The SAGE Handbook of Remote Sensing

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Edited by: Timothy A. Warner, M. Duane Nellis & Giles M. Foody

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    Dedication

    This book is dedicated to the many pioneers in remote sensing, including:

    Mike Barnsley

    Jack Estes

    Don Levandowski

    Preface

    Although the term remote sensing is about 50 years old, having been coined in 1958 by Evelyn Pruitt, a geographer at the US Office of Naval Research (Estes and Jensen, 1998), the subject matter covered by the field of remote sensing is vast. As a methodological approach, remote sensing has underpinnings in physics, mathematics, engineering, and computer science. Remote sensing plays an important role in the scientific, commercial, and national security arenas, and the applications of remote sensing extend from the Earth's atmosphere to the hydrosphere, cryosphere, biosphere, and lithosphere, as well as to the moon, planets, and asteroids.

    The challenge in compiling a relatively comprehensive survey of such a vast field is evident in the fact that, to our knowledge, this book is the first comprehensive text in a quarter of a century. Our work follows in the tradition of the major series, The Manual of Remote Sensing, first published in two volumes by the American Society of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS) in 1975, with a second edition in 1983. Notably, for the third edition, the idea of a single publication was abandoned and an apparently open-ended series was decided upon. As a result, six volumes in this series have already been published in the decade since 1997, with additional volumes planned.

    For our book, we desired a single volume that provided as broad a view of the field as possible. Our aim was to give the reader a forward-looking perspective that also explained the developments that led to the current context. The chapters assume a basic background in remote sensing, but not necessarily in the specific topics covered. This book should therefore be particularly useful to professionals and advanced students who desire a systematic overview of the state of the art, as well as potential future challenges.

    In addressing such a huge field we have by necessity had to be selective in our approach. Therefore, from the outset we limited our scope to the terrestrial Earth. By keeping this focus, we have been able to cover not only the traditional remote sensing applications, such as in soils, geology, and vegetation, but also the relatively new applications such as in the social sciences, biogeochemical modeling, and disaster monitoring.

    The initial concept for this volume was developed in a 10-page outline, which was reviewed by 13 anonymous external reviewers. With advice and feedback from those reviewers, we recruited 33 authors to lead the individual chapters. Those lead authors recruited an additional 42 co-authors, resulting in a total of 75 authors. The chapters were reviewed by the editors as well as over 90 reviewers.

    The book is organized in six major sections. Section I, an introduction, covers broad overarching issues, including remote sensing policy. Section II is a systematic treatment of the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with the terrestrial environment. This section provides a key background for the later section on remote sensing applications. The chapters are organized from short to long wavelength, specifically from the visible to microwave regions. Section III, on digital sensors and platforms, provides an overview of how the engineering of image acquisition influences image properties. The section includes chapters on sensor technology, as well as a series on satellite sensors, organized by relative spatial resolution. Separate chapters cover hyperspectral sensors, microwave sensors, airborne imaging, and airborne laser scanning (also known as lidar). Section IV covers remote sensing analysis, from design to implementation. This section covers both field work and image analysis issues, ending with a discussion on accuracy assessment. Section V, on remote sensing applications, comprises approximately one third of the book, and is organized in four subsections: (a) lithospheric sciences, (b) plant sciences, (c) hydrospheric and crysopheric sciences, and (d) global change and human environments. Section VI provides a short forward-looking summary of the book.

    Acknowledgements

    This book was only possible through the enthusiasm, cooperation, and support from a wide range of people. The role of the authors of course was central. In addition, the contribution of the external reviewers was particularly important in ensuring the highest quality for the chapters, and their role is gratefully acknowledged. We would also like to thank SAGE for unfailing encouragement and patience throughout this long process, especially Commissioning Editor Robert Rojek and Editorial Assistant Sarah-Jayne Boyd.

    The external reviewers include:

    Michael Abrams, NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory, USA

    John Althausen, Lockheed Martin Corporation, USA

    Hans-Erik Andersen, USDA Forest Service, USA

    Paul Aplin, University of Nottingham, UK

    Richard L. Armstrong, University of Colorado at Boulder, USA

    Manoj Arora, IIT Roorkee, India

    Gregory P. Asner, Carnegie Institution, USA

    Paul Baumann, State University of New York, College at Oneonta, USA

    Larry Biehl, Purdue University, USA

    Michael P. Bishop, University of Nebraska-Omaha, USA

    Janis L. Boettinger, Utah State University, USA

    Zachary Bortolot, James Madison University, USA

    Tomas Brandtberg, Uppsala University, Sweden

    James B. Campbell, Virginia Tech, USA

    Jocelyn Chanussot, Grenoble Institute of Technology, France

    Jing M. Chen, University of Toronto, Canada

    Shane Cloude, AEL Consultants, UK

    Jeffrey D. Colby, Appalachian State University, USA

    Kelley A. Crews, The University of Texas at Austin, USA

    Paul Curran, Bournemouth University, UK

    Mike A. Cutter, Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd, UK

    Yongxin Deng, Western Illinois University, USA

    Mark R. Drinkwater, European Space Agency, ESTEC, The Netherlands

    Gregory Elmes, West Virginia University, USA

    Robert Erskine, US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, USA

    Ian S. Evans, Durham University, UK

    Steven Fassnacht, Colorado State University, USA

    Pete Fisher, University of Leicester, UK

    Igor Florinsky, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia

    Paul Frazier, University of New England, Australia

    Bruce E. Frazier, Washington State University, USA

    Mark Friedl, Boston University, USA

    Joanne Irene Gabrynowicz, The University of Mississippi School of Law, USA

    Kathleen Galvin, Colorado State University, USA

    Jerry Griffith, University of Southern Mississippi, USA

    Randy M. Hamilton, RedCastle Resources, Inc., USA

    Ray Harris, University College London, UK

    John C. Heinrichs, Fort Hays State University, USA

    Geoffrey M. Henebry, South Dakota State University, USA

    George F. Hepner, University of Utah, USA

    Michael J. Hill, University of North Dakota, USA

    Ryan Jensen, Brigham Young University, USA

    Chris J. Johannsen, Purdue University, USA

    John P. Kerekes, Rochester Institute of Technology, USA

    Doug King, Carleton University, Canada

    Philip Lewis, University College London, UK

    Tim J. Malthus, University of Edinburgh, UK

    Roger M. McCoy, University of Utah, USA

    Greg McDermid, University of Calgary, Canada

    Kyle McDonald, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, USA

    Assefa M. Melesse, Florida International University, USA

    Gay Mitchelson-Jacob, Bangor University, UK

    Mahta Moghaddam, The University of Michigan, USA

    Keith Morris, Louisiana State University, USA

    Atsushi Nara, Arizona State University, USA

    Janet Nichol, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong

    Stuart Phinn, The University of Queensland, Australia

    Leland E. Pierce, The University of Michigan, USA

    Robert Gilmore Pontius Jr., Clark University, USA

    Sorin Popescu, Texas A&M University, USA

    Dale A. Quattrochi, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, USA

    R. Douglas Ramsey, Utah State University, USA

    Jane M. Read, Syracuse University, USA

    Ronald G. Resmini, George Mason University, USA

    John Rogan, Clark University, USA

    Kenton Ross, Science Systems and Applications, Inc., USA

    Vincent V. Salomonson, University of Utah, USA

    Michael E. Schaepman, Wageningen University, The Netherlands

    James Schepers, US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, USA

    Edwin Sheffner, NASA – Ames Research Center, USA

    Steve Stehman, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, USA

    Douglas Stow, San Diego State University, USA

    Gregg Swayze, US Geological Survey, USA

    Richard M. Teeuw, University of Portsmouth, UK

    Gerd Ulbrich, European Space Agency ESA/ESTEC, The Netherlands

    Freek van der Meer, International Institute for Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation (ITC), and Utrecht University, The Netherlands

    Jakob van Zyl, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, USA

    Wouter Verhoef, National Aerospace Laboratory NLR, The Netherlands

    Eric Vermote, University of Maryland, and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, USA

    Chenghai Yang, US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, USA

    Stephen Yool, The University of Arizona, USA

    Kenneth Young, University of Texas at Austin, USA

    Howard A. Zebker, Stanford University, USA

    Plus, an additional five reviewers who wished to remain anonymous.

    The Editors

    Timothy A. Warner, West Virginia University

    M. Duane Nellis, Kansas State University

    Giles M. Foody, University of Nottingham

    References
    Estes, J. E.J. R.JensenD. S.SimonettImpacts of remote sensing on US Geography. Remote Sensing of Environment1043–80. 1980. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0034-4257%2880%2990098-X

    Notes on Contributors

    Editors

    Timothy A. Warner is Professor of both Geology and Geography at West Virginia University, in Morgantown, West Virginia, USA. He matriculated at the South African College Schools (SACS), has a B.Sc. (Hons.) in Geology from the University of Cape Town, and a Ph.D. from Purdue University in geological remote sensing. His research specialties include the spatial properties of images, high resolution remote sensing, and lidar. He has served as a founding board member and Secretary of America View, and as Chair of the Remote Sensing Specialty Group (RSSG) of the Association of American Geographers (AAG). He received the 2006 RSSG Outstanding Contributions Award, and the 2006 Boeing Award for Best Paper in Image Analysis and Interpretation from the American Society of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing. In 2007, he was a Fulbright Fellow at the University of Louis Pasteur, in Strasbourg, France. He serves on the editorial board of Geographical Compass.

    M. Duane Nellis is Provost and Senior Vice President, as well as Professor of Geography, at Kansas State University. He has published over 100 articles and more than a dozen books and book chapters on various aspects of remote sensing and GIS applications to natural resources assessment, and other dimensions of rural geography. He is past president of both the Association of American Geographers (AAG), and the National Council for Geographic Education (NCGE). Nellis has also served as co-editor of the GIS/remote sensing journal Geocarto International. He has received numerous honors and awards including National Honors from the AAG, election as a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), the Royal Geographical Society, and the Explorers Club. In addition, he is past Chair of the AAG Remote Sensing Specialty Group and received that groups, Outstanding Contributions Award. At Kansas State he received the University Outstanding Teaching Award, the Phi Kappa Phi Research Scholars Award, and the University Outstanding Advisor Award. Nellis completed his undergraduate degree at Montana State University and his masters and Ph.D. at Oregon State University. He started his academic career at Kansas State University, where he moved from Assistant to Full Professor, and where he served as the head of Geography Department and Associate Dean of Arts and Sciences. In 1997, he was named Dean of the Eberly College of Arts and Sciences at West Virginia University. In 2004 he returned to Kansas State University, where he served as Provost and Senior Vice President. He was appointed President of the University of Idaho in 2009.

    Giles M. Foody completed B.Sc. and Ph.D. at the University of Sheffield in 1983 and 1986 respectively and is currently Professor of Geographical Information Science at the University of Nottingham. His main research interests lie at the interface between remote sensing, biogeography, and informatics. Topics of particular interest relate to image classification for land cover mapping and monitoring applications, addressing issues at scales ranging from the sub-pixel to global. His publication list includes seven books and more than 135 refereed journal articles as well as many conference papers. He currently serves as editor-in-chief of the International Journal of Remote Sensing and holds editorial roles with Ecological Informatics and Landscape Ecology as well as serving on the editorial boards of journals including Remote Sensing of Environment, Geocarto International, and International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation.

    Timothy A. Warner, M. Duane Nellis, and Giles M. Foody (see editors' biographical descriptions).

    Ray Harris is Emeritus Professor of Geography and a former Executive Dean of the Faculty of Social and Historical Sciences at University College London. In addition to UCL, his career has included periods at Logica UK plc, Software Sciences and the University of Durham. His research and teaching interests are in satellite Earth observation, science policy and in the Middle East. He has worked extensively with the European Space Agency, the European Commission, NASA, NOAA, JAXA and other space organizations on the applications of Earth observation data and on the development of data policy. He was a member of two International Council for Science (ICSU) panels on scientific data and information policy, and has worked on both GMES and GEOSS. For nearly 30 years he has worked on remote sensing applications in the UK, Kuwait, Oman, Jordan, Tunisia and Iran, focusing on agriculture, land degradation and land cover change. He is the author of four books on remote sensing and many journal articles, book chapters and reports.

    Willem J. D. van Leeuwen received the B.Sc. and M.Sc. degrees in soil science from the Wageningen University for Life Sciences, the Netherlands in 1985 and 1987 respectively, and the Ph.D. degree in soil and remote sensing science from the Department of Soil, Water, and Environmental Science, University of Arizona, Tucson, in 1995. He has been a research scientist and a member of the MODIS land science team, worked on global spectral vegetation index and albedo product and algorithm development, and is currently working on post wildfire vegetation recovery, land degradation, and vegetation community phenology research, employing remote sensing and geospatial tools. He also works on web-based decision support tools for natural resource managers. Since 2005, Dr. van Leeuwen is an Assistant Professor and has a joint appointment with the Department of Geography and Regional Development and the Office of Arid Lands Studies at the University of Arizona, Tucson, where he teaches classes in geographical field methods, biogeography, and remote sensing. He is a member of American Geophysical Union (AGU), American Society of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS), Association of American Geographers (AAG), IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Society (IGARSS), and the International Association for Landscape Ecology (IALE).

    Arthur P. Cracknell graduated in physics from Cambridge University, in 1961 and then did his D.Phil. at Oxford University on theoretical solid state physics. He has worked at Singapore University (now the National University of Singapore), Essex University, and Dundee University, where he became a professor in 1978. He retired from Dundee University in 2002 and now holds the title of emeritus professor there. He is currently working on various short-term contracts in several universities and research institutes in China and Malaysia.

    After several years of research work in solid state physics, he turned his interests in the late 1970s to remote sensing and he has been the editor of the International Journal of Remote Sensing for over 20 years. His particular research interests in remote sensing include the extraction of the values of various geophysical parameters from satellite data and the correction of remotely-sensed images for atmospheric effects. He and his colleagues and research students have published around 300 research papers and he is the author or co-author of several books, both on theoretical solid state physics and on remote sensing. He also pioneered the teaching of remote sensing at postgraduate level at Dundee University.

    Doreen S. Boyd received the B.Sc. degree in geography from the University of Wales, UK, in 1992 and the Ph.D. degree from the University of Southampton, UK, in 1996. She is currently an Associate Professor with the School of Geography, University of Nottingham, UK, having held Lectureships at Manchester, Kingston, and Bournemouth Universities. Between 2004 and 2006, she held the position of senior research leader in Research and Innovation at Ordnance Survey, Great Britain. Her main research interests are in the remote sensing of terrestrial ecosystems and the monitoring of environmental change. She serves on the editorial board of Visual Geosciences and the advisory board of the Journal of Maps. She is the co-founder and co-chair of the laser scanning and LiDAR special interest group of the Remote Sensing and Photogrammetry Society.

    Dale A. Quattrochi is currently employed by NASA as a Geographer and Senior Research Scientist at the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. He holds a B.S. (1973, Geography) from Ohio University, an M.S. (1978, Geography/Remote Sensing) from the University of Tennessee, and a Ph.D. (1990, Geography/Remote Sensing) from the University of Utah. Dr. Quattrochi's research interests focus on the application of thermal remote sensing data for analysis of heating and cooling patterns across the landscape as they impact local and regional environments. Much of his work has been on applying thermal infrared data to analysis of the urban heat island effect. He is also working on the application of remote sensing data to public health effects, such as asthma and respiratory distress. Additionally, he is also conducting research on the use of geospatial statistical techniques, such as fractal analysis, to multiscaled remote sensing data. Dr. Quattrochi is the recipient of numerous awards, including the NASA Exceptional Scientific Achievement Medal, NASA's highest science award, which he received for his research on urban heat islands and remote sensing. He is also a recipient of the Ohio University College of Arts and Sciences distinguished Alumni Award.

    Jeffrey C. Luvall is a NASA Senior Research Scientist at Marshall Space Flight Center. He holds a B.S. (1974, Forestry) an M.S. (1976, Forest Ecology) from Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL, and a Ph.D. (1984, Tropical Forest Ecology) from the University of Georgia, Athens, GA. His current research involves the modeling of forest canopy energy budgets using airborne thermal scanners. These investigations have resulted in the development of a Thermal Response Number (TRN), which quantifies the land surface's energy response in terms of kJ m−2°C−1 and can be used to classify land surfaces in regional surface budget modeling by their energy use. A logical outgrowth of characterizing surface energy budgets of forests is the application of thermal remote sensing to quantify the urban heat island effect. One important breakthrough is the ability to quantify the importance of trees in keeping the city cool. His current research involves alternate mitigation strategies to reduce ozone production through the use of high albedo surfaces for roofs and pavements and increasing tree cover in urban areas to cool cities.

    Mahta Moghaddam received a B.S. degree (with highest distinction) from the University of Kansas, Lawrence, in 1986 and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, in 1989 and 1991, respectively, all in electrical and computer engineering. She is an Associate Professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at the University of Michigan, where she has been since 2003. From 1991 to 2003, she was with the Radar Science and Engineering Section, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, CA. She has introduced innovative approaches and algorithms for quantitative interpretation of multichannel SAR imagery based on analytical inverse scattering techniques applied to complex and random media. She has also introduced a quantitative approach for data fusion by combining SAR and optical remote sensing data for nonlinear estimation of vegetation and surface parameters. She has led the development of new radar instrument and measurement technologies for subsurface and subcanopy characterization. Dr. Moghaddam's research group is engaged in a variety of research topics related to applied electromagnetics, including the development of advanced radar systems for subsurface characterization, continental scale wetlands mapping with SAR, mixed-mode high resolution medical imaging techniques, and smart sensor webs for remote sensing data collection and validation.

    John P. Kerekes received his B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering from Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, USA, in 1983, 1986, and 1989, respectively. From 1983 to 1984, he was a member of the technical staff with the Space and Communications Group, Hughes Aircraft Co., El Segundo, California, USA. From 1989 to 2004, he was a technical staff member with Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Lexington, Massachusetts, USA. In 2004, he became an Associate Professor in the Center for Imaging Science, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, New York, USA. He is a senior member of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and a member of Tau Beta Phi, Eta Kappa Nu, American Geophysical Union, American Meteorological Society, American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, and SPIE. Since 2000 he has served as an Associate Editor of the IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing. He was the General co-chair of the 2008 International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSs' 08) held in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. His research interests include the modeling and analysis of remote sensing system performance in pattern recognition and geophysical parameter retrieval applications.

    Thierry Toutin, educated both in France and Canada, received his final diploma, the Dr.-Ing. degree, in geodetic sciences and remote sensing from the Ecole Nationale des Sciences Géographiques of the Institut Géographique National, Paris, France, in 1985. After a few years in the Canadian private industry, he has worked since 1988 as senior research scientist at the Canada Center for Remote Sensing, Natural Resources Canada. He currently develops mathematical tools and prototype systems for stereoscopy, radargrammetry, interferometry, and the chromostereoscopy, using a broad range of Earth observation data (airborne and spaceborne; VIR and SAR; fine to coarse resolution). In recent years, he has focused mainly on 3D physical models and their generalization to fine spatial resolution optical imagery (SPOT5, EROS, IKONOS, Quick-bird, Formosat, etc.). His main fields of interest are 3D modeling and reconstruction, interactive feature extraction, cartographic applications of Earth observation data, and the integration of multisource data.

    Samuel N. Goward is Professor of Geography at the University of Maryland. He has been involved in land remote sensing since the early 1970s. One primary research focus area has been automated processing and analysis of regional and global data sets from AVHRR and Landsat. From 1997 to 2002 he served as the Landsat Science Team leader and was recently selected to serve as a member of the new USGS/NASA Landsat Science Team. He also continues to work with the NASA Landsat Project Science Office to develop operational concepts including the long-term acquisition plan. Currently his research is carried out under the North American Carbon Program, in association with NASA and US. Forest Service colleagues, seeking to improve forest dynamics analysis with Landsat time-series data. Earlier he also worked with the NASA Stennis Space Center, to evaluate commercial sources of land remote sensing data, including the IKONOS and QuickBird. Over the last decade he served as co-chair of the advisory committee for the USGS National Satellite Land Remote Sensing Data Archive (NSLRSDA) at USGS EROS and continues on the editorial board of Remote Sensing of Environment. Among several honors, he has recently been awarded the USGS John Wesley Powell Award (2006) and the USGS/NASAWilliam T. Pecora Award (2008) for contributions to the Landsat Mission.

    Terry Arvidson has been part of the Landsat program since 1979, from pre-proposal phases through on-orbit operations, from developer and tester to operations engineer and project manager. Currently, she is a manager of sustaining engineering for Landsat 7, and supports both the USGS and NASA/GSFC. Ms. Arvidson serves as the liaison between the satellite operations team and the Land-sat Science Project Office. She has been an active member of the international Landsat Ground Station Operators Working Group since the 1980s. Ms. Arvidson managed the development of the Landsat-7 Long-Term Acquisition Plan (LTAP), working with the science community on specialized requirements for land covers such as glaciers and reefs, and maintaining the LTAP databases. She continues to interface with the science community on scheduling and operations issues and in support of Drs. Goward and Williams on the Landsat Science Team. Ms. Arvidson has researched the Landsat historical archive for the Landsat Legacy project, including internationally-held archives, and participated in oral history interviews and document preservation. She has published numerous articles on the LTAP and the Landsat archive history, and co-edited, with Drs. Goward and Williams, a PE&RS special issue on Landsat 7. Ms. Arvidson has a B.Sc. degree from the University of Maryland.

    Darrel L. Williams serves as Associate Chief of the Hydrospheric and Biospheric Sciences Laboratory within the Earth Sciences Division at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. He also serves as the Project Scientist for the Landsat 5 and 7 missions currently in orbit, and is entrusted with ensuring the scientific integrity of these missions. Prior to his more recent roles in science management, his remote sensing research involved the development of enhanced techniques for assessing forest ecosystems worldwide. He has authored ∼100 publications in the field of quantitative remote sensing and served on the editorial board of the International Journal of Remote Sensing throughout the 1990s. Dr. Williams has received numerous prestigious awards such as the NASA Medal for Outstanding Leadership (1997), NASA's Exceptional Service Medal (2000), and the ‘Aviation Week and Space Technology 1999 Laurels Award’ for outstanding achievement in the field of Space in recognition of his science leadership of the Landsat 7 mission. Recently Dr. Williams received an ‘Outstanding Alumni Award’ from the School of Forest Resources at the Pennsylvania State University. Additional awards have been bestowed by the US Department of Agriculture, the US Department of the Interior, and the American Society of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing.

    Richard Irish accepted a position, in 1993, with Science Systems Applications, Inc., to work on NASA's Landsat-7 program at the Goddard Space Flight Center. There, he developed the cloud cover recognition algorithm used for Landsat-7, created the Calibration Parameter File used for radiometric and geometric processing and updates, and defined the standard Landsat-7 distribution product, now an international exchange standard that is used world wide. Mr. Irish continues his work within NASA's Biospheric Sciences Branch on the Landsat program. His research endeavors include developing cloud shadow discrimination and multiscene merging algorithms for the TM, ETM+, and LDCM missions. He is also the Landsat-7 science liaison to the user community. He wrote and maintains the frequently visited Landsat-7 Science Data Users Handbook web site.

    James R. Irons is the Associate Chief of the Laboratory for Atmospheres, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). He is also the NASA Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) Project Scientist. Prior to 2007, Dr. Irons worked for 28 years as a physical scientist in the Biospheric Sciences Branch, NASA GSFC where he served as the Landsat-7 Deputy Project Scientist beginning in 1992. Dr. Irons' career has been devoted to advancing the science and practice of land remote sensing. His research has focused on applying Landsat data to land cover mapping. His research has also encompassed the characterization and understanding bi-directional reflectance distribution functions (BRDFs) for land surfaces, particularly plant canopies and soil. He is the principal or co-author of 35 peer reviewed journal articles and two book chapters. Dr. Irons received his B.Sc. degree in environmental resources management in 1976 and the M.Sc. degree in agronomy in 1979 from the Pennsylvania State University. He received his Ph.D. degree in agronomy in 1993 from the University of Maryland.

    Christopher Owen Justice received his Ph.D. in geography from the University of Reading, UK. In 1978 he came to NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center as a National Academy of Sciences post-doctoral fellow. In 1981 he took a fellowship position at ESA ESRIN and in 1983 he returned to the Goddard Space Flight Centerto work with AVHRR data on land studies and helped form the GIMMS Group with Compton Tucker and Brent Holben. Since 2001 he has been a professor and research director in the Geography Department of the University of Maryland. He is a team member and land discipline chair of the NASA Moderate Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Science Team and is responsible for the MODIS Fire Product and helped develop the MODIS Rapid Response System. He is a member of the NASA NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) Science Team. He is co-chair of the GOFC/GOLD-Fire Implementation Team, a project of the Global Terrestrial Observing System (GTOS), and a member of the Integrated Global Observation of Land (IGOL) Steering Committee and leader of the GEOSS Agricultural Monitoring Task. He is on the Strategic Objective Team for USAID's Central Africa Regional Project for the Environment. He is a Co.I. on the USGS Landsat Science Team. He is Program Scientist for the NASA Land Cover Land Use Change Program. His current research is on land cover and land use change, the extent and impacts of global fire, global agricultural monitoring (with the US Department of Agriculture, Foreign Agricultural Service, and the GIMMS group at Goddard Space Flight Center), and their associated information technology and decision support systems.

    Compton James Tucker III received his B.S. degree in biology in 1969 from Colorado State University. After working in two banks and realizing banking was not his calling, he returned to Colorado State University and received his M.S. degree in forestry in 1973 and his Ph.D. degree, also in forestry, in 1975. He came to NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center as a National Academy of Sciences post-doctoral fellow in late 1975. Since 1977 he has been a physical scientist and leader of the GIMMS group at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. In the mid 1970s he contributed to the sensor configuration of Landsat's thematic mapper instrument. He has been a pioneer in demonstrating the utility of coarse-resolution remote sensing using AVHRR and similar data for large-scale vegetation studies exploiting temporal information. Currently he is using satellite data to study climatically-coupled hemorrhagic fevers, global primary production including agricultural monitoring, tropical deforestation and habitat fragmentation, and glacier variations from the 1970s to the present. Since 2005 he has worked for NASA at the Climate Change Science Program Office in the areas of land use and land cover change and climate and worked to prioritize satellite and in situ observations for climate research.

    Douglas A. Stow is a Professor of Geography at San Diego State University (SDSU) and specializes in remote sensing. He received B.A., M.A., and Ph.D degrees in Geography from the University of California, Santa Barbara. His remote sensing studies focus on land cover change analyses with emphases on Mediterranean-type and Arctic tundra ecosystems, and urban areas. He is the co-director of the Center for Earth Systems Analysis Research and doctoral program coordinator. Stow is currently the P.I. for a NASA Reason project on integration of remote sensing and decision support systems for international border security. He has also served as P.I. for several state and local agency contracts, and as a co-investigator on numerous NASA, NSF, and NIH grants. He is the author or co-author of over 100 refereed publications and 35 conference proceedings papers, mostly on remote sensing topics.

    Lloyd L. Coulter has worked as a staff researcher in the Department of Geography at San Diego State University, since November 1998. He specializes in remote sensing and image processing. Mr. Coulter has served as technical lead on several projects using fine spatial resolution imagery for detecting changes in southern California native habitat and for mapping such things as invasive plants, urban irrigated vegetation, urban canyon fire hazards, and land use. Mr. Coulter is also the operator of an ADAR 5500 airborne digital multispectral camera system owned and operated by the Department of Geography. He has several years of experience in airborne digital image acquisition and post-processing.

    Cody A. Benkelman is the lead engineer at Mission Mountain Technology Associates, which provides remote sensing, image processing, and geographic information systems services. He served as lead engineer and co-founder of Positive Systems, Inc., developing multispectral airborne imaging systems and image processing software. Mr. Benkelman also served as principal investigator and project manager on numerous NASAR&D projects, focused on development of image co-registration software (SBIR Phase I and Phase II, 2004–2006), multispectral data acquisition for the EOS Science Data Buy Program (1997–2001) and imaging system design and development (Earth Observation Commercialization and Applications Program, 1993). Mr. Benkelman was awarded peer-reviewed certification as a ‘Mapping Scientist in Remote Sensing’ by the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS), certification number RS144, effective 10/6/03. He received his M.S. degree in electrical engineering from the University of Colorado in 1987 and a B.S. in physics from Montana State University in 1981.

    Michael E. Schaepman is full Professor in remote sensing at the University of Zurich in Switzerland and adjoint Professor in Geo-Information science with special emphasis on remote sensing at Wageningen University (WU) in The Netherlands. His specialization is in quantitative, physical based remote sensing using imaging spectrometers and multiangular instruments. He pays particular attention on the retrieval of land surface variables in vegetated areas. After obtaining M.Sc. (1994) and Ph.D. (1998) degrees from the University of Zurich (CH) in geography and remote sensing, he spent part of his post doctorate at the University of Arizona (College of Optical Sciences, Tucson, AZ) before being appointed full chair in Wageningen in 2003 and scientific manager in 2005, and full chair in Zurich in 2008 respectively. He serves as Chairman of the ISPRS WG VII/1 on Physical Modeling and has significantly contributed to the further development of imaging spectroscopy over recent years, namely to ESA missions such as LSPIM, SPECTRA, FLEX and APEX. Michael E. Schaepman has co-authored more than 300 scientific publications (>60 peer reviewed papers).

    Josef Martin Kellndorfer's research focuses on the monitoring and assessment of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems using geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing technology. He studies land-use, land cover change and their links to the carbon cycle with a focus on climate change at a regional and global scale. With his scientific findings he strives to support environmental policy decisions at the global scale, and is involved in supporting the UNFCCC negotiations on ‘Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation’ (REDD). Dr. Kellndorfer has been principal and co-investigator on numerous projects involving imaging radar technology. His current research activities include a NASA-funded project to generate the first high-resolution above-ground biomass and carbon dataset of the United States based on the integration of space shuttle radar and optical satellite imagery, as well as research on forest monitoring using the new class of space-borne imaging radar satellites like ALOS//PALSAR, EnviSat, Radarsat, and TerraSAR-X. Before joining the Woods Hole Research Center, Dr. Kellndorfer was a research scientist with the Radiation Laboratory in the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at the University of Michigan. Dr. Kellndorfer holds a diploma degree in physical geography, computer science, and remote sensing, and a doctorate in geosciences from the Ludwig-Maximilians-University in Munich, Germany. Dr. Kellndorfer is a senior member of the IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Society.

    Kyle C. McDonald is a Research Scientist in the Water and Carbon Cycles Group of JPL's Science Division. He received the Bachelor of Electrical Engineering degree (co-operative plan with highest honors) from the Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia in 1983, the M.S. degree in numerical science from Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, in 1985, and the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering from the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, in 1986 and 1991, respectively.

    Dr. McDonald has been employed in the Science Division, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, since 1991, and is currently a Research Scientist in the Water and Carbon Cycles Group. He specializes in electromagnetic scattering and propagation, with emphasis on microwave remote sensing of terrestrial ecosystems. His research interests have primarily involved the application of microwave remote sensing techniques for monitoring seasonal dynamics in boreal ecosystems, as related to ecological and hydrological processes and the global carbon and water cycles. Recent activities have included development of radar instrumentation for measuring sea ice thickness from airborne platforms. Dr. McDonald has been a Principal and co-investigator on numerous NASA Earth Science investigations. He is a member of NASA's North American Carbon Program (NACP) science team, NSF's Pan-Arctic Community-wide Hydrological Analysis and Monitoring Program (Arctic-CHAMP) Science Steering Committee, and the ALOS PALSAR Kyoto and Carbon Initiative science panel.

    Juha Hyyppä received his Master of Science, the Licentiate in Technology, and the Doctor of Technology degrees from the Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), Faculty of E.Eng., all with honors, in 1987, 1990, and 1994, respectively. He has been Professor and Head of the Department at the Finnish Geodetic Institute since 2000. He has docentship in space technology especially in remote sensing (HUT, E.E., 1997–), in laser scanning (HUT, Surveying, 2004–), and in remote sensing of forests (Helsinki University, 2005–). He has been Earth Observation Programme Manager at National Funding Agency Tekes, responsible for the coordination of national and international (ESA and EU) remote sensing activities of Finland, Finnish adviser to ESA Earth Observation Programme Board, and to ESA Potential Participant Meetings (1994–1995), coordinator of the Design Phase of the National Remote Sensing Programme (1995), President of Euro SDR Com II (information extraction) 2004–2010, co-chair to ISPRSWGIII/3 2004–2008, Vice-President of ISPRS Com VII 2008–2012, and Principal Investigator in ESA/NASA Announcement of Opportunity studies and coordinator for more than 10 international research projects. His references are represented by over 200 scientific/technical papers (more than 100 refereed papers). His personal hobby is the development of retrieval methods for laser-assisted individual tree based forest inventory together with Finnish industry.

    Wolfgang Wagner received the Dipl.-Ing. degree in physics and the Dr.techn. degree in remote sensing, both with excellence, from the Vienna University of Technology (TU Wien), Austria, in 1995 and 1999 respectively. He received fellowships to carry out research at the University of Bern, Atmospheric Environment Service Canada, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, European Space Agency, and the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission. From 1999 to 2001 he was with the German Aerospace Agency. In 2001 he was appointed Professor for Remote Sensing at the Institute of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing of TU Wien. Since 2006 he has been the head of the institute. In the period 2008–2012 he is the president of ISPRS Commission VII (Thematic Processing, Modeling and Analysis of Remotely Sensed Data). His main research interests lies in geophysical parameter retrieval techniques from remote sensing data and application development. He focuses on active remote sensing techniques, in particular scatterometry, SAR and airborne laser scanning. He is a member of the Science Advisory Groups for SMOS and ASCAT and committee Chair of the EGU Hydrologic Sciences Sub-Division on Remote Sensing and Data Assimilation. Since December 2003 he has been the coordinator of the Christian Doppler Laboratory for ‘spatial Data from Laser Scanning and Remote Sensing’.

    Markus Hollaus, born in 1973, finished his studies of land and water management and engineering at the University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences (BOKU), Vienna, in March 2000. During his studies he received a fellowship to study at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) in Trondheim, Norway. From 2001 to 2003 he was a research scientist at the Institute of Surveying, Remote Sensing and Land Information at the BOKU. He was involved in several remote sensing and GIS projects with the focus on land use/cover classification and change. From 2004 to 2008 he was research scientist at the Institute of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (TU – Vienna) and also worked for the Christian Doppler Laboratory on ‘spatial Data from Laser Scanning and Remote Sensing’. He received the Dr.techn. (Ph.D.) degree in November 2006 with the thesis ‘Large scale applications of airborne laser scanning for a complex mountainous environment’. Since 2009 he is university assistant at the Institute of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing at the TU Vienna. The focus of his work is the derivation and modeling of vegetation parameters from airborne laser scanner data and aerial photographs and the classification of 3D point clouds using full-waveform airborne laser scanner data.

    Hannu Hyyppä received his Master of Science, the Licentiate in Technology, and the Doctor of Technology degrees from the Helsinki University of Technology (HUT), Faculty of Civil Engineering, in 1986, 1989, and 2000, respectively. He has a docentship at HUT. Currently, he is post-doctoral fellow of the Academy of Finland in the Department of Surveying, at the Institute of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Helsinki University of Technology. Previous employment include Research Fellow, Research Scientist and Assistant Coordinator, part-time R&D director of DI_Ware Oy, part-time president of UbiMap Oy, Project Manager, Development and Planning Engineer at Consulting Company Plancenter Ltd, Assistant, Senior Assistant, and Junior Fellow of the Academy of Finland and Research Scientist at the Laboratory of Road and Railway Engineering of the Department of Civil Engineering and Surveying at the HUT. He has 18 years of work experience in the research of civil and environmental engineering and geoinformatics. His references are represented by over 100 publications in the fields of civil and environmental engineering and geoinformatics, including more than 20 scientific refereed publications. His interests include the use of laser scanning and geoinformatics in new applications in built environment.

    Gabriela Schaepman-Strub obtained her Ph.D. degree in natural sciences from the University of Zurich, Switzerland, in 2004. In 2001, she was a guest researcher at the Department of Geography, Boston University. She obtained a post-doctoral fellowship for prospective researchers from the Swiss National Science Foundation in 2005 and was an external post-doctoral fellow of the European Space Agency (2005–2007) at Wageningen University, the Netherlands. She is currently affiliated with the Nature Conservation and Plant Ecology Group and the Centre for Geo-information at Wageningen University. Her experience include performing and analyzing field spectrometer and goniometer measurements of vegetation canopies, reflectance product terminology, albedo analysis of tundra areas in Northern high latitudes, and plant functional type related analysis in highly dynamic (e.g., floodplain) and vulnerable (e.g., peatland) ecosystems. Her main interests lie in linking advanced vegetation products with dynamic vegetation models, and investigating remote sensing based land surface albedo products for climate modeling applications.

    Michael E. Schaepman (see Chapter 12).

    John Martonchik obtained the Ph.D. degree in astronomy from the University of Texas at Austin, in 1974. He joined NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in 1972 and is currently in the Multi-angle Imaging element of the Earth and Space Sciences Division with the title of Research Scientist. His experience include analyzing telescopic and spacecraft observations of planetary atmospheres, laboratory and theoretical studies of the optical properties of gaseous, liquid, and solid materials, and development and implementation of 1- and 3-dimensional radiative transfer and line-by-line spectroscopy algorithms for studies of planetary atmospheres and Earth tropospheric remote sensing. He has been involved in several NASA Land Processes programs including Remote Sensing Science, FIFE, and BOREAS and is presently the Aerosol/Surface product algorithm scientist for the EOS MISR experiment.

    Thomas Painter is Assistant Professor of Geography and Director of the Snow Optics Laboratory at the University of Utah, Salt Lake City. He is also Affiliate Research Scientist with the National Snow and Ice Data Center and Western Water Assessment of the University of Colorado, Boulder. His research focuses on radiative, hydrologic, and climatic forcings of dust and soot in snow and ice, alpine surface radiation, multispectral and hyperspectral remote sensing of snow physical properties, snowmelt hydrology, snow radiative properties, integration of remote sensing and distributed snow models, dust source mapping, and robotic goniometry. He is currently a member of the GOES-R cryosphere team, developing the fractional snow cover algorithm for the next generation geostationary satellite. His research on radiative and climate effects of dust in snow has been the subject of stories on National Public Radio, Reuters, The Weather Channel, and myriad articles in the domestic and international media. He is a member of the AGU Cryospheric Executive Committee and the AGU Hydrology Remote Sensing Technical Committee. His memberships in professional organizations include the American Geophysical Union, the European Geophysical Union, International Glaciological Society, and the Western Snow Conference.

    Stefan Dangel obtained his Ph.D. degree in physics from the University of Zurich in 1997, specializing in quantum optics and nonlinear dynamics of pattern formation. His research interests include nonlinear wave propagation in low frequency seismology with applications for the oil and gas industry as well as spectro-directional effects, BRDF retrieval for field and laboratory goniometer measurements and goniometer measurement intercomparison in the field of remote sensing. He has contributed to ESA's SPECTRA mission as principal investigator for the development of a SPECTRA, end-to-end simulator. He also obtained a Master's degree in music. His current focus is on teaching mathematics, physics and bassoon.

    Freek van der Meer has an M.Sc. in structural geology and tectonics of the Free University of Amsterdam (1989) and a Ph.D. in remote sensing from Wageningen Agricultural University (1995) both in the Netherlands. He started his career at Delft Geotechnics (now Geodelft) working on geophysical processing of ground penetrating radar data. In 1989 he was appointed lecturer in geology at the International Institute for Aerospace Surveys and Earth Sciences (ITC in Enschede, the Netherlands) where he has worked to date in various positions (presently Professor and Chairman of the Earth Science Department). His research is directed toward the use of hyperspectral remote sensing for geological applications. In 1999, Dr. van der Meer was appointed full professor at the Delft University of Technology. In 2004, Dr. van der Meer was appointed adjunct professor at the Asian Institute of Technology in Bangkok (Thailand). In 2005 he was appointed Professor in Geological Remote Sensing at the University Utrecht. Professor van der Meer published over 100 papers in international journals, authored more than 150 conference papers and reports, has supervised over 50 M.Sc. projects and graduated eight Ph.D. candidates. He is the past chairman of the Netherlands Society for Earth Observation and Geoinformatics, chairman of the special interest group geological remote sensing of EARSeL, member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Sciences, Associate Editor for Terra Nova, editor for the International Journal of Applied Geoinformation Science and Earth Observation, editor for the Netherlands Journal of Geosciences, and editor of the Remote Sensing and Digital Image Processing Series of Springer.

    Harald van der Werff received his M.Sc. degree in geology from Utrecht University. Thereafter he worked as a researcher at the German Space Organization DLR in Oberpfaffenhofen in the spectroscopy group led by Andreas Mueller. In 2001 he joined ITC as a Ph.D. candidate working on the development of spectral-spatial contextual image analysis techniques. He received his Ph.D. in 2006 from the University of Utrecht on a thesis entitled ‘Knowledge based remote sensing of complex objects’. To date Dr. van der Werff works as an Assistant Professor at ITC. His research interests are on (geological) hyperspectral remote sensing and on the integration of spectral and spatial information of remotely sensed images. Current research is on airborne detection of hydrocarbon spills from pipelines and geological interpretation of hyperspectral data (OMEGA, CRISM) from Mars by segmentation and landform analysis.

    Steven M. de Jong is Professor in Physical Geography with emphasis on land degradation and remote sensing at the Faculty of Geosciences of Utrecht University since 2001. From 1998 to 2001 he was head of the Centre for Geo-information and Remote Sensing of Wageningen University. De Jong is chairman of the research school Centre for Geo-ecological Research (ICG) and research director of Physical Geography, Utrecht. From 1995 to 1996 he worked as a visiting scientist at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena and conducted research to applications of NASA's Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS). In 1997, 1998, and 2001 de Jong was Principle Investigator of several experimental campaigns investigating the usefulness of imaging spectrometers (DAIS 7915, HyMap) for environmental applications in France and Spain. From 1998, to 2001 he was leader of a project investigating the use of SPOT-XS and IKONOS imagery for urban mapping in Burkina Faso. In 1994 he completed his Ph.D. thesis ‘soil Erosion Modelling using Hyperspectral Images in Mediterranean Areas’. De Jong is a member of the editioral board of Remote Sensing and Digital Image Processing book series (Kluwer) and of the International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geo-information (Elsevier).

    Chris J. Johannsen is a Professor Emeritus of Agronomy and Director Emeritus of the Laboratory for Applications of Remote Sensing (LARS) at Purdue University. His research has related to remote sensing and GIS applications for precision farming, soil pattern influences on reflectance, spatial-spectral-temporal resolution impacts and land degradation. He is co-editor of a book titled Remote Sensing for Resource Management, contributor to 16 book chapters and author or co-author of over 260 papers and articles. He served as International President of the Soil and Water Conservation Society in 1982–1983. Dr. Johannsen was responsible for the collection of ground reference information at LARS (1966–1972), continued research involving uses of reference information at the University of Missouri–Columbia (1972–1984) and resumed research, education, and outreach responsibilities for LARS as Director (1985–2003). He has received much recognition for his work including Fellow of five professional societies. Recently, he received the prestigious Hugh Hammond Bennett Award from the SWCS for his work on spatial technologies relating to studying land degradation.

    Craig S. T. Daughtry is a Research Agronomist in the USDA-ARS Hydrology and Remote Sensing Laboratory in Beltsville, Maryland, USA. His research has focused on measuring and modeling the spectral reflectance of crops and soils. Daughtry joined the Laboratory of Applications of Remote Sensing (LARS) at Purdue University in 1976 and made significant advancements in integrating remotely sensed data into crop growth and yield models. After joining ARS in 1987, he has developed innovative techniques for measuring optical properties of leaves, increasing sampling efficiency, and managing the spatial variability of crops and soils. He also pioneered the use of fluorescence and shortwave infrared technologies to estimate crop residue cover for quantitatively assessing conservation tillage practices and tracking carbon sequestration. He is author or co-author of over 180 papers and articles. He has served on various committees of American Society of Agronomy and editorial boards of Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing and Agronomy Journal.

    James W. Merchant is Professor in the School of Natural Resources, University of Nebraska-Lincoln (UNL) and is Director of UNL's Center for Advanced Land Management Information Technologies (CALMIT). Dr. Merchant received a B.A. in geography from Towson University, Baltimore, Maryland, and both the M.A. and Ph.D. in geography from the University of Kansas. His research has focused upon (1) development of strategies for large-area land cover characterization using digital multispectral satellite data, (2) spatial and contextual analysis of digital images, and (3) applications of geographic information systems in management of natural resources. Dr. Merchant was recipient of the 1999 Outstanding Contributions Award presented by the Nebraska GIS/LIS Association and the 1998 Outstanding Achievements Award conferred by the Remote Sensing Specialty Group of the Association of American Geographers. In 1997 he was honored with the John Wesley Powell Award that recognizes significant achievements in contributing to the research of the US Geological Survey. From 2000–2007 Dr. Merchant served as Editor of Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, the journal of the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS).

    Sunil Narumalani is a Professor in the School of Natural Resources, and Associate Director of the Center for Advanced Land Management Information Technologies (CALMIT), University of Nebraska, Lincoln (UNL). He received his Ph.D. in geography from the University of South Carolina in 1993. Dr. Narumalani teaches courses in remote sensing (digital image analysis), introductory and advanced geographic information systems. His research focuses on the use of remote sensing for the extraction of biophysical information from satellite data and aircraft multispectral scanner systems, integration of geospatial data sets for ecological and natural resources mapping and monitoring, and the development of new image analyses techniques. Some of Dr. Narumalani's recent research has been on using remote sensing and GIS for the assessment of coral reefs and seagrasses off the coast of Florida and in the Caribbean. Over the past several years he has also been involved with projects pertaining to homeland security and military applications of geospatial technologies including the development of workshops for military intelligence units, integration of geospatial technologies for the National Guard, and initiating operational geographic databases for the Nebraska Emergency Management Agency (NEMA). Dr. Narumalani is also the Geography Program Coordinator at UNL.

    John R. Jensen is a Carolina Distinguished Professor in the Department of Geography at the University of South Carolina (USC). He majored in physical geography, cartography, and remote sensing at California State University, Fullerton, 1971(B.A.); Breghan Young University, 1972 (M.A.); and UCLA, 1976 (Ph.D.). While at UCLA, he was trained in photogrammetry at Aero Service, Inc. In 1977, he accepted a professorship at the University of Georgia. In 1981, he went to USC and helped in developing the Ph.D. in GIScience. Dr. Jensen has mentored 60 M.S. and 28 Ph.Ds. His research focuses on: (a) remote sensing of wetland resources and water quality, (b) development of algorithms to classify land cover and detect change, and (c) the development of remote sensing-assisted decision support systems. Dr. Jensen was President of ASPRS in 1996. He has published >120 remote sensing articles. He was a co-author of ASPRs' Manual of Remote Sensing (1st and 2nd editions) and Manual of Photographic Interpretation (1997). He co-authored Geographic Information for Sustainable Development in Africa (2002) published by the National Academy Press. His textbooks Remote Sensing of the Environment (2007) and Introductory Digital Image Processing (2005) are used throughout the world. He received the ASPRS SAIC John E. Estes Teaching Award in 2004.

    Jungho Im received his B.S. in 1998 in oceanography from Seoul National University, an M.C.P. in 2000 in environmental management from Seoul National University, and his Ph.D. in 2006 in geography with Dr. Jensen at the University of South Carolina. From 2006 to 2007, he worked as a post-doctoral research scientist in the Center for GIS and Remote Sensing, Department of Geography, University of South Carolina. In 2007, he became an Assistant Professor in the Environmental Resources and Forest Engineering, State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, New York, USA. He is a member of the Association of American Geographers (AAG) and American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS). His research interests include Geographic Information Systems (GIS), GIS-based modeling, digital image processing, and environmental remote sensing.

    Perry Hardin is currently an Associate Professor of Geography at Brigham Young University. He received his Ph.D. in geography from the University of Utah in 1989 where his dissertation focused on statistical classification of Landsat imagery. He has authored several journal papers related to nonparametric classification methods, confusion matrix analysis, and the use of neural networks in remote sensing. His current research interest is the use of neural networks to estimate biophysical and socioeconomic parameters (e.g., leaf area index, population data) in urban areas where calibration ground data is unavailable. Dr. Hardin served for two years on the editorial board of Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing and as chair of the Publications Committee for the American Society of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing.

    Ryan R. Jensen is an Associate Professor in the Department of Geography at Brigham Young University. Before this, he was an Assistant and then Associate Professor in the Department of Geography, Geology, and Anthropology where he served as the Director of the Center for Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems and as the Associate Director for Forest Research in the Center for State Park Research.

    Dr. Jensen received his B.S. (cartography and geographic information systems) and M.S. (geography) from Brigham Young University. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Florida in geography with a minor in botany and a concentration in interdisciplinary geographic information systems. His research interests include using remote sensing and GIS to study biogeography and landscape patterns. He currently has active research programs in urban forestry, fire ecology in the south eastern (United States) coastal plain, and hyperspectral remote sensing.

    Shunlin Liang received his Ph.D. degree from Boston University. He was a post-doctoral research associate in Boston University from 1992 to 1993, and Validation Scientist of the NOAA/NASA Pathfinder AVHRR Land Project from 1993 to 1994. He joined the University of Maryland in 1993 and currently is a professor.

    His present research interests focus on radiative transfer modeling, inversion of environmental information from satellite observations, spatiotemporal analysis of remotely sensed data, integration of numerical models with different data from various sources (i.e., data assimilation), and remote sensing applications to agriculture, weather and climate, and carbon and water cycles.

    He is a principal investigator of numerous grants and contracts from NASA, NOAA, and other funding agencies. He is an Associate Editor of the IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, a member of several satellite science teams (e.g., MODIS, MISR, ASTER, EO1) of NASA and other space agencies, and co-chairman of the International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing Commission VII/I on Fundamental Physics and Modeling. He is an author of about 100 peer-reviewed journal papers and the book entitled Quantitative Remote Sensing of Land Surfaces (2004).

    Stephen V. Stehman has been a Biometrician in the Department of Forest and Natural Resources Management at the State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry since 1989. He received his Ph.D. in biometry from Cornell University, an M.S. in statistics from Oregon State University, and a B.S. in biology from Penn. State University. His research activity has focused on the theory and practical application of rigorous sampling strategies for assessing map accuracy.

    Giles M. Foody (see editors' biographical descriptions).

    Yongxin Deng is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Geography, Western Illinois University, teaching GIS and physical geography courses. He earned his Ph.D. in the Department of Geography, University of Southern California in 2005, focusing on geographical information science. His earlier experience in China includes a Bachelor's degree in physical geography in 1986 from Xinjiang University, a Master's degree in soil science in 1991 from the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and six ensuing years' (1991–1997) research at the Chinese Academy of Sciences, mostly conducting environmental impact assessment and natural resource evaluations in arid northwestern China. His current research interests include quantitative and classification methods in GIS, digital terrain analysis, mountain landscapes, urban landscape modeling, fuzzy logic, and spatial scale.

    Xianfeng Chen was born in Kurla, China, in 1963. He studied physical geography in the Department of Geography, Xinjiang University, China, from 1982 to 1986, and graduated with a B.S. degree in 1986. For the next three years he studied geomorphology at the graduate school of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, receiving an M.S. degree in 1989. He was recruited as a research scientist by Xinjiang Institute of Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, in 1989. Beginning in the summer of 1997, he spent a year at West Virginia University as a visiting scholar, working with Dr. Tim Warner. After his return to China, he was involved in several research projects in remote sensing and GIS. In 2000, he began the Ph.D. program in geology at West Virginia University. His dissertation, ‘Integrating Hyperspectral and Thermal Remote Sensing for Geological Mapping,’ was supervised by Dr. Tim Warner. After graduation in 2005, he joined the faculty of Slippery Rock University of Pennsylvania. His research interests include geological applications of hyperspectral and thermal remote sensing, land use and land cover studies, and environmental modeling with GIS and remote sensing.

    David J. Campagna is a Remote Sensing Geologist with over 20 years of industry and academic experience. He is currently the Chief Science Officer of SkyTruth, Inc., a non-profit remote sensing group and serves as Adjunct Faculty in the Department of Geology and Geography at West Virginia University. He also consults for worldwide investigations of unconventional reservoirs, naturally fractured reservoirs, and structurally complex terrains. Dr. Campagna has previously worked with Advanced Resources International, Unocal Exploration, and Petro-Hunt in both domestic and international operations. He holds a Ph.D. in structural geology from Purdue University.

    James B. Campbell, PhD, has devoted his career to applications of aerial survey and remote sensing to studies of land use, geomorphology, and soils. Since 1997 he has served as co-director of Virginia Tech's Center for Environmental Analysis of Remote Sensing (CEARS). He is author of numerous technical articles and several books; his recent research addresses human impact upon coastal geomorphology and the history of aerial survey. Employment: Professor, Department of Geography, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA.

    Michael A. Wulder received his B.Sc. (1995) degree from the University of Calgary and his M.E.S. (1996) and Ph.D. (1998) degrees from the Faculty of Environmental Studies at the University of Waterloo. On graduation, he joined the Canadian Forest Service of Natural Resources Canada at the Pacific Forestry Centre, in Victoria, British Columbia, as a Research Scientist. Dr. Wulder's research interests focus on the application of and integration of remote sensing and GIS to address issues of forest structure and function. He is an Adjunct Professor in the Department of Geography at the University of Victoria and the Department of Forest Resources Management of the University of British Columbia. Dr. Wulder is also a member of the GOFC-GOLD Land Cover Implementation Team and the USGS/NASA Landsat Science Team.

    Joanne C. White received her B.Sc. (1994) and M.Sc. (1998) degrees in geography from the University of Victoria. She has worked in the fields of remote sensing and GIS, in a forestry context, for over 13 years. Joanne has been employed by federal, provincial, and private forest agencies, and has experience in operational, strategic, and research-oriented environments. She joined the Canadian Forest Service of Natural Resources Canada at the Pacific Forestry Centre, in Victoria, British Columbia, in 2003 as a Spatial Analyst.

    Nicholas C. Coops received his B.App.Sc. (1991) and Ph.D. (1996) degrees from the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology in Melbourne, Australia. He then worked as a research scientist at the CSIRO Australia Research Institution in the Forestry and Wildlife Divisions, in Canberra and Melbourne, from 1994 to 2004. In 2004, Dr. Coops accepted a faculty position at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, British Columbia. He is the Canadian Research Chair in remote sensing and the editor of the Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing. His research interests focus on the theoretical development and application of remote sensing technologies to vegetation studies.

    Stephanie Ortlepp received her B.Sc.F. (1999) and her M.Sc. (2003) degrees from the Faculty of Forestry at the University of British Columbia. After graduation, she worked for Pacific Geomatics Ltd. as an image processing specialist for over two years, before joining the Canadian Forest Service of Natural Resources Canada at the Pacific Forestry Centre, in Victoria, British Columbia in 2007 as a Monitoring Analyst.

    M. Duane Nellis (see editors' biographical descriptions).

    Kevin P. Price is a Professor of Geography and served as the Associate Director of the Kansas Applied Remote Sensing (KARS) Program for 15 years at the University of Kansas (KU). While at KU, he has also retained a courtesy appointment in the Environmental Studies Program. He recently accepted a new position at Kansas State University (KSU), and will have a joint appointment in Agronomy and Geography from August of 2008. Given his agricultural academic training and interests, he looks forward to working at KSU, which is a well-respected agricultural school. He has been the recipient of national awards for service within the remote sensing community and served as the Associate Chair and Chair of the Remote Sensing Specialty Group of the Association of American Geographers. He also served on two National Research Council (NRC) committees that addressed issues of sustainable development in Africa and environmental satellite data utilization. His academic training includes a Ph.D. in geography (specialty in biogeography, remote sensing, and GIS) at the University of Utah, and B.S. and M.S. degrees in range science at Brigham Young University. Before coming to KU, he was an Assistant Professor in Geography at Utah State University where he also served as an Adjunct Professor in the Departments of Forestry, Range Science, Fisheries and Wildlife, and Landscape Architecture. Dr. Price's research has focused on the use of tools in the GISciences to study ‘natural’ and anthropogenically driven forcings that influences ecosystem (including agro-ecosystem) dynamics. He has conducted research throughout most regions of the world, and is the author or co-author of over 230 publications and an investigator on 75 research grants and contracts.

    Donald Rundquist is a Professor with the School of Natural Resources, Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Nebraska-Lincoln (UNL). He also serves as Director of the Center for Advanced Land Management Information Technologies (CALMIT). Rundquist holds a Ph.D. in geography from UNL (1977). He has been conducting research in and teaching courses on the subject of remote sensing since the early 1970s. His research involves high spectral and spatial resolution remote sensing of both cropland-vegetation canopies and surface waters, field techniques in support of remote-sensing campaigns, and airborne imaging spectrometry.

    Samantha Lavender has over 15 years research experience, and is Reader in Geomatics at the University of Plymouth (UoP), England, and Managing Director of ARGANS Limited. Her research interests have focused primarily on the quantitative remote sensing of water bodies using their color signature. Often called ocean color, it is used to quantify concentrations and behavior of what is dissolved or suspended by modeling the optical properties. Research extends from the movement of sediments in the coastal zone to phytoplankton in the open ocean. Both topics link to wider issues, such as climate change, as remote sensing is an important monitoring tool. Through the UoP Geomatics research group this links into Geographical Information Systems and coastal zone management. Recent community activities have also included the NERC Centre for observation of Air–Sea Interactions and fluXes (CASIX) Centre of Excellence and ESA Glob Colour project; demonstrating an Earth Observation based service. She is also a council member for the Remote Sensing and Photogrammetric Society and, at an international level, Chair of the International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing Working Group VIII. 6 (Coastal Zones Management, Ocean Colour and Ocean State Forecasting) and a committee member on the International Ocean Colour Coordinating Group.

    Jeff Dozier, Professor of Environmental Science and Management at the University of California, Santa Barbara, teaches and does research in the fields of snow hydrology, Earth system science, remote sensing, and information systems. He has pioneered interdisciplinary studies in two areas: one involves the hydrology, hydrochemistry, and remote sensing of mountainous drainage basins; the other is in the integration of environmental science with computer science and technology. In addition, he has played a role in development of the educational and scientific infrastructure. He founded UCSB's Donald Bren School of Environmental Science and Management and served as its first Dean for six years. He was the Senior Project Scientist for NASA's Earth Observing System in its formative stages when the configuration for the system was established. Professor Dozier received his B.A. from California State University, Hayward in 1968 and his Ph.D. from the University of Michigan in 1973. He is a Fellow of the American Geophysical Union, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and the UK's National Institute for Environmental eScience. He is also an Honorary Professor of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, a recipient of the NASA Public Service Medal, and one of two winners of the 2005 Pecora Award from the Department of Interior and NASA.

    Gregory P. Asner's is a Staff Scientist in the Department of Global Ecology at the Carnegie Institution for Science. He is also a professor in the Department of Environmental Earth Systems Science at Stanford University. His scientific research centers on how human activities alter the composition and functioning of ecosystems at regional scales. Asner combines field work, airborne and satellite mapping, and computer simulation modeling to understand the response of ecosystems to land use and climate change. His most recent work includes satellite monitoring of deforestation, selective logging and forest disturbance throughout the Amazon Basin, invasive species and biodiversity in tropical rainforests, and climate effects on tropical forest carbon dynamics. His remote sensing efforts focus on the use of new technologies for studies of ecosystem structure, chemistry and biodiversity in the context of conservation, management, and policy development. He directs the Carnegie Airborne Observatory, a new airborne laser and hyperspectral remote sensing platform designed for regional assessments of the carbon, water, and biodiversity services provided by ecosystems to society.

    Scott V. Ollinger is an Associate Professor at the University of New Hampshire with appointments in the Institute for the Study of Earth Oceans and Space and the Department of Natural Resources. His specialties are in ecosystem ecology and biogeochemistry with emphasis on basic ecological processes and interactions with human-induced environmental stressors. His research interests include: carbon and nitrogen cycling in forests; factors affecting carbon assimilation and storage by ecosystems; ecological effects of climate change, rising CO2 and air pollution; and regional patterns of climate and atmospheric pollutant deposition in the North eastern US. His work typically involves equal measures of field studies, remote sensing, and ecosystem modeling. At present, he is a principal investigator with the North American Carbon Program, an Associate Editor for Biogeochemistry and he serves or has served on numerous science advisory boards and steering committees. He also teaches courses in forest ecology and biogeochemistry. Dr. Ollinger received his Ph.D. from the University of New Hampshire in 2000.

    Janet Nichol is a Physical Geographer, specializing in biogeography and remote sensing. She obtained her B.Sc. from Queen Mary College London University, M.A. from the Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research at the University of Colorado, and Ph.D. from the University of Aston in Birmingham, England. She has lectured and conducted research in the United Kingdom, Nigeria, Singapore, Ireland, and Hong Kong and is currently a Professor in the Department of Land Surveying and GeoInformatics at the Hong Kong Polytechnic University. Her main research interests are in the application of remote sensing techniques to environmental assessment and monitoring, including the urban heat island, air quality, urban environmental quality, ecological mapping and evaluation, and the assessment of climate change impacts. She has published widely on these topics and is a reviewer for journals specializing in remote sensing, planning, and environmental issues.

    Kelley A. Crews is at the University of Texas at Austin where she is an Associate Professor of Geography and the Environment and Director of the GIScience Center, and is a faculty research associate of the Population Research Center, Center for Space Research, Environmental Science Institute, and Lozano Long Institute of Latin American Studies. She is currently both Chair of the Remote Sensing Specialty Group and member of Honors B Committee of the AAG, and Deputy Director of the Awards Committee for the ASPRS. She serves on the advisory committee for NASA's only socioeconomic data and applications center housed at CIESIN of the Earth Institute at Columbia University. She is currently a member of the editorial boards of Geocarto International, Geography Compass, and Southwestern Geographer, and has served on review panels for NSF and SSRC. She recently co-edited a “Focus” section of Professional Geographer and also has a co-edited book with Kluwer Academic Publishers on expanding the socio-spatial frontiers of GIScience. Her publications span outlets focusing on remote sensing (Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing; International Journal of Remote Sensing), environment and policy (Agriculture, Ecosystems, and Environment; Environmental Management), and population–system interactions (Population Research and Policy Review; Urban Ecosystems). Her research focuses on the global tropics, with current projects in the Andes–Amazon Corridor and the Okavango Delta, Botswana, and funded by grants from NASA and NSF.

    Stephen J. Walsh is at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and is Professor of Geography, member of the Ecology Curriculum, and Research Fellow of the Carolina Population Center where he is faculty advisor to the Spatial Analysis Unit. He has served as Chair of the Geographic Information Systems and the Remote Sensing Specialty Groups of the AAG. He was awarded the Outstanding Contributions Award and Medal from the Remote Sensing Specialty Group of the AAG and National Research Honors for Distinguished Scholarship from the AAG, and was elected into the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He is currently a member of the editorial boards of Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Plant Ecology, and Geocarto International, and has served on review panels for the NSF and NIH. He has co-edited special remote sensing and GIS issues in the Journal of Vegetation Science, Geomorphology, GeoForum, and Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing. He has co-edited a series of three books for Kluwer Academic Publishers and has published over 170 articles and book chapters on the research and practice of digitally integrated spatial science. His current research is conducted in Thailand, the Ecuadorian Amazon, the Galapagos Islands, and the Mountains of the American West and is funded by grants from NASA, NIH, NSF, and the USGS.

    Richard Teeuw is Senior Lecturer in applied geomorphology and remote sensing in the School of Earth and Environmental Sciences at the University of Portsmouth, England. Richard has extensive experience of mapping natural resources and geohazards in Africa, working as a consultant for the overseas development agencies of Canada (CIDA), Germany (GTZ), and Japan (JICA), as well as various mineral exploration organizations. Current interests focus on using low-cost satellite imagery for mapping geohazards and vulnerability, leading to disaster risk reduction, with research projects in SE Spain, Turkey, Costa Rica, and the Caribbean. Currently Chair of the Geological Remote Sensing Group (http://www.grsg.org), Richard has also edited books on the remote sensing of geohazards and the uses of geoinformatics for fieldwork.

    Paul Aplin is an Associate Professor in Geographical Information Science at the University of Nottingham, UK. He specializes in environmental remote sensing, with principal research interests in the development of innovative approaches for land cover classification, the influence of scale of observation on image analysis and the application of spatial approaches for ecological investigation. He is currently engaged as Chairman of the Remote Sensing and Photogrammetry Society and Book Series Editor of the International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing.

    Nicholas McWilliam has been developing information management and mapping applications in humanitarian disaster response with the UK-based NGO Map Action since 2003, through research and training projects and emergency-response missions. Most recently he worked for the UN Joint Logistics Centre in South Sudan. Before that he was a lecturer in GIS for geography and life sciences, and worked for British Antarctic Survey's mapping centre. His first GIS use was modeling large mammal populations in Tanzania, and he has remained involved in National Parks mapping in East Africa. He co-edited the Royal Geographical Society's fieldwork manual GIS, GPS and Remote Sensing and regularly runs GIS workshops with the RGS for student research projects.

    Toby Wicks is the European Engagement Manager at EuroGeographics, the association representing Europe's National Mapping and Cadastral Agencies. He is motivated by the use of geographic information to better coordinate response to sudden-onset disasters. Previously Toby has held positions at Ordnance Survey Great Britain, the World Health Organisation, and Spot Image. Toby has a Ph.D. in remote sensing, is a trustee and council member of the UK's Remote Sensing and Photogrammetry Society, a Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society and has been a volunteer for the UK-based NGO Map Action since 2004.

    Matthieu Kervyn is a young Belgian Geoscientist. He holds a Master's degree in Geography from the Université Catholique deLouvain. Since 2004, hedevelopeda Ph.D. involcanology within the Mercatorand Ortelius Research Centre for Eruption Dynamics at Ghent University, under the supervision of Dr. Gerald G.J. Ernst, and Prof. P. Jacobs. His research interests focus on the use of low cost remote sensing, analogue and numerical modeling to gain insights on the relationships between eruption dynamics, volcano growth, and associated hazards. Matthieu has been involved in assessing hazards and developing low cost remote sensing monitoring at several African volcanoes, including Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania, and Mt. Cameroon.

    Gerald G. J. Ernst is a Geohazard Researcher interested in understanding how eruptions and volcanoes work and in applications to poverty alleviation and to hazard assessment at volcanoes in the developing world, especially across Central Africa. Exploring new applications of remote sensing including low cost approaches and combining this with analogue modeling is a key focus of interest. After 12 years of training, researching, and lecturing in volcanology and geological fluid dynamics at the Department of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, UK, Dr. Ernst has joined the Belgian NSF (Flanders) in 2003 and is now working toward establishing the Mercator and Ortelius Research Centre for Eruption Dynamics – a school for volcanology research and an analogue modeling laboratory at the University of Ghent, Belgium. Dr. Ernst has published approximately 30 peer-reviewed articles related to volcanology, analogue modeling, or volcano remote sensing and co-edited the first textbook onVolcanoes and the Environment (CUP, 2005). In recent years, he has been developing initiatives working with African colleagues to develop the capacity for volcano research and monitoring in sub-tropical developing countries. He has received four prizes in recognition of his efforts so far including the 2002 Golden Clover Prize from the Fondation Belge de la Vocation, a foundation patronized by HM Queen Fabiola of Belgium. He trained over 50 students through supervision of research projects. Two former students he helped train are now award-winning volcano scientists.

    Timothy A. Warner (see editors' biographical descriptions).

    Abdullah Almutairi is an Assistant Professor of Geography at Emam Muhammad Bin Saud University, in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). He has a Bachelor's degree in Geography from the Emam Muhammad Bin Saud University. His received his graduate education in geography with a specialization in remote sensing at West Virginia University, where he earned a Master's degree in 2000 and a Ph.D. in 2004. He has served as Chair of the Geography Department at Emam Muhammad Bin Saud University. He is a member of the Social Geographical Society and GIS Club, and has served as a consultant to the KSA Ministry of High Education. His research specialties include the spatial properties of images, high resolution remote sensing, and the use of remote sensing and GIS in planning.

    Jong Yeol Lee is Research Fellow of the Geospatial Science Research Centre at the Korea Research Institute for Human Settlements (KRIHS), an affiliated research institute of the Office of the Prime Minster of the Republic of Korea. He graduated with a B.S. in geography from the College of Education at Seoul National University. He has a Ph.D. from West Virginia University in geography with specialization in remote sensing. He has served as the director of the Geospatial Science Research Centre at KRIHS, and is an Adjunct Professor at the University of Seoul. He serves on the board of directors of the Korean Geography Society, and is also a member of the executive board of the Korean Society of Remote Sensing. His specialty is high spatial resolution image analysis, integration of remote sensing and GIS, and regional analysis in regional studies.

    Giles M. Foody, Timothy A. Warner, and M. Duane Nellis (see editors' biographical descriptions).

  • Appendix: Acronyms

    1DOne-dimensional
    2DTwo-dimensional
    3DThree-dimensional
    A/DAnalog-to-digital
    AAGAssociation of American Geographers
    AATSRAdvanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer
    ABBAAutomated Biomass Burning Algorithm
    ABMAgent-based modeling
    ACORNAtmospheric CORrection Now
    ADEOSAdvanced Earth Observing Satellite
    ADMIDAirborne digital multispectral image data
    ADMISAirborne digital multispectral imaging system
    AgRISTARSAgriculture and Resources Inventory Surveys Through Aerospace Remote Sensing
    AIMApparent Image Motion
    AirMISRAirborne Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer
    AIRSAtmospheric Infrared Sounder
    AIRSARAirborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (NASA/JPL)
    AISAirborne Imaging Spectrometer (NASA/JPL)
    ALIAdvanced Land Imager
    ALOSAdvanced Land Observing Satellite
    ALSAirborne Laser Scanning
    ALS-50Airborne Laser Scanner (Leica)
    ALTMAirborne Laser Terrain Mapper (Optech)
    AMSRAdvanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer
    AMSR-EAdvanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS
    ANNArtificial Neural Network
    ANOVAAnalysis of Variance
    ANZLICAustralia and New Zealand Land Information Council
    AODAerosol Optical Depth
    AOLAirborne Oceanographic Lidar
    AOTFAcousto-Optical Tunable Filters
    APEXAirborne Prism Experiment
    ARESAirborne Reflective Emissive Spectrometer
    ASARAdvanced SAR sensor on Envisat
    ASDAnalytical Spectral Devices
    ASFMSAerial survey flight management system
    ASGAutomated SpectroGoniometer
    ASPRSAmerican Society of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing
    ASTERAdvanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer
    ATAlong Track
    ATLASAdvanced Thermal and Land Applications Sensor
    ATMAirborne Thematic Mapper
    ATSRAlong Track Scanning Radiometer
    AVHRRAdvanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (NOAA meteorological satellites)
    AVIRISAirborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (NASA JPL)
    AVNIRAdvanced Visible and Near Infrared Radiometer
    AWiFSAdvanced Wide-Field Sensor
    BHRBiHemispherical Reflectance
    BHRisoBiHemispherical Reflectance under isotropic illumination conditions
    BIRDBi-spectral Infra-Red Detector
    BLIPBackground Limited performance
    BNSCBritish National Space Centre
    bpiBits per inch
    BRDFBidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function
    BRFBidirectional Reflectance Factor
    BTDFBidirectional Transmittance Distribution Function
    CAcellular automata
    CASACarnegie–Ames–Stanford Approach
    CASICompact Airborne Spectrographic Imager
    CBDCentral Business District
    CBERSChina–Brazil Earth Resources Satellite
    CCDCharge-Coupled Device
    CCRFConical-Conical (biconical) Reflectance Factor
    CCRSCanadian Center for Remote Sensing
    CCSMCross Correlogram Spectral Matching algorithm
    CCSPClimate Change Science Program
    CDOMColored dissolved organic material
    CEOCentre for Earth Observation of the European Commission.
    CEOSCommittee on Earth Observation Satellites
    CERESClouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System
    chlChlorophyll-a concentrations
    CHMCanopy Height Model
    CHRISCompact High Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (SSTL, ESA)
    CIChlorophyll Index
    CIESINCenter for International Earth Science Information Network
    CIRColor infrared
    CLASSComprehensive Large Array-data Stewardship System
    CNESCentre National d’ Etudes Spatiales, French Space Agency
    COFURCost of fulfilling a user request
    COSTCosine of the zenith angle, Tz
    COTScommercial off-the-shelf
    CPRCloud Profiling Radar
    CRPConservation Reserve Program
    CTISComputed Tomography Imaging Spectrometer
    CVCoefficient of Variation
    CVAChange Vector Analysis
    CWContinuous Wave
    CZCSCoastal Zone Color Scanner
    DAACDistributed Active Archive Center
    DAIDDigital Airborne Imaging Spectrometer
    dBDecibel
    DDVDense Dark Vegetation
    DEMDigital Elevation Model
    DESDynIDeformation, Ecosystem Structure, Dynamics of Ice (NASA)
    dGPSdifferential Global Positioning System
    DHRDirectional-Hemispherical Reflectance
    DIMAPDictionary Maintenance Programs
    DInSARDifferential SAR Interferometry
    DInSARDifferential InSAR
    DLRDeutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt, German Aerospace Centre
    DLRGerman Aerospace Research Establishment
    DMCDisaster Monitoring Constellation
    DMSPDefense Meteorological Satellite Program
    DNDigital Number
    DOASDifferential Optical Absorption Spectrometers
    DOIDepartment of the Interior
    DOMDissolved Organic Matter
    DOQDigital Orthophoto Quadrangle
    DOSDark Object Subtraction
    DRCDemocratic Republic of Congo
    DSMDigital Surface Model
    DSMDigital Soil Mapping
    DTMDigital Terrain Model
    DVDDigital Versatile Disc
    EBCMExtended Boundary Condition Method
    EDCEROS Data Center (pre-2005, now obsolete)
    EDMSSEnvironmental and Disaster Monitoring Satellite System
    EDOSEOS Data and Operations System
    EDRSEnvironmental Data Records
    EIAElectronics Industries Association
    EMElectromagnetic
    EnMAPEnvironmental Mapping
    ENSOEl Nino Southern Oscillation
    ENVISATEnvironmental Satellite
    EOElectro-optical
    EOEarth Observation
    EO-1Earth Observing1 (NASA mission)
    EOCEarth Observing Camera
    EOCAPEarth Observations Commercialization Applications Program
    EOSEarth Observing System (NASA)
    EOSATEarth Observation Satellite
    EOSDISEOS Data and Information System
    EPSEumetsat Polar System
    ERBEEarth Radiation Budget Experiment
    ERIMEnvironmental Research Institute of Michigan
    EROSEarth Resources Observation System (pre-2005)
    EROSEarth Resources Observation and Science (post-2005)
    ERSEuropean Remote Sensing (Satellite)
    ERS-1European Remote Sensing satellite 1
    ERS-1/2Earth Resource Satellite ½
    ERS-2European Remote Sensing satellite 2
    ERTSEarth Resources Technology Satellite
    ESAEuropean Space Agency
    ETEvapotranspiration
    ETM+Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (Landsat)
    EUEuropean Union
    EUMETSATEuropean Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites
    EuroSDREuropean Spatial Data Research
    EWDIEnhanced Wetness Difference Index
    FGDCFederal Geographic Data Committee
    FIGOSFIeld GOniometer System
    FLAASHFast Line-of-sight Atmospheric Analysis of Spectral Hypercubes
    FLHFluorescence Line Height
    FLIFuture of Land Imaging
    FLIFluorescence Line Imager
    FLI/PMIFluorescence Line Imager/Programmable Multispectral Imager
    FMCForward motion compensation
    FORField of regard
    FOVField of view
    fPARFraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation
    FSRFine spatial resolution
    FTSFourier Transform Spectrometer
    FWHMFull-width-half-maximum
    GACGlobal Area Coverage
    GCMGeneral Circulation Model
    GCPGround control point
    GEMIGlobal Environment Monitoring Index
    GEMSGrating electromechanical system
    GEOGroup on Earth Observation
    GEOSSGlobal Earth Observation System of Systems
    GeoTIFFGeoreferencing Tagged Image format
    GERGeophysical and Environmental Research Corp.
    GIGeographical Information
    GIFOVGround instantaneous field of view
    GIFTSGeosynchronous Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer
    GILSGovernment Information Locator Services
    GIMSSGlobal Inventory Monitoring and Modeling Study
    GIQEGeneral image quality equation
    GISGeographic Information Systems
    GISciGeographic Information Science
    GISTDAGeo-Informatics and Space Technology Development Agency
    GLIGlobal Imager
    GLIMSGlobal Land Ice Measurements from Space
    GLONASSGLObal Navigation Satellite System
    GMESGlobal Monitoring for Environment and Security
    GNIGross National Income
    GOGeometric-optical
    GOESGeostationary Operational Environmental Satellite
    GPPGross Primary Productivity
    GPSGlobal Positioning System
    GPS-AINSGlobal Positioning System-aided inertial navigation system
    GRACEGravity Recovery and Climate Experiment
    GRDGround resolved distance
    GSDGround sample distance
    GSFCGoddard Space Flight Center
    GTOPOGlobal Topographic Data
    GYURIGeneral Yield Unified Reference Index
    HCMMHeat Capacity Mapping Mission
    HCRFHemispherical-Conical Reflectance Factor
    HDFHierarchical Data Format
    HDRFHemispherical-Directional Reflectance Factor
    HHHorizontal transmit, horizontal receive
    HIRISHigh Resolution Imaging Spectrometer
    HJHuanjing
    HMUHydrological Management Unit
    HRGHigh Resolution Geometric
    HRMSIHigh Resolution Multispectral Stereo Imager
    HRPTHigh Resolution Picture Transmission
    HRVHigh Resolution Visible (SPOT sensor)
    HRVIRHigh Resolution Visible Infrared
    HSIHyperspectral imaging
    HSRSHot Spot Recognition Sensor System
    HSVHue, Saturation, Value
    HVHorizontal transmit, vertical receive
    HYDICEHYperspectral Digital Imagery Collection Experiment
    HyMapHyperspectral Mapper (Integrated Spectronics)
    HyspIRIHyperspectral Infrared Imager
    IASImage Assessment System
    ICInternational Cooperator
    ICEsatIce, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite
    ICSUInternational Council for Science
    IEMIntegral Equation Method
    IEOSIntegrated Earth Observation System
    IFOVInstantaneous field of view
    IFSARInterferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar
    IGOLIntegrated Global Observations of Land
    ILASImproved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer
    IMSInternet Map Service
    IMUInertial Measurement Unit
    INSInertial navigation system
    InSARInterferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar
    IPOIntegrated Program Office
    IRInfrared
    IRMSSInfraRed MultiSpectral Scanner
    IRSIndian Remote Sensing (Satellite)
    IRTM-NNInverse Radiative Transfer Model-Neural Network
    ISCCPInternational Satellite Cloud Climatology Project
    ISPRSInternational Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing
    JAMIJapanese Advanced Meteorological Imager
    JAXAJapan Aerospace Exploration Agency
    JERS-1Japanese Earth Resources Satellite 1
    JPLJet Propulsion Laboratory (NASA)
    JZJian zai
    KAKirchhoff Approximation
    KTKauthThomas (also called Tasseled Cap Transformation)
    KOMPSATKOrean MultiPurpose SATellite
    LACLEISA Atmospheric Corrector
    LACLocal area coverage
    LACIELarge Area Crop Inventory Experiment
    LADLeaf angle distribution
    LAGOSLAboratory GOniometer System
    LAILeaf Area Index
    LandsatLand Satellite
    LARSLaboratory for Applications of Remote Sensing
    LASERLight Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation
    LCTFLiquid crystal tunable filter
    LDCMLandsat Data Continuity Mission
    LGSOWGLandsat Ground Station Operations Working Group
    LidarLight Detection and Ranging
    LISSLinear Imaging Self Scanner
    LMS-Q560Full-Waveform Airborne Laser Scanner (Riegl)
    LOWTRANLow Resolution Transmission
    LPSOLandsat Project Science Office
    LPVLand Product Validation
    LSFLine spread function
    LSTLand surface temperature
    LSULinear Spectral Unmixing
    LTAPLong-Term Acquisition Plan
    LUELight Use Efficiency
    LUTLook-up table
    LVISLaser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (NASA)
    LWIRLongwave infrared
    MADMean absolute deviation
    MASTERMODIS/ASTER Airborne Simulator
    MAUPModifiable areal unit problem
    MBMultiband
    MDMean deviation
    MEMSMicro electrical and mechanical system
    MERISMedium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (ESA)
    MeteosatMeteorological Satellite
    MIRMiddle infrared
    MISRMultiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer
    MIVISMultispectral Infrared and Visible Imaging Spectrometer
    MK-IIAirborne Laser Scanner (Topeye)
    MKTMultitemporal Kauth Thomas
    MLCMaximum likelihood classifier
    MLRMultiple linear regression
    MNFMinimum noise fraction
    MODAPSMODIS Adaptive Processing System
    MODISModerate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (NASA)
    MODTRANMODerate resolution atmospheric TRANsmission
    MoMMethod of Moments
    MOPITTMeasurement of Pollution in the Troposphere
    MOSModular Optoelectronic Scanner
    MRPVModified Rahman Pinty Verstraete model
    MRVBFMulti Resolution Valley Bottom Flatness Index
    MSMultispectral
    MSGMeteosat Second Generation
    MSIMultispectral imaging
    MSSMultispectral Scanner (known earlier as Multispectral Scanning Subsystem) (Landsat)
    MTFModulation transfer function
    MTIMultispectral Thermal Imager
    MTSAR-IRMulti-functional Transport Satellite
    MTSATJapanese Ministry of Transport geostationary meteorological satellite
    MVAMultiple View Angle
    MVISRMultichannel Visible and IR Scan Radiometer
    MWIRMid-wave infrared
    NNitrogen
    NAPCNoise adjusted principal component
    NASANational Aeronautics and Space Administration
    NASDANational Space Development Agency of Japan
    NASSNational Agriculture Statistics Service
    NBARNadir BRDF Adjusted Reflectance
    NCINeighborhood correlation images
    NDSINormalized Difference Snow Index
    nDSMnormalized Digital Surface Model
    NDVINormalized Difference Vegetation Index
    NEDNational Elevation Datasets
    NERNoise equivalent radiance
    NESDISNOAA National Environmental Satellite Data and Information Service
    NEΔLNoise equivalent delta radiance
    NEΔTNoise equivalent delta temperature
    NEΔρNoise equivalent delta reflectance
    NIHNational Institutes of Health
    NIIRSNational image interpretability rating scale
    NIRNear infrared
    NISTNational Institute of Standards and Technology (U.S.)
    NLCDNational Land Cover Dataset
    NLIPNational Land Imaging Program
    NMSNational Meteorological Services
    NOAANational Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
    NPNavigation processor
    NPOESNational Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System
    NPPNPOESS Preparatory Project (satellite)
    NPPNet primary productivity
    NRCNational Research Council
    NRCSNatural Resource Conservation Service
    NRINational Resources Inventory
    NSFNational Science Foundation
    NSIDCNational Snow and Ice Data Center
    NSLRSDANational Satellite Land Remote Sensing Data Archive
    NTIFNew Industry Text Format
    NWINational Wetlands Inventory
    OBPGOcean Biology Processing Group
    OCTSOcean Color and Temperature Scanner
    OJPOld Jack Pine
    OLCIOcean and Land Colour Instrument
    OLIOperational Land Imager
    OMOrganic Matter
    OMBOffice of Management and Budget
    OSTPOffice of Science and Technology Policy
    PALSARPhased Array L-Band SAR
    PanPanchromatic
    PARPhotosynthetically active radiation
    PARABOLAPortable Apparatus for Rapid Acquisition of Bidirectional Observation of the Land and Atmosphere
    PCPersonal Computer
    PCAPrincipal component analysis
    PEMProduction Efficiency Models
    PIFPseudo Invariant Feature
    PixelPicture element
    PLSRPartial least-square regression
    PnET-CNNet photosynthesis evapotranspiration carbon and nitrogen cycling model
    POESPolar Orbiting Environmental Satellites
    POLDERPOLarization and Directionality of the Earth's Reflectances
    PolInSARPolarimetric SAR Interferometry
    PRFPulse Repetition Frequency
    PRIPhotochemical Reflectance Index
    PRISMPanchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping
    PROBAProject for On-board Autonomy (ESA)
    PSFPoint spread function
    PS-InSARPermanent Scatter InSAR
    PSUPrimary sampling unit
    RadarRadio Detection and Ranging
    RadarsatRadar Satellite
    RARReal Aperture Radar
    RASCALRaster Scanning Airborne Laser Altimeter (NASA)
    RBVReturn Beam Vidicon
    RCARadio Corporation of America
    REISRapidEye Earth Imaging System
    RGBRed, green, blue
    RMSRoot mean square
    RMSERoot mean square error
    ROSISReflective Optics System Imaging Spectrometer
    Ross Thick Li-Sparse ReciprocalBRDF model of the MODIS BRDF product algorithm
    RSIRemote Sensing Instrument
    RSTRotation, scale, translation
    RTRadiative transfer
    SAILScattering by Arbitrarily Inclined Leaves
    SAMSpectral Angle Mapper
    SARSynthetic Aperture Radar
    ScaLARSScanning Laser Altimeter of the University of Stuttgart
    SCIAMACHYScanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chemistry
    SCLPSnow and Cold Land Processes mission
    SeaWiFSSea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor
    SEBALSurface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land
    SEBASSSpatially Enhanced Broadband Array Spectrograph System
    SEOSATSpanish Earth Observation Satellite
    SEVIRISpinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager
    SFFSpectral feature fitting
    SFSIShortwave Infrared (SWIR) Full Spectrum Imager
    SGPSimplified General Perturbations
    SIInternational System of Units
    SISemantic Importing
    SIRShuttle Imaging Radar
    SIR-CShuttle Imaging Radar – C
    SIR-C/X-SARShuttle Imaging Radar, X and C band synthetic aperture radar
    SISEXShuttle Imaging Spectrometer Experiment
    SKLMSimple Kriging with varying Local Means
    SLAShuttle Radar Altimeter (NASA)
    SLASpecific Leaf Area
    SLICERScanning Lidar Imager of Canopies by Echo Recovery (NASA)
    SLIM6Surrey Linear Imager Multispectral 6 Channel
    SMASpectral mixture analysis
    SMAPSoil Moisture Active/Passive mission
    SMMRScanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer
    SMORPHSlope MORPHology
    SMOSSoil Moisture and Ocean Salinity
    SNRSignal-to-noise ratio
    SPECTRASurface Processes and Ecosystem Changes Through Response Analysis
    SPGSpectroPhotoGoniometer
    SPMSmall Perturbation Method
    SPMSuspended particulate matter
    SPOTSatellite Pour l’ Observation de la Terre
    SRFSpectral response function
    SRSSimple random sampling
    SRTMShuttle Radar Topography Mission
    SSHSea Surface Height
    SSM/ISpecial Sensor Microwave/Imager
    SSTSea surface temperature
    SSUSecondary sampling unit
    STSShuttle Transportation System
    SVATSoil-Vegetation-Atmosphere-Transfer
    SVMSupport vector machines
    SWESnow water equivalent
    SWIRShort-wave infrared
    TTemperature
    TBCTo Be Confirmed
    TCITemperature Crop Index
    TCTTasseled Cap Transformation
    TDITime delay integration
    TDRSTracking and Data Relay Satellite
    TDRSSTracking and Data Relay Satellite System
    TESThermal Emission Spectrometer
    THEOSThailand Earth Observation System
    TIGERTopologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing system
    TIMSThermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner
    TINTriangulated Irregular Network
    TIRThermal infrared
    TIROSTelevision Infrared Observation Satellite
    TIROS-NTelevision Infrared Observation Satellite NOAA
    TLSThree-line scanners
    TMThematic Mapper (Landsat)
    TOATop of Atmosphere
    TOMSTotal Ozone Mapping Spectrometer
    TOPORADTOPOgraphic distribution of solar RADiation (topographic radiation model)
    TOVSTIROS Operational Vertical Sounding
    TRMMTropical Rainfall Measuring Mission
    TRNThermal Response Number
    U.S.United States
    U2Utility-2
    UAVUnmanned aerial vehicle
    UEQUrban Environmental Quality
    UHFUltra-high Frequency
    UHIUrban heat island
    UKUnited Kingdom
    UK EAUK Environment Agency
    UK-DMCUnited Kingdom Disaster Monitoring Constellation
    UNUnited Nations
    UNITARUnited Nations Institute for Training and Research
    USUnited States
    US NGANational Geospatial Intelligence Agency
    USAUnited States of America
    USDAUnited States Department of Agriculture
    USGSUnited States Geological Survey
    USSRUnion of Soviet Socialist Republics
    UVUltraviolet
    V/NIRVisible and near infrared
    VCFVegetation Continuous Fields
    VCIVegetation Condition Index
    VFVegetation Fraction
    VFSRVery fine spatial resolution
    VHFVery-high Frequency
    VIIRSVisible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite
    VIRVisible / Infrared Imagery
    VIRSVisible and Infrared scanner
    VISVisible
    VISVegetation-Impervious surface-Soil
    VNIRVisible and near infrared
    VoxelVolume element
    VPMVegetation Phenology Metrics
    VVVertical send, vertical receive
    WASPWildfire airborne sensor program
    WFIWide Field Imager
    WGS84World Geodetic System 1984
    WiFSWide-Field Sensor
    WMOWorld Meteorological Organisation
    WRSWorldwide Reference System
    XTCross Track
    ZYZiYuan

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