Handbook of Political Theory


Edited by: Gerald F. Gaus & Chandran Kukathas

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  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Part I: Approaches to the Study of Political Theory

    Part II: Political Theories

    Part III: The Modern State

    Part IV: The History of Political Thought

  • Associate Editors

    Richard Bellamy, University of Essex

    Michael Freeden, Oxford University

    Moria Gatens, University of Sydney

    Susan James, Birkbeck College, London

    Percy B. Lehning, Erasmus University Rotterdam

    Martyn P. Thompson, Tulane University


    Fred D'Agostino, University of Queensland

    Joao Espada, Portuguese Catholic University

    John Gray, London School of Economics

    Amy Gutmann, University of Pennsylvania

    Knud Haakonssen, Boston University

    Russell Hardin, New York University

    Stephen Macedo, Princeton University

    Harvey Mansfield, Harvard University

    David Miller, Oxford University

    Carole Pateman, University of California, Los Angeles

    Ellen Paul, Bowling Green State University

    Philippe Van Parijs, Université catholique de Louvain

    Arlene Saxonhouse, University of Michigan

    Tracy Strong, University of California, San Diego

    David Schmidtz, University of Arizona

    Christine Swanton, University of Auckland

    Chin Liew Ten, National University of Singapore


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    This major new Handbook provides a definitive state-of-the-art review to political theory, past and present. It offers a complete guide to all the main areas and fields of political and philosophical inquiry today by the world's leading theorists.

    The Handbook is divided into five parts which together serve to illustrate:

    • the diversity of political theorizing
    • the substantive theories that provide an over-aching analysis of the nature/or justification of the state and political life
    • the political theories that have been either formulated or resurgent in recent years
    • the current state of the central debates within contemporary political theory
    • the history of western political thought and its interpretations
    • traditions in political thought outside a western perspective

    The Handbook of Political Theory marks a benchmark publication at the cutting edge of its field. It is essential reading for all students and academics of political theory and political philosophy around the world.

    Editors' Preface

    In compiling this Handbook of Political Theory our aim has been to provide both a comprehensive mapping of the terrain of contemporary political theory and in-depth analyses. We have eschewed short encyclopaedia-like treatments in favour of essays that present not only a précis of the state of scholarship, but the contributor's own analysis of the main issues. As such, the Handbook should be useful to scholars as well as students especially postgraduate students who are seeking to acquaint themselves with current scholarship in contemporary political theory.

    The Handbook is divided into four parts. Part I focuses on different ways of doing political theory – the nature of scholarship in political theory. This first part examines, among other problems, the relation of political theory to philosophy, political science and ideology, the place of historical scholarship in the study of texts, as well as Straussian and postmodern approaches to texts. The second part offers analyses of some of the main political theories that provide a focus for contemporary scholarship, such as Marxism, liberalism, conservatism, republicanism, communitarianism and democratic, discourse and green theories. Our aim here was not to provide a list of ‘isms’; these chapters present analyses of the main contributions and trends in contemporary political theory, focused on explications, and criticisms, of the dominant liberal approaches. Part III is organized around investigations of the modern state: problems of consent, authority and obligation, the welfare state, distributive justice, pluralism and the aggregation of individual judgements, social movements, nationalism, secession, ethnic rights, international relations and the place of the state in feminist and gender theory. Because the contemporary practice of political theory is so closely linked to the history of political thought, the last part of Handbook is devoted to studies of periods in the history of political thought, presenting discussions of the main thinkers of each period as well as current scholarship. Our aim to present thorough analyses required editorial judgements about coverage: even given the understanding of Sage Publications, and our wonderful editor, Lucy Robinson, not every period which one of the editors or associate editors thought valuable could be included. The reader will discover that Part IV provides comprehensive and rigorous treatments of the main epochs of Western political theory, as well as fascinating chapters on crucial themes in Chinese political thought and the currently important topic of modern Islamic political thought.

    Because the Handbook contains thematic and historical chapters, detailed examinations of a theory or theorist are apt to be found in more than one chapter. We have provided cross-references and an extensive index to assist readers in locating relevant discussions.

    The editors have been assisted by a team of associate editors, who have provided invaluable guidance both in early decisions about the structure of the Handbook, and in reading drafts and providing expert advice. Our sincere thanks to Richard Bellamy, Michael Freeden, Moria Gatens, Susan James, Percy Lehning and Martyn Thompson for taking time from their own work to assist us in the Handbook. All of us were, further, assisted by an Editorial Board, who provided important guidance about the structure and content of the Handbook, as well as lending their expert advice; again, our sincere thanks. Finally, and most importantly, we are indebted to our contributors, who took such care in researching and writing their chapters.

    Gerald F.GausChandranKukathas

    Contributors and Editors

    Terence Ball was formerly Professor of Political Science at the University of Minnesota and Visiting Professor at the University of California-San Diego and Oxford. He now teaches political theory at Arizona State University. He is author of Transforming Political Discourse (Oxford, 1988), Reappraising Political Theory (Oxford, 1995), and a mystery novel, Rousseau's Ghost (New York, 1998), as well as editor of James Mill: Political Writings (Cambridge, 1992), The Federalist (Cambridge, 2003), co-editor of After Marx (1984), Jefferson: Political Writings (1999), and The Cambridge History of Twentieth-Century Political Thought (Cambridge, 2003), among other books. He is also an avid sea-kayaker and master carpenter.

    John Barry is Reader in Politics at Queen's University, Belfast. His main interest is in the relation between moral/political theory and the environment, with particular focus on ecofeminism, the implications of green theory for thinking about justice, and theories of political economy in relation to the environment. He is the author of Environment and Social Theory (Routledge, 1999) and Rethinking Green Politics: Nature, Virtue and Progress (Sage, 1999), winner of the UK Political Studies Association W. J. M. Mackenzie Prize for best book published in Political Science in 1999. He is a co-editor of Citizenship, Sustainability and Environmental Research: Q Methodology and Local Exchange and Trading Systems (Edward Elgar, 2000), Sustaining Liberal Democracy: Ecological Challenges and Opportunities (Palgrave, 2001), and The International Encyclopedia of Environmental Politics (Routledge, 2001).

    Richard Bellamy is Professor of Government at the University of Essex and Academic Director of the European Consortium for Political Research (ECPR). He is the author of Modern Italian Social Theory: Ideology and Politics from Pareto to the Present, Liberalism and Modern Society: An Historical Argument, Liberalism and Pluralism: Towards a Politics of Compromise, and Rethinking Liberalism, as well as co-author of Gramsci and the Italian State. His edited and co-edited books include Victorian Liberalism: Nineteenth Century Political Thought and Practice, Constitutionalism, Democracy and Sovereignty: American and European Perspectives, Constitutionalism in Transformation: European and Theoretical Perspectives, Citizenship and Governance in the EU, and The Cambridge History of Twentieth Century Political Thought. He is co-editor of Critical Review of Social and Political Philosophy.

    Jane Bennett is Professor of Political Science at Johns Hopkins University. She is the author of The Enchantment of Modern Life: Attachments, Crossings, and Ethics(Princeton University Press, 2001), Thoreau's Nature (Rowman and Littlefield, 1994), and Unthinking Faith and Enlightenment (New York University Press, 1986). Her current project explores the role of ‘matter’ or materiality in the political philosophies of Theodor Adorno, Gilles Deleuze, and Bruno Latour.

    James Bohman is Danforth Professor of Philosophy at Saint Louis University. He is author of Public Deliberation: Pluralism, Complexity and Democracy (MIT, 1996) and New Philosophy of Social Science: Problems of Indeterminacy (MIT, 1991). He has also recently edited books on Deliberative Democracy (with William Rehg) and Perpetual Peace: Essays on Kant's Cosmopolitan Ideal (with Matthias Lutz-Bachmann), both with MIT Press. He is currently writing a book on cosmopolitan democracy. His other interests include philosophy of social science, critical social theory and pragmatism.

    Michaelle Browers is Assistant Professor of Political Science at Wake Forest University. She has studied and conducted research in Morocco, Syria, Jordan, Egypt, Lebanon, and the Occupied Territories. She has most recently co-edited a book with Charles Kurzman, entitled An Islamic Reformation? (Rowman and Littlefield, 2004), and completed a monograph entitled Democracy and Civil Society in Arab Political Thought: Transcultural Possibilities.

    Chris Brown is Professor of International Relations at the London School of Economics and the author of International Relations Theory: New Normative Approaches (Harvester Wheatsheaf/Columbia, 1992), Understanding International Relations (Macmillan, 1997; 2nd edn Palgrave, 2001), and Sovereignty, Rights and Justice (Polity, 2002), and editor of Political Restructuring in Europe: Ethical Perspectives (Routledge, 1994) and (with Terry Nardin and N. J. Rengger) International Relations in Political Thought: Texts from the Greeks to the First World War (Cambridge, 2002).

    Richard Dagger is Professor of Political Science and Philosophy at Arizona State University, where he also directs the Philosophy, Politics, and Law Program for the Barrett Honors College. His publications include Civic Virtues: Rights, Citizenship, and Republican Liberalism (Oxford University Press, 1997) and, with Terence Ball, Political Ideologies and the Democratic Ideal (Longman, 5th edn 2004). His articles on rights, republicanism, political obligation, punishment, and other topics in political and legal philosophy have appeared in the American Political Science Review, Ethics, the American Journal of Political Science, the Review of Politics, Political Studies, Criminal Justice Ethics, Law and Philosophy, and other scholarly journals and books.

    Fred D'Agostino was educated at Amherst College, Princeton University, and the London School of Economics and has taught at the Australian National University and the University of New England, where he was Head of the School of Social Science. He presently directs the Contemporary Studies program at the University of Queensland. He is author of the books Chomsky's System of Ideas, Free Public Reason, and Incommensurability and Commensuration: The Common Denominator. He is now working on a collectivist epistemology drawing on ideas of Hayek, Foucault, Kuhn, and Bakhtin.

    Andrew Dobson is Professor of Politics at the Open University. He is an environmental political theorist, and his publications include Green Political Thought (third edition, Routledge, 2000), Justice and the Environment (OUP, 1998), and the edited collection Fairness and Futurity (OUP, 1999). His most recent book is Citizenship and the Environment (OUP, 2003).

    John S. Dryzek is Professor and Head of the Social and Political Theory Program, Research School of Social Sciences, Australian National University. His recent books include Deliberative Democracy and Beyond: Liberals, Critics, Contestations (Oxford, 2000), Post-Communist Democratization: Political Discourses across Thirteen Countries (co-authored, Cambridge, 2002), and Green States and Social Movements: Environmentalism in the United States, United Kingdom, Germany, and Norway (co-authored, Oxford, 2003).

    Helen Dunstan is Professor of Chinese Studies at the University of Sydney. A specialist on the history of politics and political economy in eighteenth-century China, she is the author of Conflicting Counsels to Confuse the Age: A Documentary Study of Political Economy in Qing China, 1644–1840 (Michigan, 1996) and State or Merchant? Political Economy and Political Process in 1740s China (Cambridge, MA, forthcoming). She is a member of the Australian Labor Party.

    H. Donald Forbes is Professor of Political Science at the University of Toronto. His works include Ethnic Conflict: Commerce, Culture, and the Contact Hypothesis (Yale, 1997) and Nationalism, Ethnocentrism, and Personality: Social Science and Critical Theory (Chicago, 1985). He is the editor of Canadian Political Thought (Oxford, 1987). He is currently writing books about multiculturalism in Canada and researching the political thought of George Grant.

    Michael Freeden is Professor of Politics at the University of Oxford and Professorial Fellow at Mansfield College, Oxford. Among his books are The New Liberalism: An Ideology of Social Reform (Clarendon Press, 1978), Liberalism Divided: A Study in British Political Thought 1914–1939 (Clarendon Press, 1986), Reappraising J. A. Hobson (ed.) (Unwin Hyman, 1990), Rights (Open University Press, 1991), Ideologies and Political Theory: A Conceptual Approach (Clarendon Press, 1996), Reassessing Political Ideologies: The Durability of Dissent (ed.) (Routledge, 2001), and A Very Short Introduction to Ideology (Oxford University Press, 2003). His books have been translated into Italian, Japanese and Romanian. He is the founder editor of the Journal of Political Ideologies, and the director of the Centre for Political Ideologies at the University of Oxford.

    Moira Gatens is Professor of Philosophy at the University of Sydney. She is author of Feminism and Philosophy: Perspectives on Equality and Difference, Imaginary Bodies: Power, Ethics and Corporeality, and (with G. Lloyd) Collective Imaginings: Spinoza, Past and Present. She is editor of Feminist Ethics and co-editor of Gender and Institutions and Oxford Companion to Australian Feminism. She is presently working on women's rights.

    Gerald F. Gaus is Professor of Philosophy, and on the faculty of the Murphy Institute, at Tulane University. Among his books are Value and Justification (1990), Justificatory Liberalism (1996), Social Philosophy (1999), Political Concepts and Political Theories (2000), and Contemporary Theories of Liberalism: Public Reason as a Post-Enlightenment Project (2003). With Stanley Benn he edited Public and Private in Social Life (1983), and with F. B. D'sAgostino edited Public Reason (1998). He was formerly an editor of the Australasian Journal of Philosophy, and is a founding editor of Politics, Philosophy and Economics. He is currently working on a book on principled reasoning in morals and politics.

    Susan James is Professor of Philosophy at Birkbeck College, London. Her publications include The Content of Social Explanation (Cambridge, 1984), Beyond Equality and Difference (edited with Gisela Bock, Routledge, 1992), Passion and Action: The Emotions in Early Modern Philosophy (Oxford, 1997, 1999), Visible Women: Essays on Feminist Legal Theory and Political Philosophy (edited with Stephanie Palmer, Hart, 2002), The Political Writings of Margaret Cavendish (edited with an introduction and notes, Cambridge, 2003). She is currently writing a book about the political philosophy of Spinoza, and one on a more wide-ranging project about the emotions in political philosophy.

    Jeremy Jennings is Professor of Political Theory in the Department of Political Science and International Studies at the University of Birmingham. He is the author of Georges Sorel: the Character and Development of His Thought (Macmillan, 1985) and Syndicalism in France: A Study of Ideas (Macmillan, 1990). He has edited and translated Intellectuals in Twentieth-Century France (Macmillan, 1993) and Georges Sorel's Reflections on Violence, with introduction, for the Cambridge Texts in the History of Political Thought (Cambridge, 1999, 2002). He is the editor (with Tony Kemp-Welch) of Intellectuals in Politics: From the Dreyfus Affair to Salman Rushdie (Routledge, 1997), and (with Simon Glendinning et al.) of The Edinburgh Encyclopedia of Continental Philosophy (Edinburgh, 1999) and of a four-volume collection on Socialism (Routledge, 2003). He has been an assistant editor of The British Journal of Politics and International Relations and is a founding editor of the European Journal of Political Theory.

    John Kekes is Research Professor at the State University of New York at Albany. His most recent books are Against Liberalism (Cornell, 1997), A Case for Conservatism (Cornell, 1998), Pluralism in Philosophy: Changing the Subject (Cornell, 2000), and The Art of Life (Cornell, 2002).

    David Keyt is Professor of Philosophy at the University of Washington in Seattle. He is the author of Aristotle Politics Books V and VI (Clarendon Press, 1999) and co-editor with Fred D. Miller, Jr of A Companion to Aristotle's Politics (Blackwell, 1991).

    John Kilcullen is a graduate in Philosophy of the University of Toronto and of the Australian National University. He taught politics at Macquarie University for many years and is now retired. He has written on utilitarianism, on religious toleration, on the political philosophy and ethics of Antoine Arnauld and Pierre Bayle, and on the political thought of William of Ockham. He is one of a team preparing a critical edition and translation of Ockham's main political work, the Dialogus.

    Chandran Kukathas is Maxwell Professor of Political Science at the University of Utah. He is the author of Hayek and Modern Liberalism (Oxford, 1989), Rawls: A Theory of Justice and Its Critics (with Philip Pettit, Polity, 1990), The Liberal Archipelago: A Theory of Diversity and Freedom (Oxford, 2003) and various books and papers on Australian politics, liberal political theory, and multiculturalism. He is a founder and co-editor of the Journal of Political Philosophy.

    Julian Lamont is Lecturer in the Philosophy Department at the University of Queensland. His research interests include moral and political philosophy, applied ethics, economics and philosophy, political economy, business and professional ethics, and bioethics. He is the Vice-President of the International Economics and Philosophy Society. He is completing a book entitled Income Justice and has had articles published in Philosophical Quarterly, Journal of Political Philosophy, Public Affairs Quarterly, Social Theory and Practice, Australasian Journal of Philosophy, and Journal of Applied Philosophy. He is an associate editor of Politics, Philosophy and Economics.

    Peter Lassman is Senior Lecturer in Political Theory in the Department of Political Science and International Studies at the University of Birmingham. His current research interests include moral pluralism and political theory, modern German political thought from Kant to Habermas (and beyond), Max Weber, John Rawls and political liberalism, and Hannah Arendt, Leo Strauss, Carl Schmitt and the Weimar intellectuals. He is the editor of Weber: Political Writings (1994), Max Weber's ‘Science as a Vocation’ (with Irving Velody and Herminio Martins, 1989), and Politics and Social Theory (1989). He is a founding editor of the European Journal of Political Theory.

    Percy B. Lehning is Professor of Political Philosophy, Erasmus University Rotterdam. Presently his concern is to employ the techniques of contemporary analytic political theory to discuss questions of political principle raised by the process of European political integration. Some of his recent publications are Citizenship, Social Justice and the New Europe (edited with Albert Weale, Routledge, 1997), Theories of Secession (edited, Routledge, 1998), ‘Towards multicultural civil society: the role of social capital and democratic citizenship’ in Government and Opposition (1998), ‘The coherence of Rawls's plea for democratic equality’ in the Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy (1998), ‘Rawls in the Netherlands’ in the European Journal of Political Theory (2002), and ‘European citizenship: towards a European identity’ in Law and Philosophy (2001).

    Andrew Levine is Professor of Philosophy at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. His recent publications include A Future for Marxism? (Pluto), Engaging Political Philosophy: Hobbes to Rawls (Blackwell), and Rethinking Liberal Equality: From a ‘Utopian’ Point of View (Cornell).

    Eric Mack is Professor of Philosophy at Tulane University where he is also on the Faculty of the Murphy Institute. He is the author of numerous articles in scholarly journals and anthologies on topics within ethics, political philosophy, and the philosophy of law.

    Fred D. Miller, Jr is Professor of Philosophy and Executive Director of the Social Philosophy and Policy Center at Bowling Green State University. He was President of the Society for Ancient Greek Philosophy from 1998 to 2002. He is the author of Nature, Justice, and Rights in Aristotle's Politics (Oxford, 1995), co-editor with David Keyt of A Companion to Aristotle's Politics (Blackwell, 1991), editor of A History of the Philosophy of Law from the Ancient Greeks to the Scholastics, volume 6 of A Treatise of Legal Philosophy and General Jurisprudence (Kluwer, forthcoming), and associate editor of the journal Social Philosophy and Policy.

    J. Donald Moon is Professor of Government at Wesleyan University. He is the editor of Responsibility, Rights, and Welfare: The Theory of the Welfare State (1988) and the author of Constructing Community: Moral Pluralism and Tragic Conflicts (1995, 2001), and with Stephen K. White edited What is Political Theory? (2004). He is consulting editor for Political Theory.

    Christopher W. Morris is Professor of Philosophy, University of Maryland, College Park. He is the author of An Essay on the Modern State (Cambridge, 1998), ‘The very idea of popular sovereignty: we “the people” reconsidered’ in Social Philosophy and Policy (2000), and the editor of The Social Contract Theories: Critical Essays on Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau (Rowman and Littlefield, 1999).

    Véronique Mottier is Swiss National Science Foundation Research Professor at the Institut d'sétudes Politiques et Internationales at the University of Lausanne, Switzerland and Fellow of Jesus College, Cambridge. She is co-convenor of the Standing Group on Political Theory of the European Consortium for Political Research, and Associate Editor of Feminist Theory and Nouvelles Questions Féministes. She has co-edited Politics of Sexuality: Identity, Gender, Citizenship (Routledge, 1998) and Genre et politique: débats et perspectives (Gallimard, 2000). Her main research and teaching interests are the politics of gender and sexuality, eugenics, and discourse theory.

    Thomas L. Pangle holds a University Professorship in the Department of Political Science at the University of Toronto, and is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada. Educated at Cornell University and the University of Chicago, he has won Guggenheim, Killam-Canada Council, Carl Friedrich von Siemens, and four National Endowment for the Humanities fellowships. He has been awarded The Benton Bowl, Yale University (for contribution to education in politics) and the Robert Foster Cherry Great Teacher of the World Prize, Baylor University. He is the author of Montesquieu's Philosophy of Liberalism (Chicago, 1973), The Spirit of Modern Republicanism: The Moral Vision of the American Founders and the Philosophy of Locke (Chicago, 1988), The Ennobling of Democracy: The Challenge of the Postmodern Age (Johns Hopkins, 1992), The Learningof Liberty: The Educational Ideas of the American Founders, co-authored with wife Lorraine (University Press of Kansas, 1993), Justice among Nations: On the Moral Basis of Power and Peace, co-authored with Peter J. Ahrensdorf (University Press of Kansas, 1999), and Political Philosophy and the God of Abraham (Johns Hopkins, 2003).

    Raymond Plant is a Labour member of the House of Lords in the British Parliament and Professor in the Law School, King's College, University of London, where he focuses on legal and political philosophy. Among his books are Community and Ideology: An Essay in Applied Social Philosophy (1974), Hegel: An Introduction (1984), Philosophy, Politics and Citizenship: The Life and Thought of the British Idealists (with Andrew Vincent, 1985), Conservative Capitalism in Britain and the United States: A Critical Appraisal (with Kenneth Hoover, 1989), Modern Political Thought (1991), Hegel (Great Philosophers Series, 1999), and Politics, Theology and History (2001). He has given the Stanton Lectures at Cambridge University; the Sarum Lectures at Oxford University; the Fergusson Lectures and the Scott Holland Lectures at Manchester University and the Agnes Cummings Lectures at University College Dublin. He is currently working on a book with the title The Neo Liberal State and the Rule of Law.

    Martyn P. Thompson is Associate Professor and Director of Graduate Studies in the Department of Political Science at Tulane University. His degrees include a PhD from the London School of Economics and Political Science, and a DrPhilHabil from the University of Tuebingen. He is author, editor, or co-editor of nine books, including Ideas of Contract in English Political Thought in the Age of John Locke, and over 50 articles in journals such as Political Studies, Political Theory, American Historical Review, Politisches Denken, Journal of the History of Ideas, Il Pensiero Politico, History and Theory, and Historical Journal. He is the translator or co-translator from German into English of over 100 essays, articles and academic reviews. Since 1990 he has been the editor of Politisches Denken Jahrbuch.

    Jeremy Waldron is the Maurice and Hilda Friedman Professor of Law at Columbia Law School, in the City of New York, and Director of Columbia University's Center for Law and Philosophy. A native of New Zealand, he has taught previously at Otago, Oxford, Edinburgh, Berkeley, and Princeton. He writes in the area of overlap between jurisprudence, political theory, and moral and political philosophy, and he is the author of several books, including God, Locke, and Equality (Cambridge, 2002), Law and Disagreement (Oxford, 1999), The Dignity of Legislation (Cambridge, 1999), and Liberal Rights (Cambridge, 1993). He is presently working on a project entitled ‘Cosmopolitan Right’. Professor Waldron is a frequent lecturer, having delivered the second series of Seeley Lectures at Cambridge University in 1996, the Carlyle Lectures at the University of Oxford in 1999, the Spring 2000 University Lecture at Columbia, and – in the last few years – public lectures at Harvard, Princeton, Toronto, St Andrews, Auckland, Canberra, and Buenos Aires. He was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1998.

    David Weinstein is Associate Professor of Political Science at Wake Forest University and in 2002–3 was Visiting Fellow at Mansfield College, Oxford. His books include Equal Freedom and Utility (Cambridge, 1998) and The New Liberalism: Reconciling Liberty and Community, edited with Avital Simhony (Cambridge, 2001). He is currently writing two books: The Idolatry of Dichotomies: Utilitarianism and the New Liberalism and Exile and Interpretation: Constructing Modern European Intellectual History, the latter with Avihu Zakai.

    David West is Senior Lecturer in Social and Political Theory in the School of Social Sciences at the Australian National University, having previously taught at the Universities of Bradford and Liverpool. After completing a doctorate on critical theories of human interests, his first book, Authenticity and Empowerment: A Theory of Liberation, was published by Harvester Wheatsheaf in 1990. An Introduction to Continental Philosophy (Polity, Cambridge and Blackwell, US) was published in 1996. His forthcoming book Reason, Self and Sexuality is to be published by Polity Press in 2004.

    Frederick G. Whelan is Professor of Political Science at the University of Pittsburgh, where he teaches political theory. He has published Order and Artifice in Hume's Political Philosophy (Princeton, 1985), Edmund Burke and India (Pittsburgh, 1996), and Hume and Machiavelli: Political Realism and Liberal Thought (Lexington Books, forthcomlng).

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