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Educational Leadership
Educational leadership

The term “instructional leadership” derives from early attempts to explain the unexpectedly higher achievement of low-socioeconomic status students in high-poverty schools during the 1970s (Brookover & Lezotte, 1979; Edmonds, 1979, 1982; Edmonds & Frederiksen, 1978; Lezotte & Passalacqua, 1978). Known as effective schools research, these studies generated a set of characteristics common to effective schools that typically included the following list (Edmonds, 1979, 1982):

  • Instructional leadership
  • Schoolwide focus on instruction
  • Orderly and safe environment
  • High expectations for student achievement
  • Use of student achievement data for decision making and planning

Critiques and replications of this work showed a fairly stable, if contested, listing of similar constructs concerning the conditions of effective schools. Among the contests was a debate over whether a schoolwide focus on ...

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