The SAGE Handbook of Race and Ethnic Studies


Edited by: Patricia Hill Collins & John Solomos

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  • Front Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Part I: Locating the Field: Theoretical and Historical Foundations

    Part II: Race, Ethnicity and Social Hierarchy

    Part III: The Social Organisation of Race and Ethnicity

    Part IV: Debates and New Initiatives

  • Copyright

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    A handbook such as this has a number of purposes. The first and most important of these is to provide a comprehensive and contemporary overview of major developments in the study of race and ethnicity. This in itself is a major task in this field which has undergone a series of shifts in approach over the past few decades as well as a major expansion within disciplines such as sociology, anthropology, politics, cultural studies and related disciplines. In many ways, the last two decades can be seen as ones that have helped to establish the study of race and ethnicity within both the social sciences and the humanities. This is evidenced in the wide range of books on almost every facet of this sub-field, as well as the establishment of a number of journals that are focused on the study of race and ethnicity viewed from a range of angles.

    The second purpose of this handbook is to provide both general and specialist readers with a resource to explore the field of race and ethnic studies and all its different facets. The various chapters have been written in such a style that they provide an authoritative overview of the key research developments in their particular areas. In putting together our list of contributors, we impressed upon all of our authors the need for chapters that covered their specific areas in detail and from an analytically comprehensive angle. All of the chapters draw on a wide range of theoretical and empirical literatures and are carefully situated in relation to research that draws on examples from a broad range of national and geopolitical environments.

    In our role as editors we have also sought, in the opening and concluding chapters, to provide overviews that highlight and bring to the fore some of the issues that run through the volume as a whole as well as some of the questions that we have not been able to cover fully.

    In putting this handbook together, we have benefitted from the support and advice of colleagues at our institutions and beyond. First and foremost, we appreciate the support of our respective institutions – the production of volumes such as this is inevitably a long-term process and we are grateful to our institutions for providing us with the space to undertake such work. Both of us also benefitted from the support and guidance we have received from our publishers at Sage, in particular from Chris Rojek and Jai Seaman. They have put up with up with the delays in bringing this project to a conclusion with good grace and encouragement.

    Patricia Hill Collins wishes to acknowledge the financial support provided by the Taft Program in the McMicken College of Arts and Sciences at the University of Cincinnati during the early stages of the project. Thanks also go out to Tamika Odum, the original editorial assistant for this project, and Julie Hilvers, for their contributions at the University of Cincinnati. At the University of Maryland, College Park, I would like to thank Tony Hatch, Zeynep Atalay and Chang Won Lee who each served as primary editorial assistants during different phases of the project. Valerie Chepp and Kendra Barber, research assistants who worked on various aspects of this project, were also invaluable to the completion of the handbook. Important editorial assistance was also provided by Heather Marsh and Kathryn Buford. Many of the ideas in this volume reflect my many conversations with our terrific sociology graduate students at the University of Maryland, both in my seminars in Critical Race Theory and outside of class. Special thanks go out to Emily Mann, Nazneen Kane, Carolina Martin, Michelle Corbin, Kimberly Bonner, Les Andrist, Michelle Beadle, Michelle Smirnova, Aleia Clark, Nihal Celik, Daniel Williams, Mehmet Ergun and Ying (Wendy) Wang. As always, special thanks to Roger and Valerie for supporting my professional endeavours.

    John Solomos would like to acknowledge the support of the following during the period while he was working on the handbook: Les Back, Leah Bassel, Chetan Bhatt, Alice Bloch, Milena Chimienti, Michael Keith, Eugene McLaughlin, Karim Murji, Sarah Neal, Liza Schuster, Brett St Louis and Tony Woodiwiss. Thanks also to Adam and Sam for playing squash with me and taking me away from sitting down. Steve, Michael, Fran, Karim and others have been good company and sources of gossip in our gatherings to support the England football team. As ever Christine, Nikolas and Daniel saw me disappear to the office or the study too much and I thank them for their patience and understanding. My passion for the Baggies kept me going and listening to the sweet music of Prince Alla, Bob Marley, Fairouz, Horace Andy, Meri Linta, Maria Farantouri, Sotiria Bellou, Souad Massi and Gregory Isaacs helped me along the road and moved my soul.

    Patricia HillCollinsUniversity of Maryland
    JohnSolomosCity University London

    Notes on Contributors


    Patricia Hill Collins is Distinguished University Professor of Sociology at the University of Maryland, College Park and Charles Phelps Taft Emeritus Professor of Sociology within the Department of African American Studies at the University of Cincinnati. Her award-winning books include Black Feminist Thought: Knowledge, Consciousness, and the Politics of Empowerment (1990, 2000) which received the Jessie Bernard Award of the American Sociological Association (ASA), and the C. Wright Mills Award of the Society for the Study of Social Problems; and Black Sexual Politics: African Americans, Gender, and the New Racism (2004) which received ASA's 2007 Distinguished Publication Award. She is also author of Fighting Words: Black Women and the Search for Justice (1998); From Black Power to Hip Hop: Racism, Nationalism, and Feminism (2005); Race, Class, and Gender: An Anthology 7th edition, (2010) edited with Margaret Andersen, a reader widely used in classrooms in over 200 colleges and universities; and Another Kind of Public Education: Race, Schools, the Media, and Democratic Possibilities (2009). Professor Collins has taught at several institutions, held editorial positions with professional journals, lectured widely in the United States and internationally, served in many capacities in professional organisations, and has acted as consultant for a number of community organisations. In 2008, she became the 100th President of the American Sociological Association, the first African American woman elected to this position in the organisation's 104-year history.

    John Solomos is professor of sociology in the Department of Sociology, City University, London. He is director of the Centre on Race, Ethnicity and Migration. Before that he was professor of sociology in the Faculty of Humanities and Social Science at South Bank University, London, and he has previously worked at the Centre for Research in Ethnic Relations, University of Warwick and Birkbeck College, University of London and the University of Southampton. He has published on various aspects of race and ethnic studies, including The Changing Face of Football: Racism, Identity and Multiculture and the English Game (co-author with Les Back and Tim Crabbe, 2001), and Race and Racism in Britain 3rd ed., (2003). He has also edited A Companion to Racial and Ethnic Studies (co-editor with David Theo Goldberg, 2002), Researching Race and Racism (co-editor with Martin Bulmer, 2004) and Racialization: Studies in Theory andPractice (co-editor with Karim Murji, 2005) among other edited books. He is editor of the international journal Ethnic and Racial Studies, published nine times a year by Routledge.


    Claire Alexander is reader in sociology at the London School of Economics. Her research interests are in the area of race, ethnicity, masculinity and youth identities, particularly in relation to ethnography. Her main publications include The Art of Being Black (OUP, 1996) and The Asian Gang (Berg, 2000). She is co-editor of Beyond Difference (Ethnic and Racial Studies, July 2002), and Making Race Matter: Bodies, Space and Identity (Palgrave, 2005) and editor of Writing Race: Ethnography and Difference (Ethnic and Racial Studies, May 2006). She is co-director, with Dr Joya Chatterji, of an AHRC-funded research project (2006–2009) on ‘The Bengal Diaspora: Bengali Settlers in South Asia and Britain’.

    Margaret L. Andersen is the Edward F. and Elizabeth Goodman Rosenberg professor of sociology at the University of Delaware. She is the author of Thinking about Women: Sociological Perspectives on Sex and Gender; On Land and on Sea: A Century of Women in the Rosenfeld Collection; Living Art: The Life of Paul R. Jones, African American Art Collector; Sociology: The Essentials (co-author, Howard F. Taylor), and two best selling-anthologies: Race, Class, and Gender (with Patricia Hill Collins; Race and Ethnicity in Society: The Changing Landscape (with Elizabeth Higginbotham); and, Understanding Society (with Kim Logio and Howard F. Taylor). She was elected vice president of the American Sociological Association (2007–2009) and is past president of the Eastern Sociological Society. She currently serves as chair of the National Advisory Board for Stanford University's Center for Comparative Studies on Race and Ethnicity.

    Floya Anthias is professor of sociology and social justice at Roehampton University. Her primary research interests are in the areas of social divisions and identities, social exclusion and inequality and on migration, ethnicity, gender and multiculturalism. She has published extensively in these areas with a particular interest in the fields of ethnicity, class, gender, transborder movements, labour markets, identity, self-employment, intergenerational relations and Cypriots in Britain. Her publications include Racialised Boundaries: Race, Nation, Colour, Class and the Anti Racist Struggle (co-authored, Routledge, 1993), Gender and Migration in Southern Europe: Women on the Move, (co-edited, Berg, 2000) and Rethinking Antiracisms: From Theory to Practice (co-edited Routledge, 2002). She has also written numerous articles, particularly on theoretical issues around race and ethnicity, and on gender. These include recent contributions to debates on conceptualising ethnicity and racism, diaspora and hybridity, feminism and multiculturalism, narratives of identity, translocational belongings, social stratification and intersectionality and rethinking the concept of social capital.

    Les Back is professor of sociology at Goldsmiths, University of London where he has been working since 1993. Before that he taught at the Department of Cultural Studies, University of Birmingham. His main focus over the years has been on race and racism, multiculturalism, urban life, popular culture and music and youth. In addition to the co-authored work with John Solomos his books include The Art of Listening (2007), The Auditory Cultures Reader (co-editor with Michael Bull) (2003), Out of Whiteness: Color, Politics and Culture (co-author with Vron Ware) (2002) and New Ethnicities and Urban Culture: Racisms and Multiculture in Young Lives (1996).

    James A. Banks is the Kerry and Linda Killinger Professor of Diversity Studies and founding director of the Center for Multicultural Education at the University of Washington, Seattle ( He is a past president of the American Educational Research Association and of the National Council for the Social Studies. Professor Banks is a specialist in social studies education and in multicultural education, and has written many articles and books in these fields. His books include Cultural Diversity and Education: Foundations, Curriculum and Teaching; Teaching Strategies for the Social Studies; and Race, Culture, and Education: The Selected Works of James A. Banks. Professor Banks is the editor of the Handbook of Research on Multicultural Education (Jossey-Bass), the ‘Multicultural Education Series’ of books published by Teachers College Press, Columbia University; and The Routledge International Companion to Multicultural Education. He is a member of the National Academy of Education and was a Spencer Fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences at Stanford during the 2005–2006 academic year.

    Chetan Bhatt is professor of sociology and director of the centre for the study of Human Rights at the London School of Economics and Political Science. His research interests include religion, racism, nationalism, changing forms of civil conflict, social theory and the history of ideas, especially the development of romanticism in Europe. His publications include Liberation and Purity: Race, New Religious Movements and the Ethics of Postmodernity (Routledge, 1997), Hindu Nationalism: Origins, Ideologies and Modern Myths (Berg, 2001). He has written widely on violent movements of the religious Right, nationalism, racism and culture, and much of his recent work has focused on new transnational networks that are inspired by religious militias in south Asia.

    Glenn D. Deane is associate professor of sociology at the University at Albany, State University of New York. His research activities include modelling the interrelationship between population and environment, multiple race identifications and intra-family dynamics.

    Nancy A. Denton is professor of sociology at the State University of New York at Albany where she is the director of the Lewis Mumford Center for Comparative Urban and Regional Research and associate director of the Center for Social and Demographic Analysis. She received her MA and PhD in demography from the University of Pennsylvania and an MA in sociology from Fordham University, and is past president of the Eastern Sociological Society. Her major research interests are race and residential segregation and with Douglas S. Massey she is the author of American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Underclass, winner of the 1995 American Sociological Association Distinguished Publication Award. Her current research projects include the neighbourhood contexts of children by race/ethnicity/immigrant generation and racial identity among Puerto Ricans.

    Joe R. Feagin graduated from Baylor University in 1960 and acquired his PhD in social relations (sociology) at Harvard University in 1966. Over 44 years he has taught at the University of Massachusetts (Boston), University of California (Riverside), University of Texas, University of Florida, and Texas A&M University. He has done much research work on a variety of racism and sexism issues and has served as the Scholar-in-Residence at the US Commission on Civil Rights. He has written 58 books, one of which (Ghetto Revolts) was nominated for a Pulitzer Prize. Among his books, some co-authored, are Systemic Racism (2006); Racist America (2000 and 2010); The First R: How Children Learn Race and Racism (2001); Racial and Ethnic Relations (2008); The Many Costs of Racism (2003); White Men on Race (2003); Black in Blue: African-American Police Officers and Racism (2004); Two-Faced Racism (2007), and The White Racial Frame (2010). He is the 2006 recipient of a Harvard Alumni Association lifetime achievement award and was the 1999–2000 president of the American Sociological Association. He is currently Ella C. McFadden Professor at Texas A&M University.

    Cheryl Townsend Gilkes is the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Professor of African American Studies and Sociology and director of the African American Studies Program at Colby College. She holds degrees in sociology from Northeastern University and has pursued graduate theological studies at Boston University's School of Theology. Some of her essays and articles are gathered in her book If It Wasn't for the Women: Black Women's Experience and Womanist Culture in Church and Community (Orbis Books, 2001). Several of her journal articles have been reprinted in anthologies, such as African American Religious Thought: An Anthology, edited by Cornel West and Eddie Glaude (Westminster John Knox Press, 2004) and Women and Religion in the African Diaspora: Knowledge, Power, and Performance, edited by R. Marie Griffith and Barbara Dianne Savage (The Johns Hopkins Press, 2006). She is currently at work on several projects, one of which is tentatively titled My Soul's Gotta Have Somewhere to Stay: The Black Church as a Cultural Production.

    Michael G. Hanchard is SOBA Presidential Professor in the political science department of The Johns Hopkins University, and co-director of the Racism, Immigration and Citizenship Program. He is the author of Party/Politics: Horizons in Black Political Thought (Oxford, 2006); Racial Politics in Contemporary Brazil, editor (Duke, 1999) and Orpheus and Power: Afro-Brazilian Social Movements in Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo, Brazil, 1945–1988 (Princeton, 1994). His teaching and research interests include nationalism, racial politics, social and political theory.

    Peter Kivisto is the Richard A. Swanson professor of social thought and chair of sociology at Augustana College. He received his BA from the University of Michigan and an MDiv from Yale. His MA and PhD were awarded by the New School for Social Research. Among his recent books are Citizenship: Discourse, Theory and Transnational Prospects (Blackwell, 2007, with Thomas Faist), Intersecting Inequalities (Pearson Prentice Hall, 2007, with Elizabeth Hartung), Incorporating Diversity (Paradigm, 2005) and Multiculturalism in a Global Society (Blackwell, 2002). He is currently the editor of The Sociological Quarterly. The Academy of Finland has recently appointed him a Finland Distinguished Professor. In 2009, he will begin a five-year affiliation with the University of Turku, working on a collaborative project on multiculturalism.

    Caroline Knowles is professor of sociology and director of the Centre for Urban and Community Research at Goldsmiths, University of London. Her research interests are about the production of race and ethnicity, the circulation of people through migration and objects composing material culture. She has a long-term interest in biographical and visual research methods and has worked in collaboration with a number of photographers. Her current research investigates British migrants in Beijing. She is also working with artist Michael Tan on a project called ‘Shoes and Social Fabrics: The Lifeworld and Journeys of a Pair of Flip-Flop Sandals’ which investigates shoe production in Chinese factories and consumption in Addis Ababa. Her books include Hong Kong: Migrant Lives, Journeys and Landscapes (2009, University of Chicago Press) with Douglas Harper; Making Race Matter (2005, Palgrave) jointly edited with Claire Alexander; Race and Social Analysis (2003, Sage); Picturing the Social Landscape (2004, Routledge) jointly edited with Paul Sweetman and Bedlam on the Streets (2000, Routledge) with photographer Ludovic Dabert.

    Athena Mutua is a professor of law at the State University of New York. She writes in the areas of critical race and feminist legal theory. Some of her recent work includes the edited collection entitled, Progressive Black Masculinities (Routledge, 2006); and articles titled, ‘Restoring Justice to Civil Rights Movement Activists?: New Historiography and the “Long Civil Rights Era”’ (2010); ‘The Rise, Development, and Future Directions of Critical Race Theory,’ (Denver University Law Review, 2006); and ‘Gender Equality and Women's Solidarity across Religious, Ethnic, and Class Difference in the Kenya Constitutional Review Process’ (William and Mary Journal of Women and Law, 2006). The latter article involved activism and research for which she received the University at Buffalo's Exceptional Scholars Young Investigator's Award. One of her latest pieces explores issues of race and gender as they relate to class structures and introduces the concepts and boundaries of a project she helped to found called ClassCrits. It is entitled, “Introducing ClassCrits: From Class Blindness to a Critical Legal Analysis of Economic Inequality,” (Buffalo Law Review, 2008).

    Joane Nagel is University Distinguished Professor of Sociology at the University of Kansas. Her recent books include American Indian Ethnic Renewal: Red Power and the Resurgence of Identity and Culture (Oxford University Press, 1997) and Race, Ethnicity, and Sexuality: Intimate Intersections, Forbidden Frontiers (Oxford University Press, 2003). She is currently director of the US National Science Foundation IGERT program, C-CHANGE: Climate Change, Humans, and Nature in the Global Environment at the University of Kansas.

    Eileen O'Brien was born and raised in Virginia. She earned a BA in sociology at the College of William and Mary in 1994, an MA in sociology at Ohio State University in 1996 and a PhD in sociology with a primary concentration in race relations at the University of Florida under the direction of Joe Feagin in 1999. After teaching at the State University of New York (Brockport), the College of William and Mary, and the University of Richmond, she has settled in her birthplace, Newport News, Virginia by joining the faculty at Christopher Newport University. Her dissertation on white antiracist activists became her first book Whites Confront Racism (2001). She also co-authored White Men on Race (2003) with Joe Feagin, and two editions of Race, Ethnicity and Gender: Selected Readings (2003 and 2007) with Joseph Healey. Her most recent book is The Racial Middle: Latinos and Asian Americans Living beyond the Racial Divide (2008). She resides in the town where she was raised, Williamsburg, Virginia, with her partner, Kendall James, and children, Kaya (2002) and Kaden (2007) O'Brien-James, her most challenging and most rewarding projects yet.

    Caryn Park is a doctoral candidate in multicultural education at the University of Washington, Seattle. She has a background in early childhood education. Her research explores critical and interdisciplinary perspectives on race and ethnicity. She is also interested in how these constructions are reflected in the ways in which young children talk about and act upon their developing understandings.

    Ralph R. Premdas is currently visiting professor in the Institute for the Study of Public Policy and Management (INPUMA) at the University of Malaya in Malaysia and is regularly Professor of Public Policy in the Sir Arthur Lewis Institute of Social and Economic Studies (SALISES) at the University of the West Indies, St. Augustine Trinidad and Tobago. His research focus is on comparative ethnic politics; multi-culturalism, and migration. Among his most recent publications are Trinidad and Tobago: Ethnic Conflict, Inequality, and Public Sector Governance (Palgrave, 2008), Homelessness and Street Children in the Caribbean (2008), Identity, Ethnicity and Culture in the Caribbean (2000); Ethnic Conflict and Development: The Case of Guyana (1997); Ethnic Conflict and Modes of Ethnic Conflict Management (2000); Comparative Secessionist Movements (1994); and Ethnic Conflict in Fiji (1995).

    Liza Schuster is a senior lecturer at City University, where she lectures on global migration, and historical and political sociology. Her research interests include asylum, migration and racism, and the relationship between all three. Most recently her research has focused on migrants in Morocco, Cyprus and in Paris. She is the author of The Use and Abuse of Political Asylum in Britain and Germany (2003, Frank Cass, London), and has published articles on aspects of European asylum and migration policy, as well the migration phenomenon more generally. Her Beginners Guide to Migration (OneWorld, Oxford) will appear in 2011.

    Mark Q. Sawyer is an associate professor of African American studies and political science at UCLA and the director of the Center for the Study of Race, Ethnicity and Politics. He received his PhD in political science from the University of Chicago in December of 1999. His book entitled Racial Politics in Post Revolutionary Cuba (Cambridge University Press, 2006) received the Du Bois Award for the best book by the National Conference of Black Political Scientists and the Ralph Bunche Award from the American Political Science Association.

    Satnam Virdee is professor of sociology at the University of Glasgow. His current research interests focus on mapping the relationship between racism and capitalist modernity; racism, class and labour markets, and the study of racist and antiracist collective action. His forthcoming book, Racism, Resistance and Radicalism will be published by Palgrave in 2011.

    Maxine Baca Zinn is professor emeritus of sociology at Michigan State University. Her teaching and research areas are in the sociology of family, race, and gender. Her books include Women of Color in U.S. Society (with Bonnie Thornton Dill); Diversity in Families; Social Problems; In Conflict and Order: Understanding Society; and Globalization: The Transformation of Social Worlds (with D. Stanley Eitzen). She has served as president of the Western Social Science Association. In 2000, she received the American Sociological Association's Jessie Bernard Award in recognition of career achievements in the study of women and gender.

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