Handbook of Racial & Ethnic Minority Psychology


Edited by: Guillermo Bernai, Joseph E. Trimble, A. Kathleen Burlew & Frederick T. L. Leong

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  • Part I: Conceptual, Professional, and Training Issues

    Part II: Ethnic Minority Research and Methods

    Part III: Social and Developmental Process

    Part IV: Stress and Adjustment

    Part V: Clinical Interventions

    Part VI: Applied and Preventive Psychology

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    As I have indicated in previous Introductions to volumes in the Racial & Ethnic Minority Psychology Series (REMP), a brief review of studies published on racial and ethnic differences in journals cataloged by Psychlnfo provides a clear indication of the increasing importance of the subfield of racial and ethnic minority psychology. Between 1970 and 1990 (21 years), Psychlnfo cataloged 6,109 articles related to racial and ethnic differences. Between 1991 and 2001 (11 years), the number of such articles was 7,892. As a convenient means of representing the increase in attention paid to racial and ethnic minority issues in psychology, one can easily divide the number of articles published during the time period by the number of years. Such a computation reveals that between 1970 and 1990, an average of 290 articles were published each year on racial and ethnic differences. For the period from 1990 to 2001, that number had jumped to an annual average of 717, or an increase of nearly 150%. All indications are that this pattern of growth will continue.

    There is also other converging evidence that racial and ethnic minority psychology is becoming an important and central theme in psychology in the United States. Within the American Psychological Association (APA), the Society for the Psychological Study of Racial and Ethnic Minority Issues was formed as Division 45. The division has now acquired its own journal devoted to ethnic minority issues in psychology—namely, Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology. Also, we have seen the publication of five APA bibliographies devoted to racial and ethnic minority groups. The first was focused on Black males (Evans & Whitfield, 1988), and a companion volume focused on Black females (Hall, Evans, & Selice, 1989). In 1990, APA published a bibliography on Hispanics in the United States (Olmedo & Walker, 1990) followed by one on Asians in the United States (Leong & Whitfield, 1992). The fifth bibliography focused on American Indians (Trimble & Bagwell, 1995). In recognition of these developments, the REMP book series was launched at Sage Publications in 1995.

    The REMP series is designed to advance our theories, research, and practice related to racial and ethnic minority psychology. It focuses on, but is not limited to, the major racial and ethnic minority groups in the United States (i.e., African Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, and American Indians). For example, books concerning Asians and Asian Americans are also considered, as are books on racial and ethnic minorities in other countries. The books in the series contain original materials that address the full spectrum of methodological, substantive, and theoretical areas related to racial and ethnic minority psychology. With the exception of counseling and psychotherapeutic interventions, all aspects of psychology as it relates to racial and ethnic minority groups in the United States are covered by the series. This includes topics in cognitive, developmental, industrial/organizational, personality, abnormal, and social psychology. The series includes books that examine a single racial or ethnic group (e.g., Chinese America: Mental Health & Quality of Life in the Inner City) as well as books that undertake a comparative approach (e.g., Intelligence Testing & Minority Students). As a series devoted to racial and ethnic minority groups in the United States and other countries, this series will not cover the usual cross-cultural issues and topics such as those covered by the Sage Series on Cross-Cultural Research and Methodology.

    As editor of the REMP series, it gives me great pleasure to introduce the fourth volume: the Handbook of Racial and Ethnic Minority Psychology. Its publication serves not only as the “anchor” volume for the series but also as another indicator of the increasing importance and impact of the subfield on mainstream psychology. The breadth of the Handbook speaks to the richness of the work being done in the subfield. With 32 chapters covering the whole range of topics represented in psychology, the Handbook has been divided into six parts: (a) conceptual, professional, and training issues; (b) ethnic minority research and methods; (c) social and developmental process; (d) stress and adjustment; (e) clinical interventions; and (f) applied and preventive psychology. I am confident that this volume will serve as a standard reference and eventually become “a classic” within the field. As the most comprehensive state-of-the-art review for racial and ethnic minority psychology, it is a most welcomed addition to the series and, it is hoped, will stimulate further interest and expansion of the subfield of racial and ethnic minority psychology.

    Frederick T. L.Leong Series Editor
    Evans, B. J., & Whitfield, J. R., (1988). Black males in the United States: Abstracts of the psychological and behavioral literature, 1967–1987 (Bibliographies in Psychology, No. 1). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association
    Hall, C. C. I., Evans, B. J., & Selice, S., (1989). Black females in the United States: Abstracts of the psychological and behavioral literature, 1967–1987 (Bibliographies in Psychology, No. 3). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association
    Leong, F. T. L., & Whitfield, J. R., (1992). Asians in the United States: Abstracts of the psychological and behavioral literature, 1967–1991 (Bibliographies in Psychology, No. 11). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association
    Olmedo, E. L., & Walker, V. R., (1990). Hispanics in the United States: Abstracts of the psychological and behavioral literature, 1980–1989 (Bibliographies in Psychology, No. 8). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association
    Trimble, J. E., & Bagwell, W. M., (1995). North American Indians and Alaskan Natives: Abstracts of the psychological and behavioral literature, 1967–1994 (Bibliographies in Psychology, No. 15). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association


    Such dynamic changes are occurring within the U.S. population that diversity in ethnic/cultural backgrounds will soon be the norm, with some states already fast reaching such changes. By the year 2030, 14.4% of the population are expected to be African American, 18.9% Hispanic, 7.0% Asian/Pacific Islander, and 1.0% Native American. By the year 2050, the number of ethnic minorities is expected to be 50% of the U.S. population (U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1996). Moreover, 75% of those entering the workforce is anticipated to be ethnic minorities and women, and 45% of students in public schools would be from culturally diverse backgrounds (Sue, Parham, & Bonilla-Santiago, 1998). During the 1990s, the Asian American population itself grew by 45%, thus becoming the fastest-growing American ethnic population in the United States, and the expectation is that this group will triple within the next 50 years. There are more than 34 million African American persons and more than 29 million Hispanic persons currently living in the United States (U.S. Bureau of the Census, 2000). Thus, the various minority populations that have been a small segment of the population are quickly becoming a larger majority requiring equal attention, appreciation, and representation in educational, research, political, and human services environments. In fact, the term ethnic minority group is already being replaced by the newer term people of color.

    Psychology has often been defined as the discipline and profession that involves the systematic study of human behavior. However, the history of American psychology demonstrates that for about a century, the study of human behavior really meant the study of the behavior of White persons. Early psychological data relied on Euro-American samples and did not consider ethnic minority populations as normative. Guthrie (1976) called attention to this attitude in the title of his incisive book Even the Rat Was White. Furthermore, research on ethnic minority issues was initially devalued in academic circles as not meeting psychological standards for “good research,” and hence such research studies were often not counted in considerations for the promotion of faculty doing such research. In addition, minority scholars often experienced rejection of their submitted manuscripts on minority samples, based on the criticism that a White sample had not been included, and hence valid conclusions could not be drawn. Indeed, American psychology was a psychology of the majority population and nonrepresentative of the ethnic minority populations. There was no ethnic minority psychology.

    The current volume therefore represents a significant statement about the current status of ethnic psychology in several ways. The volume's very title, Handbook, demonstrates that ethnic psychology has developed to the extent that a substantive knowledge base is available. The part and chapter headings display a full range of relevant topics, including theoretical models, research methodologies, professional practice, and applied psychology issues. It is noteworthy that ideas and directions unique to ethnic populations have already reached the level of development as to truly reflect an ethnic minority psychology. Among these are descriptions and discussion of multiculturalism and ethnic and racial identity development, as well as specific attention to topics involving developmental, educational, social, clinical, counseling, and community psychology. No longer is it sufficient to assume that data on the majority culture are adequate for understanding ethnic populations. Instead, the Handbook aims at providing the needed conceptual and theoretical foundations, normative data, research findings, and pragmatic strategies distinctive to work with persons of color.

    Not to be overlooked is the historical background that is the baseline against which to evaluate the current achievements within ethnic psychology.

    This background is comprehensively covered in the Handbook regarding the general sociopolitical environment in the United States as well as the history of the ethnic psychology movement. Of added relevance in this volume is the extensive discussion of the many implicit meanings underlying the terms ethnic, racial, or cultural psychology, meanings that are a foundation of ethnic minority psychology. Also to be found in the chapters are discussions of racism and discrimination, which might be interpreted as more political than psychological; however, prejudice and social injustices are in fact variables relevant to ethnic minority experiences and therefore to ethnic minority psychological studies.

    Further evidence of the status of ethnic psychology is the authors' ability to document their information by citing relevant published research.

    The presence of such publications confirms that such research has now achieved respectability among journal editors and publishers of scholarly materials. Furthermore, articles have been published not only in ethnically oriented journals but also in other mainstream periodicals previously focused on data based only on the majority population.

    Hence, the Handbook of Racial and Ethnic Psychology represents the enormous progress of ethnic psychology as a major field within American psychology. The American Psychological Association's Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Issues (Division 45) has achieved a major contribution by pulling together the many voices to speak to this topic. The authors of the chapters are leading scholars and elders who approach their topics sometimes with words of passion, always with the underlying respect and caring the authors have for those populations being studied.

    The topics are diverse enough to be valuable for informing the new researcher or practitioner or educator. The writings are also relevant for the student seeking to gain an overview of existing knowledge or to identify what challenges exist. And for all ethnic minority psychologists, the writings are an anchoring source of identity and pride.

    I believe this volume provides an outstanding resource that will aid current and future researchers, educators, and professionals to acquire new and fuller understanding of this important American population—persons of color.

    RichardSuinn1999 APA President Emeritus Professor Colorado State University
    Guthrie, R., (1976). Even the rat was White. New York: Harper & Row
    SueD.ParhamT.SantiagoG.The changing face of work in the United States: Implications for individual, institutional, and societal survivalCultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology4(1998)153–164
    U.S. Bureau of the Census. (1996). Statistical abstracts of the U.S. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office
    U.S. Bureau of the Census. (2000). Statistical abstracts of the U.S. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office


    In the late 19th century, Lone Man (isna lawica), a Teton Lakota (Sioux), allegedly stated that “I have seen that in any great undertaking it is not enough for a man to depend simply upon himself.” The preparation of this volume of original articles depended on the hard work and dedication of a vast number of friends and colleagues. We want to take this occasion to acknowledge their assistance and contributions because, as Lone Man so aptly pointed out, we could not have produced this volume simply by one solitary man or woman.

    The idea for the Handbook occurred around 1995 in an airport lounge in Washington, D.C. At the time, Amado Padilla and Joseph Trimble were returning home after spending 3 days at a meeting on ethnic minority issues and topics sponsored by the American Psychological Association. Although weary from the 3-day marathon of talks, arguments, presentations, and intense deliberations, their attention was still keenly focused on the future of the presence of ethnic minorities in psychology. Although the memory of the conversation has been cluttered by the passage of time, Joseph suggested to Amado that they should compile a series of linked articles focusing on the myriad of psychological topics in the emerging field of ethnic minority psychology and publish it as a handbook. Months later, Amado flew to Bellingham, Washington, from his home at Stanford University and met with Joseph to lay out a list of prospected chapters, potential authors, and a publication schedule.

    By that time, Sage Publications through Jim Nageotte already had expressed a strong interest in the concept and was willing to consider it for publication. Progress on the Handbook languished, and eventually Amado indicated that he no longer had the time to work on it. Another year went by. All the while, Jim Nageotte kept pressing, still keen on publishing the Handbook. Fred Leong, who had initiated his book series on Racial and Ethnic Minority Psychology with Sage, then approached Guillermo Bernai to take the lead on this project. Guillermo consulted with Joseph, who was presiding over Division 45. On the basis of these discussions, Guillermo graciously agreed to take over Amado's role as the first editor. The editorial team (Guillermo, Joseph, and Fred) was then able to persuade Kathy Burlew to join the venture and see it to its closure. We are grateful for Amado Padilla's initial commitment and efforts and also for Jim Nageotte's support for the project before he moved on to Guilford Press.

    This volume could not have been produced without the thoughtful contributions of some 80 authors and coauthors. Thank you all for your persistence, your wisdom, and your well-written chapters. Most of all, thank you for putting up with our constant badgering through e-mail messages and telephone calls.

    We are deeply indebted to the skillful assistance, patience, perseverance, and guidance provided us by our editors James Brace Thompson and Karen Ehrmann at Sage Publications. Their enthusiastic support, unending professionalism, and extraordinary patience were most helpful especially during times when the compilation of the chapters was experiencing untoward difficulty.

    Numerous colleagues, students, and staff too numerous to mention by name at the following institutions provided us with support, resources, encouragement, and advice. We wish to extend our warm appreciation and deep gratitude to them: the University Center for Psychological Services and Research (CUSEP) at the University of Puerto Rico, Río Piedras; the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study at Harvard University; the University of Cincinnati, Department of Psychology; The Ohio State University, Department of Psychology; and Western Washington University, Department of Psychology.

    We wish to acknowledge the support of our ancestors whose careful nurturance and wisdom came alive for us through their stories, folktales, legends, and gentle guidance through many of the best of our times and the turbulent and often trying times. It is our hope that our experiences and accomplishments will live on through our children and families. It is to them that we truly wish to dedicate our accomplishment: Ana Isabel Alvarez; Jennifer Susan Trimble (Genevieve Sage), Lee Erin Trimble, and Casey Ann Trimble; Robin and Randi Burlew; and Sandy, Kate, and Sarah Leong. Finally, we want to acknowledge the support we received from the Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Issues, Division 45 of the American Psychological Association. We are dedicating all of the royalties to the Society to assist it in its mission and the support of students. To all of you in the Society and for your support, we say, muchas gracias, lela pilamayaye, medawase, and dao xie.

    GuillermoBernaiSan Juan, Puerto Rico
    Joseph E.TrimbleBellingham, WA
    A. KathleenBurlewCincinnati, OH
    Frederick T. L.LeongColumbus, OH
  • Author Index

    About the Editors

    Guillermo Bernai, Ph.D., is Professor of Psychology and Director of the University Center for Psychological Services and Research at the University of Puerto Rico, Rio Pideras campus (UPR-RP). He received his doctorate in Psychology (Clinical) from the University of Massachusetts Amherst in 1978. He has published more than 8585 journal articles and chapters in the areas of Latino mental health, family and marital therapy, drug abuse, and treatment outcome research. His books include A Family Like Yours: Breaking the Patterns of Drug Abuse (with James L. Sorensen) and Psicoterapia: El reto de evaluar efectividad ante el nuevo milenio. His current research is in the efficacy and effectiveness of treatments for depression in adolescents and in primary care patients. Bernai directs the NIMH Career Opportunities in Research (COR) Program at UPR-RP that trains honor undergraduates in biopsychosocial research. He also directs the NIMH Minority Infrastructure Support Program (M-RISP) designed to develop the research infrastructure and advance research with faculty and graduate students at UPR-RP. Bernai is a Fellow of the American Psychological Association (APA) Divisions 4545, 2727, and 1212, and he is active on the Advisory Board of the APA Minority Fellowship Program Advisory Board (19931993-present). He was President of the Clinical Psychology of Ethnic Minorities (Section 66, Division 1212, 19961996–19971997) and the Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Issues (Division 4545, 19951995-19961996). Currently he is an APA Council Representative for Division 4545. In 19981998, the Association of Psychologists of Puerto Rico recognized his contributions to psychology with a Psychologist of the Year Award. APA Division 1212 (section 66) recognized his contributions to training with a Mentor Award (19991999), and he recently received a mentoring award from the National Science Network on Drug Abuse.

    Joseph Trimble, Ph.D. (University of Oklahoma, Institute of Group Relations, 19691969), is a Professor of Psychology at Western Washington University and a Senior Scholar at the Tri-Ethnic Center for Prevention Research at Colorado State University. Throughout his 3030-year career, he has focused his efforts on promoting psychological and sociocultural research with indigenous populations, especially American Indians and Alaska Natives. For the past 1818 years, he has been working on drug abuse prevention research models for American Indian youth. He has held offices in the International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology and the American Psychological Association; he holds Fellow status in three divisions in the APA (Divisions 99, 2727, and 4545). He is a past president of the Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Issues (Division 4545 of the APA) and a council member for the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues (Division 99 of the APA). In 19941994, he received a Lifetime Distinguished Career Award from the American Psychological Association's Division 4545 for his research and dedication to cross-cultural and ethnic psychology. He is the recipient of three awards at Western Washington University: the Outstanding Teacher-Scholar Award in 19851985, the Excellence in Teaching Award in 19871987, and the Paul J. Olscamp Outstanding Research Award in 19991999. In 20012001, he was awarded the Eleventh Annual Janet E. Helms Award for Mentoring and Scholarship in Professional Psychology at the Teachers College, Columbia University, 1818th Annual Roundtable on Cross-Cultural Psychology and Education. He has presented more than 170170 papers, invited addresses, and invited lectures at professional meetings and has generated more than 130130 publications and technical reports on cross-cultural topics in psychology and higher-education research.

    A. Kathleen Burlew is a Professor of Psychology at the University of Cincinnati. She completed her doctoral work in psychology at the University of Michigan. She has coauthored or coedited three other books, including Reflections on Black Psychology, Minority Issues in Mental Health, and African American Psychology: Theory, Research, and Practice. She was appointed to the Board of Psychology for the state of Ohio in 20012001. She also served as editor of the Journal of Black Psychology until 20012001.

    Frederick T. L. Leong is a Professor of Psychology at The Ohio State University. He obtained his Ph.D. from the University of Maryland with a double specialty in Counseling and Industrial/Organizational Psychology. He has authored or coauthored 8585 articles in various counseling and psychology journals and 4545 book chapters. He is the coeditor of The Psychology Research Handbook: A Guide for Graduate Students and Research Assistants (19961996) (with James Austin) and The Career Development and Vocational Behavior of Racial and Ethnic Minorities (19951995). His latest book is an edited volume titled Contemporary Models in Vocational Psychology: A Volume in Honor of Samuel H. Osipow (20012001) (with Azy Barak). He is a Fellow of the American Psychological Association (Divisions 11,22, 1717, 4545, and 5252) and the recipient of the 19981998 Distinguished Contributions Award from the Asian American Psychological Association and the 19991999 John Holland Award from the APA Division of Counseling Psychology. His major research interests are in vocational psychology (career development of ethnic minorities), cross-cultural psychology (particularly culture and mental health and cross-cultural psychotherapy), and organizational behavior.

    About the Contributors

    Margarita Alegría, Ph.D., is Director of the Center for Multicultural Mental Health Research at Cambridge Health Alliance. As Professor of Health Services and director of the Center for Sociomedical Research and Evaluation at the School of Public Health, Puerto Rico, she has devoted her career to researching mental health services for Latinos and other ethnic populations. She is currently the Principal Investigator of two National Institute of Mental Health-funded research studies. The Latino Research Program Project (LRPP) focuses on research to improve the mental health care of Latino populations. The National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS) estimates the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and the use of mental health services among Latinos and Asians in the United States. The NLAAS also plans to make comparisons to non-Latino whites and African Americans. Dr. Alegría also serves on the board of directors for the Children's Foundation and the Felisa Rincón De Gautier Foundation. Her published works focus on the areas of mental health services research, conceptual and methodological issues with minority populations, risk behaviors, and disparities in service delivery.

    Eleanor Armour-Thomas is Professor of Educational Psychology at Queens College, Professor in the Ph.D. Program in Educational Psychology at the Graduate School and University Center of the City University of New York, and Chair of the Department of Secondary Education at Queens College. In 19831983, she received her doctorate in educational psychology (schooling) from Teachers College, Columbia University and continued her postdoctoral studies at Yale University. She received the Ted Bernstein Award from the New York Association of School Psychology in 19851985 and became a National Academy of Education/ Spencer Fellow in 19871987. Her research and development interests and publications center on teacher and student cognition related to classroom learning with a focus on intellectual assessment of children from culturally diverse backgrounds and assessment of teaching in mathematics at the high school level.

    Fred Beauvais, Ph.D., is a Senior Research Scientist at the Tri-Ethnic Center for Prevention Research and Assistant Professor in the Department of Psychology at Colorodo State University. He has been the Principal Investigator on a number of NIH grants addressing social issues among ethnic minority youth in the United States. His particular interest has been in working with American Indian communities to understand and reduce substance abuse problems. He has also been active in developing new models of research that are based on community collaboration, incorporate the voice of the community, and address ethical issues in cross-cultural research.

    Mark A. Bolden is a counseling psychology doctoral student in the Department of Human Development and Psychoeducational Studies at Howard University in Washington, DC. He earned an M.A.E. (20012001) in counseling psychology from Seton Hall University in South Orange, New Jersey. He was an APA Minority Fellowship Program Mental Health and Substance Abuse Research Fellow (20012001), and a Penn State University Minority In Research Training Fellow (20022002). He is the editorial assistant for the Journal of Black Psychology and research assistant with his jegna (mentors) Dr. Shawn O. Utsey and Dr. Kathy Sanders-Phillips. During 20012001–20022002, he served as president of the Counseling Psychology Student Association in the Counseling Psychology Program at Howard University. His research interests include time orientations, substance abuse, spirituality, Africentricity, coping, resilience and health behaviors of people of African descent.

    Milagros Bravo, Ph.D., is Professor of Research and Program Evaluation in the Graduate School of Education at the University of Puerto Rico, Río Piedras Campus. She is also a researcher at the Behavioral Sciences Research Institute at the Medical Sciences Campus. She has authored or coauthored numerous articles on the translation and cultural adaptation of research instruments.

    Randi Burlew received an M.A. in psychology from the University of Michigan. She currently is pursuing a Ph.D. in clinical psychology at the University of Michigan. Her dissertation is on affective sharing in African American friendships.

    Mary H. Case studied clinical psychology at DePaul University in Chicago, Illinois, and continues to work at DePaul in the role of Project Director. Her primary research interests include the primary prevention of depression, risk and resiliency factors among inner-city youths, and the cultural adaptation of intervention/prevention programs.

    Felipe Gonzalez Castro, M.S.W., Ph.D., is Professor of Clinical Psychology in the Department of Psychology at Arizona State University. He has conducted research in the areas of health promotion and health education with Hispanics and with other ethnic/racial minorities in the United States. In this work, he has investigated aspects of the process of acculturation and assimilation as these relate to mental and physical health among Mexican Americans and other Hispanics, the effects of drug abuse treatment, and relapse prevention among users of cocaine and methamphetamine. His current work includes the study of the intergenerational (parent-youth) transmission of multiple risk behaviors, including drug abuse and HIV/AIDS risks among Mexican American drug-using fathers and their adolescent children. This work examines the interrelated issues involved in the development of a drug-user identity, gender identity (machismo), and ethnic identity as each relate to drug use and other antisocial behaviors.

    Kevin M. Chun, Ph.D., is Associate Professor of Psychology and Asian American Studies at the University of San Francisco, Senior Investigator at the University of California, San Francisco, and Alumni Scholar at the National Research Center on Asian American Mental Health at the University of California, Davis. His research focuses on processes of adaptation and health among Asian American immigrants and refugees. His publications include Acculturation: Advances in Theory, Measurement, and Applied Research and Readings in Ethnic Psychology: African Americans, American Indians, Asian Americans and Hispanics/Latino, which he coedited with Pamela Balls Organista and Gerardo Marín.

    Ron Denne, Jr., is a graduate student in the School Psychology Program at San Diego State University. He earned a B.A. degree in psychology from the Department of Psychology, Arizona State University. He participated as a research assistant on a study of the cognitive and behavioral determinants of relapse among stimulant users and has presented his findings at a national meeting of the Society for Prevention Research.

    Ruth W. Edwards, Ph.D., is a research scientist and Co-Director at the Tri-Ethnic Center for Prevention Research at Colorado State University. She has served as principal investigator for numerous federally funded research grants. She was the principal investigator of a NIDA grant to develop the American Drug and Alcohol Survey, used by more than 200200 school systems each year to assess drug and alcohol use. She is a member of the research team that developed community readiness theory. Her research interests include community interventions (particularly in rural and ethnic communities), causes and correlates of substance use, and violence and victimization among women and adolescents.

    Carol A. Gernat is a doctoral candidate in counseling psychology at Seton Hall University in South Orange, New Jersey.

    Paul J. Hartung, Ph.D., is Associate Professor of Behavioral Sciences at Northeastern Ohio University's College of Medicine, Rootstown, and Associate Professor of Counselor Education at the University of Akron, Ohio. His scholarship focuses on work-nonwork integration, career decision making, life span vocational development, multicultural career psychology, physician career development, and communication in medicine. He serves on the editorial boards of The Career Development Quarterly and the Journal of Career Assessment.

    La Mar Hasbrouck, M.D., M.P.H., is a medical epidemiologist with the Division of Violence Prevention at the National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Atlanta, Georgia. His research has focused on the epidemiology of youth violence, racial disparities in homicide deaths by police, and the role of homicide in the life expectancy differences between Black and Whites. He was the primary CDC scientist for the development and release of the U.S. Surgeon General's Report on Youth Violence (20012001), coauthoring the epidemiology chapter of the report. In addition to his research, he lectures regularly at Morehouse College and School of Medicine and is Assistant Clinical Professor at Emory University School of Medicine.

    Janet E. Helms, Ph.D., is Professor of Counseling Psychology and founding Director of the Institute for the Study and Promotion of Race and Culture at Boston College. She is a Fellow in Divisions 1717 (Counseling Psychology) and 4545 (Ethnic Diversity) of the American Psychological Association. She is also co-chair of the Joint Committee on Psychological Testing Practices. She has authored or coauthored more than 5050 articles, chapters, and books focused on the treatment and assessment of racial and ethnic cultural populations. These include Black and White Racial Identity: Theory, Research, and Practice, in which she developed the most widely used measures of racial identity development, and Using Race and Culture in Counseling and Psychotherapy (with Donelda Cook), in which she offers racially and culturally responsive treatment strategies.

    Bertha Garrett Holliday is a community psychologist and Director of the American Psychological Association's (APA) Office of Ethnic Minority Affairs, where she supports APA's involvement in both a variety of initiatives related to increasing the participation of ethnic minorities in psychology, and public policy issues affecting the well-being of communities of color throughout the world. She is interested in African American child and family socialization, research and program evaluation, and mental health. Her professional roles have included researcher, professor, program evaluator, program administrator, and Congressional Fellow. She holds degrees from the University of Chicago, Harvard University, and the University of Texas at Austin and engaged in postdoctoral study at Cornell University.

    Angela L. Holmes is a clinical psychology graduate student at the University of the District of Columbia (UDC) who currently works as a senior intern in the Office of Ethnic Minority Affairs at the American Psychological Association (APA). Her research interests are in the areas of the biological processes and neuropsychology. She is a member of Psi Chi (The National Honor Society in Psychology), the American Psychological Association, and the American Psychological Association of Graduate Students. She is the recent recipient of a UDC graduate fellowship.

    Tonya Hucks is a graduate student in the clinical psychology doctoral program at the University of Cincinnati. She received a master's degree in psychology from the University of Cincinnati. She is interested in HIV/AIDS prevention, substance abuse, cross-cultural issues, and serious mental illness research.

    Gayle Y. Iwamasa is Associate Professor in the Clinical-Community Psychology Program at DePaul University. Her research and clinical interests are in multicultural mental health across the life span, with an emphasis on anxiety and mood disorders. She is the recipient of several research grants and has received several awards, including the Asian American Psychological Association's Early Career Award for Distinguished Contributions and the Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Issues (Division 4545) of the American Psychological Association's Emerging Professional Award.

    Candace Johnson, M.A., is a graduate student in the clinical psychology doctoral program at the University of Cincinnati. She plans to pursue a career in substance abuse-related research and substance abuse treatment. Her research interests include minority mental health, substance-abusing women, adolescent drug use, and mental health treatment.

    James M. Jones is Professor of Psychology at the University of Delaware and Director of the Minority Fellowship Program at the American Psychological Association. He earned his Ph.D. in Social Psychology from Yale University (19701970). He was on the faculty of the Social Relations Department at Harvard University (19701970–19761976) when he published the first edition of Prejudice and Racism. (19721972) and spent a year in Trinidad and Tobago on a Guggenheim Fellowship studying Calypso humor. This work led to the development of the TRIOS model of the psychology of African American culture. He is a social psychologist and serves on several editorial boards, including the International Journal of Inter cultural Relations and the Journal of Black Psychology. He was awarded the 19991999 Lifetime Achievement Award from the Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Issues (Division 4545) of the American Psychological Association and the 20012001 Kurt Lewin Award from the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues (Division 99).

    Pamela Jumper-Thurman, Ph.D., is a member of the Western Cherokee Tribe and is a Research Associate with the Tri-Ethnic Center for Prevention Research at Colorado State University. She has 1515 years of experience in mental health and substance abuse research as well as in direct services. Her research interests are in the areas of cultural issues and health disparities, violence and victimization, rural women's concerns, and solvent abuse among youth. She also serves as Principal Investigator for several funded projects for the NID A, CDC, and NIJ. She is a member of the research team that developed community readiness theory and is very committed to collaborative community research.

    Saera R. Khan, Ph.D., is Assistant Professor of Psychology at the University of San Francisco. Her research explores how motivation and information processing influence the use of stereotypes when judging others. Her goal is to gain a comprehensive view of stereotyping by examining the process from the perspective of the perceiver, as well as the target (i.e., the individual belonging to the stereotyped group). Her most recent publication, "Perceptions of ‘Rational Discrimination’: When Do People Attempt to Justify Race-Based Prejudice?" appeared in Basic and Applied Social Psychology. She earned her doctorate from Washington University.

    Sally A. Koblinsky is Professor and Chair of the Department of Family Studies at the University of Maryland, College Park. She is author or coauthor of more than 5050 articles and chapters that focus on parenting and child development issues, including community violence, homeless families, adolescent pregnancy prevention, and school-age child care. She has received funding from the federal government and private foundations for more than 2525 community-based research and intervention projects involving at-risk families. She was co-director of a U.S. Department of Education grant examining the role of families and Head Start in promoting positive developmental outcomes for preschoolers in violent neighborhoods. She is currently Principal Investigator of a USDHHS Center for Substance Abuse Prevention grant examining the effectiveness of a culturally specific parenting program in fostering the development of preschoolers in African American families at risk for substance abuse.

    Jessica Kohout is Director of the Research Office at the American Psychological Association. The Research Office focuses on collecting, analyzing, and disseminating data on the demographics, employment, and education of psychologists. She earned her Ph.D. in sociology from the University of Denver in 19851985. She has worked at the APA since 19871987 and has been its director since 19911991.

    Malick Kouyate, Ed.D., received his doctorate degree in Administrative and Policy Studies from the School of Education, University of Pittsburgh in 19991999. Prior to that he was an instructor at the University of Conakry, Guinea (19801980–19911991), Head of the Educational Science Unit at the National Pedagogic Institute in Guinea (19851985–19921992), and Deputy Coordinator of Guinea's Educational Adjustment Program (19961996–19981998). Interested in values as they relate to character education, mindful learning, and spirituality, Dr. Kouyate, along with Dr. Jerome Taylor, currently focuses on designing pedagogical methods for fostering Values for Life promotion.

    William B. Lawson, M.D., Ph.D., is Professor and Chair of the Department of Psychiatry at Howard University School of Medicine. He was named as one of "America's Leading Black Doctors" by Black Enterprise Magazine, received the Jeanne Spurlock Award from the American Psychiatric Association, and received the E.Y. Williams Clinical Scholar of Distinction Award from the Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences Section of the National Medical Association, and a Multicultural Workplace Award from the Veterans Administration. He has received state, federal, and foundation support for pharmacological research and to develop new and effective treatments. He has over 8080 publications on topics including severe mental illness and its relationship to psychopharmacology, substance abuse, and racial and ethnic issues. He has a longstanding concern about ethnic disparities in mental health treatment, and he has been an outspoken advocate for assess to services of the severely mentally ill.

    He is directing a program with the National Institute of Mental Health intramural program to research mood and anxiety disorders in African Americans and other ethnic minorities. He received his Ph.D. in psychology from the University of New Hampshire and his M.D. degree from the University of Chicago. He completed a fellowship in clinical psychopharmacology at the National Institute of Mental Health intramural program.

    Tene T. Lewis, C. Phil., is a doctoral candidate in the department of clinical psychology at UCLA. Her research interests are in the area of clinical health psychology with an emphasis on the health of ethnic minority women. Her major line of inquiry is focused on examining how chronic and traumatic stressors contribute to excess disease morbidity and mortality in African American women and other women of color.

    Courtney V. Lin is a doctoral student in clinical psychology at Arizona State University. She graduated summa cum laude from the University of San Diego with a BA in Psychology. Her thesis is on the impact of social influences (i.e, mothers, fathers, older brothers, older sisters, and friends) who smoke on Latino youth self-efficacy to avoid tobacco in the future, and how that relationship is moderated by youth grade, gender, and linguistic acculturation. She has worked for Early Head Start providing individual and group therapy to Latino teen parents in Spanish and English. She has also been involved in conducting an intervention in Spanish and English for Mexican American 77th-grade students and their families that was designed to reduce high school dropout rates and improve mental health outcomes. She is a recipient of an APA Minority Fellowship in Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services. She is interested in pursuing a university faculty position and hopes to continue her work with Latino families.

    Barbara VanOss Marín, PhD, is Professor of Medicine at the Center for AIDS Prevention Studies, University of California San Francisco. Her primary interests over the past 2020 years have been promoting healthy behaviors among Latinos in culturally appropriate ways and mentoring scientists of color. She has also emphasized use of appropriate research methods with communities of color. Her current research interests include identifying the cultural issues related to AIDS prevention in the Hispanic community and analyzing results from a survey of condom use in 16001600 unmarried Hispanic adults in 1010 states, looking at such predictors as self-efficacy to use condoms, sexual comfort, sex role traditionalism, and sexual coercion. She is currently analyzing a project designed to develop, implement and evaluate a sex education/HrV prevention program for middle schools with large proportions of Latinos and is director of the Collaborative HIV Prevention Research in Minority Communities program that provides funding and mentoring for individuals doing HrV prevention research with ethnic minority communities. She is also a guest researcher at the Centers for Disease Control at the National Center for HÍV, STD and TB Prevention. She holds degrees from Loyola University of Chicago in applied social psychology and did a postdoctoral fellowship at UCSF in Health Psychology. She has published numerous research articles on HÍV prevention in the Latino community, has written a report on HTV prevention interventions for ethnic minorities for the Office of Technology Assessment and consults frequently with others interested in HIV prevention research in communities of color

    Gerardo Marín, Ph.D., is Professor of Psychology and Senior Associate Dean in the College of Arts and Sciences at the University of San Francisco. He has written more than 135135 publications on topics that are relevant to Hispanics, including cultural norms and attitudes, risk behaviors, culturally appropriate methodology, and acculturation. He is the author of two widely used acculturation scales for Hispanics and was the editor of the recent Surgeon General's Report on Smoking regarding four ethnic minority groups. In 19911991, he coauthored the book Research With Hispanic Populations with Barbara VanOss Marín and is the author of the forthcoming book Culturally Appropriate Research. He is an APA Fellow and has been a reviewer for various publications, including American Psychologist, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, American Journal of Community Psychology, Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, and Journal of Community Psychology.

    Leonardo M. Marmol, Ph.D., is Professor and Chair of the Department of Graduate Psychology at Seattle Pacific University in Seattle, Washington. Born in Havana, Cuba, he holds B.A. and M.A. degrees from Pepperdine University and a Ph.D. in clinical psychology from the San Francisco campus of the California School of Professional Psychology. After practicing independently in San Francisco for 1717 years, he went into full-time academic teaching and adminsitration. For several years, he has been conducting research on the use of neuropsychological instruments with ethnic minority persons.

    Jeffery Scott Mio, Ph.D., is Director of the M.S. in Psychology Program in the Behavioral Sciences Department at California State Polytechnic University, Pomona. He is interested in the teaching of multicultural issues, the development of allies, and how metaphors are used in political persuasion. He received his Ph.D. in Clinical Psychology from the University of Illinois, Chicago, in 19841984. A third-generation Japanese American (Sansei), he honors his parents, George and Ruby Mio, for their support throughout the years, and his grandparents, Jenmatsu and Orie Mio, who helped instill his values.

    Hector F. Myers, Ph.D., is Professor of Psychology at UCLA and Director of the Research Center on Ethnicity, Health, and Behavior at the Charles R. Drew University of Science & Medicine. His primary research interest is psychosocial and biobehavioral factors that contribute to the persistent health disparities between Whites, African Americans, and other persons of color. His specific focus is on testing biopsychosocial models of hypertension, CVD, HIV/AIDS, and depression, and behavioral interventions that can close these health gaps. He has published more than 100100 articles and book chapters on this topic.

    Yolanda Flores Niemann, Ph.D., is Associate Professor of Comparative American Cultures and Director of Latina/o Outreach at Washington State University, Tri-Cities. She is also an Affiliate Faculty in Women's Studies and Graduate Faculty in American Studies. She has served on the Washington State Governor's Commission on Hispanic Affairs and is the Program Chair for the Division of the Study of Ethnic Minority Issues for the American Psychological Association (APA), as well as Chair of the Workshop Committee for the Division for the Social Psychological Study of Social Issues of APA. Her training was in general psychology, with an emphasis in social psychology and a minor in management. Her research interests include effects of stereotypes across various domains, including identity and risky behavior, the psychological effects of tokenism, overcoming obstacles to Latina/o higher education, identity issues from Mexican to Mexican American, and the use of stereotypes as justification for discrimination. She is the author of Black-Brown Relations and Stereotypes (forthcoming) and has numerous publications in refereed journals and edited books, including Journal of Applied Psychology, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Sociological Perspectives, Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, Journal for the Theory of Social Behavior, The Western Journal of Black Studies, and Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies.

    Jeanne L. Obert, M.F.T., M.S.M., is the Executive Director of the Matrix Institute on Addictions in Los Angeles, California. She is a marital and family therapist who is interested in the familial, social and cultural determinants of recovery from substance abuse. She is one of the long-term partners who developed the Matrix Model, and she led the development of the manualized version of the Matrix Model. She has also been active in studying the effectiveness of this model when applied with U. S. American Indian populations. In addition, she has traveled to various treatment centers in Thailand, where several agencies nationally have adopted the Matrix program for use with several addicted populations within their country.

    Eugene Oetting, Ph.D., is Professor of Psychology and Scientific Director of the Tri-Ethnic Center for Prevention Research at Colorado State University. His research has focused on the etiology and prevention of the psychosocial problems of children, adolescents, and young adults from underserved ethnic minority populations, including drug use, dropout, crime, violence, and work adjustment. A major goal has been theory development based on research findings. He has been instrumental in the creation of the alert trance state, the work adjustment hierarchy, the counseling "cube," peer cluster theory, community readiness theory, and, most recently, primary socialization theory.

    Pamela Balls Organista, Ph.D., is Associate Professor of Psychology at the University of San Francisco. She completed her doctorate in clinical psychology at Arizona State University and her postdoctorate in the Department of Psychiatry at the University of California-San Francisco. Her research interests include prevention interventions and ethnic minority health issues. Publications include Readings in ethnic Psychology: African Americans, American Indians, Asian Americans, and Hispanics/Latinos and Acculturation: Advances in Theory, Measurement, and Applied Research, which she coedited with professors Kevin M. Chun and Gerardo Marín, and several articles on migrant laborers and AIDS, and on stress and coping in primary care patients. She was the founding faculty coordinator of the Ethnic Studies Certificate Program at the University of San Francisco, and in 19981998 was appointed the Director of Academic Advising in the College of Arts and Sciences at the University of San Francisco.

    Shilpa M. Pai is Assistant Professor of Clinical Psychology in the Department of Psychology at Appalachian State University, Boone, North Carolina. She received her doctorate in clinical psychology from Oklahoma State University in 20022002. She completed her internship at the University of Washington School of Medicine, specializing in public behavioral health and justice policy. Her research and clinical focus is on conducting culturally appropriate therapy.

    Tyan Parker-Dominguez, Ph.D., is Assistant Professor in the Graduate School of Social Work at the University of Southern California. Her research focuses on stress and pregnancy and the persistent racial disparity in adverse birth outcomes. She earned M.S.W. and M.P.H. degrees from the University of California, Berkeley. She is a member of the American Public Health Association—Maternal and Child Health and Social Work Sections, the Society for Social Work and Research, the National Association of Social Workers, and the National Black Women's Health Project.

    Paul B. Pedersen is Professor Emeritus at Syracuse University and Visiting Professor in the Department of Psychology, University of Hawaii. He has authored, coauthored, or edited 3939 books, 6767 chapters, and 9393 articles on multicultural counseling and communication. He is a Fellow in Divisions 99 (Social Issues), 1717 (Counseling), 4545 (Ethnic Minorities), and 5252 (International) of the American Psychological Association. He has taught at universities in Indonesia, Malaysia, and Taiwan for 88 years and was in Taiwan on a Senior Fulbright for a year. His Web site is http://soeweb.syr.edu/chs/pedersen/index.html.

    Barbara A. Plested, Ph.D., is a research associate at the Colorado State University Tri-Ethnic Center for Prevention Research and has worked extensively in the provision of direct services to special populations as well as in collaborative research. She has 1515 years of both administrative and therapeutic service experience in both mental health and substance abuse. In this capacity, a primary role has been administrative, including the development of policy and procedure, quality assurance issues, and direct treatment. She is a member of the research team that developed community readiness theory and has published widely on the topic of community work, inhalant prevention, and treatment and violence prevention.

    Randolph G. Potts, Ph.D., is Assistant Professor of Psychology at Holy Cross College and a practicing psychologist in Hartford, Connecticut. He is a member of the Council of Directors of the Benjamin E. Mays Institute in Hartford and a founder of the Rites of Passage Program at Osborn Correctional Institute in Somers, Connecticut. He earned a doctorate in Clinical-Community Psychology from DePaul University in 19941994. He is a member of the Association of Black Psychologists and is an APA Minority Fellowship recipient (19901990–19931993).

    Suzanne M. Randolph is Associate Professor of Family Studies at the University of Maryland, College Park. She earned a Ph.D. in developmental psychology from the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor. She is co-principal investigator for a USDHHS/SAMHSA/CSAP-funded study evaluating the Effective Black Parenting program with Head Start parents at risk for substance abuse and for the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. She is an evaluator for the Pathways to Prevention program, an infant mental health training project sponsored by the Early Head Start National Resource Center at ZERO TO THREE. She is also on the evaluation work group for the CDC Minority AIDS Initiative fielded by the MayaTech Corporation of Silver Spring, Maryland. She was Principal Investigator for a Head Start community violence prevention study funded by the U.S. Department of Education and a Robert Wood Johnson-funded evaluation of the Opening Doors program to reduce sociocultural barriers to health care. She was a member of the National Academy of Sciences Panel on Evaluation Methods for Assessing the Impact of Welfare Reform. She is a member of the Advisory Panel for the National Technical Assistance Center for Children's Mental Health at Georgetown Child Development Center, the social environment work group of the National Children's Study.

    Richard A. Rawson, Ph.D., is Associate Director of the UCLA Integrated Substance Abuse Programs. He is also the Co-Principal Investigator of the CSAT Methamphetamine Treatment Project. He is the originator of the Matrix Model, which was originally implemented with heroin-using clients over 2525 years ago. He then expanded the Matrix Model for use with clients addicted to cocaine and/or methamphetamine, and to other illicit drugs.

    Le'Roy E. Reese, Ph.D., is a Senior Fellow in the Division of Violence Prevention at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. He joined the CDC after spending several years codirecting a prevention research team that conducted school and community-based prevention research in Chicago. The foci of Dr. Reese's research and clinical practice address the prevention of health-compromising behavior among children, adolescents, and their families in underresourced communities and the promotion of wellness and broad-based social and behavioral competencies. In particular, he is interested in the role of culture in promoting the psychological health and adjustment of ethnic minority communities in the United States.

    W. LaVome Robinson, Ph.D., is Professor of Psychology at DePaul University, in Chicago, Illinois. She received her Ph.D. in clinical psychology from the University of Georgia. Her chief research interests are (a) the development and evaluation of school-based prevention and treatment programs and (b) mental health promotion for African American adolescents, with a primary focus on depression preventionand the cultural adaptation of interventions. Much of her research revolves around school-based health center models of service delivery and evaluation.

    Maria P. P. Root, Ph.D., is a psychologist in Seattle, Washington. She has edited two award-winning books on multiracial identity that were used in the U.S. Bureau of the Census's deliberation on the historical change to the 20002000 census. She focuses her publications on the intersections of racial, gender, and generational identity in her ecological framework for understanding racial identity. She is the recipient of regional and national awards for her work.

    Emily Sáez is a Ph.D. candidate in clinical psychology at the Department of Psychology, University of Puerto Rico, Río Piedras Campus. Since 19931993, she has been involved in clinical research, beginning as an undergraduate research assistant in the University Center for Psychological Services and Research. She received an NIMH Career Opportunities in Research Fellowship. Her research interests include depression and conduct disorder in Puerto Rican adolescents, family environment, and coping strategies. She was the recipient of an individual predoctoral National Service Research Award from NIMH to study the relationship between family environment, depression, and conduct disorder among Puerto Rican Adolescents. She completed her clinical internship at Bellevue Hospital in New York City and is currently finalizing her dissertation project on depression and conduct disorder in Puerto Rican adolescents.

    Jamie Smith is a graduate student in counseling psychology at The Ohio State University. Her research interests include career development, professional identity, and group dynamics. In addition to research, she is a counselor in the college counseling center, teaches psychology courses through Ohio State and Johns Hopkins University, and serves as a campus representative for the American Psychological Association of Graduate Students.

    Leslie Sue Ph.D., J.D., is Director of the Public Service Center at Butte College, California. The center consists of programs in the Administration of Justice, Fire Technology, Hazardous Materials Training, Construction Inspection Technology, and the Police and Fire Academies. He earned an Ed.D. from Nova Southeastern University, Florida, and a J.D. from Greenwich University, Hawaii. He has served in a variety of public service positions including police officer, environmental health inspector, U.S. Air Force Security Police Chief, Special Agent of the FBI, tribal court associate judge, and professor of law. His research interests are in the public safety occupations relating to workplace stress, police and fire academy performance, corporate espionage, and Asian American matriculation into law enforcement career paths. He has written articles on police stress, corporate security and technology advancement, corporate espionage, and competency-based education. He is a member of the American Bar Association and the International Association of Chiefs of Police.

    Stanley Sue, Ph.D., is Professor of Psychology, Psychiatry, and Asian American Studies at the University of California, Davis, and a Ph.D. in Psychology from UCLA (19711971). From 19811981–19961996, he was Professor of Psychology at UCLA, where he was also Associate Dean of the Graduate Division. From 19711971–19811981, he served on the psychology faculty at the University of Washington. He also served as Director of the National Research Center on Asian American Mental Health, a NIMH-funded research center, from 19881988–20012001, and was Director of the Asian American Studies Program from 19961996–20012001. In recognition of his mental health research, he has received a number of awards: 19901990 Distinguished Contributions Award for Research on Ethnic Minorities from the Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Issues of APA; 19901990 Distinguished Contributions Award from the Asian American Psychological Association; 19961996 Distinguished Contribution Award for Research in Public Policy from the American Psychological Association; 19981998 Distinguished Scientific Achievement Award from the California Psychological Association.

    Jerome Taylor is Associate Professor of Africana Studies at the University of Pittsburgh. He received his Ph.D. from Indiana (Bloomington, IN) and postdoctoral training in child and family psychology at the Messinger Clinic. He currently is Executive Director of the Center for Family Excellence, Inc., formerly known as the Institute for the Black Family. Dr. Taylor has published numerous articles that explore the role of cultural, religious, and structural factors on the mental and physical health of African American people, and has developed and implemented a holistic approach to values-based parenting and education. Over three decades, this Values for Life model has been infused into prevention, research, family preservation, and family reunification initiatives.

    Shawn O. Utsey is Associate Professor in the Counseling Psychology Program, Department of Human Development and Psychoeducational Studies at Howard University. He is also Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Black Psychology and has been a member of the Association of Black Psychologists since 19901990. He earned an M.A. in rehabilitation counseling from New York University and a Ph.D. in counseling psychology from Fordham University. His research program is aimed at examining the stressful effects of racism on African Americans, white racism and white Americans, and the role of Africanisms and related cultural factors on the psychological well-being of African Americans. He is the author of the widely used Index of Race-Related Stress and the Africultural Coping Systems Inventory.

    Elizabeth M. Vera is an Associate Professor at Loyola University Chicago. She received her Ph.D. from The Ohio State University in Counseling Psychology. Areas of scholarly interest include resiliency and prevention with urban youth, the effects of similarity and difference in multicultural interactions, and ethnic identity development in children.

    Mildred Vera, Ph.D., is Professor in the Department of Health Services Administration at the School of Public Health, University of Puerto Rico. She is a clinical psychologist with more than 1515 years of experience in basic and applied research in health-related issues of Latinos. This research has been supported by grants from the National Institute of Mental Health, the National Institute on Drug Abuse, and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, among others. She has a strong interest in racial ethnic minority research and has published in the areas of mental health care among the poor, gender and mental health services use, and HÍV and drug prevention research with Latino populations. Her current mental health services research project focuses on the feasibility, acceptability, and cultural relevance of established depression interventions and the development and adaptation of culturally targeted mental health interventions for Latinos.

    Doryliz Vila is Project Director at the Center for Evaluation and Sociomedical Research of the University of Puerto Rico. She has been the director of several research projects, including the National Latino and Asian American Study, funded by the National Institute of Mental Health. Her research interests include child and family health, family adaptation, family-centered interventions, bereavement, and mental health. She completed her master's degree in health services research and evaluation from the Graduate School of Public Health, University of Puerto Rico.

    Roderick J. Watts is a community psychologist, a licensed clinical psychologist, and Associate Professor of Psychology at Georgia State University in Atlanta. He received his Ph.D. in Psychology from the University of Maryland, College Park (19841984). He is a Fellow in the American Psychological Association and the Division of Community Psychology. As a practitioner, he has served as a program development and evaluation consultant to governmental organizations, schools, foundations, research and public policy organizations, universities, and other nonprofit organizations on a variety of projects. He has also held positions at the Consultation Center at Yale University and the Institute for Urban Affairs and Research at Howard University. He recently coedited two books: Human

    Diversity: Perspectives on People in Context and Manhood Development in Urban African American Communities.

    Marlene Wicherski is a survey research consultant in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Prior to her move to Cambridge and her transition to a consulting position, she worked for nearly 2020 years in the American Psychological Association's Research Office, where she was involved in many of the research projects conducted by the office.

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