- Subject index
A definitive, authoritative and up-to-date resource for anyone interested in the theories, models and assessment methods used for understanding the many facets of Human personality and individual differences. Volume 2: Personality Measurement and Assessment. Covers psychometric measurement of personality.
Chapter 17: Temperament from a Psychometric Perspective: Theory and Measurement
Temperament from a Psychometric Perspective: Theory and Measurement
Conceptualizations of temperament go back to the ancient Greek typology developed by Hippocrates (4th century BC) and Galen (2nd century BC). The latter author in his work De Temperamentis (Lat. temperare - to mix, to combine in a proper proportion) described nine temperaments among which the four considered by him as primary temperament types are well known among laymen: sanguine, choleric, melancholic, and phlegmatic. Their names refer to those humors that predominate in a given body. Many philosophers adverted to this idea; one may for instance recall Kant's theory of temperament (see Figure 17.1A). For constitution-oriented psychologists like Sheldon (Sheldon and Stevens, 1942) and Kretschmer (1944), the ancient Greek typology ...