The realities of a policy in practice often differ from intentions on paper because of distortions in the process of implementing the policy. A central issue for implementation scholars is the extent to which noteworthy distortions can be anticipated and addressed as part of the design of a given policy. Some argue that modifications of policies during implementation to reflect particular circumstances are desirable adaptations that add value to policy intentions (Palumbo and Calista, 1990; Schneider and Ingram, 1997). Others argue that little realistically can be done to address such slippage, whether desirable or not, because of the inevitable ambiguities of policy goals and conflicts among implementers (Matland, 1995; Pressman and Wildavsky, 1973; Stoker, 1991). The perspective adopted ...
Policy Design and Implementation
Policy design and implementation