Handbook of Physiological Research Methods in Health Psychology
Publication Year: 2008
The field of health psychology has exploded in the last decade due to progress identifying physiological mechanisms by which psychological, social, and behavioral factors can put people's health and well-being at risk. The Handbook of Physiological Research Methods in Health Psychology provides thorough, state-of-the-art, and user-friendly coverage of basic techniques for measurement of physiological variables in health psychology research. It is designed to serve as a primary reference source for researchers and students interested in expanding their research to consider a biopsychosocial approach. Chapters addressing key physiological measures have been written by international experts with an eye towards documenting essential information that must be considered in order to accurately and reliably measure biological samples. The book is not intended to be a lab manual of ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: Physiological Research Methods in Health Psychology: Applications of the Biopsychosocial Model
- Chapter 2: Measuring Physiological Processes in Biopsychosocial Research: Basic Principles amid Growing Complexity
- A. Hormonal
- Chapter 3: Measurement of Cortisol
- Chapter 4: Sympathetic Hormones in Health Psychology Research
- Chapter 5: Assessment of Salivary α-Amylase in Biobehavioral Research
- B. Cardiovascular
- Chapter 6: The Measurement of Blood Pressure in Cardiovascular Research
- Chapter 7: Cardiovascular Stress Reactivity
- Chapter 8: Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring
- Chapter 9: Noninvasive Assessment of Autonomic Influences on the Heart: Impedance Cardiography and Heart Rate Variability
- C. Immune
- Chapter 10: Laboratory-Based Measures of Immune Parameters and Function
- Chapter 11: Immunological Functioning II: Field Measures and Viral Challenge
- Chapter 12: Measuring Adiposity in Health Research
- Chapter 13: The Measurement of Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Physical Function
- Chapter 14: Metabolic Syndrome
- Chapter 15: Lipid, Lipoprotein, and Inflammatory Markers of Atherosclerosis
- Chapter 16: Measurement of Sleep by Polysomnography
Copyright © 2008 by Sage Publications, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Handbook of physiological research methods in health psychology/[edited by] Linda J. Luecken, Linda C. Gallo.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-1-4129-2605-8 (cloth : alk. paper)
1. Clinical health psychology—Research—Methodology. I. Luecken, Linda J. II. Gallo, Linda C.
[DNLM: 1. Psychophysiology—methods. 2. Biological Psychiatry. 3. Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures. WL 103 H2361 2008]
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
08 09 10 11 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Acquisitions Editor: Cheri Dellelo
Editorial Assistant: Anna Marie Mesick
Production Editor: Catherine M. Chilton
Copy Editor: Dorothy Hoffman
Typesetter: C&M Digitals (P) Ltd.
Proofreader: Doris Hus
Indexer: Sheila Bodell
Cover Designer: Bryan Fishman
Marketing Manager: Amberlyn Erzinger
The field of health psychology has exploded in the last decade due to progress identifying physiological mechanisms by which psychological, social, and behavioral factors can put people's health and well-being at risk.
The Handbook of Physiological Research Methods in Health Psychology provides thorough, state-of-the-art, and user-friendly coverage of basic techniques for measurement of physiological variables in health psychology research. It is designed to serve as a primary reference source for researchers and students interested in expanding their research to consider a biopsychosocial approach. Chapters addressing key physiological measures have been written by international experts with an eye towards documenting essential information that must be considered in order to accurately and reliably measure biological samples. The book is not intended to be a lab manual of specific biomedical techniques, nor is it intended to provide extensive physiological or anatomical information. Rather, it takes the approach most useful for a non-specialist who seeks guidance on how and when to collect biological measures but who will have the actual samples assayed elsewhere.
The Handbook can be thought of as a primer or a gateway book for researchers new to the area of physiological measurement and for readers who would like to better understand the meaning of physiological measures they encounter in research reports
Sage Publications would like to acknowledge the following reviewers:
- Professor Derek W. Johnston
- School of Psychology
- University of Aberdeen
- M. David Rudd, PhD, ABPP
- Professor and Chair
- Texas Tech University
- Psychology Department
- William R. Lovallo, PhD
- VA Medical Center and Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
- University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center
- Sandra Sgoutas-Emch, PhD
- Professor of Psychology, Department of Psychology
- Director of Gender Studies Program
- University of San Diego
- Dr. Victoria Burns
- School of Sport and Exercise Sciences
- University of Birmingham
- Terry Pace
- University of Oklahoma
- Diane C. Tucker
- University of Alabama
About the Editors[Page 451]
Linda J. Luecken, PhD, is an Associate Professor of Psychology at Arizona State University. She received her master's in experimental psychology from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and her PhD in clinical psychology from Duke University. She completed postdoctoral training at the University of Vermont in the Department of Psychology. Her research focuses on women's and children's health, with an emphasis on the influence of childhood adversity on the development of neuroen-docrine and cardiovascular stress response systems. Recent research interests include prenatal risk and protective factors affecting birth outcomes in low-income Hispanic women. Her research has been funded by the National Institutes of Mental Health, the American Heart Association, and the Maricopa County Department of Public Health.
Linda C. Gallo received her PhD in clinical psychology (health concentration) from the University of Utah in 1998. After completing a National Institutes of Health (NIH) postdoctoral fellowship in Cardiovascular Behavioral Medicine at the University of Pittsburgh, she joined the faculty of San Diego State University (SDSU) and the SDSU/ University of California-San Diego (UCSD) Joint Doctoral Program in Clinical Psychology, where she is currently an Associate Professor and Senior Core Investigator at the Center for Behavioral and Community Health Studies. Dr. Gallo's research examines socioeconomic and ethnic disparities in cardiovascular and other chronic diseases, with a special focus on the roles that stress, emotional factors, and social relationships have in these disparities. Dr. Gallo has more than 30 published articles and chapters, appearing in such outlets as the Annals of Behavioral Medicine, Health Psychology, Psychosomatic Medicine, Psychophysiology, and Psychological Bulletin. Her current research is funded by the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute and the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.[Page 452]
About the Contributors[Page 453]
Gene E. Alexander, PhD, is Professor and Director of the Neuroimage Analysis Laboratory, Department of Psychology, Arizona State University. He is also Director of the MRI Morphology Core of the Arizona Alzheimer's Research Center. Dr. Alexander obtained his doctorate in Clinical Psychology from Loyola University of Chicago and received his postdoctoral training in brain imaging and neuropsychology in the Brain Imaging Division, Department of Biological Psychiatry, New York State Psychiatric Institute and Columbia University Medical Center. Prior to joining the Arizona Alzheimer's Research Center, Dr. Alexander was Chief of the Neuropsychology Unit in the Laboratory of Neurosciences in the Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health. His research focuses on the use of neuroimaging methods, including PET, MRI, and fMRI, to advance understanding of brain-behavior relationships in aging and neurodegenerative disease in humans and in nonhuman animal models.
Charles W. Atwood, MD, FCCP, D.ABSM, is a pulmonary and sleep medicine physician and an Associate Professor of Medicine at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. He directs the sleep disorders program at the VA Pittsburgh Healthcare System and is the Associate Director of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center Sleep Medicine Center. He also directs the University of Pittsburgh's sleep medicine fellowship program. He is actively involved in sleep medicine clinical work, teaching, and research. His research focuses on novel methods of diagnosing and managing sleep disordered breathing. His work is funded by the sleep apnea therapy industry, VA Health Services and Research Division, and the National Institutes of Health.
Daniel J. Buysse, MD, is Professor of Psychiatry and Director of the Neuroscience Clinical and Translational Research Center at the University of Pittsburgh, School of Medicine. He received his medical degree from the University of Michigan, and completed his residency and fellowship training at the University of Pittsburgh. His research focuses on the diagnosis, assessment, pathophysiology, and treatment of insomnia. Dr. Buysse has received research funding from the National Institute of Mental Health, the National Institute on Aging, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, and the National Center on Research Resources. He has served on several initial review groups and advisory committees at the National Institutes of Health. Dr. Buysse has published over 160 articles in peer-reviewed journals and 68 book chapters or review articles. Dr. Buysse is Past President of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine, and is Associate Editor of the journals Sleep and Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine.
[Page 454]Mary C. Davis is an Associate Professor in the Department of Psychology at Arizona State University. She is interested in the physiological mechanisms linking psychological and social factors and key indicators of health, particularly in adults managing the burdens of chronic health problems. An overarching focus of her work is the examination of emotion regulation as a key determinant of acute responses to and recovery from stress, across outcomes that range from markers of cardiovascular and immune functioning to measures of affective and functional health. She is currently testing the value of interventions designed to enhance emotion regulation on physiological, affective, and social outcomes in chronically ill adults.
Mona El-Sheikh is Alumni Professor of Human Development and Family Studies at Auburn University. She received her undergraduate degree (psychology) from the American University in Cairo, Egypt, and master's and PhD degrees (psychology) from West Virginia University. El-Sheikh's research focuses on child development in the context of family risk, with an emphasis on marital conflict. Collectively, her research is multi- and interdisciplinary in nature, and has advanced a biopsychosocial approach for the development of adjustment, social, cognitive, and physical health problems in the context of family risk, especially the role of physiological and biological regulation.
Johan G. Eriksson received his MD degree in 1986 and his PhD degree in 1988 from University of Helsinki. He specializes in internal medicine and general practice. In 1995, he was appointed Adjunct Professor in Experimental Endocrinology at the University of Helsinki. In November 2006 he was appointed Ordinary Professor in General Practice at the University of Helsinki. His main research interests include life course medicine and the developmental origins of health and disease as well as diabetes-related research, such as prevention of Type 2 diabetes and related metabolic disorders. Johan Eriksson is Principal Investigator of the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study.
Jennifer L. Etnier received her BS from the University of Tennessee, her MA from the University of North Carolina, and her PhD from Arizona State University. Before coming to the University of North Carolina at Greensboro as an Associate Professor, she was an Assistant Professor at Wake Forest University and an Associate Professor at Arizona State University. Dr. Etnier conducts research in the field of exercise psychology with a focus on physical activity and cognition across the lifespan. Most recently, she has been examining how the effect of physical activity on the cognitive performance of older adults is moderated by a genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. Dr. Etnier is a fellow of the American College of Sports Medicine, a Section Editor for Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, and an Associate Editor for the Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology and the Journal of Aging and Physical Activity.
William Gerin received his PhD in social psychology in 1984 at Columbia University in New York City, where he worked with Stanley Schachter. He went on to complete an NIH Postdoctoral Fellowship in Cardiovascular Epidemiology with Thomas Pickering at Cornell University Medical Center, and has since made important contributions in the understanding of psychosocial factors implicated in the development of hypertension and coronary heart disease. One of his current lines of research involves the study of angry rumination and its effect on biological dysregulation and sustained blood pressure elevation. He is currently Associate Professor of Clinical Behavioral Medicine at Columbia University Medical Center.
[Page 455]Elana B. Gordis is an Assistant Professor of Psychology at the University at Albany, State University of New York. She received her PhD in clinical psychology at the University of Southern California. She studies the effects of family aggression on biological and behavioral responses to subsequent interpersonal conflict and stress. She is particularly interested in whether physiological consequences of exposure to family aggression mediate negative developmental outcomes.
Tanya M. Goyal received her PhD in clinical psychology from Rutgers University and completed a postdoctoral fellowship in cardiovascular behavioral medicine at Duke University Medical Center. She is currently Associate Research Scientist in the Center for Behavioral Cardiovascular Health in the Department of Medicine at Columbia University Medical Center. Dr. Spruill's research interests include the role of psychosocial factors such as anxiety, anger, and depression in the development of hypertension and heart disease, as well as lifestyle interventions to reduce blood pressure among prehypertensive adults.
Douglas A. Granger is a Professor in the Department of Biobehavioral Health at Penn State University. He received his doctorate (1990) at the University of California at Irvine in the Department of Psychology and Social Behavior, completed postdoctoral training in psychoneuroimmunology and endocrinology at UCLA (1994), and since 1994 has been the Director of the Penn State Behavioral Endocrinology laboratory. His research involves the conceptualization and analysis of biosocial relationships involving child well-being, parent-child relationships, and stress. He is considered an expert in the measurement, application, and integration of salivary biomarkers into behavioral and developmental science.
Martica Hall completed her PhD in Biopsychology at the University of Pittsburgh in 1995 under the mentorship of Dr. Andrew Baum. She pursued a postdoctoral fellowship in sleep medicine at the world-renowned Sleep and Circadian Rhythms Laboratory in the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, under the mentorship of Drs. Buysse and Kupfer. She joined the faculty in the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine in 1998, and has developed a productive research program that bridges the fields of psychosomatic medicine and sleep medicine. Her research program focuses on characterizing the effects of stress on sleep and evaluating the impact of stress-related sleep disturbances on health outcomes. She has evaluated these relationships in diverse populations including healthy and depressed children, adults, elders; family caregivers; health care workers; women during the menopausal transition; and elders with bereavement-related depression. Health outcomes of special interest include depression, anxiety, indices of immunocompetence, heart rate variability, and cardiovascular disease. She has used an array of study designs including experimental lab studies; cross-sectional and longitudinal naturalistic studies; and, most recently, intervention research, with a focus on modeling causal mechanisms.
Anita L. Hansen received her doctoral degree from the University of Bergen, Norway, in 2003. Since then she has been working in collaboration with the University of Bergen and the Centre for Research and Education in Forensic Psychiatry, Haukeland University Hospital in Bergen. Her research interests include psychophysiology, cognition, emotions, nutrition, personality and psychopathy dimensions, stress, and attachment, in both normal and forensic populations.
Suzi Hong, PhD, is an Assistant Project Scientist in the Department of Psychiatry [Page 456]at the University of California San Diego. Her research interests are neuroendocrine and immune cell activation, exercise and immune system activation and adaptation, and inflammation and cytokines. She is the principal investigator on a pilot study examining the effects of exercise intervention on inflammatory cytokine and fatigue levels in breast cancer survivors and a study to investigate immune cell trafficking in HIV patients with and without neuropsychological impairment. Dr. Hong is also a coin-vestigator on a number of NIH-funded studies. She manages the Flow Cytometry Core Laboratory for the UCSD General Clinical Research Center. She is serving as a consulting editor for Health Psychology and has served as a reviewer for many academic journals. She serves and has served as a member of the Scientific Program Committee for the American Psychosomatic Society and the Psychoneuroimmunology Research Society.
Cory A. B. Jackson received her BA in Psychology from the University of Wisconsin-Madison in 2001. She is currently a doctoral candidate in the Clinical Psychology Program at the University of Wyoming. In her research, she interrogates the biological systems involved in the development of approach and avoidance behaviors, emotion modulation, and cognitive self-regulatory abilities during childhood and adolescence. Her most recent work examines the dynamic relationships between individual differences in prefrontal brain asymmetry, negative stressors (e.g., poverty), and dysregulated affective behavior in childhood.
Daren C. Jackson, PhD, is a native Oregonian, and received a BA from the University of Oregon in 1992. He completed his doctoral work in clinical psychology at the University of Wisconsin- Madison, including a clinical internship at the Southern Arizona (Tucson) VA Health Care System. In 2004, he joined the faculty of the University of Wyoming (UW) as an Assistant Professor of Psychology. Daren is the Director of the UW Psychophysiology Laboratory, and a member of the interdisciplinary Graduate Neuroscience Program. His primary research interests include individual differences in cognitive and biological processes, which appear to both promote well-being and protect against some forms of anxiety and depression. He is currently using high-density EEG recordings to assess regional brain activation in the anterior cingulate and prefrontal cortices during the regulation of laboratory-induced negative affect.
Shamini Jain, MA, MS, is currently a doctoral candidate in the SDSU/UCSD Joint Doctoral Program in Clinical Psychology, with a specialization in behavioral medicine and psychoneuroimmunology. Ms. Jain's research interests include examining inflammatory immune underpinnings of cancer-related fatigue, the effects of complementary medicine on patient health and immune function, and the effects of positive and negative appraisals of stress on hemostatic and inflammatory immune processes in clinical and nonclinical populations. She is currently the principal investigator of an NIH-funded clinical trial investigating the effects of a complementary medicine intervention (hands-on healing) for the treatment of fatigue, inflammation, and cortisol variability in breast cancer survivors. Ms. Jain has also conducted clinical studies with and has co-led patient groups in Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction. She has served as a guest editor for Journal of Behavioral Medicine, Annals of Behavioral Medicine, and International Journal of Behavioral Medicine. She is a member and recipient of Scholar Awards for the Society of Behavioral Medicine and American Psychosomatic Society.
Denise Janicki-Deverts is a Postdoctoral Fellow in the Department of Psychology at [Page 457]Carnegie-Mellon University. Her interests include the examination of physiologic processes that may mediate the association of psychosocial stress and organic disease, specifically cardiovascular disease. Her present focus is on psychosocial and behavioral pathways linking socioeconomic status with circulating markers of inflammation and oxidative stress.
Bjorn Helge Johnsen is affiliated with the University of Bergen, Norway.
Eero Kajantie received his MD degree in 1990 and has finished specialty training in pediatrics and clinical genetics. Since obtaining his PhD in 2003, he has worked as a senior researcher at the National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland. His main research interests include life-course medicine and developmental origins of health and disease, including programming of physiological stress responsiveness as a link between early life events and adult disease. Dr. Kajantie is pursuing these research challenges in epidemiological birth cohorts such as the Helsinki Birth Cohort and the Helsinki Study of Very Low Birth Weight Adults.
Thomas W. Kamarck is a Professor of Psychology and Psychiatry at the University of Pittsburgh and Chair of the Biological and Health Psychology graduate training program. Dr. Kamarck received his doctorate in clinical psychology from the University of Oregon, and he completed a clinical internship at Duke University and a postdoctoral research fellowship at the University of Pittsburgh. His research focuses on psychosocial factors in cardiovascular disease risk, their conceptualization and measurement, and the biological mechanisms potentially accounting for their effects. Dr. Kamarck has explored the significance of ambulatory blood pressure and ecological momentary assessment methods, and he leads a program of research examining how such methods can help us to understand the role of psychological dispositions and the social environment in contributing to cardiovascular disease risk. His research has been funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and by the American Heart Association.
Katie T. Kivlighan is a Postdoctoral Research Fellow in the Department of Population, Family, and Reproductive Health at the Johns Hopkins, Bloomberg School of Public Health. She received her BA in Biology with a concentration in Biological Psychology from the College of the Holy Cross in Worcester, MA, and recently completed her PhD in Biobehavioral Health with a minor in Human Development and Family Studies at Penn State University. Her research focuses on the development of behavioral and physiological reactivity and regulation in the context of family and social relationships. She has examined the influence of maternal sensitivity during infancy and infant temperament on physiological reactivity and regulation in mother-infant dyads. Her recent investigations extend this work into the antenatal period to examine the role of stress and psychological well-being during pregnancy on the development of individual differences in fetal neurobehavior, child temperament, and the quality of the mother-child relationship.
Anna L. Marsland, PhD, RN, is an Assistant Professor of Psychology, Nursing and Psychiatry and the Director of the Behavioral Immunology Laboratory at the University of Pittsburgh, PA. Her research examines how stress and other psychosocial factors impact disease-relevant immune function, including antibody responses to vaccination. She also investigates whether individual differences in the magnitude of immune responses to acute stress are related to susceptibility to infectious disease.
Jeanne McCaffery, PhD, Assistant Professor of Psychiatry and Human Behavior at Brown [Page 458]Medical School, and Research Psychologist at The Miriam Hospital of Providence, Rhode Island, conducts research in quantitative and molecular genetics in cardiovascular behavioral medicine. She studies the interplay of genetic and environmental factors as related to behavioral risk factors for cardiovascular disease, examining, in particular, the roles of stress, depression, and weight management in the context of genetic vulnerability to heart disease. She has been awarded several grants from the National Institutes of Health to support her research program, including a National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute Innovative Grant Award, and is currently author of over 30 peer-reviewed publications.
Paul J. Mills, PhD, is Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD). His research interests include studying the effects of depression on inflammation and clinical outcomes in heart failure and the effects of hypertension, stressors, and physical fitness on inflammation and atherosclerosis risk. He is a member of the Symptom Control Research Group at the UCSD Moores Cancer Center studying the effects of traditional and nontraditional treatments for breast cancer on components of the immune system and fatigue. He is the Director of the UCSD General Clinical Research Center Core Laboratory, which supports a broad array of biochemical assay services for clinical studies at UCSD. He is currently an Associate Editor for the journal Health Psychology. He is a faculty member in the Behavioral Medicine track of the UCSD/San Diego State University (SDSU) Joint Doctoral Program in Clinical Psychology.
Elizabeth Mostofsky received her BA from Boston University College of Arts and Sciences with a major in psychology and minor in statistics. She is completing her MPH in epidemiology at the Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health and she is currently a Clinical Coordinator in the Center for Behavioral Cardiovascular Health at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons.
Nancy A. Nicolson, PhD, received her doctorate from Harvard University (Biological Anthropology) and completed a postdoctoral fellowship there before moving to Maastricht University, the Netherlands, in 1984. There, with colleagues in the Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, she developed methods to investigate within-person relationships between daily experiences, symptoms, mood states, and salivary cortisol in everyday life. Her research focuses on the psychobiology of stress in psychiatric and psychosomatic disorders, with a particular interest in the effects of adverse early experiences on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and emotional reactivity in adolescents and adults.
Michele L. Okun, PhD, is a Postdoctoral Scholar in the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center and the Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinics. Dr. Okun is an emerging clinical investigator who is interested in the psychoneuroimmunology of sleep, and whose research focuses on the assessment and interpretation of pregnancy-related sleep disturbances and inflammation on pregnancy complications. A 2005 graduate from the University of Colorado-Denver program in Health and Behavioral Sciences, Dr. Okun is a member of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine, the Sleep Research Society, the Psychoneuroimmunology Research Society, and the American Psychosomatic Society. She has authored or coauthored over a dozen scientific articles and book chapters and is dedicated to a career examining sleep in women's health.
Aric A. Prather, MS, is a graduate student in the Clinical-Health Psychology doctoral program at the University of Pittsburgh. His [Page 459]research interests include biological and behavioral pathways linking psychological constructs and disease susceptibility. His current research examines the interplay between individual differences and proinflammatory cytokine production. Mr. Prather is supported by a National Institute of Health (NIH) predoctoral fellowship in Cardiovascular Behavioral Medicine.
Katri Räikkönen received her PhD in psychology in 1990 from the University of Helsinki. In 1992, she was appointed as a docent of applied psychology at the University of Helsinki. In 1996–1998, she was in postdoctoral training at the Cardiovascular Behavioral Medicine Unit, at the University of Pittsburgh. In 2000, she was appointed as a Professor of Health Psychology and in 2006 as a Professor of Psychology at the University of Helsinki. Her main research interests include behavioral risk factors for cardiovascular disease and Type 2 diabetes, the developmental underpinnings of behavioral risk factors, and most recently, viewing behavioral risk factors from the developmental origins of health and disease perspective.
Anna Rautanen received her master's degree in biochemistry in 2001 from the University of Oulu, Finland. Since the year 2000, she has been working as a genotyping specialist at the Finnish Genome Center, University of Helsinki, which provides genotyping service and collaboration for research groups studying genetics of complex diseases. In 2007, she received a PhD degree with a thesis entitled Genotyping for genetic association studies: Methods and applications. Her research interests include the genetics of pregnancy complications and genetic factors involved in the developmental origins of health and disease.
Laura Redwine, PhD, is a project scientist in the Department of Medicine at the University of California, San Diego. Dr. Redwine has over 15 years of laboratory experience examining psychosocial factors and cellular immune assays. Her research interests include the effects of chronic stress, depression, lifestyle factors, and psychosocial/ behavioral interventions on functional measures of immunity and subclinical measures of heart disease and prostate cancer. She is also interested in the efficacy and mechanisms of action of alternative/ complementary medicine techniques such as tai chi, meditation, and acupuncture on health and immune function.
Lee Ryan, PhD, obtained her doctorate in clinical neuropsychology from the University of British Columbia in 1992. She is currently an Associate Professor in Psychology, Neurology, and the Neuroscience interdisciplinary Program at the University of Arizona. Her research focuses on the neural basis of memory and memory changes across the lifespan, utilizing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods including morphometric analysis, functional MRI, and diffusion-weighted MRI in order to measure brain anatomy and function. Ongoing projects include fMRI studies of autobiographical memory retrieval, functional and anatomical brain changes across the adult lifespan and how they relate to changes in cognitive function, and identifying early markers of risk for Alzheimer's disease in cognitively healthy older adults, utilizing diffusion-weighted imaging and functional MRI.
Daichi Shimbo, MD, is Assistant Professor of Internal Medicine in the Division of General Medicine, and the Victoria and Ester Aboodi Assistant Professor of Medicine in the Division of Cardiology at the Columbia University. He received his BS from the Johns Hopkins University in Biomedical Engineering (1991) and his MD from the Albany Medical College (1995). After completing his Internal Medicine residency (1998), he went on to complete Chief [Page 460]Medical residency in Internal Medicine (1999) and fellowship in Cardiovascular Medicine (2003) at the Mount Sinai Hospital in New York, before joining the faculty at Columbia University. One of Dr. Shimbo's research interests is in the potential biological mechanisms involved in the relation between psychosocial factors and hypertension and cardiovascular events.
Timothy W. Smith is currently Professor of Psychology at the University of Utah. Following his undergraduate training at Gettysburg College, he received a doctorate in clinical psychology from the University of Kansas and completed a predoctoral clinical internship and postdoctoral training at the Brown University Program in Medicine. He is Coordinator of Graduate Training in Health Psychology at the University of Utah, and Co-Director of the Graduate Program in Clinical Psychology. He is a Past President of the Division of Health Psychology of the American Psychological Association and recipient of early career awards from the Division of Health Psychology and the American Psychosomatic Society, and the Distinguished Scientist Award from the Society of Behavioral Medicine. His research on personality, social relations, and cardiovascular risk has been supported by the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute and the National Institute on Aging. He has published over 170 articles and chapters in scholarly journals and books, and has had the great pleasure of training several outstanding graduate students in health psychology.
Catherine M. Stoney, PhD, is a psycho-physiologist and health psychologist with special expertise in behavioral cardiology and endocrinology, and clinical research methods and design. After receiving her degree from Syracuse University, she completed a postdoctoral fellowship at Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic (WPIC) at the University of Pittsburgh. She then went on to faculty positions at WPIC, Brown University, and was most recently Professor of Psychology at Ohio State University. Her research program, generously funded by NIH, is broadly focused on the physiological consequences of psychological stress, and the impact of those consequences on health outcomes. She is currently at the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), where she is developing mind-body medicine, women's health, and mental health research programs and priorities.
Patrick J. Strollo, Jr., MD, is an Associate Professor of Medicine in the Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine at the University of Pittsburgh. He is the Medical Director of the UPMC Sleep Medicine Center. He has been the Co-Director of the Sleep Medicine Fellowship at the University of Pittsburgh. He is board certified in Internal Medicine, Pulmonary Diseases, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine. He has been an active member of the American College of Chest Physicians, American Thoracic Society, and American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) since 1987. He is currently a member of the Board of Directors of the AASM. He has over 60 publications and 50 scientific presentations. His current research is funded by the NHLBI and PA Tobacco Settlement, and is focused on the interactions between intermittent hypoxia, sleep, inflammation, and cardiovascular disease.
Laura R. Stroud, PhD, is an Assistant Professor of Psychiatry and Human Behavior at Brown Medical School based at the Centers for Behavioral and Preventive Medicine. She received her PhD in clinical health psychology at Yale University, and completed postdoctoral training at Brown Medical School. Dr. Stroud currently directs the Child Stress Laboratory at the Centers [Page 461]for Behavioral and Preventive Medicine, Brown Medical School. Her research interests focus on gender, developmental, and contextual influences on the stress response in relation to risk for psychopathology. She is also interested in the development and validation of novel laboratory stress paradigms for examining neuroendocrine responses to stress. Dr. Stroud has been awarded an NIH Career Development Award and two NARSAD Junior Investigator Awards for her research in these areas. She was also designated a Faculty Scholar through the Robert Wood Johnson Tobacco Etiology Research Network.
Julian F. Thayer received his PhD from New York University in psychophysiology with a minor in quantitative methods. Before moving to the Ohio State University in 2006 as the Ohio Eminent Scholar Professor in Health Psychology, Dr. Thayer was Chief of the Emotions and Quantitative Psychophysiology Section in the Laboratory of Personality and Cognition at the National Institute on Aging. He has also been a Visiting Professor at the University of Bergen in Norway and the Free University of Amsterdam and a Research Fellow in Residence at the STUDIO for Creative Inquiry at Carnegie Mellon University. He has published over 125 research papers and book chapters covering a wide range of topics including cardiology, emotion, psychopathology, behavioral medicine, bioengineering, research design, and multivariate statistical techniques. These publications have appeared in top journals, including the American Journal of Cardiology, the American Heart Journal, the American Journal of Epidemiology, Psychosomatic Medicine, Biological Psychiatry, Psychophysiology, and the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine.
Bert N. Uchino is a Professor of Psychology at the University of Utah. Dr. Uchino is an expert in social relationships, stress, and health; with an emphasis on the physiological mechanisms responsible for such links. More specifically, his work is based on an integrative multilevel analysis of how positivity (e.g., support) and negativity (e.g., conflict) in relationships influence the development and exacerbation of cardiovascular and immune-mediated diseases.
Michael G. Ziegler, MD, is Professor of Medicine at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD). His research on sympathetic nervous control of the cardiovascular system bridges basic and clinical research in over 300 publications. He is particularly interested in mechanisms that allow the brain to use the sympathetic nervous system to alter physiology. His recent studies have examined how adrenergic genetic polymorphisms alter control of blood pressure in man and transgenic mouse. His NASA research has examined why astronauts lose postural control of blood pressure on their return from space flight, for which he received a NASA award. Dr. Ziegler currently serves as the Director of the UCSD General Clinical Research Center, and has chaired several NIH Review Committees.