The SAGE Handbook of Human Geography: Two Volume Set
Publication Year: 2014
Subject: Human Geography (general)
Published in association with the journal Progress in Human Geography, edited and written by the principal scholars in the discipline, this Handbook demonstrates the difference that thinking about the world geographically makes. Each section considers how human geography shapes the world, interrogates it, and intervenes in it. It includes a major retrospective and prospective introductory essay, with three substantive sections on: Imagining Human Geographies Practising Human Geographies Living Human Geographies The Handbook also has an innovative multimedia component of conversations about key issues in human geography – as well as an overview of human geography from the Editors. A key reference for any scholar interested in questions about what difference it makes to think spatially or geographically about the world, this Handbook is a rich ...
- Front Matter
- Subject Index
- Volume 1:
- IMAGINING HUMAN GEOGRAPHIES
- More-than-human Geographies
- PRACTISING HUMAN GEOGRAPHIES
- Writing (Somewhere)
- Producing: Educating Reeta Mia
- Volume 2:
- LIVING HUMAN GEOGRAPHIES
- CONVERSATIONS IN HUMAN GEOGRAPHY: TRANSCRIPTS
- Geography and geographical thought
- Nature and society
- Geography and geographical practice
- Editors’ discussion
SAGE Publications Ltd
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Eitorial arrangement © Roger Lee 2014
Methodological Prologue and Editorial Introduction © Roger Lee, Noel Castree, Rob Kitchin, Victoria Lawson, Anssi Paasi, Chris Philo, Sarah Radcliffe, Susan M. Roberts and Charles W.J. Withers 2014
Conversations in human geography © Roger Lee 2014
Chapter 1 © Tim Cresswell 2014
Chapter 2 © Johanna L. Waters 2014
Chapter 3 © Jacques Lйvy 2014
Chapter 4 © Katharyne Mitchell 2014
Chapter 5 © Beth Greenhough 2014
Chapter 6 © Andrea J. Nightingale 2014
Chapter 7 © Daniel Clayton 2014
Chapter 8 © Alastair Bonnett 2014
Chapter 9 © Trevor J. Barnes 2014
Chapter 10 © Matthew W. Wilson and Sarah Elwood 2014
Chapter 11 © Eric Laurier 2014
Chapter 12 © Anna Barford 2014
Chapter 13 © Juliet J. Fall 2014
Chapter 14 © Meghan Cope 2014
Chapter 15 © Mia Gray 2014
Chapter 16 © Jane Wills 2014
Chapter 17 © Jennifer Hill and Avril Maddrell 2014
Chapter 18 © Audrey Kobayashi, Meghan Brooks, Sarah de Leeuw, Nathaniel Lewis, Catherine Nolin and Cheryl Sutherland 2014
Chapter 19 © Elizabeth Olson 2014
Chapter 20 © Marianna Pavlovskaya and Kevin St. Martin 2014
Chapter 21 © Jamie Winders 2014
Chapter 22 © Patricia L. Price 2014
Chapter 23 © David Featherstone 2014
Chapter 24 © Cheryl McGeachan and Chris Philo 2014
Chapter 25 © Louise Amoore 2014
Chapter 26 © Katie Willis 2014
Chapter 27 © Rachel Silvey and Jean-Franзois Bissonnette 2014
Chapter 28 © Robyn Dowling and Katharine McKinnon 2014
Chapter 29 © Elspeth Graham 2014
Chapter 30 © Matthew Sparke 2014
Chapter 31 © Sarah Wright 2014
Conversation 1 Geography and geographical thought © David Livingstone and Doreen Massey 2014
Conversation 2 Nature and society © Susan Owens and Sarah Whatmore 2014
Conversation 3 Geography and geographical practice © Katherine Gibson and Susan J. Smith 2014
Editors’ discussion: What are human geographies? © Roger Lee, Noel Castree, Sarah Elwood, Rob Kitchin and Susan M. Roberts 2014
First published 2014
Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form, or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers.
Library of Congress Control Number: 2013942400
British Library Cataloguing in Publication data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
Editor: Robert Rojek
Assistant Editor: Keri Dickens
Production editor: Sushant Nailwal
Copyeditor: Sunrise Setting Limited
Proofreader: Michelle Clark
Indexer: Cathryn Pritchard
Marketing Manager: Michael Ainsley
Cover design: Wendy Scott
Typeset in Times New Roman, 10 pt by C&M Digitals (P) Ltd, Chennai, India
Printed and bound by CPI Group (UK) Ltd, Croydon, CR0 4YY [for Antony Rowe]
This book has involved an immense collaborative effort. The editors are especially grateful to all the authors – many of whom did manage to submit their drafts on time! – for being prepared to set out on and complete a journey, the destination of which was left deliberately open-ended and very much down to them. This has, we know, involved some very hard and challenging work in the writing and yet all contributors remained wholeheartedly committed and responsive to a project, which was, to an extent – and perforce – emergent in the process of its construction.
Robert Rojek was, as ever, not only a rightly demanding publishing editor but was also continuously encouraging yet tolerant of our own limitations as well as offering a whole host of bright ideas that contributed so much to the various innovative features of the book. In the dramatically changing and increasingly instrumental world of publishing, Sage remains true to its traditions and Robert a highly effective advocate and guide in sustaining and extending them.
Keri Dickens, Robert’s editorial assistant, smoothed all the logistics involved in the production of the book. Her wholly enviable and yet highly engaging and informal efficiency meant that even the most tiresome of necessary tasks were rendered enjoyable and easy.
Isabel Drury of SAGE shot three of the four videos; Mile End Films, the fourth. Despite this innovation being a new venture for us all, Isabel and Mile End Films were not only efficient and very responsive in dealing with post-production issues but made the whole venture enjoyable and fun.
The proofing of such a large and multi-authored book is an immense task littered with all sorts of booby traps. Sushant Nailwal and Shikha Jain along with the team at SAGE, India were not only thorough but wonderfully patient, tolerant and forgiving whilst still getting the job done.
We also wish to acknowledge the willingness of all the following organizations to allow the use of material in the Handbook:
Asian Peasants Coalition
Bawaka Cultural Experiences
Methodological Prologue: The Vital Requirement of Reflexivity[Page ix]
The origins of this book lie in the editors’ belief in human geography as a vitally significant way of thinking and acting. We think of human geography as a body of work critically important for the analysis – and, crucially, the intended transformation and consequent improvement of – the social condition. The short editorial introduction, which follows this prologue, expands on these ideas, although it is the chapters themselves – and the conversations that serve to introduce them – that matter in the demonstration or refutation and legitimation or deligitimation of the underlying impulses which gave rise to and shaped the book. In this context, we outline here a number of methodological and logistical issues underpinning its conception and structure. These are crucially important because they both set the frame within which the contents of the book emerged and, although as with any published book it will assume a life of its own, they may help to shape the ways in which it might be read and engaged with.
First, the intention was to be deliberately synoptic in scope and approach. The concern was to place human geography within a far wider disciplinary frame as a major, if often unrecognized, shaper of social life and hence of attempts to interrogate it. But it is not only the limitations of disciplines in failing to get to grips with the complexities of human and more-than-human life that matter but also, unsurprisingly, the geographies that shape these complexities. The significance of this point needs no emphasis here given the remarkable flowering of challenges to geographically constrained ways of thinking from what might be loosely termed postcolonial critiques – although such a designation is itself reductive. Many of the chapters that follow adopt an explicitly postcolonial perspective and more do so implicitly. So much to the good. But the point of the postcolonial critique is precisely that – and critique and profound critique at that. And so the emphasis in the book was necessarily laid upon the open-ended nature of social enquiry.
But, like all books, this one has its constraints. There are both implicit and explicit structural, institutional and ideological reasons which contribute to the frequent limitations of imagination that constrain the ability to go beyond particular framings. Indeed, as postcolonial writings stress, such constraints are themselves worthy of geographical critique. It is for this reason that this book is but one part of an intellectual project that will, hopefully, surround it. But this requires the involvement of readers in a continuing critique of the book to enable its constant reformulation. The book might – in fact, should – be read as an expression of iterative and reflexive practice, uncovering divides and absences and questioning, always questioning ‘Why?’ and ‘So what?’
Accompanying the book is a blog and a range of electronic social media through which, it is hoped, readers will engage in an exploration of its limitations and thereby contribute to the attempt to improve it. These interventions will shape future editions so that the book may, perhaps, best be thought of as a kind of quinquennial journal with the prospect of a new edition every five years or so. As such, the objective of this project (in both its paper and electronic forms) is one through which we invite readers to engage with the current structure and contents of the text through critical reflection on extant closures and absences, distortions and reduction and on the ways in which these limitations might be addressed. How, for example, does language constrain [Page x]the framings, practices and knowledge construction of human geography? Which groups remain outside and either unconsidered or considered in a distorted and narrowly reductive fashion in such framing and construction? How might such lacunae be addressed? And, of course, the book is a reflection of its makers. So – and again, perhaps, like all books – it is in search of new authors and new editors. One way in which the current producers, editors and authors of the Handbook have tried to contribute to this process is by donating all royalties to a research fund for younger researchers and those with limited or no access to research funding in human geography.
The book is accompanied by a set of recorded and filmed conversations between three pairs of currently formative human geographers (David Livingstone and Doreen Massey; Susan Owens and Sarah Whatmore; and Katherine Gibson and Susan Smith) reflecting critically and personally upon the nature, purposes and trajectories of human geography. Although intended to be open-ended – to go where they go – these conversations are shaped by three broad themes: ideas in human geography, nature-society relations and the significance of public geographies. Thus all three conversations focus in different ways upon the diverse ways in which a geographical imagination enables and offers an essential and critical view of, and a frame for, engaging in the contemporary world; the wider significance of the conceptual frameworks/ways of seeing and methodologies associated with human geography; and the inseparability of human geography and the lived human world (and beyond) with which it is engaged in mutually formative ways.
Not trying somehow to be ‘complete’ – which would, in any case, be impossible – these conversations are intended to stimulate and provoke rather than to codify and define. As such, it is hoped that at least some of the electronic debates that take place around the conversations and the book as a whole will also be recorded and filmed and so contribute to its electronic content. In this way, discussions engaging with, and offering a critique of, the ideas and themes addressed in the book will become publicly available and part of a continuing process of critique and so contribute, directly, to the further development of openness around the nature and significance of human geography and to the ongoing concern for social and environmental justice that has long informed the work of human geographers.
For any book to have a worthwhile life, it has to engage its readers, but this one asks for more. It asks its readers and critics to engage with it so as to produce an improved successor and thereby to contribute to progress in human geography.
This collection of essays offers an interpretation of human geography and its significance as a diverse body of intellectual enquiry for imagining, thinking about, living in and changing the world. The book examines the ways in which human geography as a discipline – the intellectual concerns of a specialised yet richly varied field of knowledge – shapes the lived and experienced geographies of the human world and so is vital to its wider analysis, understanding and transformation. The book may, therefore, be described as a dynamic grammar, rather than a strict syntax or vocabulary, of human geography. And this grammar extends well beyond human geography. Our concern is to disclose human geography as a vibrant enterprise of vital significance in informing, framing and shaping social and environmental practices and understandings.
This is, therefore, an inherently open-ended project. The indefinite articles in the foregoing are important in at least three senses. First, all the authors were invited to offer their own particular takes on the topics that they address. Sure, they were asked to set their own preoccupations within a context of the development of thought and writing in their respective fields but the wider point is that they have each reflected in a personally distinctive fashion on particular aspects of human geography. The key dynamic here is the significance of the diversity and scope of human geography, which reaches across conventional disciplinary divides to engage in productive ways with disciplines beyond geography. Because the authors were encouraged to look beyond their usual referents and references and, where possible, to think and write through perspectives ‘other’ than their own disciplinary and geographical worlds, the book is outward-looking. The intention is to emphasise the formative relations between geography and other disciplines, as well as the significance of geography in the active shaping of social and environmental practice; it is not to define or determine the boundaries of human geography and, still less, to be prescriptive as to its framing, content or reach.
Second, the chapters are titled by one word – or at least by as few words as is sensibly possible. This approach is central to the book. Our intention is to avoid prescription and to open up the complexity and diversity of the issues addressed so as to enable a breadth and richness of content, and to provide a framework within which the book could speak to – and in – the vocabulary of the social and environmental sciences and humanities, as well as of human geography. This was essential in our aim to address the significance of human geographies in imagining, thinking and acting in the world. The seeming lack of specification implied by the one-word chapter titles has proved to be challenging, often involving a careful (re)-think of what precisely may be meant by the chapter titles or, at least, how each may be specified and interpreted.
Third – and crucially, given the key significance of the dynamics of space and context which act not merely as surfaces or containers for human and more-than-human relations and practices [Page xii]but also are profoundly formative and constitutive of them – the book explores the resonances between human geography and other disciplines. The objective is to demonstrate how human geography is inseparable from, and integral to, the nature and practices of social life, essential to the framing, representation and analysis of such life – and vital to active engagements in – the past, present and future of human and non-human worlds.
The underlying rationale of the Handbook may be expressed in a single question: ‘What does it mean and what difference does it make to imagine, think and act geographically in the world?’ This question may be broken down into (at least) five components: what does it mean to imagine the world geographically?; what is involved in thinking about and investigating the world geographically?; how do these processes of imagining, thinking and investigating take place?; how do lived human geographies shape, drive and contest the world?; what does human geography contribute to an understanding of the world? These questions provide the rationale and justification for the book and they offer three key themes – imagining, thinking/practising and acting – which capture the ways in which human geographies and geographers shape the world and human geography attempts to interrogate and intervene in it. Thus the structure of the book is formed of three major parts: Part I Imagining human geographies; Part II Practising human geographies; and Part III Living human geographies. Within this framework, the chapters highlight the formatively active nature and role of human geography in framing and shaping the world and, in offering vital and distinctive interpretations of it, they elucidate the concepts, methods and diversity of human geography and show how human geography informs engagements in, and with, human and non-human worlds.
Part I is concerned with the ways in which human geography looks at, frames and so comes to understand the world. Nine interconnected themes guide this Part – place, mobilities, inhabiting, difference, more-than-human geographies, nature-society, transformations, critique and geohistoriographies. These chapters point to critically significant ways of seeing and understanding the world. Because it considers spatial relations and nature-environment relations, human geography engages with all spheres of human and more-than-human life, working across a diverse array of spaces and forms of space which are themselves mutually formative of each other. This integrative characteristic makes for an inherently complex field of study and action. Thus questions of complexity and interdependence inform all the chapters in this section (as throughout the book). So, too, does the narrative of transformations through time as well as across places and spaces. Human geography is always historical and the chapter on transformations considers historical geography less as a separate field of study than as an inescapable frame within which human geographies proceed and take place. So, too, for critique. Engaged criticism is inherent to human geography, not least (but far from only) as a consequence of the disruptions caused by the incorporation of spatialities and materialities into its attempts to apprehend human and non-human worlds. As a process of sustained enquiry – from gentle probing, through considered scepticism, to informed action – critique is, therefore, a sine qua non of human geography, but the chapter on critique also identifies (offers a critique of) major critical impulses in human geography.
Part II focuses upon the work that human geographers do – how they conceive of the world, how they attempt to capture and represent it, and the kinds of work that result – as well as upon the audiences for, and wider participants in, human geography. It is comprised of nine themes: capturing, noticing, representing, writing, researching, producing, engaging, educating and advocacy. Of course, these themes apply to all academic work. Our point is not to claim an exclusivity for human geography, but, rather, to probe the distinctive ways in which human geographers proceed in exploring the concerns that flow from their framing of the world.
Human geographers engage with the world in at least three ways: through research which attempts to comprehend and/or problematise the world; through teaching and proselytising in [Page xiii]furthering the potential of human geography; and through engagement in attempting to (re)construct and even change the world for the better. The discipline of human geography does not – nor should it ever – merely contemplate the world. It is, therefore, difficult – if not impossible – to separate the academic practice of human geography from its lived practice in producing human geographies.
Thus the third part of the book focuses on the diverse geographically shaped practices and relations of human life. Thirteen themes are explored: ethics, economy, society, culture, politics, words, power, development, bodies, identities, demographies, health and resistance. These chapters show how crucial dimensions of human and more-than-human life take place through the geographies constructed to enable such life and, in so enabling, also shaping and conditioning the relations and practices involved. Geographies are, in other words, everywhere; always present, always profoundly formative. This ubiquitous, apparently banal, nature of geography has led it frequently to be ignored and/or taken to be self-evident. In this context, the chapters elucidate the dynamics and contradictions of human life: geography as quotidian but far from hum-drum, as vital, not redundant, and as a lived and formative, not a passive feature of life.
Turning to individual chapters, one way in which their essentially one-word titles might be interpreted is as a set of keywords. In the context of this book, it is especially noteworthy that Raymond Williams (1983: 11) introduced his magisterial Keywords by referring to displacement in space and time – ‘they just don’t speak the same language’ – as the incentive to write his ‘vocabulary of culture and society’. Although Williams stressed that his book is a vocabulary, it goes well beyond that to address the spatial, temporal and social influences on (the ongoing geographies of) the meanings, intentions and dynamics of words and language. In this sense, whilst not wishing somehow to bracket this book in any way with Williams’s, there are similarities of intent. Both go well beyond the granular to embrace the synoptic; both take one word to stand for much more; both look at the range of possibilities for seeing worlds differently in different words. Yet the titles of the chapters in this book are most definitely not ‘keywords’. Rather, the use of one-word titles and the deliberate omission of the word ‘geography’ from them is intended to open out their play of meaning and significance from human geography to the necessarily multi- (or trans-/cross-/post-) disciplinary worlds of human geography, which are inherently embedded in, and formative of, social life.
As such, it is worth staying with the notion of ‘keywords’ a little further. For one thing, the content of the book would be radically different had a different set of keywords been used. What, for example, might be the consequence of using words such as love, sex, passion, grief, bereavement; or violence, exile and fear; or, (un)consciousness, communication, myth, belief; or art and civilisation … as chapter titles? Certainly, an alternative framing of human geography would reveal a very different set of chapter titles and hence an alternative, but no less valid, way of thinking about human geographies. One point of departure in the reading, critique of and (electronic) debate around this book may well concern the framing that informed the choice and juxtaposition of the words employed. But the point here is that the words used for chapter titles are seen neither as ‘key’ nor as canonical.
The book is dialogical. It is intended to be open to debate and to transform debate. In this, the one-word chapter titles offer an insight and point of departure into the complexity and richness of the worlds inhabited by human beings – the worlds through which they sustain themselves via imagination, thought and action – and hence into the responsibilities of human geographers. Key words make key points, but they are not acts of nominative determinism: they enable, not by placing boundaries around things but by bringing them into view.
Although this is a book which has no intention of declaring ‘keywords’ or key words in human geography, the approach to chapter-titling does use words that are, for the most part, not straightforwardly disciplinary or specifically bound up with geography’s history and [Page xiv]identity. And this raises one of the most centrally important and intriguing points of – and possibilities for – the book: to posit other, non-disciplinary (or trans-/cross-/post-disciplinary) words as a way of reframing a range of essays about disciplinary significance and progress. In short, if the Handbook sets out to make interventions in what might be deemed key words or ‘keywords’ for the discipline, it does so only to detonate any lingering sense of there being somehow a list of such ‘keywords’ logically/necessarily/adequately anchored in and of the discipline. Their purpose is to try to avoid either the cloistering of human geography or, conversely, its crusading and imperial tendencies. Rather, the single-word titles reflect a belief in the unavoidability and profoundly formative significance of geography for human life and hence the importance of human geography as a discipline or set of practices essential to any attempt to understand and transform such life.
Of course, it remains to be seen whether or not this intention is realised. And for that, it is the reading of the chapters themselves, rather than any editorial introduction, which matters.References1983). Keywords: a vocabulary of culture and society. London, UK: Fontana.(10.4135/9781446247617.n1
Conversations in Human Geography[Page xv]
conversation: The derivation of the word reflects the significance of its meaning. It came into Middle English via French from its Latin origins in con and versare and took on its present meaning during the 17th century.
So, conversations incorporate two dualities – geographical and linguistic. And, as with so many dualities, they are potentially highly creative relationships. Most fundamentally, the creation of life itself involves a coupling but many other creative endeavours also arise out of dualities – the photographer and what is given to her; the artist and the choice of subject …
And how creative are the dualities that constitute the conversations in this Handbook. There is something about the informality of a conversation – as distinct, for example, from an interview – which not only allows a direct form of communication between the interlocutors but an interaction between them which is both creative and, to an extent, unpredictable. These were the qualities that so appealed in the decision – itself a consequence of a very productive conversation between Robert Rojek and me – to incorporate them as a form of introduction to the Handbook and so to forego the more conventional and – dare it be said? – boring editorial introduction that often accompanies collections of essays.
Within the Handbook, the conversations are manifest in two forms – as videos and as transcripts. The latter have been edited so that they make reasonable legible sense: within the videos, gesture and tone of voice are powerfully persuasive and enlightening forms of communication but neither, of course, are available in the written transcripts.
The three conversations were designed to enable their participants to explore a range of themes within and around human geography. There was no set format; the intention and hope was that each would go where it would. The only framing offered to the participants was the identification of a different theme for each one of them: ideas in and of human geography in conversation one; society-nature relations in conversation two; geography beyond geography in conversation three. Clearly, there is a great deal of overlap between these themes and this was intentional. So too was the broad depth of field which shaped the composition of these themes and their interpretation by the conversationalists.
Gratifyingly – and remarkably – the ‘wish-list’ of those to be invited to take part in this venture was, in the event, hardly wishful. The rationale behind the identification of possible interlocutors was to bring participants together who had a common interest in the theme to be addressed but who practised that interest in rather different ways. All the invitees (see video stills and table of conversationalists below) readily agreed to be involved in what was a completely new and innovative venture for all of us and all were especially tolerant of my directorial clumsiness. The outcome was three conversations that have the spontaneity, informality, directness and, above all, depth that had been hoped for.
[Page xvi]Each conversation has its own entirely unforced coherence, focus and trajectory and it is hard even to imagine more appropriate participants. A particularly significant feature is that they all address a range of fundamental and difficult issues and arguments with a lightness of touch that only those who really do understand what they are talking about can achieve.
The sole difficulty was logistical: how to enable the time geographies of those involved to coincide in order to enable filming to take place. As the objective was to make the conversations as relaxed as possible, the possibility of filming at international conferences was ruled out and so all the videos were shot in the UK (Cambridge and London) and all but one of the participants are currently based in the UK.
The conversations range very widely and yet there is a substantial overlap in the questions addressed – albeit from different perspectives – in each. To list the emergent themes here would be tedious, especially as the conversations themselves sparkle with humour and wit, but two are especially significant. First, all the conversations address the ontologically, epistemologically and methodologically heterodox nature of geography and the geographical imagination. These characteristics place geography far ahead of cognate disciplines in terms of framing the world and of beginning to understand it.
Secondly, what one of the conversations refers to as ‘geographical sensibility’ is addressed in them all. The point of scholarship is not only to offer a rigour and depth of thinking about, and acting in, the world – although both rigour and depth are inescapably vital – but to do so with a commitment and hope for transformative social and environmental improvement. Both of these characteristics of the conversations are also clearly apparent in the video of the Editorial Discussion which explores the views of some of the editors – past and present – of the Handbook and of Progress in Human Geography.
In short, if you want to understand just why geography is such a critically important discipline in enabling effective and positive engagement in the world, the conversations and the chapters that they introduce in the Handbook offer the clearest and most direct elucidation.[Page xvii]Conversations in Human GeographyConversation One Geography and geographical thought
To see the video of David and Doreen’s conversation please visit http://bcove.me/siljk2ybProfessor of Geography and Intellectual HistoryQueen’s University BelfastEmeritus Professor of GeographyOpen UniversityConversation Two Nature and society
To see the video of Sarah and Susan’s conversation please visit http://bcove.me/6cwe80n6Professor of Environment and Public PolicyUniversity of OxfordProfessor of Environment and PolicyUniversity of Cambridge[Page xviii]Conversation Three Geography and geographical practice
To see the video of Katherine and Susan’s conversation please visit http://bcove.me/5rpdb6fyUniversity of Western SydneyGirton College CambridgeUniversity of CambridgeEditors’ Discussion What are human geographies?
To see the video of the Editors’ conversation please visit http://bcove.me/2po84qexQueen Mary, University of LondonUniversity of Washington, SeattleManchester UniversityUniversity of KentuckyNational University of Ireland, Maynooth
List of Figures[Page xix]
- Figure 1.1 Corner of Maxwell and Halsted Streets, Chicago, Illinois, April 1941. Photographer: Russell Lee, Library of Congress. 8
- Figure 1.2 Shop on Maxwell Street, Chicago, Illinois, April 1941. Photographer: Russell Lee, Library of Congress. 9
- Figure 4.1 ‘Monster’ house in Vancouver, circa 1990. 77
- Figure 4.2 The nexus lane at the Canadian border. 86
- Figure 5.1 Distribution of Caiman latirostris (Broadnosed Crocodile). Reproduced from crocodilian.com with kind permission from Adam Britton. 99
- Figure 5.2 Mobilizing Caiman latirostris in the ranching networks of Argentina, 1998. This figure shows how C. latirostris is mobilized through the interventions of conservationists and circulated within both the spaces of conservation and a regulated trade in crocodile skins. Reproduced with kind permission from Whatmore and Thorne 1998. 100
- Figure 5.3 Image from DeSilvey’s Montana homestead study of the fruit box artefact exhibit. The exhibits are chosen not through classic curatorial practice but by those unearthed by visitors to the site. Here the objects’ significance lies in their ‘thing power’ (after Bennett, 2004) or capacity to captivate the curiosity of the viewer. 103
- Figure 5.4 Mrs Ella Wiltshire, 22 May 1908–22 February 2009. Photograph: Ania Dabrowska, Mind Over Matter project, Dr Bronwyn Parry and Ania Dabrowska, 2011. 109
- Figure 5.5 Brain tissue in wax is sliced and placed on to slides, Brain Bank Laboratory, Cambridge University Hospital, 2009. Photograph: Ania Dabrowska, Mind Over Matter project, Dr Bronwyn Parry and Ania Dabrowska, 2011. 110
- Figure 9.1 The four circuits of disciplinary health (Reprinted by permission of the publisher from Pandora’s Hope: Essays on the Reality of Science Studies by Bruno Latour, p. 100, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, Copyright © 1999 by the President and Fellows of Harvard College). 208
- Figure 9.2 Quant Geog airlines flight plan (Redrawn from Taylor 1977: 15). From Taylor. Quantitative Methods in Geography: Introduction to Spatial Analysis. © 1977 Brooks/Cole, a part of Cengage Learning, Inc. Reproduced by permission. www.cengage.com/permissions 209
- Figure 9.3 Centres of calculation (Reprinted by permission of the publisher from Science in Action: How to Follow Scientists and Engineers through Society by Bruno Latour, p. 220, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, Copyright © 1987 by Bruno Latour). 210
- [Page xx] Figure 10.1 ‘Overhead Atlas’ or ‘Squirrel Highways’. Source: Wood 2010, © Siglio. 233
- Figure 10.2 ‘Using the imagined grid to visualize qualitative images: neighborhood images with thematic map of demographic data’ by Jin-Kyu Jung from ‘Software-level integration of CAQDAS and GIS’. Source: Cope and Elwood 2009. 233
- Figure 10.3 ‘Apparition Series: Watsonville West’. Source: Cabeen 2009. Photo credit: Lynn Thompson. 236
- Figure 10.4 ‘Core Sample’. Source: Rueb 2007. 237
- Figure 10.5 ‘Contour Lines’. Source: Kwan 2007. 241
- Figure 10.6 Google Maps allows users to create ‘My Places’, a personalized map of points, lines and areas. 243
- Figure 10.7 ‘Here Now’ (by Sarah Williams and Juan Francisco Saldarriaga and courtesy of the Spatial Information Design Lab, 2011) visualizes check-in data from one week in Manhattan. 244
- Figure 11.1 ‘I’m pretty sure….’ 261
- Figure 12.1 People living on under Purchasing Power Parity US$2 a day in 2002. 282
- Figure 12.2 People living on over Purchasing Power Parity US$200 a day, in 2002.
- Figure 12.3 Resizing of areas based on population density. Note how the boundaries move to accommodate the resized area. Image created by Benjamin Hennig, 2013, p. 94, and cropped for use here. 283
- Figure 12.4 Unique hits on the Worldmapper website until October 2006. 285
- Figure 12.5 The 21st-century map of the world. Gridded population cartogram displaying key geographic features by Benjamin Hennig (2013, p. 227), using data from CIESIN & CIAT 2005, USGS 2009, NOAA 2009. 285
- Figure 12.6 Zones of understanding. 286
- Figure 15.1 Rajasthan canal construction, India, 1989 (Sebastiao Salgado, 1993) 347
- Figure 15.2 “My dream is to become a policeman…. here a policeman is nice and you can ask him any question and he answers you with respect”. 348
- Figure 15.3 Reeta. Composition Reeta and Mia Gray. 353
- Figure 20.1 The iceberg. Source: Community Economies Collective 2001, drawn by Ken Byrne. 466
- Figure 20.2 Multiple economies in the post-Soviet society. Source: Pavlovskaya 2004, reprinted by permission of the Association of American Geographers (http://www.aag.org) 470
- Figure 24.1 Laing’s words: handwritten notes on Kraepelin. Source: Glasgow University Library Special Collections MS Laing A260. Notes on depression and mania, c. 1960. Copyright of the image is vested in the R.D. Laing Estate. 559
- [Page xxi] Figure 27.1 Book covers of Our Bodies, Ourselves, Boston Women’s Health Book Collective, 1971 (first edition) and 2011 (ninth edition). 613
- Figure 27.2 ‘Hammering Man’ Sculpture, Frankfurt, Germany (Jonathan Borofsky 1990). 618
- Figure 27.3 Book cover (Swarr and Nagar 2010). 623
- Figure 27.4 Poster from Occupy Wall Street movement (2011). 623
- Figure 29.1 Trewartha’s (1953) trinomial model of geography. 651
- Figure 29.2 The Lexis diagram. 655
- Figure 29.3 The demographic transition model. 656
- Figure 31.1 In protesting the WTO at the 6th Ministerial in Hong Kong, 2005, social movements generate global geographies of hope and struggle. Photo: reproduced with permission of Asian Peasants Coalition. 707
- Figure 31.2 MASIPAG members work with each other, and with diverse non-human actors, including seeds, to create new worlds in which people-led, communal agriculture is a reality. Photo: Sarah Wright. 709
- Figure 31.3 Gabriel Diaz, farmer member, now cluster coordinator for MASIPAG Mindanao. Photo: Sarah Wright. 709
- Figure 31.4 Women leaders and support staff at PDG, a MASIPAG member organisation. The organisation is committed to performing gender relations in more liberatory ways. Photo: Sarah Wright. 710
- Figure 31.5 Human and more-than-human research collaboration at Bawaka, North East Arnhem Land. Photo: Kate Lloyd. 718
- Figure 31.6 A Yolŋu ontology of co-becoming understands humans as one interconnected part of a diverse, sentient cosmos. Photo: Matthew Webb. 719
- Figure 31.7 A Yolŋu ontology understands Nike, the crocodile, as an active participant in bringing diverse worlds into being. Photo: Matthew Webb. 721
List of Tables[Page xxii]
- Table 3.1 Four epistemological approaches to space. 46
- Table 3.2 A classification of metrics. 49
- Table 3.3 Two components of the social capital of individuals in a globalised World. 56
- Table 11.1 Transcript symbols used. 269
- Table 20.1 A diverse economy. Source: Gibson-Graham 2006: 71. 466
- Table 24.1 Extracts from the archives of internment (from Foucault, 2002: 158). 546
- Table 24.2 Orders of words at work in the world. 551
Notes on the Editors and Contributors[Page xxiii]The Editors
Roger Lee is Emeritus Professor of Geography at Queen Mary University of London, UK. He is an economic geographer interested in the connections and apparent contradictions between the presumed hard logics of economy and their socio-cultural formation and practice, and in the possibilities for progressive change that might ensue from the latter.
Noel Castree is a Professor of Geography at Manchester University, UK. His main research interest is in the political economy of environmental change, and the role that representations of nature and its collateral concepts play in modern life. He’s the author of making Sense of Nature (Routledge, 2013) and Nature (Routledge, 2004), and co-editor of Social Nature: Theory, practice, and politics (Wiley-Blackwell, 2001) and Remaking Reality: Nature at the millennium (Routledge, 1998).
Rob Kitchin is Director of the National Institute for Regional and Spatial Analysis at the National University of Ireland, Maynooth. He has published widely across the social sciences, including 22 books and over 130 articles and book chapters. He is Editor of Dialogues in Human Geography and was the Co-editor-in-Chief of the 12-volume, International Encyclopedia of Human Geography (Elsevier, 2009).
Victoria Lawson is Professor of Geography and former chair at the University of Washington Geography Department. Her work engages with feminist care ethics, relational poverty studies and comparative qualitative methodologies. She served as North American Editor for Progress in Human Geography (2008–2012) and is an editorial board member of Economic Geography.
Anssi Paasi is Professor of Geography at the University of Oulu, Finland. He has published widely on the socio-cultural construction of political borders, spatial identities, new regional geography and on region-/territory-building processes. His books include Territories, Boundaries and Consciousness (Wiley, 1996).
Chris Philo was a Lecturer at the University of Wales, Lampeter, before becoming, in 1995, Professor of Geography at the University of Glasgow, UK. He specialises in the history and theory of geographical thought, as well as the historical and social geographies of ‘madness’, ‘outsiders’ of all kinds and human–animal relations.
Sarah A. Radcliffe is Professor of Latin American Geography at the University of Cambridge, UK. She has interests in development geography, gender and geography, and postcolonial approaches. She has published widely on these themes in English and Spanish, including Indigenous Development in the Andes: culture, power and transnationalism (Duke University Press, 2009, co-author).
Susan M. Roberts is Professor of Geography and member of the Committee on Social Theory at the University of Kentucky, USA. Her interests include political and economic geography, and the political economy of inequality and development.
[Page xxiv]Charles W.J. Withers is Ogilvie Chair of Geography and Professor of Historical Geography at the University of Edinburgh, UK. He has research interests in the historical geographies of science, and in the history of cartography.The Authors
Louise Amoore is a Professor of Geography at Durham University UK. She researches and teaches in the areas of global geopolitics, security and political theory. She has particular interests in how contemporary forms of data, analytics and risk management are changing the techniques of border control and security. Her book, The Politics of Possibility: Risk and security beyond probability (2013) is published by Duke University Press.
Anna Barford is a Research Associate working on infectious diseases amongst forcedmigrants. Anna works in the Department of Geography at the University of Cambridge and at Homerton College. She previously worked on the Worldmapper project, making UN data sets more publicly accessible. Anna’s PhD focused on attitudes towards world socio-economic inequality.
Trevor J. Barnes is a Professor and Distinguished University Scholar at the Department of Geography, University of British Columbia, Canada. His research is in economic geography and the history of human geography, particularly from the Second World War. With Jamie Peck and Eric Sheppard, he edited The Wiley-Blackwell Companion to Economic Geography (2012).
Jean-François Bissonnette is Visiting Postdoctoral Research Fellow, Department of Social Science, Health and Medicine, King’s College, London. He received his Ph.D. in political science from the University of Ottawa, Canada, in 2012. He specializes in political thought and social theory. His thesis deals with the genealogy of vulnerability conceived as a defining trait of modern subjectivity and as a major feature of the political rationality of liberalism.
Alastair Bonnett is Professor of Social Geography in the School of Geography, Politics and Sociology, Newcastle University, UK. His most recent book is Left in the Past: Radicalism and the politics of nostalgia (Continuum, New York).
Meghan Brooks completed a BAH at Carleton University Ottawa, Canada, and a MA at Queen’s University, Ontano, Canada. She recently completed doctoral research at Queen’s University. Meghan’s research interests lie within the fields of social, cultural and political geography and cover a range of topics including racism and anti-racism, institutional geographies, geopolitics, and equity and human rights.
Daniel Clayton is Senior Lecturer in Human Geography at the University of St Andrews, UK. He has written widely on the relations between geography and empire, and the history of geography.
Meghan Cope is Professor of Geography at the University of Vermont, USA. She is an urban geographer with a focus on social/spatial processes of marginalisation. Her most recent project looks at teen mobility and access in suburban landscapes. She uses ethnography, participatory research and qualitative GIS to learn about the geographic meanings and processes that matter to diverse social groups.
[Page xxv]Tim Cresswell is Professor of History and International Affairs at Northeastern University, Boston, USA. He is the author or editor of nine books including Geographic Thought: A critical introduction (2013) and On the Move: Mobility in the modern Western world (2006).
Robyn Dowling is Associate Professor of Geography at Macquarie University, Australia. She is an urban cultural geographer with a particular focus on the geographies of everyday life. Her research has examined the links between gendered identities and suburban spaces, including cars. She is currently exploring the way identities support and challenge sustainable transitions.
Sarah Elwood is Professor of Geography at the University of Washington, Seattle, USA. Her recent research has bridged critical GIS/geoweb studies, urban political geography, qualitative methods and participatory action research.
Juliet J. Fall is an Anglo/Swiss political and environmental geographer working on spaces and politics of knowledge production, and on the history of geography in anglophone and francophone contexts. She is a Full Professor at the University of Geneva, Switzerland.
David Featherstone is Senior Lecturer in Human Geography at the University of Glasgow, UK. He is the author of Resistance, Space and Political Identities: The making of counter-global networks and Solidarity: Hidden histories and geographies of internationalism and co-editor (with Joe Painter) of Spatial Politics: Essays for Doreen Massey.
Elspeth Graham is Professor of Geography at the University of St Andrews, UK, and Co-Director of the ESRC Centre for Population Change. Her research focuses on population and health in the United Kingdom, Europe and South-East Asia and also includes work on theory and methods in the social sciences.
Mia Gray is an economic Geographer at Cambridge University, UK, and a Fellow at Girton College. She explores the changing political economy of work and labour markets. This includes the organisation and regulation of labour and the social and organisational dynamics of work.
Beth Greenhough is Senior Lecturer in Geography at Queen Mary University of London, UK. Her work draws on a combination of political–economic geography, cultural geography and science studies to explore the social implications of scientific innovations in the areas of health, biomedicine and the environment.
Jennifer Hill is Associate Professor in the Department of Geography and Environmental Management at University of the West of England, Bristol, UK. A National Teaching Fellow, Jenny’s pedagogic research interests focus on enhancing the student voice and student empowerment, effective integration of technology into the student learning experience and the transition between school and university geographies.
Audrey Kobayashi is a Professor and Queen’s Research Chair in the Department of Geography, Queen’s University, Ontario, Canada. She has published extensively in the field of geography and human rights, including issues of racism, migration, employment equity and the history of geography.
Eric Laurier is Senior Lecturer in Geography and Interaction at the University of Edinburgh, UK. Across a range of projects, from cafés to film production, he has utilised video recordings to provide access to the methodical ways that members of particular settings accomplish their actions with the resources they have at hand.
[Page xxvi]Sarah de Leeuw lives in northern British Columbia where she is an Associate Professor with UNBC’s Northern Medical Program, the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Northern British Columbia Prince George, Canada. She is an award-winning poet and currently holds a Michael Smith Foundation for Health Research (MSFHR) Partnered Scholar’s Award, which funds her research in the areas of health inequalities, colonial geographies, and the medical humanities.
Jacques Lévy is a Geographer and Professor at the École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne, Switzerland. He is the Head of Chôros Laboratory and a Co-director of the EspacesTemps.net online journal of social sciences. His major concerns are political spaces, urbanity, globalisation, cartography and social theory.
Nathaniel Lewis is a Lecturer (Assistant Professor) in the School of Geography at the University of Nottingham, UK. He previously completed his PhD in social and health geography at Queen’s University, as well as a Canadian Institutes of Health Research Postdoctoral Fellowship at Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada. His work, which focuses on the health, migration patterns and livelihoods of gay men and other sexual minorities, can be found in journals such as Health & Place, Gender, Place & Culture, Social & Cultural Geography and Annals of the Association of American Geographers.
Avril Maddrell is an Associate Professor of Geography at the University of the West of England, Bristol, UK. She is a social and cultural geographer with research interests in gender; the spaces and practices of death, remembrance and pilgrimage; charity shops as social spaces; the histories and epistemologies of geographical knowledge and practice, including educational policy and pedagogy. She is an editor of the journal Gender, Place & Culture and author of Complex Locations: Women’s geographical work in the UK 1850-1970 (RGS/Wiley-Blackwell, 2009); Deathscapes: Spaces for death, dying, mourning and remembrance (Ashgate, 2010, with James Sidaway); and joint editor of Memory, Mourning, Landscape (Rodopi, 2010).
Cheryl McGeachan is a University teacher in the School of Geographical and Earth Sciences, University of Glasgow, UK. Her research interests concern historical and cultural geographies of mental ill health and asylum spaces, history of psychiatry, biography and psychotherapeutic practices. Methodologically, she is interested in investigating the practices of the ‘archive’ and using visual methods to capture situated memories.
Katharine McKinnon is Senior Lecturer in Geography at Macquarie University, Australia. She is a social geographer whose research interests coalesce around themes of subjectivity and social transformation. Her ethnographic work has focused on community development practice, gender, indigeneity and, most recently, the transformative moment of birth.
Katharyne Mitchell is Professor of Geography at the University of Washington, Seattle, USA. Her research focuses on the socio-cultural effects of migration and capital flows on urban areas and institutions. She has authored or co-edited five books, including Crossing the Neoliberal Line: Pacific Rim migration and the metropolis.
Andrea J. Nightingale works in the School of Global Studies, University of Gothenburg, Sweden. Her academic interests include socio-natures, critical development studies, feminist theory, and the methodological challenges of mixing methods across the social and natural sciences.
[Page xxvii]Catherine Nolin is an Associate Professor of Geography and the Graduate Chair of Interdisciplinary Studies at the University of Northern British Columbia. Catherine’s research and graduate supervision focuses on issues of human rights, social justice and critical development studies in Guatemala, Andean Peru, and British Columbia, Canada.
Elizabeth Olson is Associate Professor of Geography and Global Studies, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, Newyork, USA. In addition to her work on ethics, her research employs participatory visual methods, ethnography and oral history to explore dynamics related to religion, inequalities and youth subjectivities.
Marianna Pavlovskaya is an Associate Professor of Geography at Hunter College and CUNY Graduate Center, New York, USA. She gained her PhD from Clark University in 1998 and her research focuses on urban geography, feminist geography, post-socialism and critical perspectives on geospatial technologies.
Chris Philo was a Lecturer at the University of Wales, Lampeter, before becoming, in 1995, Professor of Geography at the University of Glasgow, UK. He specialises in the history and theory of geographical thought, as well as the historical and social geographies of ‘madness’, ‘outsiders’ of all kinds and human–animal relations.
Patricia L. Price is a Professor of Geography at Florida International University in Miami, Florida, USA. She identifies primarily as a cultural geographer. Her research interests encompass critical geographies of race and ethnicity, Latinos/as in the United States, borders and immigration. She is currently researching Cuban exile landscapes in Miami.
Rachel Silvey is Assistant Professor of Geography in the University of Toronto, Canada. Her research interests include migration, feminist theory, critical development studies and the politics of transnationalism and Indonesia. She is co-editor of Beyond States and Markets: The challenges of social reproduction (Routledge, 2008).
Matthew Sparke is a Professor of Geography and International Studies, and Director of Integrated Social Sciences at the University of Washington, Seattle, USA. He is the author of Introducing Globalization: Ties, tensions and uneven integration (Wiley-Blackwell, 2013), and In the Space of Theory: Postfoundational geographies of the nation-state (University of Minnesota Press, 2005).
Kevin St. Martin works in the Department of Geography at Rutgers University, USA His research concerns the development and institutionalisation of economic and environmental discourse. His current work examines the regulation and remapping of the marine environment and its relationship to the sustainability of community economies and local environments.
Cheryl Sutherland completed her MA at Queen’s University, Ontana, Canada, where she is currently a PhD candidate in the Department of Geography. Her research interests include: social geographies of race and gender; geographies of social justice, citizenship and human rights; place and the construction of community; emotional geographies; activist geographies; and smaller city geographies. She is particularly interested in the ways in which racialized women experience smaller Canadian cities and her PhD research explores how racialized women negotiate and contest their identity(ies) within this geographic location.
[Page xxviii]Johanna Waters is a University Lecturer in Human Geography in both the Department for Continuing Education and the School of Geography and the Environment, University of Oxford, UK. Previously she worked at the universities of Birmingham and Liverpool. She researches aspects of transnational migration and education.
Katie Willis is Professor of Human Geography and Director of the Politics, Development and Sustainability Group at Royal Holloway, University of London, UK. Her publications include Theories and Practices of Development (Routledge, 2011) and Geographies of Developing Areas (with Glyn Williams and Paula Meth, Routledge, 2014).
Jane Wills is Professor of Human Geography at Queen Mary University of London, UK. She works on geo-political-economy with particular interests in low-waged work, the living wage and community organising.
Matthew W. Wilson is Assistant Professor of Geography at the University of Kentucky, USA, and Visiting Assistant Professor, Graduate School of Design and Visiting Scholar, Center for Geographic Analysis at Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. His research examines the social and political implications of geographic technologies.
Jamie Winders is Associate Professor of Geography at Syracuse University, USA. She is the author of Nashville in the New Millennium (Russell Sage, 2013) and co-editor of The Wiley-Blackwell Companion to Cultural Geography (Wiley-Blackwell, 2013). Much of her research focuses on international migration, race and social belonging, especially in cities.
Sarah Wright is a Senior Lecturer in geography and convenor of the Program in Development Studies at the University of Newcastle, Australia. She is a scholar, practitioner and activist with particular interest in geographies of food and intellectual property and working with Yolŋu co-researchers to explore the implications of indigenous ontologies for development.