Initial research in physical education was handicapped by lack of a theoretical base, and the lack of a research tradition for investigators to follow (Locke, 1977). Limitations included the absence of replicative studies, and no collections of studies from which to derive future topics for research. In fact, Locke (1977) claims that prior to 1970, only 10% of all physical education research (of which no more than 5% was published) could be defined as fitting the model developed by Dunkin and Biddle (1974) to conceptualize the study of teaching in classrooms, and could therefore qualify as research on teaching. Indeed, it was not until 1986 that Placek and Locke (1986: 27) were confident enough to announce that “physical ...
The Classroom Ecology Paradigm
The classroom ecology paradigm