, regulation or participatory strategies, but the individuals who propose that any one of them, working alone, can achieved complex behavior change. For some, the idea that marketing is the engineering function of capitalism is abhorrent. But that is what I believe it to be. And social marketing, in all modesty, should become the engineering, or the contractor, function of social change.

    I don't worry like many others that marketing is often manipulative. Like any system, social marketing can be used ethically or unethically. We can execute programs like professionals or amateurs. When we behave unethically or like amateurs we should be brought to task. But there is nothing inherently evil about using all we know about human behavior in an integrated, constantly improving process to make society better and give individuals a chance at happiness.

    I do worry that we seemed trapped in an endless series of social experiments in which behavior change has become an infectious disease to be fought with a never ending array of behavioral medicines and ‘vaccines’. I worry that few managers ask themselves how to integrate what we know about human behavior into a continuous, self-conscious system of innovation, and instead are driven to try the novel and abandon the ‘done that, been there’ alternative.

    Where Does This Vision Lead Us?

    I believe that the greatest challenge we face in the future is to live up to this promise. Today, too much of what we call social marketing is dominated by advertising, communication, and messages. Too many of us who call ourselves social marketers have little or no background in the fundamentals of our profession. Our political systems are not organized like our economic systems and so policymakers have a hard time understanding our jargon. Attempts like reinventing government, to make our government services entrepreneurial, have demonstrated the possibility of success, but failed to produce widespread change.

    This vision requires we change in at least four fundamental ways.

    Focus on the Managers of Social Change

    Social marketing, to bring us a back to my metaphor, is in the public housing business. Some portion of the social marketing process is paid for by someone other than the consumer. This is not true of successful commercial marketing and it presents a particularly complex dilemma. The presence of a third, financing party, results in the social marketer having two masters of remarkably different character: the piper who pays the bill and the consumer or public it is designed to serve.

    The actual process is much more complicated. Our social marketing ‘housing’ project is staffed by four, not just two, key players: (1) the social marketing expert (general contractor); (2) the donor; (3) the team of specialists who actually does the work; and (4) the homeowner. Each of these players brings to the social marketing process different degrees of understanding, different experiences and bias, and different kinds of power.

    To misunderstand this complex dance of interests is to misunderstand why social marketing fails or succeeds. Success depends not upon the quality of the research, the amount of the budget, the sophistication of the advertising or the design of the service. Success depends upon how cleverly the competing interests of this team are managed. French (Chapter 24) offers an excellent discussion of why social marketing should be important to government and how these relationships can be effectively managed.

    I am proposing a future in which we broaden our perspective from the consumer and focus more attention on the donor, who controls so much of the process. We must offer donors more than facilitation strategies: they need an organizing system, not just another tactic.

    Replace the 4Ps with the Four Cells of Competitiveness

    I have argued forcefully that the 4Ps are the fundamentals of our profession. I still think they are, but that with a broader perspective, we need a broader platform. What if we were to think in terms of four alternative strategies organized around the idea of competitiveness? Something like:

    Increase benefits to the desired behaviorMake smoking not socially rewarding
    Reduce barriers to the desired behaviorImprove quitting technologies
    Increase barriers to the competing behaviorsTax cigarettes, limit distribution
    Decrease benefits to the competing barriersClose bars to smoking

    There is nothing original here. Competiveness has been one of our most powerful contributions to the process of social change. But a refocus in some way may strengthen and renew our commitment to multiple avenues to achieve competitiveness.

    Respect Our Specialists as Specialists

    Social marketing today permits too many specialists to act as general contractors. We need an organizational structure that reflects our dependence upon the specialization of our profession, without communicating that you are a researcher, a creative, an advertiser, a media buyer, or a designer who is somehow not a full-fledged social marketer. At the same time, we need to train a cadre of general contractors, who are no more superior to an advertiser than a general contractor is superior to a carpenter, but who are schooled in the management of integration. This will take time, but if we begin to create interest groups of specialists among us, we can begin to recognize the importance of all our disciplines.

    Actively Populate Our Profession with New Players

    Today our profession is populated largely by communication and advocacy specialists. For reasons of history and mission, these professions have been attracted to social marketing. There exists a growing and powerful design community that still remains largely outside our profession. There is also a community of social entrepreneurs who could add tremendously to our ability to understand and manage social change. If we actively reach out to those communities, ally or merge with them, we can redress the imbalance in our programming which worries so many of us.


    After reflecting on the excellent chapters in this book and on my own experience across many countries and many social marketing challenges, I have concluded that our future lies is opening up rather than closing down. The fears that we have abandoned marketing in favor of too much communication are well founded. But I don't believe the answer is to convince people to focus. Instead, if we bring in new people, think of ourselves as the specialists we are, and add a cadre of integration manager, we have a better chance not only of improving the quality of our work but also of living up to the mission set for us by Adam Smith: ‘the interest of the producer ought to be attended to, only so far as it may be necessary for promoting that of the consumer’ (Smith and Cannan (ed.), 1904).


    1 This chapter was written immediately after an intensely exciting four-month conversation with Michael Rothschild and Nancy Lee that occurred at the end of 2010. We were trying to distinguish between social marketing and other endeavors that compete with it for the attention of change actors. We arrived at a two-page Declaration and a positioning statement for social marketing. That statement may be published before this Handbook is released. We did not agree on everything, but the process was intellectually exciting. It is impossible to disentangle the effects of that conversation on the conclusions of this afterword, so I wish to recognize their contribution in challenging and enlightening my position, and express my gratitude for their friendship and patience with my own often convoluted thinking process. I wouldn't have gotten here without them.

    Rothschild, M. (1999) ‘Carrots, sticks and promises: A conceptual framework for the management of public health and social issue behaviors’, Journal of Marketing, 63(4): 24–37.
    Smith, A. (author) and Cannon, E. (editor) (1904). An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, Vol. II,
    5th edn
    . London: Methuen and Co.

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