Handbook of Physical Education

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Edited by: David Kirk, Doune Macdonald & Mary O'Sullivan

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    Introduction

    The curriculum historian Ivor Goodson (1988) has argued that school subjects and university disciplines are social constructs rather than naturally occurring phenomena. What he means by this is that fields of study would not exist but for contestation and struggle among and between vying groups and individuals over resources of various kinds, including material resources, rewards and status. As fields gain a foothold in universities, groups and individuals may struggle, not merely to thrive, but also to survive. A whole literature on the rise and fall of particular school subjects and university fields of study now exists to provide a strong empirical base to Goodson's claim (e.g. see the Falmer Studies in Curriculum History series). What is clear from this literature is that while there are broad trends and patterns to the rise and fall of particular fields of study, each has its own individual trajectory. Sometimes a field bursts on to the scene to become immediately popular (e.g. sport and exercise sciences may be a case in point), some seem to be firmly entrenched but are suddenly under threat (witness the case of physics and chemistry in UK universities), and some may now only be able to reflect on former glories (e.g. Latin and Greek, once the centrepiece of university education).

    The study of educational issues in physical education and sport is an interesting case when set beside Goodson's theory. In Australia, New Zealand and the UK, for instance, the educational mission of physical education was the key rationale for the field in higher education institutions up until the early 1970s. There was up to this time little research conducted around this educational mission, and when research did begin in earnest from the 1950s in the UK and the 1960s in the USA it was in the fields of exercise physiology, biomechanics, history and philosophy (Henry, 1978). While these subdisciplines of the sport and exercise sciences have thrived in universities around the world, the educational mission of university departments has been displaced from its central role to become one of several aspects of the work of these departments. In some places, the educational aspects of sport and exercise has been marginalized, and is viewed as of lesser academic worth than some of the other subdisciplines. Part of the rationale for such a view was that education workers in the sport and exercise field did not do research.

    Since the 1970s, this situation has changed dramatically. In order to retain their place in university departments, and to gain access to the same rewards as fellow academics, such as promotion, staff development opportunities, support to attend conferences, and so on, education workers began to carry out research. The production of this handbook is a measure of the progress that has been made in terms of the development of the field. Moreover, evidence of the emergence of a critical mass of researchers can be found in the strong and continuing presence of special interest groups within the major educational research associations in the USA (American Educational Research Association, AERA) and Australia (Australian Association for Research in Education, AARE) and the recent establishment of a similar group in the UK within British Educational Research Association (BERA). There are also parallel research groups in the professional associations in each of these countries. Countries such as France also have parallel specialist educational research associations such as Association pour la Recherche sur l'Intervention en Sport (ARIS), while international bodies such as the Association Internationale pour les Ecoles Superieur d'Education Physique (AIESEP) holds regular conferences with an educational research focus around the world. As language barriers are overcome, many Asian countries are attracting multinational participants to their conferences and increasingly joining international forums. There are established chairs held by educational researchers in many of the leading university departments in Australia, Ireland, France, the USA, and the UK, and there has been an increasing flow of completed doctoral theses in these countries since the late 1980s.

    There is also a buoyant book market for research-based material on physical education, with Human Kinetics and Routledge/Falmer currently possessing the strongest lists. In addition, the field is served by several English-language specialist scholarly journals. The Journal of Teaching in Physical Education was originally established in 1981 to provide a forum for the publication of pedagogical research mainly in North America, and now serves an international audience. Another North American journal, the Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, has a well-supported pedagogy section, while the long-established journal Quest provides a medium for conceptual and theoretical essays in physical education. Other English language outlets for educational research include the European Physical Education Review. The publication of two new specialist scholarly journals, Sport, Education and Society in 1996 and Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy more recently in 2004, provides an illustration of the continuing consolidation and expansion of the field. Review articles published periodically since the 1970s, including Locke (1977), Placek and Locke (1986), Hellison (1989), O'Sullivan et al. (1992), Rovegno and Kirk (1995), Kirk (1997), and Macdonald et al. (2002), provide a clear illustration of the ongoing maturation of the field, some of the major points of debate, and some of the key issues and challenges for future development.

    Reflecting Goodson's thesis, these review articles show that these 30 or so years of progress have not been smooth and linear. Educational researchers have had to fight for their place in the academy, and colleagues in other subdisciplines have not readily been willing to give up resources. This struggle continues in university departments around the world. One of the most significant areas of contestation has been focused around the name of the field of study and proper topics and methods of study that are the primary responsibility of educational researchers. For some time, educational researchers persisted with the term “physical education” to identify the boundaries of their expertise and field of interest. However, it eventually became clear that the older connotations of this terms as synonymous with the fledgling field of sport and exercise sciences made the continuing use of this term difficult to sustain in a university environment. Too many others could claim to own this term, so it lacked the exclusivity that is essential for the survival of fields of study in universities (see e.g. Bernstein, 1971). Alternatively, the term was viewed as out of date and old fashioned, concerned only with mere physical activity and so academically disreputable. We have continued to use the term physical education in this handbook as a means of identifying a key process of being educated in, about and through movement as a medium. The term physical education is also commonplace in school systems around the world, and much of the research reported here has been concerned with the practices that constitute and construct this school subject.

    While we have retained the use of the term physical education to denote this specific process, in the face of the challenges just outlined, increasingly educational researchers in English-speaking countries began to use the term “pedagogy” to describe their work and to locate themselves as a subdiscipline of the sport and exercise sciences. Consistent with this development, we have located the term pedagogy at the centre of this handbook, as a means of providing an organizing principle for the text. The notion of pedagogy we are working with here can be defined by its three key elements of learning, teaching and curriculum. We understand these three elements to be interdependent, though not all pedagogy research has necessarily been carried out with an understanding of the nature of this interdependence. Sections 3, 4 and 5 of this handbook deal in turn with each of these key elements. We have grouped chapters thematically around these key elements in order to make the authors' task manageable and the readers' task sensible. At the same time, many of the authors have succeeded in keeping each of the elements of pedagogy in view while they explore some dimensions of one element in detail.

    Section 2 provides evidence of Goodson's thesis that scholars with particular perspectives have had interests in educational work within physical education, though in the case of the chapters included here we can see that these perspectives and interests need not be negative. Indeed, as the chapters show, philosophers, sociologists, psychologists, historians and public health researchers have done much to enrich our understanding of pedagogy in school and other sites.

    An important element of marking a field of study's identity is its subject matter, which as we have already claimed is pedagogy. A further element is the theoretical perspectives researchers employ to study this topic. Section 1 includes chapters that provide us with insights into the breadth of perspectives pedagogy researchers have used to study their subject. What we learn from reading these chapters is that, perhaps more so than other sub-disciplines in sport and exercise sciences, pedagogy research has used a wide range of theoretical perspectives. There are risks and benefits attached to the existence of this range. A key benefit is that researchers are able to draw on a pool of epistemologies, methodologies and methods to design studies that can cope with the complexity of learning, teaching, and curriculum and their interdependence. A risk to a field that is still in the process of establishing itself in the academy is that it is seen to lack a distinctive approach to research. The chapters in this section provide a rich source of arguments for and against such a position.

    Section 6 offers insights into areas of research that we believe are breaking new ground in our field of study. Interestingly, although some of the chapter topics have been of long-term interest to educational researchers, they nevertheless continue to prompt the development and application of new theoretical and methodological perspectives. These chapters also provide important insights into the interdependence of the key elements of pedagogy as they are instantiated in terms of sexuality, girls, boys, disability and race.

    This handbook is an expression, however limited, of a view of knowledge about physical education pedagogy as we begin this new century. Choices of topics, authors, chapter foci, are meant to be inclusive and international in scope though we readily admit not everything is included. These are the authors and the knowledge we have available but they are not the only or final answers on the many educational issues in physical education. As co-editors, we have attempted to represent the different research traditions and emerging areas on interest across the global scholarly community.

    DAVIDKIRK, DOUNEMACDONALD AND MARYO'SULLIVAN
    References
    Berstein, B.(1971).On the classification and framing of educational knowledge, In M.F.D.Young (Ed.), Knowledge and control: New directions in the sociology of education. London: Collier-Macmillan.
    Goodson, I.F.(1988).The making of curriculum. Lewes: Falmer.
    Hellison, D.Our constructed reality: some contributions to an alternative perspective to physical education pedagogyQuest40(1989). 84–90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00336297.1988.10483890
    Henry, F.M.The academic discipline of physical education. Quest29(1978). 13–29. (first published 1968)
    Kirk, D.(1997).Sociology of physical and health education. In L.Saha, (Ed.), International encyclopaedia of the sociology of education (pp. 193–201). London: Elsevier.
    Locke, L.F.Research on teaching physical education: New hope for a dismal science. Quest28(1977). 2–16.
    Macdonald, D.Kirk, D.Metzler, M.W.Nilges, L.M.Schempp, P.Wright, J.It's all very well in theory': A review of theoretical perspectives and their applications in contemporary pedagogical research. Quest54(2)(2002). 133–156. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00336297.2002.10491771
    O'Sullivan, M.Siedentop, D.Locke, L.Towards collegiality: Competing viewpoints among teacher educators. Quest44(1992). 266–280. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00336297.1992.10484054
    Placek, J.H.Locke, L.F.Research on teaching physical education: New knowledge and cautios optimism. Journal of Teacher Education37(4)(1986). 24–28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002248718603700405
    Rovegno, I.Kirk, D.Articulations and silences in socially critical work on physical education: toward a broader agenda. Quest47(4)(1995). 447–474. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00336297.1995.10484169

    Contributors

    Chantal Amade-Escot is Professor of Education and Co-Director of the Laboratoire d'Etudes des Méthodes Moderne d'Education (LEMME), a multidisciplinary research center on sciences education, mathematics education, and sport education at Paul Sabatier University, Toulouse, France. Her research focuses primarily on “didactics” as a paradigm to study the situated process of teaching and learning. She co-chairs the French association for comparative research in “didactics” (ARCD) which members are from different school disciplines. Her academic background is in Sport Pedagogy. She has authored over 50 refereed papers on didactics, physical education, sport pedagogy, and teachers education. She is associate editor of the French multidisciplinary journal “Science et Motricité”, and member of the advisory board of “Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy”.

    Kathleen Armour is Reader in the School of Sport and Exercise Sciences at Loughborough University.

    Daniel Behets teaches in the Faculty of Kinesiology and Rehabilitation Sciences at the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.

    Don Belcher is Assistant Professor in the Department of Kinesiology at the University of Alabama.

    Mike Brown teaches in the Faculty of Education at Monash University.

    Ralph Buck is head of the Department of Dance Studies at the University of Auckland.

    Mark Byra is Professor and Director of the Division of Kinesiology and Health, University of Wyoming. His research interests include models of teaching, specifically those teaching styles associated with the Spectrum, and how teacher knowledge is development over time in preservice teachers as reflected in their thoughts and behaviours.

    Ching Wei Chang graduated from the doctoral Sport Pedagogy Programme of National Taiwan Normal University. He is also a doctoral student at University of Franche-Comté (France). His research interest focuses on children's tactical game play learning using a constructivist approach (tactical and decision) and on its associated PE Teacher Education Programme.

    Gill Clarke teaches in the Research and Graduate School of Education at the University of Southampton.

    Connie Collier is an Associate Professor in the School of Exercise, Leisure, and Sport at Kent State University. Connie's scholarship focus is the preparation and professional development of physical education teachers, with an emphasis on the development of pedagogical practices and curricula that are sensitive and responsive to issues of social justice. She develops and studies pedagogical methods in teacher education, including the use of the case method approach and integration of technology. She was the 2003–4, Chair of AAH-PERD Curriculum and Instruction Academy and currently serves on the editorial board of The Journal of Teaching in Physical Education.

    Brian Davies is Professor of Education in the School of Social Sciences, Cardiff University, Wales. Since his Social Control and Education he has taught and written widely on social theory and research, educational policy and pedagogic practice. His special interest in the work of Basil Bernstein is reflected in many publications including, Muller, J., Davies., B., and Morias, A., Reading Bernstein, Researching Bernstein (London: Routledge, 2004) and Fitz., J., Davies., B and Evans, J., Educational Policy and Social Reproduction. Class Inscription and Symbolic Control (London: Routledge, 2006).

    Kristine De Martelaer finished her studies in Physical Education (Master) in Gent in 1989 together with her Teacher Diploma (Aggregate). She started working at the Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB) as an assistant specializing in swimming for students PE and physiotherapy and as swimming coach for athletes. In 1991 she achieved her Master in Leisure Agogics at the VUB. During 12 years she focused on the didactics and coaching aspects of swimming while she was Technical Director for the trainer courses in Flanders. This fieldwork was combined with (interuniversity) research projects in the domain of youth sport policy and youth sport leadership. In these years her special interest went to the rights of children in sport and a youth-centred approach in organized sport. With this topic she achieved her PhD in Physical Education in 1996 (VUB). From 1997 until 2000 she was also a part time assistant at the University of Gent, responsible for the coordination of the option “Training & Coaching” and the use of a quality instrument for sport clubs (IKSport) in an interuniversity research project. Since December 2001 she is professor at the department of Movement education and sports training (VUB). She currently teaches sport history, didactics, curriculum development and first aid, together with the coordination of the courses on dance. She is participating in a central VUB project on portfolio and the use of ICT during the Teacher Education Training. Her actual academic interest is situated within pedagogy: experiences and expectations of children and teachers/coaches with PE and sport, competences and job profile of teachers PE and youth coaches, physical education teacher education, motor development of young children in relation with the movement culture, and education through dance. The output of research is about 37 articles (national and international), 28 contributions in proceedings, 19 chapters in books, five books as (co)-author and many congress presentations. As president of the committee of education at the faculty of Physical Education and Physiotherapy she is co-ordinating the transition between the actual education system (licentiate) and the future Bachelor-Master.

    José Devís Devís is Director of the “Theory and Pedagogy of PE and Sport Research Unit” at the Facultat de Ciències de l'Activitat Física i l'Esport Universitat de València (Spains), and member of the Editorial Board/Refereering of Sport, Education and Society and Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy' journals. His main academic interests are teaching and teacher education in PE, themes he has published papers in Spanish and English. He has also edited several books in Spanish as ‘Nuevas perspectivas curriculares en educación física’, ‘Actividad física, deporte y salud's and ‘La educación física, el deporte y la salud en el siglo XXI’, as well as authored the text, ‘Educación física, deporte y currículum. Investigación y desarrollo curricular’.

    Patt Dodds, Ph.D., is a Professor Emerita at the University of Massachusetts — Amherst. Her research interests include socialization of physical education teachers and teacher educators, the lives and career pathways of teacher educators, and women in the professoriate. She has served as editor or co-editor of several physical education pedagogy journals and is a recipient of the AAHPERD Curriculum & Instructiona Academy Honor Award as well as current Past President of AAHPERD's Research Consortium.

    Jim Dollman is currently a lecturer in exercise physiology and anthropometry at the School of Health Sciences, University of South Australia. In the past decade he has conducted extensive research into trends and patterns of distribution of children's physical activity and health-related fitness, with a particular emphasis on the impact of socioeconomic status. As a member of the Australian Child and Adolescent Obesity Research Network (ACAORN) he has worked with other paediatric physical activity researchers towards standardizing self-report instruments for physical activity.

    John Dolly is Professor in the Department of Educational Studies in Psychology, Research Methodology and Counseling at the University of Alabama.

    Ben Dyson teaches in the Dept of Human Movement Sciences at the University of Memphis.

    Joey C. Eisenmann is Assistant Professor of Health and Human Performance at Iowa State University.

    John Evans is Professor of Sociology of Education and Physical Education at Loughborough University, England. He teaches and writes on issues of equity, education policy, identity and processes of schooling. He has authored and edited a number of papers and books in the Sociology of Education and Physical Education and co authored with Dawn Penney, Politics, Policy and Practice in Physical Education (E & FN Spon, 1999) and with John Fitz and Brian Davies, Educational Policy and Social Reproduction. Class Inscription and Symbolic Control (Routledge, 2006)

    Hayley Fitzgerald teaches in the Carnegie Faculty of Sport and Education at Leeds Metropolitan University.

    Anne Flintoff is currently Reader in Physical Education in the Carnegie Faculty of Sport and Education, Leeds Metropolitan University, England. She has been involved in school PE — as a teacher, teacher trainer, and researcher for over 20 years. Her higher education teaching, research and consultancy has centred on issues of equity and social inclusion, and she publishes regularly in the both academic and professionaljournals in the area of PE and sport. She is a member of the Advisory Board of the PE and Sport Pedagogy journal. Recent publications include Scraton and Flintoff (eds) 2002, Gender and Sport: A Reader, Routledge; Flintoff, A. and Scraton, S. (2005) Gender and PE in Green, K. and Hardman (eds) (2005) Physical Education: Essential Issues, Sage, Flintoff, A. Hylton, K. and Long, J (eds) (2005) Young people and active leisure: participation, policy and evaluation, Leisure Studies Association, Brighton.

    Michael Gard is a senior lecturer in dance, physical and health education at Charles Sturt University's Bathurst campus. He teaches and writes about the human body, gender and sexuality, the shortcoming's of biological determinism in all its forms, and the use and misuse of dance within physical education. He is the author of two books: The Obesity Epidemic: Science, Morality and Ideology (with Jan Wright) and Men Who Dance: Aesthetics, Athletics and the Art of Masculinity.

    Wade Gilbert is an Associate Professor in the Department of Kinesiology at California State University, Fresno. He directs the Sport & Exercise Psychology Lab and is the project coordinator for SHAPE (School-based Healthy Activities Program for Exercise). Dr. Gilbert is the editor of a special issue of The Sport Psychologist on Coach Education. His work has been published in a wide array of scientific outlets including Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, The Sport Psychologist, and the Journal of Teaching Physical Education.

    Louis Harrison teaches in the Department of Kinesiology at Louisiana State University.

    Peter Hastie teaches in Department of Health and Human Performance at Auburn University.

    Peter Hay is Associate Lecturer in Pedagogy at the University of Queensland.

    Gary Hellison is a Professor in the Jane Addams College of Social Work at the University of Illinois at Chicago.

    lisahunter researches in the areas of middle schooling, young peoples' subjectivity and engagement with society, transition and extreme lifestyle sports. She is playing with research as activism for and by students and preservice teachers, lecturing in teacher education, middle schooling, and health and physical education.

    Gary D. Kinchin is Deputy Head of School within the School of Education at the University of Southampton. He received an MA and PhD from The Ohio State University and has held academic positions at Illinois State University and De Montfort University. Gary's research interest is in sport education with over 40 journal articles, chapters and conference papers related to this topic. He is a co-editor of the text Sport Education in Physical Education: Research Based Practice and a member of the BERA Special Interest Group in Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy. Gary also serves on the Editorial Board of the Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy journal.

    Bomna Ko is a graduate teaching associate in the College of Education at Ohio State University.

    Cathy Lirgg is Associate Professor in the Department of Health Science at the University of Arkansas.

    Tom Martinek is a Professor in the Department of Exercise and Sport Science. During his 30-year tenure at UNCG, Tom has focused his research efforts on the social and psychological dynamics of teaching and coaching. Dr. Martinek's work has been published in journals such as Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, Journal of Exercise and Sport Psychology, Quest, Urban Review, Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, International Journal of Sport Science, and Community Youth Development Journal. He has also authored or co-authored four books. He has spent the past 12 years directing and teaching in youth development programs which have served over 300 underserved youth. He also provides pre-service and in-service staff development programs for practitioners who work with at-risk, underserved children and youth. The basis of his work with children evolves from his past sequential research on teacher expectancy effects, learned helplessness, and resiliency of children and youth.

    Steve Mitchell is a Professor of Sport Pedagogy in the School of Exercise, Leisure and Sport. He is in his fourteenth year at Kent State, having previously completed Doctoral work at Syracuse University, and Masters and Bachelors degrees at Loughborough University, England. With colleagues Judy Oslin and Linda Griffin, Steve has authored numerous articles and book chapters related to tactical games teaching. The trio has also co-authored three textbooks related to game teaching within public school physical education, including one that is now into its second edition.

    William Mosrgan is a Professor in the School of Educational Policy and Leadership at the Ohio State University.

    Lynda Nilges is a Professor in the Department of Physical Education at the University of South Carolina.

    Judy Oslin is a Professor in the School of Exercise, Leisure, and Sport at Kent State University. Her scholarship is in student-centred curricular approaches, specifically the tactical approach to games education, with a secondary line of research in the role of assessment in student learning. Judy is an active member in the Ohio Association of Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, American Alliance of Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance, National Association of Kinesiology and Physical Education in Higher Education, and American Education Association. Judy also served as a member of the Editorial Board for The Journal of Teaching in Physical Education from 2000–2004. She continues to serve as a Guest Reviewer for The Journal of Teaching in Physical Education as well as Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy.

    Dawn Penney is a Senior Lecturer at the School of Education, Edith Cowan University, Australia. Dawn has been a key figure in research on policy and curriculum development in physical education and junior sport since gaining her doctorate from Southampton in 1994. Dawn has subsequently held positions at the University of Queensland, De Montfort University and Loughborough University and is a fellow of the Physical Education Association of the United Kingdom. Dawn has published extensively in physical education and mainstream education journals, is co-author of Politics, Policy and Practice in Physical Education (E&FN Spon, London, 1999), editor of Gender and Physical Education: Contemporary Issues and Future Directions (Routledge, London, 2002); co-editor of Sport Education in Physical Education: Research based practice (Routledge, London, 2005) and a co-author of senior physical education texts designed to support studies in Queensland and the UK.

    Murray Philips teaches in the School of Human Movement Studies at The University of Queensland.

    Clive Pope completed his PhD at the Ohio State University, USA. He is currently a Senior Lecturer at the University of Waikato and teaches about sport for children and youth at undergraduate and graduate level. His main research interests are the development of sport academies in schools, sideline behaviour at children's sport, sport ethnography, the affective domain in physical education and sport, coach effectiveness and the changing nature of youth sport. He has presented and published in England, North America, Europe, Australia and New Zealand.

    Emma Rich is a lecturer in physical education, Gender, Identity and Health in the School of Sport and Exercise Sciences at Loughborough University. Her research interests are oriented towards issues of equity, education policy, identity and processes of schooling, with a specific focus on gender issues, and health and identity. She has published in refereed journals and books in sociology, physical education, health and feminist studies. She is the founder of the Gender Sport and Society Forum (GSSF).

    Alexander Paul Roper is a Doctoral Research student at the University of Queensland, where he also lectures in the business of sport. His research interests are his area, but his PhD examines sports political utilization in Malaysia. His research interests include the socio-cultural/historical role of sport in SE Asia.

    Inez Rovegno is Professor of Teacher Education at the University of Alabama.

    Rachel Sandford is a Research Associate in the School of Sport and Exercise Sciences at Lough borough University. Her doctoral research was concerned with issues relating to young people, embodied identity and physical culture, and she has also been involved with research projects focusing on the relationship between formal education and disordered eating. Her current research interests are built around an evaluation of physical activity programmes designed to re-engage disaffected youth, and include a focus on the processes of informal education and mentoring. She has published in refereed journals and books in the areas of sociology, physical education and health.

    Sheila Scraton is a Professor in the Carnegie Faculty of Sport and Education at Leeds Metropolitan University.

    Daryl Siedentop is a Professor at The Ohio State University.

    Melinda Solmon teaches in the Department of Kinesiology at Louisiana State University.

    Sandra Stroot teaches in the College of Education at the Ohio State University.

    Marc Theeboom is Assistant Professor at the Faculty of Physical Education and Physiotherapy at the Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium (Free University of Brussels). He obtained a PhD in physical education and a master's degree in leisure agogics. His research primarily focuses on pedagogical and policy related aspects of youth sport in general and underprivileged youth, martial arts, physical education and school sport in particular.

    Richard Tinning is a Professor in the School of Human Movement Studies at The University of Queensland.

    Stewart Trost is an Associate Professor at Kansas State University with dual appointments with the Department of Kinesiology and K-State Community Health Institute. A native of Brisbane, Australia, Trost completed his BS in Health Education and Promotion and MS in Exercise Physiology at Oregon State University and received his PhD in Exercise Physiology from the School of Public Health at the University of South Carolina. His research interests include (a) assessment of physical activity in children and adolescents; (b) the prevention and treatment of childhood obesity and its associated metabolic disorders; (c) the psychosocial and environmental determinants of physical activity behavior; (d) community- and school-based

    The Philosophy, Science and Application of Behavior Analysis in Physical Education promotion of physical activity; and (e) the relationship between physical activity and other health behaviors.

    Pierre Trudel is a Professor at the School of Human Kinetics, University of Ottawa, Canada. In the last 15 years his research group has been funded by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada to conduct research on coaching and coach education. He has published 60 articles in a variety of journals and books. Dr. Trudel, has been a consultant for many sport organizations, developing programs and supervising coaches.

    Niki Tsangaridou is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Education at the University of Cyprus. She has a BSc in Physical Education from the Department of Physical Education and Sport Science of the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, MSc from the Department of Curriculum and Teaching Human Movement of Boston University, and PhD in Physical Education Teacher Education from The Ohio State University. Her research interests revolve around instructional and curriculum analysis, teachers' thinking and reflection, teachers' beliefs, teacher effectiveness, and learning to teach. She is a recipient of the “Young Researcher Award” from the International Association for Physical Education in Higher Education (AIESEP) in 2001 and the “Metzler-Freedman Exemplary Paper Award” from the Journal of Teaching in Physical Education in 2004. She is editorial board member of the Journal of Teaching in Physical Education and guest reviewer for other research journals. Dr. Tsangaridou has published extensively on teaching and teacher education in physical education and made numerous presentations on teacher education topics at international conferences and professional workshops.

    Hans van der Mars received his PhD from The Ohio State University (1984). At Oregon State University he teaches in the physical education teacher education program, advises a small cadre of doctoral students and serves as Graduate Program Coordinator. Previously he taught at Arizona State University and the University of Maine-Orono. He has been an active researcher in sport pedagogy/physical education teacher education having (co-)authored and published over 60 research and professional papers, a textbook and several book chapters. He has published in the Journal of Teaching in Physical Education (JTPE), Adapted Physical Activity (APAQ), Pediatric Exercise Science (PES), Physical Educator, Strategies, Paleastra, Journal of Sport Pedagogy, and Research Quarterly for Exercise & Sport (RQES). Recently, he co-authored the Complete Guide to Sport Education and served as Co-Editor of the Journal of Teaching in Physical Education (JTPE). A frequent presenter at international, national regional and state level conferences, Dr van der Mars also delivers workshops for K-12 physical educators. He enjoys spending time with his family, playing golf, jogging, listen to music, keeping up with world affairs and urging on his beloved New York Mets.

    Lieven Vergauwen is Professor of Sports Pedagogy in the Faculty of Kinesiology and Rehabilitation Sciences at the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Belgium). He is also Lecturer and Sport Pedagogy researcher in the Department of Teacher Education at the Karel de Grote-college. His research areas include Sports Pedagogy, Teacher Education, PE didactics, Cooperative learning and Tennis.

    Natalie Wallian is Associate Professor at the University of Franche Comte (France) and has been successively elementary teacher, PE teacher at the International College of Strasbourg, and finally in charge of PE Teacher Education at the Department of Physical Education. After a thesis about a historical approach on the game place at school, she now teaches educational sciences, swimming and research methodology in PE. She is also in charge of the Masters Degree of PE named “Sports, Language and Intervention”. Her research interest is now on language interactions within the teaching/learning system, where she develops a semioconstructivist and student-centered approach of teaching.

    Phillip Ward is an Associate Professor of Sport and Exercise Education at The Ohio State University. Phillip teaches and studies curriculum, instruction and professional development in physical education settings. He is the author of Teaching Tumbling and co-author of Physical Education in the 21st Century. He has published more than 50 papers in the field of sport pedagogy and is a member of the editorial review boards of several journals. He is a Fellow of AAHPERD's Research Consortium. With his wife Marie, and sons Robert and Trevor, Phillip likes to play tennis, to kayak and to travel.

    Gregory J. Welk is Assistant Professor with the Department of Health and Human Performance at Iowa State University.

    Jan Wright is Professor and Associate Dean Research in the Faculty of Education, the University of Wollongong. Her research draws on feminist and poststructuralist theory to critically engage issues associated with the body, health and physical activity. Her most recent work investigates the place and meaning of physical activity and health in the lives of young people from different social, cultural and geographical locations as they move through and beyond school.


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