The SAGE Handbook of Personality Theory and Assessment: Volume 2 — Personality Measurement and Testing

The SAGE Handbook of Personality Theory and Assessment: Volume 2 — Personality Measurement and Testing

Handbooks

Edited by: Gregory J. Boyle, Gerald Matthews & Donald H. Saklofske

Abstract

A definitive, authoritative and up-to-date resource for anyone interested in the theories, models and assessment methods used for understanding the many facets of Human personality and individual differences. Volume 2: Personality Measurement and Assessment. Covers psychometric measurement of personality.

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  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Part I: General Methodological Issues

    Part II: Multidimensional Personality Instruments

    Part III: Assessment of Biologically Based Traits

    Part IV: Assessment of Self-Regulative Traits

    Part V: Implicit, Projective and Objective Measures of Personality

    Part VI: Abnormal Personality Trait Instruments

  • Introduction

    This brand new Handbook of Personality Theory and Assessment 2-Volume Set constitutes an essential resource for shaping the future of the scientific foundation of personality research, measurement, and practice. There is need for an up-to-date and international Handbook that reviews the major contemporary personality models Vol. 1 and associated psychometric measurement instruments Vol. 2 that underpin the scientific study of this important area of individual differences psychology, and in these two Handbooks this is very much achieved.

    Made unique by its depth and breadth the Handbooks are internationally edited and authored by Professors Gregory J. Boyle, Gerald Matthews, and Donald H. Saklofske and authored by internationally known academics, this work will be an important reference work for a host of researchers and practitioners in the fields of individual differences and personality assessment, clinical psychology, educational psychology, work and organizational psychology, health psychology and other applied fields as well.

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    Dedications

    Two of the greatest and most prolific contributors to the science of human personality during the 20th century were Raymond B. Cattell, PhD, DSc., and Hans J. Eysenck, PhD, DSc. While Professor Cattell pursued his academic career in prestigious USA universities (Harvard, Clark, Illinois), Professor Eysenck undertook his lifelong work at the Institute of Psychiatry, University of London. So prominent were these two men, that their work is now enshrined in the Cattellian and Eysenckian Schools of Psychology, respectively. Cattell concentrated on primary factors, while Eysenck focused on broader secondary dimensions. Indeed, at the second-order 16PF level, the degree of communality between the Eysenckian and Cattellian factors is striking!

    ‘The Cattell and Eysenck constructs and theories should be seen, not as mutually contradictory, but as complementary and mutually supportive.’

    Eysenck Cattell and the theory of Personality Multivariate Behavioral Research 19 (2–3) 323–336 (1984)

    Both Ray Cattell and Hans Eysenck were our mentors and friends. Both men gave freely of their time, and their kindness and generosity was abundant. Our own academic careers were facilitated by the intellectual support and moral encouragement of both these great men who made a profound and lasting contribution to personality research and testing. Each was an exemplary scientist, humanitarian and mentor, qualities that all three editors respect and aspire to. We will remain forever indebted to both Ray Cattell and Hans Eysenck.

    This book is also dedicated to:

    My parents, my wife and family — GJB

    Diana — GM

    Frances and Harold, my parents — DHS

    Notes on Contributors

    Suman Ambwani is an intern in clinical psychology at the Medical University of South Carolina and a doctoral candidate in clinical psychology at Texas A&M University. Her research interests include eating disorders, personality assessment, and cross-cultural issues in psychopathology, with publications in journals such as Sex Roles, Psychotherapy Research, and the European Journal of Psychological Assessment. She was the 2005 recipient of the Research Excellence Award from the American Psychological Association – Division 52, and 2003 recipient of the Donald G. Paterson Award from the Minnesota Psychological Association.

    Jens Asendorpf is professor of psychology at Humboldt University, Berlin since 1994. He received his PhD from the University of Giessen, Germany in 1981. He studies transactions between personality and social relationships over the lifespan. Other interests include evolutionary approaches to personality and assessment of self-concept using the implicit association task. He is editor of the European Journal of Personality, and is author of more than 100 publications in the areas of personality and developmental psychology.

    Michael Ashton is professor of psychology at Brock University. He received his PhD from the University of Western Ontario in 1998. His interests include the structure and measurement of personality characteristics and of related individual differences. He has published many articles and book chapters and is author of the textbook Individual Differences and Personality. He is currently on the editorial boards of the British Journal of Social Psychology, the European Journal of Personality, the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, and the Journal of Research in Personality.

    Matthew Baity is an instructor in psychology at Harvard Medical School and a staff psychologist at Massachusetts General Hospital. He received his PhD from the University of Arkansas in 2001. His research interests include the cognitive and personality assessment of psychopathology, as well as psychotherapy process and treatment outcomes. He is currently program manager for the MGH Treatment Outcome Measurement Project. He is co-author of chapters in books such as Rorschach Assessment to the Personality Disorders, and has articles in the Journal of Personality Assessment, the American Journal of Psychotherapy, Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, and the American Journal of Psychiatry.

    Keith Barton is professor emeritus at the University of California, Davis. He obtained his PhD from Peabody College (now Vanderbilt University) in 1969. His interests lie in personality measurement and personality correlates. He worked for four years in Cattell's laboratory at the University of Illinois and has co-authored many publications with Cattell. He is author of the Child Rearing Practices Questionnaire, and of the IPAT Central Trait-State Scales, and co-author of the book Child Personality Structure and Development.

    Mark Blais is associate professor of psychology at Harvard Medical School and an associate chief of psychology at Massachusetts General Hospital where he has been since receiving his PsyD from Nova Southeastern University in 1990. His major interest is personality assessment and measurement. Other interests include outcomes measurement and quality management. He is the author of over 70 papers and 20 book chapters. His co-authored articles appear in journals such as the Journal of Personality Disorders, Comprehensive Psychiatry, the Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, and Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics. He is associate editor of the Journal of Personality Assessment.

    Douglas Boer is associate professor of psychology at the University of Waikato, New Zealand. He received his PhD from the University of Alberta in 1989. His major research interest is the study of risk and risk manageability in sexual offenders and intellectually disabled individuals. He has published widely and is co-author of several risk assessment manuals including the Sexual Violence Risk – 20 (SVR-20). He is the New Zealand editor for the Australia-New Zealand Treatment of Sexual Abuse journal and is associate editor of the online journal Sexual Offender Treatment.

    Gregory Boyle is professor of psychology at Bond University, Australia. He earned separate PhDs from both the University of Delaware in 1983, and the University of Melbourne in 1985. He also received a DSc from the University of Queensland in 2006, for his research into personality and individual differences. He is a fellow of the Association for Psychological Science, and the Australian Psychological Society, and recipient of the Buros Institute of Mental Measurements Distinguished Reviewer Award in 2005. He is on a number of editorial boards including Personality and Individual Differences. He has over 200 publications, is co-author of a book on statistical methods, and co-editor of Sage Benchmarks in Psychology: The Psychology of Individual Differences (4 Vols.). He is also co-editor of the current volumes.

    Marc Brackett is an associate research scientist in Psychology at Yale University and Deputy Director of the Health, Emotion, and Behavior Laboratory at the same institution. He obtained his PhD from the University of New Hampshire in 2003. He focuses on the measurement of emotional intelligence in children and adults, and the links between emotional intelligence and the quality of interpersonal relationships, well-being, academic performance, and workplace success. He has contributed to more than four-dozen scholarly publications, and is the author of multiple curricula that teach emotional literacy to students, teachers, and school administrators.

    Turhan Canli is associate professor of psychology at Stony Brook University. He obtained his PhD from Yale University in 1993. He focuses on the neural basis of emotion, emotional memory, and personality, combining neuroimaging with molecular genetics to investigate how individual differences in brain function relate to variation within specific genes, and their interaction with individuals' unique life experience. He has many book chapters and empirical publications in PNAS, Science, Nature Neuroscience, and is editor of the book Biology of Personality and Individual Differences. He is associate editor of the journal Social Neuroscience.

    Heather Cattell is research consultant at the Institute for Personality and Ability Testing (IPAT). She received her PhD from Michigan State University in 1982 in clinical and quantitative psychology. She is co-author of the 16PF Fifth Edition Questionnaire, constructed with her parents, Raymond and Karen Cattell, the original developers of the 16PF instrument. She is also co-author of the Psych-Eval Personality Questionnaire, measuring clinical traits, and the Spanish-American 16PF. She is co-author of the book Essentials of 16PF Assessment, and of the 16PF Cattell Comprehensive Personality Interpretation Report. She is on the American Board of Assessment Psychology and is a fellow of the Society for Personality Assessment.

    Andrew Comrey is emeritus professor of psychology at UCLA. He completed his PhD in 1949 in psychometrics at the University of Southern California under supervision of J.P. Guilford. After a year each at the University of Illinois and the University of Southern California, he joined the department of psychology, UCLA, where he has remained his entire academic career. His major research interests include personality measurement and factor analysis. He elucidated a taxonomy of personality traits measured in the Comrey Personality Scales, which he constructed using factor analytic methodology described in his book, A First Course in Factor Analysis. He has over 200 publications and is also author of A Sourcebook for Mental Health Measures. He has served on the editorial boards of Multivariate Behavioral Research, and the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, among others. He has been past president of the Society for Multivariate Experimental Psychology, and fellow and charter member of the Association for Psychological Science.

    Eliza Congdon is a doctoral candidate at Stony Brook University. Her research is focused on the biological bases of impulsivity. Specifically, she is working to integrate neuroimaging and genetics in elucidating the neurogenetics of behavioural inhibition. Her work is currently funded by an NRSA grant. She has co-authored articles that appear in the Journal of Personality, Neuropsychiatric Genetics, Journal of Neural Transmission, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, and in Behavioral and Cognitive Neuroscience Reviews.

    Paul Costa, Jr. is chief of the Laboratory of Personality and Cognition, National Institute on Aging's Intramural Research Program and professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. He obtained his PhD from the University of Chicago in 1970. His enduring interests are in the structure and measurement of personality and in lifespan development. He co-authored the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised and has actively developed the five-factor model of personality. He has published extensively in the area of personality assessment and he is co-editor of the book Recent Advances in Psychology and Aging: Advances In Cell Aging and Gerontology (Vol. 15).

    Sybil Eysenck has been a senior lecturer in psychology at the Institute of Psychiatry, University of London (now retired). She obtained her PhD from the University of London in 1955. She was married to the late Professor H.J. Eysenck. She has over 180 publications and is co-author of the books Personality Structure and Measurement and Psychoticism as a Dimension of Personality, as well as of Individual Differences in Children and Adolescents. She is also coeditor-in-chief of the international journal, Personality and Individual Differences.

    Ephrem Fernandez is professor of clinical psychology at the University of Texas, San Antonio. Previously, he held faculty appointments at Southern Methodist University, and at the University Queensland, Australia. He received his PhD from Ohio State University in1989. His research spans medical psychology and affect science, including the psychometric assessment and cognitive-behavioural management of pain, and assessment and integrative psychotherapy for maladaptive anger. He has numerous publications, and is author of the book Anxiety, Depression, and Anger in Pain: Research Findings and Clinical Options and co-editor of the Handbook of Pain Syndromes: Biopsychosocial Approaches. He has served on the editorial boards of Headache and the Annals of Behavioral Medicine. His research is funded by the US National Institutes of Health.

    John Furedy is emeritus professor of psychology at the University of Toronto, where he worked for nearly 40 years, before returning to Australia in 2005. He obtained his PhD from the University of Sydney in 1965, in experimental psychophysiology. His research interests include psychophysiology, and the philosophy of science in psychology. He has over 350 publications and is co-author of the book Theories and Applications in the Detection of Deception: Psychophysiological and Cultural Perspectives. He has served on 13 editorial boards including Behavioral and Brain Sciences, Biological Psychology, International Journal of Psychophysiology, and New Ideas in Psychology. He was elected a fellow of the Association for Psychological Science, the Canadian Psychological Association, and the Australian Psychological Society.

    Adrian Furnham is professor of psychology at University College London where he has worked for 25 years. He obtained his DPhil from Oxford University in 1981, his DSc from the University of London in 1991, and his DLitt from the University of Natal in 1997. He has research interests in applied, differential and evolutionary psychology. Other interests include economic socialisation, lay theories, and complementary medicine. He has 700 publications, plus 54 books including Personality and Intelligence at Work, as well as The Psychology of Physical Attraction, and is on the editorial boards of 12 journals. He is a past president of the International Society for the Study of Individual Differences.

    Eco de Geus is professor of psychology and co-director of the Netherlands Twin Registry at Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, where he received his PhD in 1992. His research interests include behavioural and molecular genetic research into psychophysiological endophenotypes of individual differences in affective and cognitive function. Other interests include genetic epidemiological research into lifestyle, stress and cardiovascular risk factors and their co-morbidity with anxiety and depression. He has over 160 publications and developed the VU Ambulatory Monitoring System for measuring ANS responses. He has been guest editor of Behavior Genetics, and is an associate editor of Biological Psychology. He is also on the editorial board of Psychosomatic Medicine.

    Anthony Greenwald is professor of psychology at the University of Washington. He received his PhD from Harvard in 1963. He has published over 150 scholarly articles, served on editorial boards of 13 psychological journals, and received both the Donald T. Campbell Research Award from the Society of Personality and Social Psychology and Distinguished Scientist Award from the Society of Experimental Social Psychology. He constructed the Implicit Association Test for assessing individual differences in implicit social cognition.

    Edward Helmes is professor of psychology at James Cook University where he has been on the faculty since 2001. He obtained his PhD from the University of Western Ontario in 1978. His research interests include personality assessment, neuropsychology and cognitive ageing. He has over 120 publications and is co-editor of the book, Problems and Solutions in Human Assessment: Honoring Douglas N. Jackson at Seventy. He is associate editor of the Australian Psychologist, and is a fellow of the Australian Psychological Society and of the Australian Association for Gerontology.

    Dianne van Hemert is a postdoctoral research associate at the University of Amsterdam. She received her PhD in cross-cultural psychology from Tilburg University in 2002. Her research interests include cultural differences in personality and social behavior, multilevel models, and meta-analysis. She is on the editorial board of the Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and is co-editor of the book, Individuals and Cultures in Multilevel Analysis. She has published in journals such as Personality and Individual Differences, Cognition and Emotion, and the Journal of Personality.

    Andrea Hodgetts recently completed her internship in clinical psychology at the University of Waikato, New Zealand, having received her PhD from Massey University in 2000. She worked in the neurorehabilitation unit of St John's Health Care Corporation in Newfoundland, Canada, and has also worked in the organisational development unit of the London Borough of Camden, UK. Her research interests revolve around lower socioeconomic groups' experiences of unemployment and homelessness and she has co-authored a number of peer-reviewed articles in journals such as the Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, Journal of Health Psychology and Journal of Social and Cultural Geography.

    Ryan Hong is assistant professor of psychology at the National University of Singapore. He obtained his PhD in 2008 from the University of Western Ontario, Canada. His research interests include personality and psychopathology, and their interface. His publications have appeared in journals such as Behaviour Research and Therapy, and Personality and Individual Differences.

    Leonard Horowitz is professor of psychology at Stanford University. He received his PhD from Johns Hopkins University in 1960. He was a Fulbright fellow at University College, London, and obtained his clinical training at Mt Zion Psychiatric Clinic, San Francisco. He is co-editor of the book Measuring Patient Changes in Mood, Anxiety, and Personality Disorders: Toward a Core Battery, and author of the book, Interpersonal Foundations of Psychopathology. He is past president of the Society for Psychotherapy Research and of the Society for Interpersonal Theory and Research. He has served on editorial boards such as the Journal of Experimental Psychology, the Journal of Personality Disorders, the Journal of Personal and Social Relationships, and Psychotherapy Research.

    Chris Jackson is professor of business psychology at the University of New South Wales. He obtained his PhD from the University of Coventry, UK in 1989. His research interests concern the overlap between learning and personality, including the effect of “left and right” brain and the biological influence of personality processes in the workplace. He has recently published the Learning Styles Profiler (LSP) which provides a measure of functional and dysfunctional learning. He is author of the book, An Applied Neuropsychological Model of Functional and Dysfunctional Learning, and co-author of the Eysenck Personality Profiler (EPP-S).

    Randy Kamphaus is dean of the College of Education and Distinguished Research Professor at the University of Georgia, where he obtained his PhD in educational psychology in 1983. His research interests include applied clinical assessment and diagnosis, mental health screening, and classification methods. He has authored dozens of journal articles and book chapters, four psychological tests, and 12 books including, Clinical Assessment of Child and Adolescent Intelligence, and also, Clinical Assessment of Child and Adolescent Personality and Behavior. He is a fellow of the American Psychological Association and editor of the School Psychology Quarterly.

    Samuel Krug is chairman of MetriTech Inc., and of Industrial Psychology International Ltd, Champaign, Illinois. He received his PhD from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in 1971. His research has primarily focused on issues in applied personality and educational measurement. He is the author of more than 100 articles, books, tests, and computer-based assessment products. He is author of Psychware Sourcebook: A Reference Guide to Computer- based Products for Assessment in Psychology, Business, and Education, and co-author of the book, Responsible Test Use: Case Studies for Assessing Human Behavior.

    Roseann Larstone is a doctoral student in educational psychology at the University of British Columbia. Her research interests include the contribution of emotion regulation to conduct problems, resilience, and developmental trajectories of aggression. She has co-authored articles in Social Behavior and Personality, Personality and Individual Differences, plus book chapters in the Handbook of Research Methods in Abnormal and Clinical Psychology, and in Personality and Psychopathology: Building Bridges. She is the editorial assistant for the Journal of Personality Disorders.

    Jenna Lee is a doctoral candidate in social/personality psychology at the University of Washington. Her research interests include culture and self-evaluation, acquaintance sexual aggression, and recommendation algorithms.

    Kibeom Lee is associate professor of psychology at the University of Calgary. He received his PhD from the University of Western Ontario in 2000. His research interests include the structure and measurement of personality characteristics and workplace attitudes and behaviours. He has several dozen publications and he currently serves on the editorial boards of the Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology and European Journal of Personality.

    John Livesley is emeritus professor of psychiatry at the University of British Columbia. He obtained his PhD from the University of Liverpool in 1969, and a degree in medicine (MB ChB) from the same university in 1974. His research focuses on the classification, assessment, and aetiology of personality disorders. He is author of Practical Management of Personality Disorder, editor of the books DSM-IV Personality Disorders, the Handbook of Personality Disorders: Theory, Research and Treatment, and co-editor of the book, Severe Personality Disorders. He is editor of the Journal of Personality Disorders, and fellow of the Royal Society of Canada.

    Carolyn MacCann is a post-doctoral fellow at the Center for New Constructs, Educational Testing Service, Princeton, New Jersey. She obtained her PhD from the University of Sydney in 2006. Her research interests include personality assessment, faking, situation judgment testing, and emotional intelligence. She has co-authored several articles published in journals such as Personality and Individual Differences, Emotion, International Journal of Organizational Analysis, and Human Development, and book chapters on assessment issues in emotional intelligence in the books Measuring Emotional Intelligence and Emotional Intelligence and Elites: Sex, Gender and the Brain.

    Robert McCrae is a research psychologist in the Laboratory of Personality and Cognition at the National Institute on Aging. He received his PhD from Boston University in 1976. His research interests include personality structure, development and assessment, as well as crosscultural studies. He has 300 publications and is co-author of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory, and Personality in Adulthood: A Five-Factor Theory Perspective. He is on the editorial boards of the European Journal of Personality, and Psychological Assessment. He is a fellow of the American Psychological Association, the Association for Psychological Science, the Gerontology Society of America, and the Society for Personality Assessment.

    Gerald Matthews is professor of psychology at the University of Cincinnati. He received his PhD from Cambridge University in 1984. His research interests include the effects of personality and stress on performance, information-processing models, applied personality research and emotional intelligence as well as the assessment of transient subjective states. He has over 150 publications and has co-authored the textbooks Personality Traits and Human Performance: Cognition, Stress and Individual Differences. He is editor of the book Cognitive Science Perspectives on Personality and Emotion and co-editor of The Science of Emotional Intelligence: Knowns and Unknowns. He is secretary-treasurer of the International Society for the Study of Individual Differences, and also is co-editor of the current volumes.

    Alan Mead is assistant professor of psychology at the Illinois Institute of Technology. He received his PhD from the University of Illinois, Urbana in industrial and organisational psychology. His background includes the position of research scientist at the Institute for Personality and Ability Testing (IPAT). His research interests include psychometric applications such as differential item functioning, scoring non-cognitive assessments, and computerised testing. He has published in journals such as Psychological Bulletin, Applied Psychological Measurement, Educational and Psychological Measurement, Applied Measurement in Education, and Personnel Psychology.

    Theodore Millon is the scientific director at the Institute for Advanced Studies in Personology and Psychopathology. He obtained his PhD from the University of Connecticut in 1954. Professor emeritus of psychology and psychiatry at Harvard Medical School, he was editor-in-chief of the Journal of Personality Disorders and inaugural president of the International Society for the Study of Personality Disorders. He is author or editor of over 30 books including, Masters of the Mind, and Resolving Difficult Clinical Syndromes: A Personalized Psychotherapeutic Approach. He is also recipient of the American Psychological Association Foundation's 2008 Gold Medal Life Achievement Award in the Application of Psychology.

    Leslie Morey is professor and department head of psychology at Texas A&M University. He received his PhD from the University of Florida and has served on the faculty at Harvard Medical School, and the Yale University School of Medicine. He has over 160 publications on the assessment and diagnosis of mental disorders. He is the author of the Personality Assessment Inventory, the Personality Assessment Screener, the Interpretive Guide to the Personality Assessment Inventory, and Essentials of PAI Assessment. He is past associate editor of the journal Assessment and of the Journal of Personality Assessment. He is a fellow of both the Society for Personality Assessment, and the American Association of Applied and Preventive Psychology.

    David Neumann is a senior lecturer in psychology at Griffith University. He received his PhD from the University of Queensland in 1998. His research into cognitive psychophysiology focuses on attention and learning. His research interests include emotion and learning during Pavlovian conditioning in humans, the role of attention for the enhancement of performance in sport, and the effects of nicotine on cognition and affect. His published articles have appeared in journals such as Psychophysiology, Biological Psychology, and Behaviour Research and Therapy. He was elected the Australian Research Council Young Researcher of the Year (2000).

    Sampo Paunonen is professor of psychology at the University of Western Ontario, where he received his PhD in 1984. His research interests include person perception, personality assessment, and personnel selection. He also has interests in multivariate methods, such as factor analysis, and in psychometric theory. He has published extensively in leading psychology journals including the American Psychologist, Psychological Review, Psychological Bulletin, and the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Also, he has served on the editorial boards of the Journal of Personality and the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

    Alyssa Perna is a doctoral candidate in applied developmental psychology at George Mason University. Her research interests include the social and emotional development of preschool children and its relation to school readiness and academic achievement. More specifically, she is interested in the development of self-regulatory mechanisms as a critical component of development during the toddler and preschool years.

    Susan Rivers is an associate research scientist in psychology at Yale University, where she earned her PhD in 2005. Her research focuses on emotional development, and the role that emotion knowledge and skills play in effective social and intrapersonal functioning in children and adults. She is co-author of school-based curricula that teach emotion knowledge and skills to children, and conducts research to evaluate their effectiveness. She is co-editor of the book Emotional Literacy in the Classroom. Her co-authored articles appear in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, the Journal of Health Psychology, and Developmental Review.

    Richard Roberts is principal research scientist at the Educational Testing Service, Princeton, New Jersey. He received his PhD from the University of Sydney in 1996. His research interests focus especially on the assessment of cognitive abilities and personal skills, especially as they apply in educational contexts. He has published over 120 articles and book chapters. He is co-author of Emotional Intelligence: Science and Myth and co-editor of the books Learning and Individual Differences: Content, Trait, and Process Determinants, and Extending Intelligence: Enhancement and New Constructs, as well as Emotional Intelligence: Knowns and Unknowns. He was a National Research Council Fellow from 1996–1999.

    Ellen Rowe is assistant professor of psychology at George Mason University. She received her PhD from the University of Georgia in 2005. Her research interests include the assessment and remediation of emotional, behavioural, and adjustment problems among children and adolescents. She is also interested in classification methods, and applied measurement. In addition to a number of book chapters, her published articles appear in journals such as the Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs.

    Donald Saklofske is professor of applied psychology and associate dean of research at the University of Calgary. He received his PhD from the University of Calgary in 1973. His research interests include individual differences, personality, intelligence and emotional intelligence, cognition, and psychological assessment. He has co-authored and edited books on intelligence, the assessment of intelligence, individual differences and educational psychology. He is on editorial boards for three psychology journals and is a book series co-editor. He is a fellow of both the Canadian Psychological Association and the Association for Psychological Science and is also co-editor of the current volumes.

    Peter Salovey is the Chris Argyris professor of psychology at Yale University and the dean of Yale College. He completed his undergraduate education at Stanford University and his PhD at Yale in 1986. He has over 300 publications and 13 books including The Wisdom in Feeling: Psychological Processes in Emotional Intelligence, and Key Readings in the Social Psychology of Health, as well as The Emotionally Intelligent Manager. He served on the National Advisory Mental Health Council of the US National Institute of Mental Health. He was associate editor of Psychological Bulletin and Emotion, editor of Review General Psychology, and past president of the Society for General Psychology. He has received research excellence awards from the US Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration, the US National Cancer Institute's Cancer Information Service, and the National Science Foundation's Presidential Young Investigator program.

    Gerard Saucier is professor of psychology at the University of Oregon, where he received his PhD in 1991. His research interests include the generalisable structure and optimal assessment of personality attributes, and the related structure and assessment of dispositional patterns in beliefs and values. He is an associate editor of the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, and past associate editor of the Journal of Research in Personality. He received the Cattell Award in 1999 from the Society of Multivariate Experimental Psychology and is a fellow of the Association for Psychological Science.

    Konrad Schnabel is assistant professor of psychology at Humboldt-University, Berlin. His research interests focus on differences between implicit and explicit self-representations. He has published extensively in journals such as the British Journal of Social Psychology, Experimental Psychology, and the European Journal of Personality, on the behavioural validation of implicit measures and on the use of multiple implicit measurement procedures. His current projects investigate the validity of non-evaluative implicit self-representations and the malleability of social anxiety reflected by explicit and implicit measures.

    James Schuerger has been professor of psychology at Cleveland State University for more than 30 years. He obtained his PhD from Kent State University in 1967. Also, he was research assistant professor in Cattell's laboratory at the University of Illinois. His major research interests include objective personality testing. He has more than a 100 publications on topics in psychological measurement, is author of the Adolescent Personality Questionnaire and co-author (with Raymond B. Cattell) of the Objective Analytic Test Battery. He is currently field-testing a revision of the Children's Personality Questionnaire.

    Ralf Schulze is a research scientist at the Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Germany. He earned his PhD from the University of Münster in 2001. His research interests span the fields of personality and social psychology as well as psychometrics and research methods. In the area of individual differences research, he focuses on emotional intelligence and self-motivated cognition. He has published dozens of articles and book chapters in his fields of interest. In addition, he is co-author of the book Meta-analysis: A Comparison of Approaches, and co-editor of the books Meta-analysis: New Developments and Applications in Medical and Social Sciences, and Emotional Intelligence: An International Handbook

    Yuichi Shoda is professor of psychology, University of Washington. He received his PhD from Columbia University in 1990. His research is aimed at identifying and understanding stable within-person patterns of variation in the stream, over time and across situations, of an individual's cognition, affect, and behaviour. He is co-author of a personality psychology textbook and co-editor of the books The Coherence of Personality: Social-Cognitive Bases of Personality Consistency, Variability, and Persons in Context: Constructing a Science of the Individual. He is a fellow of the Association for Psychological Science.

    Nicola Starkey Nicola Starkey is senior lecturer in psychology at the University of Waikato, New Zealand. She obtained her PhD from the University of Leeds, UK in 2000. Her major research interests include animal models of psychiatric disorders, psychological assessment, neuropsychology and young driver behaviour. She has co-authored several articles in journals such as Physiology and Behavior, Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, and the Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology.

    Jan Strelau is professor at the Warsaw School of Social Psychology. He received his PhD in 1963 from the University of Warsaw. He is a member of the Polish Academy of Sciences and Academia Europaea and holds Doctor honoris causa degrees from the Universities of Gda'nsk and Pozna'n, Poland, and from the State University of Humanistic Sciences in Moscow, Russia. He was the first president of the European Association of Personality Psychology, past president of the International Society for the Study of Individual Differences, and vice-president of the International Union of Psychological Science. He is author of 220 papers and book chapters, and author or co-editor of 39 books in the field of individual differences.

    Auke Tellegen is emeritus professor of psychology at the University of Minnesota, where he received his PhD in 1962. He has published on the theory, dimensional structure, and assessment of personality, affect, and hypnosis, and on the behaviour genetics of personality. He is author of the Multidimensional Personality Inventory and of the MMPI-2 Restructured Clinical (RC) Scales. He received the Bruno Klopfer Award from the Society of Personality Assessment and the Jack Block Award from the Society of Personality and Social Psychology. He has been associate editor of the Journal of Research in Personality, and the American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis. He is a fellow of both the American Psychological Association, and the Society for Personality Assessment.

    Bulent Turan is a doctoral candidate in psychology at Stanford University. His research interests include normative knowledge structures and individual differences in accessing different components of knowledge related to trust and supportiveness in close relationships. He has several published articles in journals including, the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Personality and Social Psychology Review, the Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, and Communication and Cognition, as well as book chapters.

    Fons van de Vijver is professor of psychology at Tilburg University, where he received his PhD in 1991. He also is professor at North-West University, South Africa. He has 250 publications on methodological issues in cross-cultural comparisons, intelligence, multiculturalism and acculturation. He is co-editor of the book, Individuals and Cultures in Multilevel Analysis. He is past editor of the Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and is on editorial boards including the European Journal of Psychological Assessment, the International Journal of Testing, and the Psychology Science Quarterly. He is a fellow of the International Academy for Intercultural Research.

    Niels Waller is professor of psychology at the University of Minnesota, where he received his PhD in 1990. He has published widely on psychometric models of personality and psychopathology. He is co-author of the book Multivariate Taxometric Procedures and co-editor of the book A Paul Meehl Reader: Essays on the Practice of Scientific Psychology. He is the recipient of numerous awards including the 1999 American Psychological Association Distinguished Scientific Award for Early Career Contribution to Psychology in the area of individual differences and the 1997 Raymond B. Cattell Award, Society for Multivariate Experimental Psychology.

    Donna Whitsett is a postdoctoral research associate at the University of Washington, where she received her PhD in social/personality psychology in 2007. Her research interests include emotion regulation, emotional support, and more recently, the promotion of environmentally sustainable behaviours. She has contributed to publications in a variety of journals including the Journal of Positive Psychology and the Journal of Community Psychology.

    Kelly Wilson is a doctoral candidate in psychology at Stanford University. She is also a member of the PTSD Clinical Team at the San Francisco VA Medical Center. Her primary research interests include adult attachment and the recognition of others' mental states, interpersonal perception, and personality disorders. She has several co-authored articles in journals such as Personality and Social Psychology Review, the Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, and the Journal of Personality. She is also co-author of chapters in books such as the Handbook of Personology and Psychopathology.

    Nicole Wilson is a doctoral candidate in social/personality psychology at the University of Washington. Her research interests include stress and coping and her publications appear in the Journal of Aging and Health, the Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, the Journal of Gerontology: Medical Sciences, and the Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences.

    Bogdan Zawadzki is professor of psychology at Warsaw University. He obtained his PhD from the University of Warsaw in 1992. His research interests include individual differences, the psychology of temperament, behaviour genetics, cross-cultural psychology, psychological diagnosis, psychometrics and clinical psychology including the impact of natural disasters on mental health of victims, and posttraumatic stress disorder. He has 100 publications, including handbooks for four personality inventories.

    Vivian Zayas is assistant professor of psychology at Cornell University. She completed her PhD in 2003 and postdoctoral training in 2006 at the University of Washington. Her research examines the cognitive-affective processes that regulate behaviour within close relationships and which may affect the quality of individuals' mental health. She adopts a multi-level inter-disciplinary perspective that integrates the study of attachment processes, executive control and self-regulation from cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience. Her research has been funded by the US National Science Foundation and the US National Institutes of Health and appears in journals such as Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Psychological Science, and the Journal of Personality.

    Pavel Zolotsev is a doctoral candidate in psychology at Stanford University. His primary research interest is how individual differences in personality variables manifest themselves in actual behaviour. He has undertaken research into dating couples' interpersonal behaviours and the effects of verbal and non-verbal communication on couples' wellbeing. Using the circumplex model of interpersonal behaviour and motives, he is currently examining behaviours of dependent and self-critical people. He has published in the Personality and Social Psychology Review.

    Marvin Zuckerman is professor emeritus at the University of Delaware, where he taught and conducted research for 33 years. He obtained his PhD from New York University in 1954. His research has focused on sensation seeking, and the psychobiology of personality. He is author or co-author of well over 200 journal articles and book chapters. Recent books include Sensation Seeking and Risky Behavior and the Psychobiology of Personality. He is a past president of the International Society for the Study of Individual Differences and fellow of both the American Psychological Association and the Association for Psychological Science.

  • Name Index


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