Handbook of Industrial, Work & Organizational Psychology - Volume 1: Personnel Psychology
Publication Year: 2001
Subject: Occupational/Industrial Psychology
The globalized nature of work in the new millennium implies that human resource management, psychological theories of personnel and individual behaviour in the workplace have to change and evolve. This volume mainly focuses on theories, techniques and methods used by industrial and work psychologists. A set of internationally renowned authors summarize advances in core topics such as analysis of work, work design, job performance, performance appraisal and feedback, workplace counterproductivity, recruitment and personnel selection, work relevant individual difference variables (cognitive ability, personality), human-machine interactions, human errors, training, learning, individual development, socialization, methods, and measurement.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: Introduction to the Handbook and Volume 1
- Chapter 2: Research Methods in Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Data Collection and Data Analysis with Special Consideration to International Issues
- Chapter 3: Measurement in Work and Organizational Psychology
- Chapter 4: Meta-Analysis
- Chapter 5: The Analysis of Work in the 20th and 21st Centuries
- Chapter 6: Work Design: Learning from the Past and Mapping a New Terrain
- Chapter 7: Assessment of Individual Job Performance: A Review of the Past Century and a Look Ahead
- Chapter 8: Performance Appraisal and Feedback: A Consideration of National Culture and a Review of Contemporary Research and Future Trends
- Chapter 9: Counterproductive Behaviors at Work
- Chapter 10: Predictors Used for Personnel Selection: An Overview of Constructs, Methods and Techniques
- Chapter 11: Recruitment and Selection: Applicant Perspectives and Outcomes
- Chapter 12: Cognitive Ability
- Chapter 13: The Structure, Measurement, Validity, and use of Personality Variables in Industrial, Work, and Organizational Psychology
- Chapter 14: Individual and Team Training
- Chapter 15: Individual Development in the Workplace
- Chapter 16: Human–Machine Interaction: Usability and User Needs of the System
- Chapter 17: Prevention of Human Errors in the Frame of the Activity Theory
- Chapter 18: Utility Analysis: A Review and Analysis at the Turn of the Century
- Chapter 19: Cross-Cultural Industrial and Organizational Psychology: A Critical Appraisal of the Field and Future Directions
- Chapter 20: Toward a Globalized Conceptualization of Organizational Socializations
- Chapter 21: Expatriate Management
To Mavis Anderson, my mother, and George Anderson (deceased), my father, for teaching me the meaning of conscientiousness in life (NA)
To my parents Drs Saime Ülker Öneş and Somer Öneş for continuing to inspire me with their talent and achievements (DSO)
To my dear parents Sevinç and Mustafa Kepir for their everlasting love and support (HKS)
To Sankaravadivoo (deceased), my mother, and S. P. Chockalingam, my father, for their confidence in me and for all their encouragement (CV)
Editorial arrangement © Neil Anderson, Deniz S. Ones, Handan Kepir Sinangil and Chockalingam Viswesvaran 2001
Chapter 1 © Paul E. Spector 2001
Chapter 2 © Herman Aguinis, Christine A. Henle and Cheri Ostroff 2001
Chapter 3 © Frank L. Schmidt and John E. Hunter 2001
Chapter 4 © Juan I. Sanchez and Edward L. Levine 2001
Chapter 5 © Sharon K. Parker and Toby D. Wall 2001
Chapter 6 © Chockalingam Viswesvaran 2001
Chapter 7 © Clive Fletcher and Elissa L. Perry 2001
Chapter 8 © Paul R. Sackett and Cynthia J. DeVore 2001
Chapter 9 © Jesus F. Salgado, Chockalingam Viswesvaran and Deniz S. Ones 2001
Chapter 10 © Neil Anderson, Marise Born and Nicole Cunningham-Snell 2001
Chapter 11 © Malcolm James Ree, Thomas R. Carretta and James R. Steindl 2001
Chapter 12 © Leaetta M. Hough and Deniz S. Ones 2001
Chapter 13 © John P. Campbell and Nathan R. Kuncel 2001
Chapter 14 © Cynthia D. McCauley and Sarah A. Hezlett 2001
Chapter 15 © David J. Oborne and Karen M. Arnold 2001
Chapter 16 © Anne-Sophie Nyssen and Vronique De Keyser 2001
Chapter 17 © Philip L. Roth, Philip Bobko and Hunter Mabon 2001
Chapter 18 © Zeynep Aycan and Rabindra N. Kanungo 2001
Chapter 19 © Tayla N. Bauer and Sully Taylor 2001
Chapter 20 © Handan Kepir Sinangil and Deniz S. Ones 2001
First published 2001. Reprinted 2002, 2005
Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form, or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Inquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers.
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Volume 2 0 7619 6489 4
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Biographic Profiles[Page xi]Editors
Neil Anderson is Professor of Work Psychology at Goldsmiths College, University of London. He is Founding Editor of the International Journal of Selection and Assessment. His research interests include recruitment and selection, organizational and work group socialization, innovation at work, and organizational climate. He has co-authored and edited a number of books including the International Handbook of Selection and Assessment, and his work has appeared in several scholarly journals including Journal of Applied Psychology, Human Relations, Journal of Organizational Behavior, Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, and the International Journal of Selection and Assessment. Neil has ongoing research projects, either collaboratively or alone, into interviewer and applicant decision-making in assessment interviews, work group socialization of graduates, the structure and psychometric properties of popular ‘Big Five’ measures of personality, telephone-based interviewing procedures, and the practitioner-researcher divide in work and organizational psychology. Committed to an international perspective in work psychology, Neil has been Visiting Professor to the University of Minnesota (USA) and the Free University of Amsterdam (The Netherlands). Neil is a fellow of the British Psychological Society and the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology.
Deniz S. Ones is an international expert in personality and integrity testing for personnel selection and personality assessment for workplace applications. She received her PhD from the University of Iowa in 1993 and was previously a faculty member of the University of Houston. Currently, she is the holder of the Hellervik Endowed Professorship in Industrial and Organizational Psychology at the Department of Psychology of the University of Minnesota. Dr Ones is the author of over 60 articles and over 200 international/national conference papers and published abstracts on topics ranging from the reliability of performance ratings to influences of social desirability on personality test validity to discipline problems at work. Her research has appeared in the Annual Review of Psychology, Journal of Applied Psychology, Personnel Psychology, and Psychological Bulletin, among others. In 1994, Dr Ones received the Society of Industrial and Organizational Psychology's (Division 14 of the American Psychological Association) S. Rains Wallace Best Dissertation Award. In 1998, she received the Ernest J. McCormick Early Career Contributions Award from the Society for Industrial Organizational Psychology (Division 14 of the American Psychological Association), making her one of two people to ever receive both awards. Her [Page xii]current research and teaching interests include personality as it relates to job performance, integrity testing, and the application of meta-analytic techniques in the social sciences. Dr Ones is a Fellow of the American Psychological Association (Divisions 5 and 14) and the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology and serves on the editorial boards of Personnel Psychology, International Journal of Selection and Assessment, and European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology. Recently, she has edited special issues for two prestigious journals (Human Performance on ability testing, and International Journal of Selection Assessment on counterproductive work behaviors).
Handan Kepir Sinangil is Professor of Work and Organizational Psychology at Marmara University, Organizational Behaviour Graduate Program, and Adjunct Professor at Bogazici University. She is the General Secretary of the European Association of Work and Organizational Psychology (EAWOP) and a member of the American Psychological Association (APA), the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP, APA Division 14), the International Association of Applied Psychology (IAAP), and the International Association of Cross-Cultural Psychology (IACCP). Dr Sinangil's international and national publications exceed 70 as book chapters and conference papers. She is also associate editor of the International Journal of Selection and Assessment (IJSA). Her ongoing research projects, either with international collaboration or alone include expatriate management, organizational culture and change, performance appraisal and selection. Additionally, her current teaching interests include assessment, training and development, and psychology of management.
Chockalingam (Vish) Viswesvaran is an international expert in performance measurement, modeling performance determinants, personality and integrity testing, personnel selection and meta-analysis. He received his PhD from the University of Iowa in 1993. Currently, he is an Associate Professor at the Department of Psychology of the Florida International University. Dr Viswesvaran is the author of over 70 articles and over 200 international/national conference papers and published abstracts. His research has appeared in the Journal of Applied Psychology, Personnel Psychology, Journal of Vocational Behavior and Educational and Psychological Measurement, among others. In 1995, Viswesvaran received the Society of Industrial and Organizational Psychology's (Division 14 of the American Psychological Association) S. Rains Wallace Best Dissertation Award. In 1998, he received the Ernest J. McCormick Early Career Contributions Award from the Society for Industrial Organizational Psychology (Division 14 of the American Psychological Association), making him one of two people to ever receive both awards. His current research and teaching interests include job performance assessment, personality as it relates to job performance, integrity testing, and the application of meta-analytic techniques in the social sciences. Viswesvaran is a Fellow of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology and serves on the editorial boards of Personnel Psychology and Educational and Psychological Measurement. Recently, Viswesvaran has edited a special issue for Human Performance on ability testing.[Page xiii]Authors
Herman Aguinis (http://www.cudenver.edu/~haguinis) received his PhD (1993) in industrial/organizational psychology from the University at Albany, State University of New York. He is currently an Associate Professor of Management and Director of the MS in Management Program at the University of Colorado at Denver. His research interests include personnel selection, social power and influence, estimation of interaction effects, meta-analysis, and research methods. He has been a visiting scholar in universities in Europe, Asia and Latin America, has written over 40 articles in refereed journals, and delivered over 100 refereed and invited presentations. His articles have appeared in Academy of Management Journal, American Psychologist, Journal of Applied Psychology, Personnel Psychology, and elsewhere. He currently serves as an associate editor for Organizational Research Methods, and as an elected member of the Executive Committee of the Human Resources Management Division of the Academy of Management.
Karen Arnold, PhD, is a member of the Psychology Department, University of Wales, Swansea. She is a Director of KADO Associates, Specialists in User Needs Analysis, and has successfully applied her expertise to a number of European R&D projects and is the Project Manager for the Developing Employment in the Information Society (DEIS) project.
Zeynep Aycan is an Assistant Professor of Industrial and Organizational Psychology at Koc University, Istanbul, Turkey. Dr Aycan received her PhD from Queen's University, Kingston, Canada in 1996 where she worked under the supervision of Professor John W. Berry. She then continued working with Professor Rabindra N. Kanungo at McGill University on a number of cross-cultural research projects on organizational behavior. Her research interests mainly focus on the impact of culture on organizational behavior and HRM practices; indigenous concepts of management and leadership; cross-cultural perspectives on women's workforce participation and the work-family interface. She has published two edited books on expatriate management as well as indigenous management, leadership and HRM practices (the latter is in Turkish). She is the co-editor (with Terrence Jackson) of the International Journal for Cross-Cultural Management and she serves on the editorial boards of a number of professional journals such as Applied Psychology: An International Review. She is an executive committee member of the International Association for the Study of Work and Organizational Values whose conference she organized in Istanbul in 1998. She also has consulting experience with some large-scale multinational and local organizations.
Talya N. Bauer, PhD, Purdue University, is an Associate Professor of Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management at Portland State University, Portland, Oregon, USA. Her experience training, consulting, and conducting research with organizations includes work with such organizations as Bristol-Meyers Squibb, NASA, Subaru-Isuzu, Hewlett-Packard, Intel, and the Los Angeles Unified School District. Her teaching and research interests include [Page xiv]socialization, leadership, and applicant reactions to selection. She is a member of the Journal of Applied Psychology editorial board and is the program chair for the year 2001 Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychologist's Annual Conference in San Diego, California. Her work appears in outlets such as Academy of Management Journal, Personnel Psychology, Journal of Applied Psychology, Research in Personnel and Human Resource Management, Group and Organization Management, Journal of Career Planning and Employment, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, and Journal of Business and Psychology.
Philip Bobko is Professor of Management and Psychology at Gettysburg College. He is the author of over 60 publications on topics including test fairness, moderated regression analysis, validation methods, goal-setting, decision-making, utility analysis, and performance standard setting. He has authored two chapters in Dunnette and Hough's Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology and has published a book on the topic of correlation and regression. He has been scientific advisor or principal scientist for government contracts totaling approximately $50 million, and he has served as co-editor of the Academy of Management Journal and editor of the Journal of Applied Psychology.
Marise Born is Associate Professor of Work Psychology at the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. She is associate editor of the International Journal of Selection and Assessment. Her research interests include recruitment and selection, the assessment center, personality, gender issues, entrepreneurship, and the method of meta-analysis. Her work has appeared in several Dutch and international journals including the International Journal of Selection and Assessment, Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, Journal of Business and Psychology, and Educational Psychology. Her ongoing research projects, either collaboratively or alone, include job search behavior, construct validity issues of the assessment center, gender differences in applicant decision-making, entrepreneurship and personality, and application of the Social Relation Model (Kenny) to personnel selection. Marise has been Visiting Professor to the University of Houston (USA).
John P. Campbell is Professor of Psychology and Industrial Relations at the University of Minnesota where he received his PhD (1964) in Psychology. From 1964 to 1966 he was Assistant Professor of Psychology, University of California, Berkeley, and has been at Minnesota from 1967 to the present. He was elected President of the Division of I/O Psychology of the APA in 1977/78 and from 1974 to 1982 served as associate editor and then editor of the Journal of Applied Psychology. He is the author of Managerial Behavior, Performance, and Effectiveness (with M. Dunnette, E. Lawler, and K. Weick, 1970), Measurement Theory for the Behavioral Sciences (with E. Ghiselli and S. Zedeck, 1978), What to Study: Generating and Developing Research Questions (with R. Daft and C. Hulin, 1984), Productivity in Organizations (with R. Campbell, 1988), and Exploring the Limits of Personnel Selection and Classification (with D. Knapp, 2001). He was awarded the Society of I/O Psychology Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award in 1991. From 1982–94 he served as Principal Scientist for the Army's Project A research program. Current research interests are in [Page xv]performance measurement, personnel selection and classification, and modeling the person/job match.
Thomas R. Carretta received his PhD in psychology in 1983 from the University of Pittsburgh. Currently, he is a Research Psychologist in the Crew Systems Development Branch of the Human Effectiveness Directorate of the Air Force Research Laboratory in Dayton, Ohio. Prior to his current position, he spent over 10 years in the Manpower and Personnel Research Division of the Air Force Research Laboratory in San Antonio, Texas, working on aircrew selection and classification issues. His professional interests include personnel measurement, selection, and individual and group differences.
Nicole Cunningham-Snell is Assessment and Psychology Manager at Shell International and works in the ‘Talent Identification and Leadership Development Team’. She provides selection and assessment methodology advice to the Shell Group of Companies globally and is directly involved in the design and delivery of Shell's assessment products. She obtained her PhD from Goldsmiths College, University of London and continues to actively research in the area of applicants' reactions to selection procedures.
Cynthia J. DeVore is a doctoral student in the I/O Psychology program at the University of Minnesota, Twin Cities campus. She received her BA in Computer Studies in 1983 at Macalester College. Her research interests include motivation, work stress, and organizational change.
Clive Fletcher is Professor of Occupational Psychology at Goldsmiths College, University of London. He is a Fellow of the British Psychological Society and a former Chair of its occupational psychology section. Dr Fletcher has authored 6 books and over 100 other publications on assessment centres, psychological testing, 360 degree feedback, performance appraisal, performance management and related topics. He has also acted as a consultant in these areas to a wide range of major organizations in the UK and internationally.
Christine A. Henle received her PhD (2001) in industrial/organizational psychology from Colorado State University. She is currently an Assistant Professor of Management at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte. Her research interests include counterproductive work behaviors, employment law, and human resource management systems.
Sarah A. Hezlett is a doctoral student in industrial and organizational psychology at the University of Minnesota, where she has taught courses on motivation and individual behavior in organizations. As a Senior Research Scientist & Consultant at Questar Data Systems, she designs organizational assessments and 360-degree feedback systems, helping individuals and organizations to interpret and take action on the results. Her research, which focuses on individual development, 360-degree feedback, and measurement issues, has appeared in Psychological Bulletin, Personnel Psychology, and Human Resource Management. She has an MA in I/O psychology from the University of Minnesota and an AB in Politics from Princeton University.[Page xvi]
Leaetta Hough is an internationally recognized expert in the design and implementation of human resource management systems such as selection, training, and performance management for companies such as Sony, Microsoft, and Verizon. She is also an expert in the development and use of personality inventories in work settings. Her work with personality variables during the 1980s has been recognized as instrumental in reviving the role of personality variables in the field of industrial, work, and organizational psychology as respectable and highly useful individual difference variables in understanding and predicting human behavior in the workplace. She is co-editor, along with Marvin Dunnette, of the four-volume Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, is senior author of the personnel selection chapter in the 2000 Annual Review of Psychology, and has contributed hundreds of other pieces in a variety of settings and outlets. She received her PhD from the University of Minnesota in 1981 and is a fellow of the American Psychological Society, the American Psychological Association, as well as its Divisions 5 (Evaluation, Measurement, and Statistics) and 14 (Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology). Dr Hough is currently president of Dunnette Group, Ltd.
John E. (Jack) Hunter (PhD, University of Illinois) is a professor in the Department of Psychology at Michigan State University. He has co-authored two books, Meta-Analysis and Mathematical Models in Attitude Change, and has published over 200 articles on a wide variety of topics. His current research in personnel focuses on the determinants of job performance, and in meta-analysis on the extension of meta-analytic methods to correct for artifacts not yet handled. He is also doing research in psychometric theory. Professor Hunter is a Fellow of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, the American Psychological Society and the American Psychological Association. He has received distinguished scientific contributions awards (with Frank Schmidt) from both the American Psychological Association and the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology.
Rabindra N. Kanungo is Professor Emeritus in Management and Organizational Behavior, Faculty of Management, McGill University, Montreal, Canada. He has published widely in both basic and applied areas of psychology and management. His publications include more than 200 professional articles, and 19 books. His latest book is Charismatic Leadership (co-authored with Jay A. Conger) published in 1998. He is a Fellow of the Canadian Psychological Association, past President of the International Association for the Study of Work and Organizational Values, and acts on several editorial boards of professional journals.
Véronique De Keyser is a Professor in Work and Organizational Psychology, and Director of the Work and Organizational Psychology Department at the University of Liège, Belgium. She is also President of the European Association for Work and Organizational Psychology and Co-director of the French revue ‘Le Travail Humain’. She is an expert for national authorities, FNRS (B) and CNRS (FR), and for the European Commission, Telematics (DRIVE), FAST, SCIENCE, HCM, BRITE-EURAM. Her team is involved in field and laboratory studies, basic and applied research in cognitive psychology and ergonomics. Her basic research is mainly focused on temporal reasoning, implicit learning, and [Page xvii]I.A. modeling. Her applied research in industrial sectors (mainly process control, aeronautics, anesthesiology, transport) concerns the evaluation and design of man-machine interfaces - including the design of computer-based technologies for cooperative work - safety and human reliability.
Nathan R. Kuncel is a doctoral student in I/O psychology at the University of Minnesota, where he received both an MA in I/O psychology and a BA in psychology. He held a three year National Science Foundation Graduate Fellowship and currently holds the Eva O. Miller Fellowship. His research is focused on personnel selection, educational selection, personality measurement, and the relations between ability, knowledge, skills, and job performance. His work on these topics has appeared in the Psychological Bulletin, the American Psychologist, and various conference papers. His work experience also includes several research positions at Personnel Decisions International.
Edward L. Levine grew up in the Red Hook section of Brooklyn NY before its current gentrification began. After being named valedictorian of Public School 27, he attended the prestigious Stuyvesant High School where he excelled in Latin and in Lunch. His abilities in the latter allowed him to become a member of the honor society and to graduate with honors. An early advocate of diversity his best buddies in high school were an Italian, who is now a university Dean, and a Greek, who, last he heard owned a Greek Diner in New York City. Having won a Regents College Scholarship, he decided he could make money on it if he lived at home and attended Brooklyn College. Despite some questioning of his decision to stay at home by his father, he started strong there as pre-med, but soon decided, after exposure to pungent odors and cloudy reagent bottles in Organic Chemistry, that Psychology was for him even after getting a D in intro-psych during his identity crisis. The identity crisis resolved itself once he met his Dulcinea, who in his case did not quite share some of the pedestrian characteristics of the original. As a senior he took a course in I/O psychology, which convinced him he could become a psychologist and still make a living. He received his PhD in Psychology from New York University with honors, and his career, which early on was focused on issues related to equal employment opportunity, led him to positions with the State of Arizona where he served as Chief of the Selection Resource Center, which provided job analysis, screening and selection services to state and local government agencies, and ultimately with the University of South Florida. He currently holds the position of Professor and Chairperson of the Department of Psychology, and has served as major professor for 13 PhD graduates of the I/O program to date, including the gifted Dr Juan I. Sanchez. Luckily they all still talk to him and even collaborate with him on projects such as the chapter in this handbook. A husband of his Dulcinea and proud father of a budding I/O psychologist, a budding pharmacist, and a budding slacker, who is determined to deplete all of his papa's retirement savings, Dr Levine holds a diplomate in I/O Psychology from the American Board of Professional Psychology, and has published widely in job analysis and related topics.
Hunter Mabon received his PhD degree (1974) in Human Resource Management from the Stockholm School of Economics. He is a Professor at the Stockholm [Page xviii]School of Business and has had his own business consultancy for many years. He has written eight textbooks which have been widely used in Swedish universities, one of which, Personnel Administration (1984), received the book of the year award. He has been Chairman of the Swedish Society for Human Resource Consultants and of the Personnel Economics Institute at Stockholm University. He has also been guest editor of the Journal of Human Resource Costing and Accounting. At present he is chairman of the board of Psykologiförlaget, the leading Swedish test publishing company. His primary research interests are costing human resource interventions, especially concerning selection and downsizing, as well as psychological testing in selection situations, and he has published a number of articles within these fields.
Cynthia D. McCauley is Vice President of New Initiatives at the Center for Creative Leadership, North Carolina. Her work at the Center has focused on enhancing leadership development knowledge and practice in the areas of 360-degree feedback, developmental relationships, challenging job assignments, and feedback-intensive programs. She has developed management assessment tools and is co-editor of The Center for Creative Leadership Handbook of Leadership Development. She holds a PhD in Industrial and Organizational Psychology from the University of Georgia.
Anne-Sophie Nyssen received a PhD in Work Psychology in 1997, from the University of Liège (Belgium), supported by the National Research Fund Foundation, under the direction of Professor V. De Keyser. The primary goal of her research focused on human errors in anaesthesia using interviews, questionnaires, and observations in the operating room as data sources. Progressively, the research extended its scope and an evaluation methodology was developed to assess the impact of technology changes on practitioner cognition. For the last four years, she has contributed to the use of a full-scale anesthesia simulator for training and research on expertise. In 1999, she received a grant from NATO to carry out post-PhD research at Stanford University. In the same year, her research project to develop a systemwide healthcare critical incident reporting system in Belgium was approved for funding by the Office of the Prime Minister of Belgium.
David Oborne is Professor and Head of the Department of Psychology at the University of Wales, Swansea. He has been the Prime Contractor for an ORA project (PATRA - Psychological Aspects of Teleworking in Rural Areas) and the Lead Contractor for an EU Horizon project (EDIT - Employment Development through Innovative Technologies). He has been a Partner and Associate Partner in TIDE and ORA projects, and the lead contractor in a Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) multimedia project. He is currently leading four other projects in Wales: SWIG (South Wales Information Gateway - ERDF), DEIS (Developing Employment in the Information Society - ESF), TeleTrain (Telematics-based Training System - Welsh Development Agency/Wales Information Society Initiative), and RMI (a Remote Multimedia Interviewing system - EPSRC). He has been an auditor, evaluator and raporteur for the European Union's ACTS programme. He has produced over 12 books on aspects of ergonomics and HCI and has written more than 30 articles in learned journals.[Page xix]
Cheri Ostroff received her PhD (1987) in industrial/organizational psychology from Michigan State University. She is currently Associate Professor of Psychology and Education at Teachers College, Columbia University. Her research interests include levels of analysis issues, person-environment fit, and human resource management systems. Her articles have appeared in journals such as Academy of Management Journal, Journal of Applied Psychology, Personnel Psychology, and Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes. She has received the Ernest J. McCormick Award for Early Career Contributions from the Society of Industrial Organizational Psychology, and the American Psychological Association's Distinguished Scientific Award for Early Career Contributions in Applied Research.
Sharon K. Parker is at the Australian Graduate School of Management, The University of New South Wales. She obtained her PhD from the Institute of Work Psychology, University of Sheffield, UK. Her current research interests concern how work design and related practices affect the development of flexible role orientations, proactivity, and role breadth self-efficacy amongst employees. Other research interests include stress, safety, performance, and equal opportunities. Her research has appeared in leading journals such as the Journal of Applied Psychology and the Academy of Management Journal. She is the co-author of a book entitled Job and Work Design: Organizing Work to Promote Well-being and Effectiveness.
Elissa L. Perry is an Assistant Professor of Psychology and Education at Teachers College, Columbia University. She received an MS and PhD in Organizational Behavior and Theory from Carnegie Melon University. Professor Perry has research interests in the role of demographic variables in human resource judgements, sexual harassment, and older workers. She has published articles in journals such as Academy of Management Review, Journal of Applied Psychology, and Journal of Applied Social Psychology.
Malcolm James Ree received his PhD in psychometrics in 1976 from the University of Pennsylvania. He is Associate Professor on the faculty of the Center for Leadership Studies at Our Lady of the Lake University, San Antonio, Texas. Formerly he was the Senior Scientist in the Space Warfighter Training Branch of the Human Effectiveness Directorate of the Air Force Research Laboratory. His professional interests include human abilities, individual differences, the intelligence-job performance nexus, and the history of statistics.
Philip L. Roth is Professor of Management at Clemson University. His research areas include personnel selection and research methods. His selection interests are in the areas of interviewing, grades as predictors of organizational outcomes, and utility analysis. His methods and interests are primarily in missing data and meta-analysis. He publishes in journals such as the Journal of Applied Psychology, Personnel Psychology, Journal of Management, and Organizational Research Methods.
Paul R. Sackett (Ohio State, 1979) is Professor of Psychology at the University of Minnesota. He served as the editor of Personnel Psychology from 1984 to 1990, [Page xx]as President of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (Div. 14), as co-chair of the Joint Committee on the 1999 Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing, as a member of the National Research Council's Board on Testing and Assessment, as chair of APA's Committee on Psychological Tests and Assessments, and as chair of APA's Board of Scientific Affairs. He is a fellow of Divisions 5 and 14, and serves on many editorial boards, including Psychological Bulletin and the Journal of Applied Psychology.
Jesus F. Salgado is Professor of Organizational Psychology in the Faculty of Psychology at the University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain. He has been a visiting fellow at the Goldsmiths College of the University of London. He has authored over 50 articles published in leading psychology and management journals, including Academy of Management Journal, Applied Psychology, Human Performance, International Journal of Selection and Assessment, International Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Journal of Applied Psychology, and Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology. He also has authored two books Comportamiento Organizational (Organizational Behavior) and Entrevista Conductual Estructurada (Structured Behavioral Interview). His research is mainly on the criterion validity and the international validity generalization of personnel selection procedures.
Juan I. Sanchez earned his PhD in Industrial/Organizational Psychology from the University of South Florida, Tampa. He currently holds an appointment of Associate Professor of Psychology at Florida International University in Miami. He has 17 years of experience in job analysis, assessment development, employment interview, and validation services. He is a member of the American Psychological Association, the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, and the Academy of Management. He has consulted with multiple organizations in the US, Latin America, and Europe. He has also consulted with government agencies such as the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the US Army, and the US Department of Labor. His research has been awarded by the International Personnel Management Association and the National Society for Performance and Instruction. He is currently a consulting editor of the leading journal in the field of industrial/organizational psychology, the Journal of Applied Psychology, and has published in refereed journals such as the Academy of Management Journal, the Academy of Management Executive, the Journal of Applied Psychology, the Journal of Organizational Behavior, the Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, Group and Organization Management, the Journal of Vocational Behavior, the Journal of Applied Social Psychology, the Journal of Quality Management, the Journal of Business and Psychology, Educational and Psychological Measurement, and Human Resources Management Review, among others. He is the author of a widely used measure of customer service skills commercialized by NCS/London House. Dr Sanchez occasionally serves as an expert witness in cases involving personnel selection and human resource assessment disputes.
Frank Schmidt (PhD, I/O psychology, Purdue 1970) is the Ralph L. Sheets Professor of Human Resources at the University of Iowa. He has published [Page xxi]numerous articles on validity generalization and practical utility in personnel selection and general articles on quantitative research methods. He is co-author of a widely used text on meta-analysis and has authored numerous journal articles on meta-analysis. He has received distinguished scientific contributions awards (with John Hunter) from both the American Psychological Association and the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology.
Paul E. Spector is Professor of Industrial/Organizational (I/O) Psychology and Director of the I/O Doctoral Program at the University of South Florida. He has over 100 publications concerning both content and methodology in the field. He has conducted research on employees of hundreds of organizations worldwide. Professor Spector has also written three books on research methodology. His scientific writing has been recognized by the Institute for Scientific Information in their list of the top 50 psychology scholars (out of 102,000) worldwide. He currently holds two editorships for top journals of the field, the Journal of Organizational Behavior and the Journal of Occupational and Organizational Behavior, and he is on the editorial board of six other major scientific journals in the field, including Journal of Applied Psychology and Journal of Management.
James Steindl is a doctoral student in psychometrics and statistics at the University of Texas at Austin and a newly commissioned Ensign in the United States Navy. He is an Arab linguist as well as a psychometrician. His professional interests include individual differences, statistics, and personnel selection.
Sully Taylor, PhD, University of Washington, is an Associate Professor of International Management at Portland State University. She has conducted consulting, training or research with such organizations as Boeing, Dow Chemical, British Telecommunications, NEC, Mitsubishi, Tellabs, Fujitsu, and has received Fulbright research awards to Japan and to Chile. Her teaching and research interests are in international management, international human resource management, and global learning organizations. She is a member of the JAI Advances in International Comparative Management series editorial board, and is the program chair for the International Western Academy of Management meeting in Japan, 2000. She is the co-author (with Nancy Napier) of the book Western Women Working in Japan: Breaking Corporate Barriers, and her work has appeared in such outlets as Academy of Management Review, Human Resource Management, Sloan Management Review, Advances in International Comparative Management, and Human Resource Planning.
Toby D. Wall is a Professor of Occupational Psychology at the University of Sheffield, UK. He is Director of the University's Institute of Work Psychology and of the UK's Economic and Social Research Council's Centre for Organisation and Innovation. He received his PhD in psychology from the University of Nottingham. His current research interests encompass the effects of modern technologies, management practices and work organization on performance, strain and innovation. His research has appeared in the Journal of Applied Psychology as well as other leading journals. He is the author or editor of several books, including The Human Side of Advanced Manufacturing Technology.[Page xxii]
Preface[Page xxiii]Toward a Global Science of IWO Psychology
From scientific management to human relations movement, from cottage industries to craft guilds, from the industrial age to the informational society, the issues that have dominated the field of Industrial, Work and Organizational (IWO) Psychology have changed over the years. In the 21st century, IWO Psychology is becoming a global science and an arena for professional practice. In editing these two volumes, our objectives were (1) to cover recent research on work and organizational psychology by leading experts around the globe and (2) to develop a psychology of work principles that are applicable across international boundaries.
Volume 1 primarily focuses on individuals in organizations and covers personnel psychology issues. Volume 2 primarily covers organizational psychology topics that have a greater emphasis on the group, inter-group, and organizational level analyses. Both volumes include chapters on topic areas stipulated in the SIOP (Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology), EAWOP (European Association for Work and Organizational Psychology), and Australian I/O psychology teaching syllabi, as well as topics commonly laid down by national bodies and associations in IWO Psychology.
It was our intention, as editors of this Handbook, to produce a globally contributed, globally oriented, and globally relevant collection of chapters which comprehensively covered the major topics comprising our field into the 21st Century. Such lofty ideals may well occur to the reader as having a somewhat grandiose flavor to them, so much so that in reality it is impossible to produce a truly ‘global’ treatise given such manifest cross-cultural, socio-economic, and historical differences. We were indeed highly conscious that this aim set our sights high, but we were equally determined not to allow a drift downward into parochial, single nation, local issues and perspectives to dominate this Handbook. The very title Handbook of Industrial, Work and Organizational Psychology reflects these aspirations on the part of the editors. Credit is due to our esteemed colleague Paul Sackett who proposed this internationally encompassing title for our field as a combination of Industrial-Organizational (I/O) Psychology in the USA, and Work and Organizational (W/O) Psychology in Europe and other countries worldwide. It is our sincere hope that IWO Psychology becomes the embracing, internationally recognized title for our field as it develops into a global arena for science and practice into the next millennium.[Page xxiv]
One important question that arises immediately from this simple issue over our choice of a title for these volumes is ‘to what extent is IWO Psychology presently a global science and professional practice?’. As editors of this two-volume set, our view is that our field is fast becoming precisely this, a global science and practice. Let us consider the scientific and practitioner wings briefly in turn.
First, scientific findings in IWO Psychology generated predominantly in the USA have been increasingly subjected to validation in other countries around the world. No area has been more exposed to such a trend toward verification of the international validity generalization of American findings as that of recruitment and selection. Selection researchers in Europe, and elsewhere, have begun to suggest that results for certain effects found in the USA do indeed possess generalizability to other countries and cultures, countering earlier challenges that the science of IWO Psychology is merely an artifact of American culture rather than a truly global science.
Second, we have witnessed the emergence of an entirely new sub-discipline within IWO Psychology concerned exclusively with cross-national and international issues. The growth of international assignments, expatriate selection and management issues has further fueled this field, with organizations and scientists in IWO Psychology becoming concerned with cross-national moves, issues of leadership style, and re-acculturation in post-overseas assignment of personnel back into their countries of origin. These developments have shifted the perceptual, analytical, and disciplinary boundaries of IWO Psychology forever away from parochial, within-country studies; our zone of proximal development, so to speak, has been inexorably driven by these environmental changes toward international concerns and challenges.
With regard to the practice of IWO Psychology, alongside this diversification of scientific focus, simultaneous changes in the practice of organizational psychology have also taken on an increasingly multinational shape and size. Several consultancies now boast a multinational presence and practice with IWO Psychologists being moved between different country offices where and whenever appropriate. The largest consultancies, including Personnel Decisions International, SHL, SRA, Aon and Gallup have indeed possessed this global presence for some years now; the inevitable implication of which has been a move toward a more synonymous and standardized practice across rather than within countries. Whether there is yet a single, global market for IWO consultancy is a moot point; national and cultural differences clearly still play some part in the professional practice of our discipline. But what is inescapable is that the move toward global players on the practitioner wing of our discipline has resulted in significantly greater collaboration and sharing of expertise across countries in IWO Psychology.
In this two-volume series, we set out to summarize the major principles learnt over the years in IWO Psychology. The chapters are written by internationally eminent authors based in a variety of countries worldwide, including the USA, UK, Spain, Australia, Belgium, China, The Netherlands, Turkey, Italy, and Canada. This eclectic mix of countries of author origin was intentional on the part of the editors, in part to ensure a truly global set of contributions to this Handbook. This is especially the case at the organizational level of analysis, where the [Page xxv]globalization of international business and work organizations has created strikingly similar issues to come to the fore in many countries worldwide over more recent years. To neglect these inescapable inter-linkages would be to neglect the globalization of business markets, and it is therefore entirely appropriate that IWO psychology embraces these trends and insurgent patterns.
The chapters in both volumes are geared to consolidate the research and theory on topics that IWO psychologists study, drawing upon research and practice across the globe, to build theory. The ideas presented herein, hopefully, reflect and satisfy the demands of an increasingly global science and practice of IWO Psychology in the 21st century.London/Amsterdam, March, 2001, Istanbul , Minneapolis , Miami , [Page xxvi]
Co-editing a major, globally relevant Handbook of Industrial, Work and Organizational Psychology required much collaboration and effort from all of us. We also experienced, first hand, what is possible in working with a team whose members were on different continents, and from varied cultural backgrounds. First, and foremost thanks are due to each other for making this a fun team to be part of. We have provided each other intellectual challenges and social support through the past three years. We have been good for each other, and hopefully good for these volumes. The order of authorship listed for the two volumes (Anderson, Ones, Sinangil, and Viswesvaran) is alphabetical. We truly shared the work equally.
For the actualization of the Handbook with 43 chapters across 2 volumes, our gratitude goes to the 79 eminent authors across 14 countries. They accepted our invitation with enthusiasm, and devoted considerable amount of effort to this project. Not only did they produce outstanding chapters, but also were timely with their revisions.
The volume of administrative work on this undertaking turned out to be much greater than anticipated. In hindsight, working with individuals across 14 different time zones is not an easy task. Our support staff at the University of Minnesota's Psychology Department, where our Administrative Headquarters was located, were more helpful and important for this project than they will ever realize. We would like to express our gratitude to Jocelyn Wilson and Jeanette Shelton, who were our chief editorial assistants during 2000–2001 and 1999–2000, respectively. Their efficiency, professionalism, and enthusiasm made our editorial work a little easier and a little less distressing. During especially hectic times, Barbara Hamilton, Rachel Gamm and Jennifer Benka also lent helping hands and we are thankful for that. Partial financial support for the Handbook editorial office was provided by the Department of Psychology of the University of Minnesota, as well as the Hellervik Chair endowment.
We also would like to extend our sincerest thanks to the original commissioning editor of these volumes, Naomi Meredith and the SAGE (publishing) team. During the various phases of the Handbook, we relied on opinions of many colleagues and students at the University of Minnesota, Marmara University, Goldsmiths College, and Florida International University. The intellectual stimulation and care that they so freely gave proved to be invaluable.
Those closest to us, perhaps gave the most and suffered the greatest during the completion of this project. To them, we offer genuine apologies for the neglect they had to endure and for the encouragement, they, nonetheless, provided, while we labored long hours during nights and weekends. For this, Deniz would like to [Page xxviii]thank Ates Haner (my dear husband, and an extraordinarily wonderful man), Handan would like to thank Sinan Sinangil (my good friend and husband), and Vish would like to thank Saraswathy Viswesvaran (my invaluable wife and best friend).
It is our sincere hope that these two volumes prove useful to the field of IWO Psychology.
Author Index to Volume 1