The SAGE Handbook of Organizational Discourse

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Edited by: D. Grant, C. Hardy, C. Oswick & L. Putnam

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    Michael Barrett Judge Institute of Management, Cambridge University

    David Barry School of Management, Victoria University, Wellington

    Nic Beech Graduate School of Business, Strathclyde University

    David M. Boje Department of Management, New Mexico State University

    Patrice Buzzanell Department of Communication, Purdue University

    Marta B. Calás Isenberg School of Management, University of Massachusetts

    Chris Carter Department of Management, University of St Andrews

    Jane Dutton University of Michigan Business School

    Peter Frost Sauder School of Business, University of British Columbia

    Robert L. Heath School of Communication, University of Houston

    Monika Kostera School of Management, Warsaw University

    Robert Kraut School of Computer Science, Carnegie Mellon University

    Tom Lawrence Faculty of Business Administration, Simon Fraser University

    Robert J. Marshak Distinguished Adjunct Professor, The American University, Washington DC

    Michael K. Mauws School of Business, University of Alberta

    Robert McPhee Hugh Downs School of Human Communication, Arizona State University

    Kamal Ahmed Munir Judge Institute of Management, University of Cambridge

    Martin Parker Management Centre, University of Leicester

    Nelson Phillips Judge Institute of Management, University of Cambridge

    Marshall Scott Poole Department of Communication, Texas A&M University

    Anita Pomerantz Department of Communication, University at Albany, SUNY

    Edna Rogers Department of Communication, University of Utah

    Graham Sewell Department of Management, University of Melbourne

    David Sims Cass Business School, City University of London

    Linda Smircich Isenberg School of Management, University of Massachusetts

    Andrew Sturdy Business School, Imperial College London

    Hari Tsoukas ALBA (Athens Laboratory of Business Administration), Greece

    Margaret Wetherell Faculty of Social Sciences, The Open University, UK

    JoAnne Yates Sloan School of Management, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

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    Introduction

    An increasingly significant body of management literature is applying discursive forms of analysis to a range of organizational issues. This emerging arena of research is not only important in providing new insights into processes of organizing, it has also informed and influenced the broader fields of organizational and management studies.

    The SAGE Handbook of Organizational Discourse is the definitive text for those with research and teaching interests in the field of organizational discourse. It provides an important overview of the domains of study, methodologies and perspectives used in research on organizational discourse. It shows how discourse analysis has moved beyond its roots in literary theory to become an important approach in the study of organizations.

    The editors of the Handbook, all renowned authors and experts in this field, have provided an invaluable resource on the application, importance and relevance of discourse to organizational issues for use by tutors and researchers working in the field, as well as providing important reference material for newcomers to this area. Each chapter, written by a leading author on their subject, covers an overview of the existing literature and also frames the future of the field in ways which challenge existing preconceptions.

    The SAGE Handbook of Organizational Discourse is indispensable to the teaching, study and research of organizational discourse and will enable readers to develop a level of understanding of organizations commensurate with the most recent, state of the art, theoretical developments in the broader field of organization studies.

    List of Contributors

    Editors

    David Grant is Professor in Work and Organizational Studies, the School of Business, at the University of Sydney. He is also a Codirector of the International Centre for Research on Organizational Discourse Strategy and Change and Visiting Senior Research Fellow at the Management Centre, King's College, London. His current research interests focus on the social constructivist effects of language in order to explain the implementation and impact of various organizational change initiatives. He has published in a range of refereed journals including Academy of Management Review, Organization, Human Relations, The Journal of Management Studies, Organization Studies, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, International Studies in Management and Organization and The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science. He has also coedited Discourse and Organization (1998, with Tom Keenoy and Cliff Oswick), Metaphor and Organizations (1996, with Cliff Oswick) and Organizational Development: Metaphorical Explorations (1996, with Cliff Oswick).

    Cynthia Hardy has been Professor of Management at the University of Melbourne, Australia since 1998. Before then, she was a professor in the Faculty of Management at McGill University in Canada. Her current research interests focus on organizational discourse theory and discourse analysis. In addition to coediting this Handbook, she has recently published with Nelson Phillips a qualitative methods book on using discourse analysis to study organizations, and has coedited a special issue of Organization Studies on organizational discourse with Dave Grant, Tom Keenoy, Cliff Oswick and Nelson Phillips. Her work on organizational discourse has been published in Academy of Management Review, Organization Studies, Human Relations and Organization. Cynthia Hardy has also conducted a number of critical studies of power and politics in organizations, especially with regard to interorganizational collaboration and strategy making. In total, she has published 12 books and edited volumes, including the Handbook of Organization Studies, published by Sage, which won the 1997 George R Terry Book Award at the Academy of Management. She has written over 60 journal articles and book chapters. Cynthia Hardy is also coeditor of Organization Studies.

    Cliff Oswick (PhD, King's College, University of London) is Professor of Organization Theory and Discourse at The Management Centre, University of Leicester, UK. His current research interests are concerned with the application of aspects of discourse, dramaturgy, tropes, narrative and rhetoric to processes of management, organizing and consumption. He has coedited several collections and has published widely on these topics in journals, including recent and forthcoming contributions to Academy of Management Review, Journal of Management Studies, Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, Human Relations, Journal of Organizational Change Management and Organization. He is also a Regional Editor of the Journal of Organizational Change Management.

    Linda L. Putnam (PhD, University of Minnesota) is Professor of Organizational Communication in the Department of Communication at Texas A&M University. Her current research interests include negotiation and organizational conflict and language analysis in organizations. She is the coeditor of The New Handbook of Organizational Communication (Sage, 2001), Communication and Negotiation (1992), Communication and Organization: An Interpretive Approach (1983) and the Handbook of Organizational Communication (1987). She is a past President of the International Communication Association, a past President of the International Association of Conflict Management, and is a past Board Memberat Large of the Academy of Management. She is a Fellow of the International Communication Association and a Distinguished Scholar of the National Communication Association.

    Authors

    Susan Ainsworth is a Lecturer in Work and Organizational Studies at the University of Sydney, Australia. She recently completed a PhD at the University of Melbourne, studying the social construction of older worker identity using discourse analysis. Her other research interests include gender studies, public policy and critical organization studies. She holds a BA (Hons) in English Literature and Language and a Master of Commerce (Hons) from the University of Melbourne. She has published in Organization Studies, Gender, Work and Organization and Tamara: Journal of Critical Postmodern Organization Science.

    Mats Alvesson is Professor of Business Administration at the University of Lund, Sweden. He has previously held positions in Montreal, Turku, Linköping, Stockholm and Göteborg and has been a visiting academic at the universities of Cambridge, Melbourne, Colorado and Oxford. He received his PhD from the University of Lund in 1984. Research interests include critical theory, gender, power, management of professional service (knowledge intensive) organizations, organizational culture and symbolism, qualitative method and philosophy of science. Recent books include Making Sense of Management: A Critical Introduction (Sage, 1996, with Hugh Willmott), Communication, Power and Organization (de Gruyter, 1996), Understanding Gender and Organizations (Sage, 1997, with Yvonne Billing), Reflexive Methodology (Sage, 2000), Doing Critical Management Research (Sage, 2000, with Stan Deetz), Postmodernism and Social Research (Open University Press, 2002), Understanding Organizational Culture (Sage, 2002) and Knowledge Work and Knowledge intensive Firms (Oxford University Press, 2004).

    Donald Anderson, PhD, is a faculty member in applied communication at the University of Denver, Colorado. His research focuses on stability and change in organizational discourse, writing in organizations, and communication theory and the work of philosopher Mikhail Bakhtin. He has published in Discourse Studies and the Journal of Business and Technical Communication.

    Karen Lee Ashcraft received her PhD in 1998 from the University of Colorado at Boulder. She is an Associate Professor in the Department of Communication at the University of Utah. Her research examines gender, power, professional identity and alternative organizational forms, and has appeared in such forums as Communication Monographs, Administrative Science Quarterly and the Academy of Management Journal. Her recent coauthored book with Dennis Mumby, Reworking Gender, explores the relationship between feminist and critical organization studies and proposes a communication approach to the study of gender and organizing.

    Frank J. Barrett, PhD, is Associate Professor of Systems Management at the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California where he is Director of the Center for Positive Change. He is also a Faculty Member in the School of Human and Organizational Development at the Fielding Graduate Institute. He received his BA in Government and International Relations from the University of Notre Dame, his MA in English from the University of Notre Dame, and his PhD in Organizational Behaviour from Case Western Reserve University. He has written and lectured widely on social constructionism, appreciative inquiry, organizational change, jazz improvisation and organizational learning. He has published articles in the Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, Human Relations, Organization Science and Organizational Dynamics, as well as numerous book chapters. He is coeditor of Appreciative Inquiry and Organizational Transformation (Greenwood Books, 2001).

    Pablo J. Boczkowski (PhD, Science and Technology Studies, 2001, Cornell University) is Assistant Professor of Organization Studies at the Sloan School of Management, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and holds the Cecil and Ida Green Career Development Chair at MIT. He studies how the construction and use of new media technologies affect work practices, communication processes, and interaction with consumers, focusing on organizations and occupations that have traditionally been associated with print media. He is the author of Digitizing the News: Innovation in Online Newspapers, MIT Press, 2004. His current project looks at issues of information intermediation and professional work through an examination of the transformations in librarianship that have taken place in relation to libraries' construction and use of new media technologies.

    Kirsten Broadfoot (PhD, University of Colorado at Boulder) is currently a Lecturer in Management Communication at the University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand. Her scholarly work is founded in dialogic approaches to organizational and cultural communication and the discursive construction of work, knowledge, technology and self for, and by, organizations and individuals. Using ethnographic methods and critical discourse analysis, Kirsten's current research interests explore new forms of working and workplaces, the discourse of genetics and its intersection with medicine. More specifically, her work examines the impact of such forces on diverse ways of knowing, being and speaking. Her research and teaching highlights the dialectical and tensionfilled relationship between communicative micropractices and organizing structures, and how these interact to foreclose opportunities for ‘good work’ in everyday life. She will join the Communication Faculty at Colorado State University in January 2005.

    George Cheney is Professor of Communication at the University of Utah and Adjunct Professor in the Department of Management Communication, the University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand. He has published four books and more than 70 journal articles and book chapters. George's research and teaching interests include identity and power in organizations, quality of worklife, corporate public discourse, employee participation and workplace democracy, and professional ethics. George is a past chair of the Organizational Communication Division of the National Communication Association, and he has lectured extensively in Western Europe and Latin America. He is committed to community engagement, service learning and positive social transformation.

    Lars Thøger Christensen (PhD, Odense University) is Professor of Communications at the Department of Marketing, the University of Southern Denmark. Previously he was research professor at the Copenhagen Business School where he established the CBS Center for Corporate Communication. Lars's research and teaching interests include several themes within the broad fields of organizational and corporate communication, for example identity, issues management, integration, advertising and transparency. In addition to four books, his research is published in Organization Studies, European Journal of Marketing, Consumption, Markets and Culture, The New Handbook of Organizational Communication, The Handbook of Public Relations, Communication Yearbook, and elsewhere. Lars's contribution to this book was made possible by a grant from the Danish Social Science Research Council.

    Charles Conrad is Professor of Organizational Communication and Organizational Rhetoric in the Department of Communication at Texas A&M University and editor of Management Communication Quarterly. His research focuses on the interface among organizational discourse, power and politics, and has appeared in the Quarterly Journal of Speech, Journal of Applied Communication Research, Communication Monographs and Management Communication Quarterly. He is currently involved in research on processes through which organization discourse influences public policymaking in the USA.

    Francis Cooren is an Associate Professor in the Department of Communication of the University of Montreal, Canada. His research centres on the organizing properties of communication as displayed in high reliability organizations, coalitions and board meetings. Recent publications include two articles ‘Translation and articulation in the organization of coalitions: The Great Whale River Case’ (2001, Communication Theory) and ‘Implicatures: A schematic approach’ (2002, Journal of Pragmatics) and a book, The Organizing Property of Communication (John Benjamins, 2000). He is currently editing two books titled Interacting and Organizing: Analyses of a Board Meeting and Communication as Organizing: Practical Approaches to Research into the Dynamic of Text and Conversation (with James R. Taylor and Elizabeth Van Every). He is also the recipient of the 2002 International Communication Association Young Scholar Award.

    Barbara Czarniawska holds a Chair in Management Studies at Gothenburg Research Institute, School of Economics and Commercial Law, Gothenburg University, Sweden. Her research focuses on organizing in action nets, most recently in the field of big city management. In terms of methodology, she favours the narrative approach. She has published in the area of business and public administration in Polish, her native language, as well as in Swedish, Italian and English, the most recent positions being A Narrative Approach to Organization Studies (Sage, 1998), Writing Management (Oxford University Press, 1999), A Tale of Three Cities (Oxford University Press, 2003) and Narratives in Social Science Research (Sage, 2004). A member of both the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences since 2000 and the Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences since 2001, Barbara was awarded the Wihuri International Prize in 2003.

    Stanley Deetz, PhD, is Professor of Communication at the University of Colorado, Boulder, where he teaches courses in organizational theory, organizational communication and communication theory. He is coauthor of Leading Organizations through Transition (Sage, 2000) and Doing Critical Management Research (Sage, 2000), and author of Transforming Communication, Transforming Business (Hampton, 1995) and Democracy in an Age of Corporate Colonization (SUNY, 1992), as well as editor or author of eight other books. He has published nearly 100 essays in scholarly journals and books. His academic interests include stakeholder representation, culture, and communication in corporate organizations. He has served as a consultant on culture, diversity and participatory decisionmaking for several major corporations in the USA and Europe. He is a Fellow of the International Communication Association and served as its President, 1996–97.

    Norman Fairclough is Professor of Language in Social Life at Lancaster University in the UK. He has written extensively on critical discourse analysis, including Language and Power (2nd edition, Longman, 2000), Discourse and Social Change (Polity Press, 1992), Discourse in Late Modernity (Edinburgh University Press, 1999, with Lilie Chouliaraki), New Labour, New Language? (Routledge, 2000), Analysing Discourse: Textual Analysis for Social Research (Routledge, 2003).

    Gail T. Fairhurst is a Professor of Communication at the University of Cincinnati, USA. Her research interests include leadership and language analysis in organizations. She has published over 40 articles and book chapters in management and communication journals. She also recently coauthored The Art of Framing: Managing the Language of Leadership (Jossey Bass, 1996), which received the 1997 National Communication Association (USA) Organizational Communication Book of the Year Award. She is currently working on a book entitled, Discursive Approaches to Leadership.

    Yiannis Gabriel is Professor in Organizational Theory, School of Management, Imperial College, having taught previously at Thames Polytechnic and Bath University. He has a degree in Mechanical Engineering from Imperial College London, where he also carried out postgraduate studies in industrial sociology. He has a PhD in Sociology from the University of California, Berkeley. His main research interests are in organizational and psychoanalytic theories, consumer studies, storytelling, folklore and culture. Gabriel is author of Freud and Society, Working Lives in Catering (both Routledge) and Organizations in Depth (Sage), coauthor of Organizing and Organizations, The Unmanageable Consumer: Contemporary Consumption and Its Fragmentation and Experiencing Organizations (all Sage), and Storytelling in Organizations (Oxford University Press, 2000). Other publications include articles on computer folklore, organizational nostalgia, chaos and complexity in organizations, fantasies of organizational members about their leaders, organizational insults and research methodology using stories and narratives. He has been Editor of the journal Management Learning and is Associate Editor of Human Relations.

    Kenneth J. Gergen is the Mustin Professor of Psychology at Swarthmore College. He is a leading figure in the development of social constructionist thought and practice, and the recipient of numerous awards, including honorary degrees in both Europe and the USA. Among his major works are Toward Transformation in Social Knowledge, Realities and Relationships, The Saturated Self and An Invitation to Social Construction. Professor Gergen is also the Director of the Taos Institute, a nonprofit organization linking social constructionist theory to societal practices.

    Mary Gergen is a Professor of Psychology and of Women's Studies at Pennsylvania State University, Delaware County. Her published work links social constructionism with feminist theory. Her most recent book is Feminist Reconstructions in Psychology: Narrative, Gender and Performance (Sage, 2001). She is also coeditor of Readings in Social Construction (Sage, 2003, with K.J. Gergen) and a coauthor of The Appreciative Organization. As a founder of the Taos Institute, she has been involved in workshops and conferences that bring social constructionism and organizational practices into closer connection.

    Christian Heath has held positions at the Universities of Manchester, Surrey, Nottingham and London, and visiting positions at the Universities of Constance, Paris and Lyon. He serves as a scientific consultant to various academic, service and industrial organizations in the UK and abroad, including the UK research councils and the European Commission. He also serves on various conference committees, and advisory and editorial boards. He teaches courses on research methods, social interaction, work and technology.

    Loizos Heracleous earned his PhD at the Judge Institute of Management Studies, University of Cambridge. He is Associate Professor at the School of Business, National University of Singapore. From 2004 he will be Fellow in Strategy and Organization, Templeton College, Oxford University. His research interests include organizational discourse, organization change and development, and structurational approaches to organizational analysis. His work has been published in several journals, including the Academy of Management Journal, Human Relations and Journal of Applied Behavioral Science. He serves as a senior editor of Organization Studies, international consulting editor of the Journal of Applied Behavioral Science and is an editorial board member of the Journal of Management Studies and of the Asia Pacific Journal of Management.

    Deborah Jones is a Senior Lecturer in the Victoria School of Management at Victoria University in Wellington, Aotearoa/New Zealand. She has degrees in English and Management Studies and teaches communication and organizational studies with a focus on difference and power. She is interested in national identity as well as gender, ethnicity and age at work, and has initiated an ongoing study of the New Zealand film industry from an organizational perspective.

    Tom Keenoy is Reader in Management and Senior Research Fellow at the Management Centre, King's College, University of London. His most recent book is the coedited Discourse and Organization (Sage, 1998) and he has published widely in international journals. His current research interests include organizational discourse analysis, organizational tropes, the construction of HRM, time and organization, the coconstruction of management in cooperative organization, and the changing tempo of sensemaking in academic work.

    Mihaela Kelemen (DPhil, University of Oxford) is a Senior Lecturer in Quality Management and Organization Studies at Keele University in the UK. Her research concentrates on critical and postmodern approaches to quality management, Eastern European management and research methodologies and has been published in journals such as Organization, Human Relations and Journal of Management Studies. Her book on critical quality management was published by Sage in 2003.

    Martin Kilduff (PhD, Cornell University) is a Professor of Organizational Behaviour at The Pennsylvania State University. He currently serves as an associate editor at both Administrative Science Quarterly and Academy of Management Review. His research focuses on how individuals help create the worlds that constrain and enable their behaviours. His recent work includes Social Networks and Organizations (Sage, 2003, with Wenpin Tsai) and the article ‘Bringing ideas back in: Eclecticism and discovery in organizational studies’, Research in the Sociology of Organizations, forthcoming (coauthored with Mihaela Kelemen).

    Hubert Knoblauch (PhD, 1959) is Professor of Sociology at the Technical University of Berlin (since 2003). He studied Sociology, Philosophy and History at the University of Konstanz, FRG, and at the University of Sussex, UK, and has taught at the Universities of Konstanz, Sankt Gallen, Bern and Prague. He won the Christa Hoffmann Riem Award for Qualitative Sociology in 1997. He was Heisenberg Scholar, 1997–2000; Senior Research Fellow at King's College, London, 1998–99 and Professor for the Sociology of Religion at the University of Zurich, 2000–03.

    Daniel J. Lair is a doctoral student in the Communication Department at the University of Utah. His research interests lie in organizational communication and rhetoric, with a particular focus on issues of work and identity, worklife and corporate discourse.

    Paul Luff is a Senior Research Fellow at King's College, London. His research focuses on the relationships between studies of work and the development of new technologies. In particular, he is interested in how detailed analysis of work and interaction can assist in the design of computer systems to support collaborative work. He has published extensively in the fields of human computer interaction, requirement engineering and computer supported cooperative work.

    Dennis K. Mumby (PhD, Southern Illinois University, 1985) is a Professor in the Department of Communication Studies at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, USA. His research focuses on the relationships among discourse, power, gender and organization. He has published in journals such as Academy of Management Review, Communication Monographs and Management Communication Quarterly. He is the coauthor (with Karen Ashcraft) of Reworking Gender: A Feminist Communicology of Organization (Sage, 2004).

    Wanda J. Orlikowski is Professor of Information Technologies and Organization Studies at the Sloan School of Management and the Eaton Peabody Chair of Communication Sciences at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Her primary research interest focuses on the dynamic relationship between organizations and information technologies, with particular emphases on organizing structures, cultural norms, communication genres and work practices. She is currently leading a five year National Science Foundation project on the social and economic implications of Internet technologies.

    Nelson Phillips (PhD, University of Alberta, 1995) is the Beckwith Professor of Management Studies at the Judge Institute of Management, University of Cambridge. His research interests include knowledge management, multinationals and international development, interorganizational collaboration, and a general interest in management in cultural industries. He has published a number of academic articles in the Academy of Management Journal, Academy of Management Review, Sloan Management Review, Journal of Management Studies, Journal of Management Inquiry, Business & Society, Journal of Business Ethics, Business Ethics Quarterly, Organization Science, Organization and Organization Studies. He has also written a methods book with Cynthia Hardy on discourse analysis and the study of organizations.

    Craig Prichard is a former newspaper reporter who, through a strange mixture of accident and coincidence, turned to academic work when he took a job researching journalism education in UK regional newspapers. He graduated with a PhD from the University of Nottingham in 1998 after writing a thesis on the shift to managerialism in UK further and higher education, and is currently senior lecturer in the Department of Management at Massey University in New Zealand. While research topics range widely, recent work includes papers on death in the workplace, relations between Foucault and Marx in organization studies, social movement organizations, management identity and higher education management. A core theme of his work is how useful and important discourse analytic research is to understanding and changing people, organizations and societies.

    Mike Reed is Professor of Organization Analysis and Deputy Director (Research) at Cardiff Business School, Cardiff University, Wales, UK. His research interests focus on the organization and control of ‘expert work’ in a range of institutional environments. In pursuing these research interests, Mike draws extensively on the philosophical, theoretical and methodological resources provided by critical realism in order to develop ‘analytical histories’ of organizational restructuring in contemporary capitalist societies and political economies. Recently, he has published on a wide range of theoretical and substantive issues, including the ‘agency/structure’ dilemma, ‘new public management/new managerialism’, the management of UK universities, and the putative emergence of ‘network based’ organizational forms. He is working on a book, Beyond The Iron Cage?: The Dynamics of Organizational Control in Contemporary Capitalism. But, as his son Christopher never fails to remind him, this book should have been finished and published a long time ago! He is one of the founder editors of the journal Organization.

    Ralph Stablein is the Academic Director of the DBA programme and a Professor in the Management Department of the Massey University College of Business, New Zealand. He received his BA in psychology and economics from Benedictine University, his MA in economics from Western Illinois University and his PhD in organization behaviour from the Kellogg Graduate School of Management at Northwestern University. Ralph has worked at the University of British Columbia, the University of Otago and Massey University. He has been a visiting scholar at Stanford University's Work, Technology and Organization Center, New York University, Benedictine University, South Florida University and the University of Western Sydney. Both his research and teaching focus on inquiry in organization studies. Ralph serves on the editorial board of the Academy of Management Review, Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, Journal of Organizational Change Management and Organization Studies. He is coeditor of the Advances in Organization Studies series published by John Benjamins and serves as the chair of the Critical Management Studies Interest Group of the Academy of Management.

    Pete Thomas is a Senior Lecturer at Lancashire Business School with research interests in the development and dissemination of managerial and organizational discourses. At present his research is focused on the ‘translation’ process between management education and management practice, particularly in terms of the ways in which discourse is transformed into other moments of social practice. The political and power effects of management discourse is also a key interest area.

    Karl E. Weick is the Rensis Likert Distinguished University Professor of Organizational Behavior and Psychology, and Professor of Psychology at the University of Michigan. His PhD is from Ohio State University in Social and Organizational Psychology. He is a former Editor of the journal Administrative Science Quarterly (1977–85) and former Associate editor of the journal Organizational Behavior and Human Performance (1971–77). His research interests include collective sense making under pressure, medical errors, handoffs and transitions in dynamic events, high reliability performance, improvisation and continuous change.


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