The SAGE Handbook of Social Cognition
The SAGE Handbook of Social Cognition is a landmark volume. Edited by two of the field’s most eminent academics over the past two decades and supported by a global advisory board of similar magnitude, the 56 authors, each an expert in their own chapter topic, provide authoritative and thought-provoking overviews of this fascinating territory of research. Not since the early 1990s has a Handbook been published in this field, one that has just exploded in terms of published literature and methodological developments since that time. Now, Susan T. Fiske and C. Neil Macrae have provided a timely and seminal benchmark; a state of the art overview that will benefit advanced students and academics not just within social psychology but beyond these borders too.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: Revisiting the Sovereignty of Social Cognition: Finally Some Action
- Chapter 2: Control, Awareness, and other Things We might Learn to Live Without
- Chapter 3: Implicit Social Cognition
- Chapter 4: Consciousness, Metacognition, and the Unconscious
- Chapter 5: Goals, Motivated Social Cognition, and Behavior
- Chapter 6: The Social Perception of Faces
- Chapter 7: Mind Perception
- Chapter 8: Socially Situated Cognition: Recasting Social Cognition as an Emergent Phenomenon
- Chapter 9: Likes and Dislikes: A Social Cognitive Perspective on Attitudes
- Chapter 10: Nonverbal Perception
- Chapter 11: Embodied Social Thought: Linking Social Concepts, Emotion, and Gesture
- Chapter 12: Levels of Mental Construal
- Chapter 13: Judgment and Decision Making
- Chapter 14: Cognition and Action in the Social World
- Chapter 15: The Social Psychology of Emotion
- Chapter 16: Social Categorization and the Perception of Social Groups
- Chapter 17: Self-Evaluation and Self-Knowledge
- Chapter 18: Social Cognition in Close Relationships
- Chapter 19: Representations of Social Groups in the Early Years of Life
- Chapter 20: Social Cognitive Aging
- Chapter 21: Atypical Social Cognition
- Chapter 22: Social Cognition in Real Worlds: Cultural Psychology and Social Cognition
- Chapter 23: Evolutionary Perspectives on Social Cognition
- Chapter 24: Thinkers' Personalities: On Individual Differences in the Processes of Sense Making
- Chapter 25: The Ideological Toolbox: Ideologies as Tools of Motivated Social Cognition
- Chapter 26: Gene × Environment Interaction in Social Cognition
- Chapter 27: “One Word: Plasticity” – Social Cognition's Futures
Advisory Board[Page ii]
Mahzarin Banaji, Harvard University
John Bargh, Yale University
Ap Dijksterhuis, Radboud University, Nijmegen
Daniel Gilbert, Harvard University
Matthew Lieberman, UCLA, Los Angeles
Eliot Smith, Indiana University, Bloomington
Fritz Strack, University of Wuerzburg
Editorial arrangement © Susan T. Fiske and C. Neil Macrae 2012
Chapter 1 © C. Neil Macrae and Lynden K. Miles 2012
Chapter 2 © B. Keith Payne 2012
Chapter 3 © Brian A. Nosek, Carlee Beth Hawkins, and Rebecca S. Frazier 2012
Chapter 4 © Piotr Winkielman and Jonathan W. Schooler 2012
Chapter 5 © Henk Aarts 2012
Chapter 6 © Alexander Todorov 2012
Chapter 7 © Daniel R. Ames and Malia F. Mason 2012
Chapter 8 © Gün R. Semin, Margarida V. Garrido and Tomás A. Palma 2012
Chapter 9 © Melissa J. Ferguson and Jun Fukukura 2012
Chapter 10 © Nora A. Murphy 2012
Chapter 11 © Autumn B. Hostetter, Martha W. Alibali and Paula M. Niedenthal 2012
Chapter 12 © Oren Shapira, Nira Liberman, Yaacov Trope and SoYon Rim 2012
Chapter 13 © David Dunning 2012
Chapter 14 © Ezequiel Morsella and Avi Ben-Zeev 2012
Chapter 15 © Batja Mesquita, Claudia Marinetti and Ellen Delvaux 2012
Chapter 16 © Galen V. Bodenhausen, Sonia K. Kang, and Destiny Peery 2012
Chapter 17 © Jennifer S. Beer 2012
Chapter 18 © Susan M. Andersen, S. Adil Saribay, and Elizabeth Przybylinski 2012
Chapter 19 © Talee Ziv and Mahzarin R. Banaji 2012
Chapter 20 © William von Hippel and Julie D. Henry 2012
Chapter 21 © Elizabeth Pellicano 2012
Chapter 22 © Beth Morling and Takahiko Masuda 2012
Chapter 23 © Joshua M. Ackerman, Julie Y. Huang and John A. Bargh 2012
Chapter 24 © Arie W. Kruglanski and Anna Sheveland 2012
Chapter 25 © Aaron C. Kay and Richard P. Eibach 2012
Chapter 26 © Joan Y. Chiao, Bobby K. Cheon, Genna M. Bebko, Robert W. Livingston and Ying-Yi Hong 2012
Chapter 27 © Susan T. Fiske 2012
First published 2012
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Notes on Contributors[Page vii]
Henk Aarts (PhD, 1996, Radboud University) is Professor of Psychology at Utrecht University. His research deals with several topics related to the role of goals in social cognition and behavior, with a special interest in the interplay between conscious and unconscious processes in the control and experiences of goal-directed behavior. Dr Aarts has authored over 100 publications in fundamental (e.g., Science) and applied journals (e.g., Health Psychology Review), edited several books (e.g., Goal-Directed Behavior, 2011) and journals (e.g., Psychological Science), and has received several awards for his research contributions (e.g., Netherlands Science Foundation VICI Award). For more information: http://www.goallab.nl.
Joshua M. Ackerman is the Class of 1957 Career Development Professor of Marketing at the MIT Sloan School of Management. He received his BA from Duke University and his PhD in social psychology from Arizona State University. Professor Ackerman's research focuses on the role that adaptive psychological mechanisms play, often outside of conscious awareness, within consumption and decision-making environments. This has included work on topics such as self-control, embodiment, disease and contagion, intergroup processing, and various forms of signaling behavior, and has appeared in journals such as Science, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Personality and Social Psychological Review, and Psychological Science.
Martha W. Alibali is Professor of Psychology and Educational Psychology at the University of Wisconsin – Madison. She received her PhD from the University of Chicago. Her primary areas of research are cognitive development and mathematics learning. She has a special interest in the role of gesture in learning and communication, particularly in educational settings. She is the author of more than 70 peer-reviewed publications, and her research is currently supported by the National Science Foundation and the Institute of Education Sciences.
Daniel R. Ames is a Professor of Management at Columbia University. His work revolves around social judgment and behavior, including how people understand, and sometimes fail to understand, themselves and the people around them and how this comes to life in relationships, influence, cooperation, and conflict. His work has been published in variety of social psychological and organizational outlets, including Psychological Science, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, and Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin.
Susan M. Andersen (PhD, Stanford 1981) is Professor of Psychology at New York University. Her research interests span a number of areas in social psychology (social cognition), personality, and clinical; and her central research focus concerns how everyday interpersonal relations are influenced by past relationships with significant others. This primary line of research examines mental representations of significant others, their structure in memory in relation to the self, and what my colleagues and I have termed the social-cognitive model of transference. She also studies private and covert aspects of self, conceptions of future suffering in depression, and identity change. Professor Andersen's work has [Page viii]appeared in Psychological Review, New Directions in Psychological Science, and numerous times in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
John A. Bargh is Professor of Psychology and Cognitive Science at Yale University. He received his PhD in 1981 from the University of Michigan, under the guidance of Robert B. Zajonc. Professor Bargh's research focuses on automatic and unconscious influences on social cognition, motivation, and behavior; most recently, he has focused on how concrete physical experiences and concepts influence analogous social and psychological experiences and concepts. In recognition of this work, he received the annual Dissertation Award (1982) and more recently, the Scientific Impact Award (2007) from the Society for Experimental Social Psychology, the Early Career Contribution Award from the American Psychological Association, a Guggenheim fellowship, the Donald T. Campbell Lifetime Achievement Award from the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, and an honorary doctorate from Radboud University, the Netherlands. Professor Bargh was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2011.
Avi Ben-Zeev is an Associate Professor of Cognitive Psychology at San Francisco State University (SFSU). He received his PhD degree from Yale University in 1997. Previous to his tenure at SFSU, Dr Ben-Zeev was a faculty member in the Cognitive and Linguistic Sciences Department at Brown University and in the Psychology Department at Williams College. Dr Ben-Zeev's scholarship has centered on explicating cognitive underpinnings of social categorization and stereotyping, especially in regard to identifying contextual factors that cause stigmatized individuals to underperform intellectually (i.e., social identity threat). He has published and edited several books such as Complex Cognition: The Psychology of Human Thought (with Robert Sternberg) and a variety of research articles in journals such as Psychological Science, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, and Cognitive Science. More recently, Dr Ben-Zeev has been investigating how basic categorization processes associated with essentialist thought are implicated in the perception of social-artifactual categories as “natural.”
Mahzarin R. Banaji received her PhD from Ohio State University, taught at Yale for 15 years and since 2002 has been Richard Clarke Cabot Professor of Social Ethics at Harvard University. She studies social cognition with a focus on nonconscious processes in adults and young children. With Susan Gelman she has edited a forthcoming book, Navigating the Social World: The Early Years. Professor Mahzarin is a fellow of the Society of Experimental Psychologists, Herbert Simon Fellow of the Association for Political and Social Science and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and served as President of the Association for Psychological Science in 2011–2012.
Genna M. Bebko is a post-doctoral associate at the Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. She holds a BS in Neuroscience and Psychology from Allegheny College and a PhD in Neuroscience from Northwestern University. Dr Bebko's research interests include emotion regulation, prosocial behavior, and reward processing. Her most recent publication in the journal Emotion examined the perceptual strategies underlying emotion regulation. Her current projects focus on identifying biomarkers of bipolar disorder in adults and at-risk children populations.
Jennifer S. Beer is an Associate Professor at the University of Texas at Austin where she directs the Self-Regulation Lab. She received her PhD in Social Personality Psychology from the University of California, Berkeley. Her research focuses on the self, emotion, social cognition, and frontal lobe function. She has published more than 45 articles and chapters and edited Methods in Social Neuroscience and a special issue of Brain Research on Social Cognitive Neuroscience. Her research has received funding from the National Institutes of Health and the National Science Foundation. Dr Beer serves on the editorial boards for the Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Social Cognition, Emotion, and Social, Cognitive, and Affective Neuroscience. She was a recipient of a Harrington Faculty Fellowship and was recognized as the 7th most cited Assistant Professor in Social-Personality Psychology by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology. Dr Beer serves on the Executive Committees of the Society for Experimental Social Psychology and is a co-founder of the Social and Affective Neuroscience Society.[Page ix]
Galen V. Bodenhausen is the Lawyer Taylor Professor of Psychology and a Professor of Marketing at Northwestern University. He studies a variety of issues concerning the structure and function of social attitudes and beliefs, particularly in the domain of intergroup perception. He has served as an Editor or Associate Editor of several journals, including Personality and Social Psychology Review, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, and Social Cognition. A fellow in several learned societies, Professor Bodenhausen is also a recipient of the Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel Research Prize from the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation in Germany.
Bobby K. Cheon is a doctoral student in the Social Psychology program at Northwestern University. He received his BA in Cognitive Science from the University of Virginia. His research explores the role of culture on the psychological and neurobiological processes that underlie stigma and intergroup bias. He has conducted research in the United States, South Korea, and Singapore, examining how culture may shape cognitions, evaluations, and emotions towards out-groups and stigmatized groups. His most recent contribution to social-cultural neuroscience, published in the journal NeuroImage, examines cultural influences on the neural processes that underlie empathic biases for the suffering of in-group relative to out-group members.
Joan Y. Chiao is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Psychology at Northwestern University. She received her PhD in Psychology from Harvard University in 2006, studying social psychology and cognitive neuroscience. Her main research interests include cultural neuroscience of emotion and social interaction, social and affective neuroscience across development, social dominance and affiliation, and integrating psychology and neuroscience research with public policy and population health issues. Dr Chiao currently serves on the board of several journals, including Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, Social Neuroscience, Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, Frontiers in Cultural Psychology, Frontiers in Human Neuroscience and Biology of Anxiety and Mood Disorders. In 2009–10, she served as Editor for an edited volume of Progress in Brain Research on cultural neuroscience called “Cultural Neuroscience: Cultural Influences on Brain Function” and a special issue on cultural neuroscience in Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience. Dr Chiao is a recipient of funding from the National Science Foundation and Japan Society for the Promotion of Science and Technology.
Ellen Delvaux is a doctoral student at the Center of Social and Cultural Psychology, University of Leuven, Belgium. She is interested in intergroup as well as intragroup emotional processes. Her doctoral research focuses on the emotional dynamics in groups. She has published on the time dynamics of emotion and on emotional labor.
David Dunning is Professor of Psychology at Cornell University. He received his BA from Michigan State University and his doctorate from Stanford University, both in psychology. He is best known for his work on misguided self-evaluation, which borrows principles from judgment and decision making and motivated reasoning to explain why people so often misjudge their competence, character, and status in the social world. Much of his approach is reviewed in his book Self-insight: Roadblocks and Detours on the Path to Knowing Thyself (Psychology Press, 2005), and has been supported financially by grants from the National Institutes of Health and the National Science Foundation. He is the former executive officer of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology.
Richard P. Eibach (PhD, Cornell University) is an Assistant Professor of Social Psychology at the University of Waterloo (Canada). His research on such topics as perceptions of self and social change, visual perspective in mental imagery, idealization of parenthood, and judgments of progress towards racial and gender equality has been published in Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Psychological Science, Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, and Journal of Experimental Social Psychology.[Page x]
Melissa J. Ferguson is currently an Associate Professor in the Psychology Department at Cornell University. Her main area of interest is implicit social cognition, and she studies the topics of attitudes, goals, ideology, and decision-making. Her work has appeared in journals such as the Journal of Social and Personality Psychology, Psychological Science, Trends in Cognitive Science, and Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Her research has been funded by the National Institutes of Mental Health, the National Science Foundation, and the Binational Science Foundation.
Susan T. Fiske is Eugene Higgins Professor of Psychology, Princeton University (Ph.D., Harvard University; honorary doctorates, Université Catholique de Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; Universiteit Leiden, Netherlands). Author of over 250 publications in outlets such as Science, Psychological Science, Personality and Social Psychology Science, and the Annual Review of Psychology, she investigates how people make sense of each other, especially cognitive stereotypes and emotional prejudices, at cultural, interpersonal, and neural levels. She recently edited Beyond Common Sense: Psychological Science in the Courtroom and the Handbook of Social Psychology (5/e). She wrote Social Beings: Core Motives in Social Psychology (2/e) and Social Cognition: From Brains to Culture (3/e). Her most recent book, supported by a Guggenheim and published by Russell Sage Foundation, is Envy Up and Scorn Down: How Status Divides Us. Recently, she won the American Psychological Association's Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award and Association for Psychological Science's William James Award, as well as being elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences.
Rebecca S. Frazier received her BS in Psychology and Cognitive Science from the University of Richmond in 2009 and is currently a PhD student in the Department of Psychology at the University of Virginia. In 2010, she received the Jacob K. Javits fellowship from the Department of Education as well as an honorable mention from the National Science Foundation's Graduate Research Fellowship Program. Her research interests include implicit social cognition, morality, ethics, ideology, group dynamics, group-level identification, and leadership.
Jun Fukukura is a fifth-year graduate student in the Psychology Department at Cornell University where she is an advisee of Melissa Ferguson. Her research interests are primarily in decision-making in consumer contexts, materialism, and psychological distance.
Margarida V. Garrido is an Assistant Professor at the Department of Social and Organizational Psychology, ISCTE-University Institute of Lisbon, Portugal and a researcher at CIS/ISCTE-IUL. Her current research interests focus on the influence of informational, environmental, and social contexts on person memory, and the interplay between encoding and retrieval of information in individual and collaborative conditions. She is also interested in exploring the spatial grounding of abstract concepts such as time and politics, as well as in the role of context salience in constraining metaphor use. For more information, see http://www.cis.com.pt.
Carlee Beth Hawkins graduated summa cum laude with a BS in psychology from Southern Illinois University Edwardsville in 2006. In 2010, she received a MA in social psychology from the University of Virginia, and was awarded the Maury Pathfinder award for best pre-dissertation. She is currently pursuing her PhD at the University of Virginia and is a researcher with Project Implicit, a virtual laboratory for research and education of implicit cognition – thoughts and feelings outside of conscious awareness or control. Carlee's research interests concern identity and ideology, and their influence on judgment and behavior, and strategies for overcoming implicit bias, including intentions for objectivity and resisting group influence.
Julie D. Henry received her doctoral degree from the University of Aberdeen, Scotland (2003). Previously she worked at the University of New South Wales, and is currently an Associate Professor and Australian Research Fellow at the University of Queensland. Her research focuses broadly on the effects of aging [Page xi]and brain disease on cognition, emotion, and social functioning. She is the author of over 80 research articles in journals that include Psychology and Aging, Neuropsychology, Neuropsychologia, Brain, and Journal of Abnormal Psychology. Dr Henry is Associate Editor for the British Journal of Clinical Psychology, a journal of the British Psychological Society (BPS), and an Editorial Board Member for the oldest journal devoted to gerontological research, Gerontology. She has received several prestigious grants and awards for her work.
Ying-Yi Hong is a Professor at the Nanyang Business School of Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. She received her PhD from Columbia University in 1994, specializing in experimental social psychology. She taught at the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology from 1994 to 2002 before moving to the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC), where she taught at the Department of Psychology for six years. Her main research interests include culture and cognition, self, identity, and intergroup relations. Dr Hong has published over 90 journal articles and book chapters mainly on multiculturalism and identity. She co-authored Social Psychology of Culture with Chi-yue Chiu and co-edited Understanding Culture: Theory, Research, and Application with Robert Wyer and Chi-yue Chiu. She is currently an editor of Advances in Culture and Psychology, a book series published by Oxford University Press. Dr Hong is the recipient of the Otto Klineberg Intercultural and International Relations Award in 2001, the Young Investigator Award (conferred by the International Society of Self and Identity) in 2004, and was elected Fellow of the Association for Psychological Science, and Associate of the Center for Advanced Study, UIUC.
Autumn B. Hostetter is Assistant Professor of Psychology at Kalamazoo College. She received her PhD from the University of Wisconsin – Madison. Her research interests include the cognitive underpinnings of speech-accompanying gesture and the role of gesture in communication. Recent publications have appeared in Psychological Bulletin, Journal of Memory and Language, and Psychonomic Bulletin and Review.
Julie Yun-Ju Huang holds an MS and PhD in social psychology from Yale University. She is currently a Postdoctoral Fellow at Rotman School of Management at the University of Toronto. Her research explores how non-conscious psychological processes drive individual judgments and behaviors, with a particular focus on how incidental physical experiences affect ongoing goal pursuit.
Sonia K. Kang is an Assistant Professor in the Rotman School of Management at the University of Toronto. She received her PhD from the University of Toronto in 2010 and worked as a Postdoctoral Fellow with Galen Bodenhausen at Northwestern University during 2010–2011. Her research examines the development, experience, and consequences of stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination across the life span. Dr Kang's work has appeared in a variety of outlets, including the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, the Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, the Journal of Social Issues, and The Gerontologist.
Aaron C. Kay (PhD, Stanford University, 2005) is Associate Professor of Management and Associate Professor of Psychology and Neuroscience at Duke University. Dr Kay's research focuses on the relation between motivation, implicit social cognition, and social issues. He has a particular interest in how basic motivations and needs manifest as specific social and societal beliefs. These include (but are not limited to) the causes and consequences of stereotyping and system justification, religious belief, political ideology, and the attitudes people hold towards their organizations and institutions. He also studies processes underlying priming effects. Dr Kay has been awarded the SAGE Young Scholar Award from the Foundation of Personality and Social Psychology (2010), the Early Career Contribution Award from the International Society of Justice Researchers (2010), the Early Researchers Award from the Ontario Ministry of Research and Innovation (2009), and Dissertation Awards from the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues (2006) and the Society of Experimental Social Psychology (runner-up; 2006).[Page xii]
Arie W. Kruglanski is a Distinguished University Professor at the University of Maryland, College Park. He has published over 250 works on human judgment and belief formation, motivated cognition, and psychology of goals. His articles have been published in leading journals, including Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Psychological Review, Psychological Bulletin, and Psychological Science. Awards include the NIMH Research Scientist Award, the Senior Humboldt Award, the Donald Campbell Award, and the Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award from the Society of Experimental Social Psychology. He is co-director at the National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism (START).
Nira Liberman is Professor of Psychology at Tel Aviv University. Her doctoral degree is from Tel Aviv University (1997). As one of the authors of Construal Level Theory, much of her research focuses on psychological distance – how it affects and is being affected by mental construal, prediction, decision making, persuasion, performance, interpersonal relations, etc. She has also made contributions to other areas of theory and research, all of which come under the general umbrella of the interface between motivation and cognition: an attributional theory of thought suppression, the question of how goals affect construct accessibility, how regulatory foci affect decision making. Her research has been funded by the Israeli Science Foundation and the US–Israel Binational Science Foundation. She has served as an Associate Editor for Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
Robert W. Livingston is an Assistant Professor at the Kellogg School of Management at Northwestern University. He received his PhD in Social Psychology from the Ohio State University. Dr Livingston's research investigates topics related to stereotyping, prejudice, intergroup discrimination, and social hierarchy. Specifically, his research focuses on the affective and affective processes underlying intergroup attitudes and the role of physical appearance in person perception. Dr Livingston's research has been published in numerous top-tiered journals of social psychology, including the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, and Psychological Science. He has received awards for outstanding research and teaching from Division 9 of the American Psychological Association and the University of Wisconsin – Madison, respectively, and currently serves on the editorial board of the Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin.
C. Neil Macrae is Professor of Social Cognition at the School of Psychology, University of Aberdeen, Scotland. His current research focuses on person perception and mental time travel. His work has appeared in journals such as Science, Nature, Nature Neuroscience, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Psychological Science and Cognition and he is the recipient of several career awards (APA Early Career Award, BPS Spearman Medal, EASP Jaspars Award, EASP Kurt Lewin Award). He is a Fellow of the British Academy (FBA) and the Royal Society of Edinburgh (FRSE).
Claudia Marinetti is a Research Fellow at the Cultural and Social Psychology Center at the University of Leuven, Belgium. She received her BA and MA at the Università degli Studi di Padova, and her PhD at the University of Oxford. Her main research interest lies in the nature and impact of emotion experience at individual, interpersonal, and intergroup level. She has published on a range of topics such as emotions in social interactions, emotion experience and infrahumanization in intergroup conflict, and the social nature of emotions.
Malia F. Mason is an Associate Professor of Management at Columbia University. Her research documents and analyzes the tactics that people use to understand and explain the behavior of others (e.g., mind reading, perspective taking, stereotyping), and how the brain mediates social interactions. She uses both brain imaging (fMRI) and traditional experimental techniques to investigate these interests. Professor Mason has published in a variety of journals, including Science, Psychological Science, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Social Cognitive Affective Neuroscience, and Journal of Experimental Social Psychology.[Page xiii]
Takahiko Masuda is an Associate Professor of Psychology at the University of Alberta, Canada. He received his PhD degree from the University of Michigan in 2003. His current research interests include cultural variations in perceptual and cognitive processes between East Asians, Asian Immigrants in Canada, and North Americans. His work has been published in Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Journal of Experimental Psychology, Cognitive Science, Psychological Science, and Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. He serves on the editorial boards of Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin and Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. His awards include a Japanese Psychological Association Award for International Contributions to Psychology (Award for Distinguished Early and Middle Career Contributions).
Batja Mesquita is a Professor of Emotion and Motivation at the Center of Cultural and Social Psychology, University of Leuven, Belgium. Most of her research focuses on the mutual constitution of emotions and sociocultural contexts. Mesquita co-edited The Mind in Context (2010), and has served on a large number of peer-reviewed journals in the areas of Emotion and Social Psychology. Currently, she is an Associate Editor of Psychological Science. Professor Mesquita is a fellow of the Royal Dutch Academy of Sciences, the American Psychological Society, the American Psychological Association, and the Society for Personality and Social Psychology.
Lynden K. Miles is a Research Fellow in the School of Psychology, University of Aberdeen, Scotland. His research is concerned with the role of perception and action in social contexts.
Beth Morling is an Associate Professor of Psychology at the University of Delaware. After receiving her PhD from the University of Massachusetts Amherst, she conducted postdoctoral work at Kyoto University. With many colleagues, she has investigated how culture shapes motivation in social situations, such as interpersonal adjustment and social support. She recently returned from a year as a Fulbright scholar, teaching and conducting research in Kyoto, Japan. Her work has been published in Personality and Social Psychology Review and Psychological Bulletin. In addition to writing about cultural psychology, she recently authored an undergraduate research methods book.
Ezequiel Morsella is an Assistant Professor of Neuroscience at San Francisco State University and an Assistant Adjunct Professor in the Department of Neurology at the University of California, San Francisco. His research focuses on the difference between the conscious and unconscious brain processes responsible for human action. He conducted his doctoral research at Columbia University and his postdoctoral training at Yale University. His theoretical and experimental research on the basic mechanisms underlying human action has appeared in journals such as Psychological Review, Neurocase, and Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition. Dr Morsella is the editor of the Oxford Handbook of Human Action (with John Bargh and Peter Gollwitzer).
Nora A. Murphy is an Assistant Professor of Psychology at Loyola Marymount University in Los Angeles, CA. She earned a PhD in experimental psychology with a specialization in social and personality psychology from Northeastern University in Boston, MA; and she completed a postdoctoral fellowship at Brandeis University in Waltham, MA. Her research centers on nonverbal behavior and nonverbal communication, particularly in the areas of impression formation; emotions and aging; and social identities as portrayed in 3D environments. She has published several book chapters and numerous articles appearing in journals such as Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking; Journal of Nonverbal Behavior; Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin; and Psychology and Aging.
Paula M. Niedenthal received her PhD at the University of Michigan and was on the faculty of the Departments of Psychology at Johns Hopkins University and Indiana University. She is currently Director of Research in the National Centre for Scientific Research and a member of the Laboratory in Social and [Page xiv]Cognitive Psychology at Blaise Pascal University in Clermont-Ferrand, France. Her areas of research include emotion–cognition interaction and representational models of emotion. Author of more than 100 articles and chapters, and several books, Dr Niedenthal is a fellow of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology.
Brian A. Nosek received a PhD in psychology from Yale University in 2002 and is an Associate Professor in the Department of Psychology at the University of Virginia. In 2007, he received early career awards from the International Social Cognition Network (ISCON) and the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues (SPSSI). He directs Project Implicit (http://projectimplicit.net/) an Internet-based multi-university collaboration of research and education about implicit cognition – thoughts and feelings that exist outside of awareness or control. Nosek's research interests include implicit cognition, automaticity, social judgment and decision-making, attitudes and beliefs, stereotyping and prejudice, ideology, morality, identity, memory, and the interface between theory, methods, and innovation.
Tomás A. Palma is currently a PhD candidate at ISCTE-University Institute of Lisbon, Portugal, and at the University of Utrecht, The Netherlands and a researcher at CIS/ISCTE-IUL. His research interests focus on the situated and embodied nature of cognition, in particular the interplay between context and person memory, how they interact, and how one can constrain the other. He is also currently working on how “gender” is grounded. For additional information, see his homepage at http://www.cratylus.org.
B. Keith Payne is Associate Professor of Psychology at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. His research focuses on the interaction between intentionally controlled and automatic aspects of behavior. He studies these topics in the context of prejudice, stereotyping, and discrimination as well as moral judgment and decision making more generally. He is currently Associate Editor at Social Cognition, and his research has been recognized with awards including the Sage Young Scholars Award and the International Social Cognition Network Early Career Award. He recently co-edited the Handbook of Implicit Social Cognition.
Destiny Peery is a JD/PhD candidate at Northwestern University; she expects to receive both degrees in 2012. Her primary line of research examines racial categorization processes for multiracial or racially ambiguous targets, including more general investigation of the construction of race as a category from psychological and legal and political perspectives. Her work has appeared in such outlets as Psychological Science, Psychological Inquiry, and the Du Bois Review.
Elizabeth Pellicano, PhD, is Senior Lecturer at the Centre for Research in Autism and Education at the Institute of Education, London. Her research develops subtle theoretical models of the distinctive challenges faced by people with autism and traces the impact of those challenges on daily life, especially in childhood and in a range of learning environments. Dr Pellicano has published widely on this work, including in Current Biology and Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS). She has been awarded several national and international prizes for her research, including the Michael Young Prize from UK's Economic and Social Research Council for research likely to have a significant public impact.
Elizabeth Przybylinski is a PhD candidate in the Social Psychology at New York University (degree expected in 2013), having received her undergraduate degree from Barnard College. Her research focuses mainly on the social-cognitive process of transference and the relational self, examining the epistemological functions of the process and goal strategies that may enable the regulation of the process and its effects. She has presented her work at numerous conferences, including among others, the Association for Psychological Science (APS) and the Society for Personality and Social Psychology (SPSP) conventions. Liz is a co-author of a chapter in the forthcoming Warsaw lectures on personality and social psychology and of an article in Social and Personality Psychology Compass.[Page xv]
SoYon Rim is a Postdoctoral Research Fellow in Public Policy at the Harvard Kennedy School of Government. She received her PhD in Social Psychology from New York University. Dr Rim's research interests are centered on understanding the effect of perceived psychological distance on representation and decision-making, particularly with respect to issues of causality. She has also conducted research that examines implicit impression formation within a functionality framework.
S. Adil Saribay (PhD, New York University, 2008) is Assistant Professor of Psychology at Bogaziçi University in İstanbul, Turkey. His research interests are person perception, social cognition, interpersonal processes, the relational self, social-cognitive transference, and intergroup processes. His work has appeared in the Annual Review of Psychology and Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin.
Jonathan W. Schooler is a Professor of Psychological and Brain Sciences at the University of California Santa Barbara, where he pursues research on consciousness, meta-cognition, memory, and creativity. A former holder of a Tier 1 Canada Research Chair, he is a fellow of APS, the recipient of grants from both US (e.g. NIMH, Department of Education) and Canadian (e.g. NSERC, CIHR, SSHRC) government agencies, and has served on the editorial boards of Memory and Cognition, Applied Cognitive Psychology, Consciousness and Cognition, Psychological Science, Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, Encyclopedia of Consciousness, and the Journal of Imagination, Cognition and Personality.
Gün R. Semin is an Academy Professor with The Netherlands Royal Academy of Arts and Sciences at Utrecht University and also Professor of Psychology at Koç University, Istanbul. He has previously served as Professor and Chair of the Department of Social Psychology at the Free University (1990–2004) and as Research Director (2000–2003) of the Faculty of Psychology and Education. Professor Semin was also the founding Scientific Director of the Kurt Lewin Institute (1992–1996), the inter-university graduate school in social psychology, the Netherlands. He has been on the editorial board of journals in his field (e.g., Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Personality and Social Psychology Review, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, European Journal of Social Psychology). His main research interest is in embodied social cognition, communication, language, and social neuroscience – aside from specific research projects he is currently running on affect and affective processes and the action–perception link. Further information about his research and publications can be obtained at http://www.cratylus.org.
Oren Shapira is a researcher of social psychology at the Department of Psychology at Tel Aviv University. His research topics include implicit social cognition, mental construal, and problem solving. He is now examining whether psychological distance and a high level of mental construal can help people reason analogically and solve problems. He has also studied the psychological effects of terrorism and forced evacuation as part of a research group at the National Security Studies Center at the University of Haifa.
Anna Sheveland holds a BA in psychology, a BA in economics and government and politics, and an MS in psychology from the University of Maryland, where she is currently a doctoral candidate in the Psychology Department. Her research interests include motivated cognition, the ascription of epistemic authority, political ideology, and terrorism.
Alexander Todorov received his PhD from New York University in 2002. Currently, he is an Associate Professor of Psychology and Public Affairs at Princeton University with a joint appointment in the Department of Psychology and the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs. He is also an affiliated faculty of the Princeton Neuroscience Institute and a visiting professor at Radboud University, the Netherlands. His research focuses on the cognitive and neural basis of social cognition, with a particular emphasis on face perception. In addition to publications on judgments and decision-making, he has over 40 peer-reviewed publications on various topics of face perception published in psychology journals, neuroscience journals, computer science journals, and in general journals such as Science and [Page xvi]Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. His research has been funded by the National Science Foundation. He is a recipient of the SAGE Young Scholar Award from the Foundation for Personality and Social Psychology, and fellowships from the Guggenheim Foundation and the Russell Sage Foundation.
Yaacov Trope earned a PhD in Psychology from the University of Michigan in 1974 and is a Professor of Psychology at New York University. He is a recipient of several awards, including the Fulbright Fellowship and the American Psychological Society Fellowship. Professor Trope's research has focused on motivation and cognition, dual-mode processing of social information, self-control, and the mental construal processes that afford predicting, emoting, and taking action with respect to psychologically distant objects.
William von Hippel is Professor and Head of the School of Psychology at the University of Queensland. He received his PhD in Social Psychology from the University of Michigan. His research interests are broad, and include the impact of aging on self-control processes and the role of evolution in shaping thought and behavior. He has authored more than 80 articles and chapters with funding from the National Institute of Aging and the Australian Research Council. Professor von Hippel serves on the editorial boards of several social psychology journals and is President-Elect of the Society of Australasian Social Psychologists.
Piotr Winkielman (PhD 1997 Michigan, post-doc OSU) is Professor of Psychology at the University of California, San Diego. His current research focuses on the relation between emotion, cognition, embodiment, and consciousness using psychological and psychophysiological approaches. His research has been supported by NSF, NIMH, and NAAR. He co-edited the books Emotion and Consciousness (2005) and Social Neuroscience (2008). He has served on the editorial boards of the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology and Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. From 2006 to 2008 he was Associate Editor of Emotion, and from 2008 to 2010 of Psychological Review.
Talee Ziv holds a BA from Tel Aviv University, and is currently a PhD candidate in the Department of Psychology at Harvard University. She has studied infants' visual preference for own-race faces cross-culturally, and her present research focuses on understanding the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon as well as its link to later developing racial attitudes.