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Constructing Data
Constructing data

We focus this chapter on the construction of data in educational research, where we understand the term “data” to mean those mathematical or textual elements that researchers use in support of their claims. Articulating issues in the construction of data that are valid for educational research in general is not an easy task because there are very different traditions or research paradigms. Ordinarily, these traditions are differentiated by the adjectives “quantitative” and “qualitative.” We do not find these terms to be useful, however, because all phenomena are characterized by the mutual constitution of quantitative and qualitative elements (Hegel, 1969). Accordingly, all so-called quantitative research requires qualitative processes (e.g., making judgments, distinguishing categories), and all so-called qualitative studies involve quantitative processes (e.g., counting ...

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