Handbook of New Media: Social Shaping and Social Consequences of ICTs, Updated Student Edition
Publication Year: 2010
Subject: New Media & Communication Technology
Thoroughly revised and updated, this Student Edition of the successful Handbook of New Media has been abridged to showcase the best of the hardback edition. This Handbook sets out boundaries of new media research and scholarship and provides a definitive statement of the current state-of-the-art of the field. Covering major problem areas of research, the Handbook of New Media includes an introductory essay by the editors and a concluding essay by Ron Rice. Each chapter, written by an internationally renowned scholar, provides a review of the most significant social research findings and insights.
- Front Matter
- Subject Index
- Introduction to the Updated Student Edition
- Introduction to the First Edition (2002) the Social Shaping and Consequences of ICTs
Part One: New Media, Culture and Society
- Chapter 1: Interpersonal Life Online
- Chapter 2: Creating Community with Media: History, Theories and Scientific Investigations
- Chapter 3: Children and New Media
- Chapter 4: Perspectives on Internet Use: Access, Involvement and Interaction
- Chapter 5: New Media and Small Group Organizing
- Chapter 6: Culture and New Media: A Historical View
- Chapter 7: Cultural Studies and Communication Technology
- Chapter 8: Power and Political Culture
Part Two: Technology Systems, Design and Industries
- Chapter 9: New Media History
- Chapter 10: Exploring Models of Interactivity from Multiple Research Traditions: Users, Documents and Systems
- Chapter 11: How to Infrastructure
- Chapter 12: New Media Design and Development: Diffusion of Innovations v Social Shaping of Technology
- Chapter 13: New Media and New Economy Cluster Dynamics
- Chapter 14: Globalization and the Structure of New Media Industries
- Chapter 15: Universal Access to the New Information Infrastructure
Part Three: New Media, Institutions and Governance
- Chapter 16: The Regulation of Digital Content
- Chapter 17: From Hierarchies to Network Firms
- Chapter 18: New Media and the Economics of Information
- Chapter 19: New Media and Trade Policy
- Chapter 20: The Governance of Media Markets
- Chapter 21: New Global Media and the Role of the State
- Chapter 22: The Information Society Revisited
International Advisory Board, First Edition[Page ii]
Enrique Bustamante, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain
Richard Collins, Open University, UK
Brenda Dervin, Ohio State University, USA
William H. Dutton, University of Oxford, USA
Patrice Flichy, Université Marne la Vallee, France
Anthony Giddens, London School of Economics and Political Science, UK
Cees Hamelink, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Youichi Ito, Keio University, Japan
Elizabeth Jacka, University of Technology, Sydney, Australia
Eddie C. Y. Kuo, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
Donald Lamberton, Queensland University of Technology, Australia
Robin Mansell, London School of Economics and Political Science, UK
Armand Mattelart, Université de Paris VIII, France
Denis McQuail, School of Communication Research, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands
William Melody, Danish Technical University, Denmark
Bernard Miège, Université Stendhal, France
Martin Lea, University of Manchester, UK
W. Russell Neuman, University of Pennsylvania/Annenberg, USA
Kaarle Nordenstreng, University of Tampere, Finland
Ronald E. Rice, University of California, Santa Barbara, USA
Rohan Samarajiva, LIRNEasia, Sri Lanka
Jorge Reina Schement, Penn State University, USA
Marsha Siefert, Central European University, Hungary
Roger Silverstone, London School of Economics and Political Science, UK
Edward Soja, University of California, Los Angeles, USA
Tapio Varis, University of Tampere, Finland
Osmo Wiio, University of Helsinki, Finland
Steve Woolgar, Oxford University, UK
Editorial Introduction © Leah A. Lievrouw and Sonia Livingstone 2006
Chapter 1 © Nancy K. Baym 2006
Chapter 2 © Nicholas W. Janowski 2006
Chapter 3 © David Buckingham 2006
Chapter 4 © Ronald E. Rice and Caroline Haythornthwaite 2006
Chapter 5 © Andrea B. Hollingshead and Noshir S. Contractor 2006
Chapter 6 © Mark Poster 2006
Chapter 7 © Jennifer Daryl Slack and J. MacGregor Wise 2006
Chapter 8 © Timothy W. Luke 2006
Chapter 9 © Patrice Flichy 2006
Chapter 10 © Sally J. McMillan 2006
Chapter 11 © Susan Leigh Star and Geoffry L. Bowker 2006
Chapter 12 © Leah A. Lievrouw 2006
Chapter 13 © Philip Cooke 2006
Chapter 14 © Terry Flew and Stephen McElhinney 2006
Chapter 15 © Heather A. Hudson 2006
Chapter 16 © Stefaan G. Verhulst 2006
Chapter 17 © François Bar with Caroline Simard 2006
Chapter 18 © Don Lamberton 2006
Chapter 19 © Anders Henten and Knud Erik Skouby 2006
Chapter 20 © Bella Mody, Harry M. Trebing and Laura Stein 2006
Chapter 21 © Laura Stein and Nikhil Sinha 2006
Chapter 22 © Frank Webster 2006
First published 2002
This student edition published 2006
Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form, or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers.
SAGE Publications Ltd
1 Oliver's Yard
55 City Road
London EC1Y 1SP
SAGE Publications Inc.
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320
SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd
B 1/I 1, Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area
New Delhi 110 044
SAGE Publications Asia-Pacific Pte Ltd
33 Pekin Street #02-01
Far East Square
British Library Cataloguing in Publication data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
ISBN 978-1-4129-1873-2 (pbk)
Library of Congress Control Number available
Typeset by C&M Digitals (P) Ltd., Chennai, India
Printed in Great Britain by the MPG Books Group
Acknowledgements for the Updated Student Edition[Page vii]
For this Updated Student Edition of the Handbook, we would like to acknowledge the ideas, efforts and enthusiasm of everyone involved. The contributors responded readily when we asked them to review, update and expand their original chapters, with only a couple of months to complete the work. Our International Advisory Board provided months of reviewing and careful commentary on the draft chapters for the first edition, and the strength of the chapters we have selected to include here still reflects their good advice. We have been saddened by the deaths of Board members Everett Rogers and Rob Kling since the first edition was published. Although they worked in somewhat different domains (communication/sociology, and computer science/science and technology studies, respectively), each helped to shape and lay the groundwork for new media studies as a coherent field of research and scholarship.
We could not have completed the Handbook without significant institutional support, in terms of time and resources. We would therefore like to thank our colleagues at UCLA and LSE, who provided administrative and intellectual support (as well as the occasional airfare). Many thanks also to Shenja Vandergraaf at LSE, who has helped us with the updated student edition, working with intelligence, accuracy and good humour throughout.
Our commissioning editor at Sage, Julia Hall, was crucial to the success of the first edition, and was largely responsible for devising the student edition format, which is a new venture for Sage. We said it in the first edition, and it's still true: Julia is patient, strict, cheerful, resolute, reasonable, funny and much else as needed – the sort of commissioning editor any academic author would want.
And again, of course, we thank our partners, Dan Danzig and Peter Lunt, for their enthusiasm and steady support. In the years since we began working on the Handbook a simple professional collaboration has grown into a delightful four-way friendship. We look forward to many more productive and enjoyable years together.
We hope that you, the reader, find this Handbook as useful and inspiring as we have tried to make it.LeahLievrouwUniversity of California, Los AngelesSoniaLivingstoneLondon School of Economics and Political Science[Page viii]
The Editors[Page ix]
Leah A. Lievrouw is a Professor in the Department of Information Studies, part of the Graduate School of Education and Information Studies, at the University of California, Los Angeles. She is also affiliated with UCLA's undergraduate program in Communication Studies. Her research and writing focus on the social and cultural changes associated with information and communication technologies and the relationship between new media technologies and knowledge, particularly problems of social equity, differentiation, and intellectual freedom. Her other books include Mediation, Information and Communication: Information and Behavior, vol. 3 (co-edited with Brent Ruben; Transaction, 1990) and Competing Visions, Complex Realities: Social Aspects of the Information Society (co-edited with Jorge Reina Schement; Ablex, 1987). From 2000 to 2005 she was co-editor of the journal New Media & Society, and the author of numerous journal articles, proceedings papers and book chapters on ICTs and society. Dr. Lievrouw received a Ph.D. in communication theory and research in 1986 from the Annenberg School for Communication at the University of Southern California, and holds an M.A. in biomedical communications from the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas and a Bachelor of Journalism from the University of Texas at Austin. She was formerly a member of the faculties of the Department of Telecommunication and Film at the University of Alabama in Tuscaloosa, and of the Department of Communication at Rutgers University in New Brunswick, NJ.
Sonia Livingstone is Professor of Social Psychology and a member of the Department of Media and Communications at the London School of Economics and Political Science. She has published widely on the subject of media audiences. Her recent work concerns children, young people and the Internet, as part of a broader interest in the domestic, familial and educational contexts of new media access and use (http://www.children-go-online.net). Books include Making Sense of Television (2nd edition, Routledge, 1998), Mass Consumption and Personal Identity (with Peter Lunt, Open University Press, 1992), Talk on Television (with Peter Lunt, Routledge, 1994), Children and Their Changing Media Environment (edited with Moira Bovill, Erlbaum, 2001), Young People and New Media (Sage, 2002), Audiences and Publics (edited, Intellect, 2005) and, her current project, Children and the Internet (Polity, for 2006). Sonia Livingstone has been visiting Professor at the Universities of Copenhagen, Stockholm, Milan, Bergen and Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, and is on the editorial board of several leading journals in the field, including New Media & Society, The Communication Review, Journal of Communication, Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media and the European Journal of Communication. She is Non-Industry Vice Chair of the Internet Watch Foundation.
The Contributors[Page x]
François Bar is Associate Professor at the Annenberg School for Communication, University of Southern California. He previously served on the Communication faculty at Stanford University and at UC San Diego, and as a member of the Berkeley Roundtable on the International Economy (BRIE), at UC Berkeley. He has held visiting faculty appointments at the University of Toronto, the University of Paris-XIII, Théséus, and Eurécom. He received his Ph.D. from the UC Berkeley and holds a Diplôme d'Ingénieur from the Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées in Paris. Professor Bar's current research interests include comparative telecommunication policy, as well as economic, strategic and social dimensions of computer networking, new media and the Internet. His research has been published in books of collected studies, policy reports, and journals such as Telecommunications Policy, The Information Society, Infrastructure Economics and Policy, Communications & Strategies, Réseaux, Organization Science, and the International Journal of Technology Management.
Nancy K. Baym is an Associate Professor of Communication Studies at the University of Kansas, where she teaches communication on the Internet, interpersonal communication, nonverbal communication, and qualitative methods. Her ethnographic research into online community and television fandom appears in the book Tune In, Log On: Soaps, Fandom, and Online Community (Sage) and in several articles in journals and edited collections. In addition to online community, she has studied how the social life that takes place on the Internet is woven into the full fabric of mediated and unmediated interpersonal communication, work published in New Media & Society among other places. She served as President of the Association of Internet Researchers (2002–2005) and coordinated that association's first annual conference, ‘Internet Research 1.0: The State of the Interdiscipline’ in 2000. She is an editor of The Internet Research Annual, Volume I (2004, Peter Lang), a volume bringing together the best papers from the first three years of Association of Internet Researcher conferences. With Annette Markham, she is an editor of a forthcoming book examining key questions for the conduct of high-quality Internet research, which will likely be published in 2006. She serves on the editorial boards of New Media & Society, The Information Society, The Journal of Communication, and Research on Language and Social Interaction.
Geoffrey C. Bowker is Executive Director, Regis and Dianne McKenna Professor Center for Science, Technology and Society, Santa Clara University. He was previously Professor in and Chair of the Department of Communication, University of California, San Diego. His Ph.D is in History and Philosophy of Science at Melbourne University. He studies social and organizational aspects of the development of very [Page xi]large-scale information infrastructures. His first book (Science on the Run, MIT Press) discussed the development of information practices in the oil industry. He has written with Leigh Star a book on the history and sociology of medical classifications (Sorting Things Out: Classification and Practice – published by MIT Press in September 1999). This book looks at the classification of nursing work, diseases, viruses and race. He has co-edited a volume on computer support cooperative work (Social Science, Technical Systems and Cooperative Work: Beyond the Great Divide, LEA Press, 1997). He has, since his invitation to join the biodiversity subcommittee of the President's Committee of Advisors on Science and Technology, been working in the field of biodiversity and environmental informatics. He has recently completed a digital government-funded project on long-term databases in environmental science (http://pal.lternet.edu/dm/projects/02bdei/). His next book, entitled Memory Practices in the Sciences, about formal and informal record-keeping in science over the past 200 years, which includes extensive discussion of biodiversity informatics, will be published by MIT Press in 2005. He was 2002–2003 member of an OECD working group on international data sharing in science (http://dataaccess.sdsc.edu/ – the report can be found at this address). He is currently working on an NSF-funded project at the San Diego Computer Center on organizational and social dimensions of developing scientific cyberinfrastructures. More information, including a number of publications, can be found at his website: http://epl.scu.edu/~gbowker.
David Buckingham is Professor of Education at the Institute of Education, London University, where he directs the Centre for the Study of Children, Youth and Media (http://www.childrenyouthandmediacentre.co.uk). He has directed several major funded projects on media education, and on children's and young people's interactions with electronic media. He is the author, co-author or editor of 18 books, including Children Talking Television (Falmer, 1993), Moving Images (Manchester University Press, 1996), The Making of Citizens (Routledge, 2000), After the Death of Childhood (Polity, 2000) and Media Education (Polity, 2003). His work has been translated into 15 languages, and he has taught and addressed conferences in more than 25 countries around the world. He is currently directing research projects on young people's engagement with video games; informal learning and creativity in media education; the uses of digital media by migrant/refugee children across Europe; and young people's responses to sexual content in the media.
Noshir S. Contractor is a Professor in the Departments of Speech Communication and Psychology at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He is a Research Affiliate of the Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, Director of the Science of Networks in Communities (SONIC) Research Group at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications, and Co-Director of the Age of Networks Initiative at the Center for Advanced Study at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. His current research program is investigating factors that lead to the formation, maintenance, and dissolution of dynamically linked knowledge networks among profit, non-profit, government as well as non-government agencies involved in issues of public interest including emergency response, food [Page xii]safety, public health, environmental engineering. His research has been funded continuously for the past decade by major grants from the U.S. National Science Foundation, as well as additional support from NASA, the National Cancer Institute, and the Rockefeller Foundation. His research has been published in journals including Academy of Management Review, Communication Research, Computational and Mathematical Organizational Theory, Decision Science, Human Communication Research, Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, Journal of Cultural Economics, Organization Science, Small Group Research, and Social Psychology Quarterly. His papers have received top-paper awards from both the International Communication Association and the National Communication Association. His book titled Theories of Communication Networks (co-authored with Professor Peter Monge, Oxford University Press) received the 2003 Book of the Year award from the Organizational Communication Division of the National Communication Association. He is the lead developer of IKNOW (Inquiring Knowledge Networks On the Web), a web-based social networking software (http://iknow.spcomm.uiuc.edu) and Blanche, a software program to simulate the dynamics of social networks (http://csul.spcomm.uiuc.edu/Projects/Teclab/Blanche/).
Philip Cooke is University Research Professor and founding Director (1993) of the Centre for Advanced Studies, University of Wales, Cardiff. His research interests lie in studies of economics of biotechnology (partner in CESAGen Research Centre), regional innovation systems, knowledge economies, and policy actions for business clusters and networks. As a field leader in knowledge and innovation sciences he has coordinated and participated in six FP projects since 1995. He co-edited a book entitled Regional Innovation Systems in 1998, a fully revised 2nd edition of which is published in 2004. He co-authored a book on network governance called The Associational Economy, also published in 1998, and is co-author of The Governance of Innovation in Europe published in 2000. His recent book Knowledge Economies: Clusters, Learning and Cooperative Advantage was published by Routledge in 2002. In 2004 he published Regional Economies as Knowledge Laboratories (Edward Elgar). Professor Cooke was adviser to Lord Sainsbury's Biotechnology Clusters mission in 1999 and subsequently UK Government Cluster Policy, and Innovation Review Adviser. He has been EU Adviser on Regional Foresight, Universities & Regional Development, and in 2004–2005 Chairs the EU Committee on Constructing Regional Advantage. He is OECD Adviser on Knowledge Economies, and UNIDO Adviser on Innovation Systems. In addition to the books, he is author of more than 100 research and scholarly articles in leading journals. He is also Editor of European Planning Studies, a bi-monthly journal devoted to European urban and regional governance, innovation and development issues. In 2003 he was elected Academician of the UK Academy of Social Sciences (AcSS). In 2004 he was made Distinguished Research Fellow (PRIME) of the University of Ottawa Management School.
Dr Terry Flew is Associate Professor and Head of Media and Communication in the Creative Industries Faculty, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia. He is the author of New Media Technologies: An Introduction (Oxford, 2005, second edition), and Understanding Global Media (Palgrave, 2006). He has [Page xiii]authored six research monographs, 21 book chapters and 31 refereed journal articles, including a chapter on ‘Creative Economy’ to J. Hartley (ed.), Creative Industries (Blackwell, 2005). His research interests include new media technologies; media policy and regulation; creative industries theory and policy; the culture of services; media globalization; international trade agreements; censorship and classification; virtual communities and Internet theory; popular music and music policy; and broadcasting and cultural diversity. He is also Reviews Editor of Continuum: Journal of Media and Cultural Studies, and Treasurer of the Australia and New Zealand Communications Association.
Patrice Flichy is Professor in the Department of Sociology at the University of Marne la Vallée in France, and editor of Réseaux, a French journal on communication studies. His research and writing focus on innovation and uses in ICT, in the past and today. His books include L'imaginaire d'Internet (La Découverte, 2001, English translation forthcoming at MIT Press); Dynamics of Modern Communication: The Shaping and Impact of New Communication Technologies (Sage, 1995). L'innovation technique (La Découverte, 1995); European Telematics: The Emerging Economy of Words (co-edited with Paul Beaud and Josiane Jouët, Elsevier, 1991).
Professor Flichy received a PhD in sociology in 1971 from the University of Paris-I. He also holds a degree in business management from the Ecole des Hautes Etudes Commerciales. He was formerly head of the Laboratory of Sociology of France Telecom Research Development.
Caroline Haythornthwaite is Associate Professor at the Graduate School of Library and Information Science, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Her research focuses on the way computer-mediated interaction supports and affects interaction for work, learning, the exchange of information, and the construction of knowledge. Ongoing work includes social network studies of the way computer media affect members of distance learning environments and research collaboratives, with emphasis on social, communal, and conversational aspects. Her work appears in The Information Society, Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, New Media & Society, Jones' Doing Internet Research, Gackenbach's Psychology and the Internet, and Renninger and Shumar's Building Virtual Community. She recently co-edited with Barry Wellman The Internet in Everyday Life (2002), and with Michelle M. Kazmer, Learning, Culture and Community in Online Education: Research and Practice.
Anders Henten is Associate Professor at the Center for Information and Communication Technologies (CICT)at the Technical University of Denmark. He is a graduate in communications and international development studies from Roskilde University in Denmark and holds a PhD from the Technical University of Denmark. His main areas of research are socioeconomic implications of information and communication technologies including e-commerce and business models, internationalization of services, and regulations of communications. He teaches courses in ‘e-commerce – markets and business models’, ‘standardization in telecommunications’, and ‘regulation of telecommunications’. Anders Henten has [Page xiv]worked professionally in the areas of communications economy and policy for more than a decade. He has published, nationally and internationally, more than 150 academic publications in international journals, books, anthologies, and conference proceedings.
Andrea B. Hollingshead is Associate Professor of Communication in the Annenberg School for Communication. Her research concerns how people in groups learn, store, retrieve, communicate, and use knowledge – in particular knowledge from and about others in the group. She seeks to identify the factors and processes that lead to effective knowledge sharing in groups including those that are technologically based. Professor Hollingshead has been an investigator on three large collaborative projects on information technology and knowledge sharing in organizations supported by the National Science Foundation. Her publications include two books, Theories of Small Groups: Interdisciplinary Perspectives (2005, co-edited with Marshall Scott Poole) and Groups Interacting with Technology (1994, with Joseph E. McGrath). Her many articles have appeared in top-tier journals in the fields of communication, psychology and management. Professor Hollingshead is currently Senior Editor of Organization Science, and has served on many journal editorial boards.
Heather E. Hudson is Director of the Telecommunications Management and Policy Program in the School of Business and Management at the University of San Francisco. Dr Hudson has planned and evaluated communication projects in northern Canada, Alaska, and more than 50 developing countries in Africa, Asia and the Pacific, the Middle East, and Latin America. She has also consulted for government agencies, consumer and native organizations, foreign governments, telecommunications companies, and international organizations including the World Bank, the ITU, UNDP, UNESCO, USAID, CIDA, International Development Research Centre (IDRC), and the Commonwealth of Learning.
Dr Hudson received an Honours BA in English from the University of British Columbia, MA and Ph.D in Communication Research from Stanford University and JD from the University of Texas at Austin. She is the author of several books including Global Connections: International Telecommunications Infrastructure and Policy; Communication Satellites: Their Development and Impact; When Telephones Reach the Village, and co-author of Rural America in the Information Age and Electronic Byways: State Policies for Rural Development through Telecommunications. Dr Hudson has also published more than 100 articles and book chapters, and presented numerous conference papers, as well as providing expert testimony on telecommunications applications and domestic and international policy issues such as universal service, information infrastructure, and telecommunications planning for socioeconomic development.
Nicholas W. Jankowski (Ph.D., University of Amsterdam) is Associate Professor in the Department of Communication, Radboud University Nijmegen and Adjunct Professor, Department of Communication, University of Leuven. He has been involved in the investigation of community media and other small-scale communication [Page xv]facilities since the mid-1970s. His publications include: The People's Voice. Local Radio and Television in Europe; The Contours of Multimedia; Community Media in the Information Age; and A Handbook of Qualitative Methodologies for Mass Communication Research. He is preparing a methodology textbook on new media research. His research interests include study of initiatives designed to contribute to public discourse through online environments and the role played by the Internet during electoral campaigns. Jankowski is co-editor of the journal New Media & Society and board member of the European Institute for Communication and Culture.
Don Lamberton is Adjunct Professor, Creative Industries Faculty, Queensland University of Technology and Adjunct Professor in Communication, University of Canberra. He edits Information Economics and Policy and Prometheus, and is a member of other editorial boards. His recent books are: The Economics of Communication and Information (1996), The New Frontiers of Communications Policy (1997), Communication and Trade (1998), Managing the Global: Globalization, Employment and Quality of Life (2002), and The Economics of Language (2002). He received his BEc degree from the University of Sydney and his D.Phil. from Oxford University. He has held appointments at many universities and research centres in the US and UK. He served as a member of Australian Government committees of inquiry (public libraries, industrial property, and marine industries science and technology) and as a consultant to OECD, UNESCO, ITU, UNCTC, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australia Post, and Prices Surveillance Authority.
Timothy W. Luke is University Distinguished Professor of Political Science and co-director of the Center for Digital Discourse and Culture at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University in Blacksburg, Virginia. His research interests are tied to the politics of information societies, international affairs, and ecological criticism. He has just completed a new critical study of ideological politics at a number of major museums in the United States, which is entitled Museum Pieces: Probing the Powerplays at Culture, History, Nature, and Technology Museums (University of Minnesota Press, forthcoming). His most recent books are Capitalism, Democracy, and Ecology: Departing from Marx (University of Illinois Press, 1999), and Ecocritique: Contesting the Politics of Nature, Economy, and Culture (University of Minnesota Press, 1997). He is also the author of Shows of Force: Politics, Power and Ideology in Art Exhibitions (Duke University Press, 1992).
Stephen McElhinney is Director of the Bachelor in International Communication at the Macquarie University Centre for International Communication (MUCIC) in Sydney, Australia. Prior to completing his PhD and joining MUCIC, he worked for the Special Broadcasting Service, the Australian government in areas of communications, intellectual property and arts policy and as a policy researcher with the Communications Law Centre. His research interests include the factors inhibiting the establishment of the knowledge society and the representation of international events on Australian television news. He has published on universal service in telecommunications and on the film and television preferences of Australian and Thai adolescents.
[Page xvi]Sally J. McMillan is an Associate Professor in the Advertising Department School of Advertising and Public Relations at the University of Tennessee-Knoxville. Her research focuses on definitions and history of new media and the impacts of communication technology on organizations and society. She has a particular interest in the nature and role of interactivity in computer-mediated environments. She has also published several articles related to methodologies for online research. Her research has been published in journals such as Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, the Journal of Computer Mediated Communication, New Media & Society, Journal of Advertising, and the Journal of Advertising Research. Prior to earning her PhD in Communication and Society at the University of Oregon, McMillan worked for 15 years in communication – related roles in book publishing, newspaper reporting, public relations consulting, non-profit management, and executive-level marketing and management for computer technology firms. She teaches graduate and undergraduate courses in interactive advertising, advertising research, and advertising management.
Bella Mody holds the de Castro Chair in Global Media Studies at the School of Journalism and Mass Communication at the University of Colorado in Boulder. She specializes in the political economy of media in developing countries and in design research on public service applications of communication media. Dr Mody's books include International and Development Communication: A 21st Century Perspective (ed., Sage, 2003), The Handbook of International and Intercultural Communication (co-ed., Sage, 2001), Telecommunication Politics (co-ed., Lawrence Erlbaum, 1995), and Designing Messages for Development Communication (Sage, 1991). Her research articles have been published in Communication Theory, The Journal of International Communication, The Information Society, The Journal of Communication, Telecommunication Policy, Media Development, Telematics and Informatics, Gazette, International Development Review, Educational Broadcasting International, Communication Research, Journal of Research in Personality, and the Journal of Social Psychology. She was formerly a social scientist with the Satellite Instructional TV Experiment in the Government of India's space agency and a faculty member at Stanford University and San Francisco State University.
Mark Poster is a member of the Department of Film and Media Studies and a member of the History Department at the University of California, Irvine. He has courtesy appointments in the Department of Information and Computer Science and the Department of Comparative Literature. He is a member of the Critical Theory Institute. His recent and forthcoming books are: Information Please: Culture and Politics in a Digital Age; What's the Matter with the Internet?: A Critical Theory of Cyberspace (University of Minnesota Press, 2001); The Information Subject in Critical Voices Series (Gordon and Breach Arts International, 2001); Cultural History and Postmodernity (Columbia University Press, 1997); The Second Media Age (London: Polity and New York: Blackwell, 1995); and The Mode of Information (London: Blackwell and Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990).
Ronald E. Rice (PhD, MA, Stanford University, 1982) is the Arthur N. Rupe Professor of the Social Effects of Mass Communication in the Department of [Page xvii]Communication; Co-director of the Center for Film, Television and New Media, at University of California, Santa Barbara; and incoming President of the International Communication Association (2006–2007). He has co-authored or co-edited Public Communication Campaigns (3rd edn, 2000), The Internet and Health Communication (2000), The New Media: Communication, Research and Technology (1984), Managing Organizational Innovation (1987) and Research Methods and the New Media (1989). He has conducted research and published widely in communication science, public communication campaigns, computer-mediated communication systems, methodology, organizational and management theory, information systems, information science and bibliometrics, and social networks. His publications have won awards as best dissertation from the American Society for Information Science, and as best paper from the International Communication Association and the Academy of Management.
Caroline Simard (MA, Rutgers University, PhD, Stanford University) is a researcher at the Stanford Graduate School of Business. Her dissertation investigated the role of knowledge networks in the creation of regional clusters in the wireless industry. At the Graduate School of Business, she is part of a research project on the diffusion of managerial practices in the nonprofit sector. Her research interests include organizational behavior, new media, knowledge networks, the diffusion of innovations and regional clusters.
Nikhil Sinha is Associate Dean for Academic Affairs in the College of Communication at the University of Texas at Austin. He has also worked in the Information and Broadcasting Ministry of the Government of India and as a consultant to the Informatics and Telecommunications Division for the World Bank, and as an adviser to the Indian Telecommunications Commission and the Indian Planning Commission. He has published numerous articles and book chapters on international regulatory and policy issues on telecommunications and information technology.
Knud Erik Skouby is Professor and founding Director of the Center for Information and Communication Technologies (CICT) – a multidisciplinary teaching and research center at the Danish Technical University. His main area of research interest includes the techno-economics of the telecom sector and of new telecom applications and services. He has participated as a project manager and partner in a number of international, European and Danish research projects. He has served as a member of organizing boards and evaluation committees and as invited speaker to international conferences, published a number of Danish and international articles, books and conference proceedings in the areas of telecommunications regulation, technology assessment (information technology and telecommunications), demand forecasting and political economy.
Jennifer Daryl Slack is Professor of Communication and Cultural Studies at Michigan Technological University Department of Humanities. Her work on culture and technology is based on over 25 years of teaching and study. Notably, [Page xviii]she has taught courses on culture and technology since 1981 and tracked the changes in her students' sense of the role and importance of technology. She is author of Communication Technologies and Society (Ablex, 1984), co-editor of The Ideology of the Information Age (Ablex, 1987), and author of numerous articles on culture and technology. Culture and Technology: A Primer, co-authored with J. Macgregor Wise, is in press from Peter Lang.
Susan Leigh Star is Senior Scholar at the Center for Science, Technology and Society at the University of Santa Clara. She is a Visiting Faculty at the Stanford Center for BioEthics, and president-elect of the Society for the Social Study of Science (4S). She writes about the social and historical aspects of science, information and technology, particularly on the values embedded in information technologies. With Geoffrey Bowker, she is the author of Sorting Things Out: Classification and Its Consequences (MIT Press, 1999), and has edited a number of other volumes, including Ecologies of Knowledge (SUNY, 1995), and with Martha Lampland, of Formalizing Practices: Interpretive Approaches to Standardizing, Quantifying and Formalizing (under review at Duke University Press). Her training was in the symbolic interactionist/pragmatist tradition in American sociology, which has grounded her research in the study of work, identity and meaning. She has also written on feminist theory, and is a poet.
Laura Stein is an Assistant Professor in the Radio-Television-Film Department at the University of Texas at Austin. She writes about communication law and policy, political communication, and alternative and public media. Her work appears in numerous journals and books, including Communication Law and Policy, Media, Culture & Society, Javnost/The Public, Community Media in the Information Age, and Radical Media. Her forthcoming book, entitled Sustaining Speech Rights: The First Amendment, Democracy and the Media (University of Illinois Press), explores the failure of speech rights to protect democratic communication in US media. She heads the Community Communication Division of the International Association for Media and Communication Research. Dr Stein began her career in the management, production, and distribution of public and educational media. She has an MA in Education from Columbia University, a Ph.D. in Communication from UT Austin, and a BA from the University of California at Berkeley.
Harry M. Trebing is Professor of Economics Emeritus and Senior Fellow at the Institute of Public Utilities, Michigan State University. Founder of the Institute, he served as its director from 1966 until his retirement in 1992. He has also served as Chief Economist, US Postal Rate Commission and US Federal Communications Commission, and as a member of advisory panels for government agencies and the Congressional Office of Technology Assessment. He currently serves as Chairman, Michigan Utility Consumer Participation Board (by appointment of the Governor). The author of numerous publications dealing with public utility regulation, he is the recipient of distinguished service awards from the National Association of State Utility Consumer Advocates, the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners, five universities, and the Government of Guam, [Page xix]among others. He holds the BA and MA degrees from the University of Maryland and the Ph.D. degree from the University of Wisconsin.
Stefaan G. Verhulst is currently Chief of Research at the Markle Foundation. Prior to his arrival at Markle, where he held the previous positions of Director of Internet Governance and Director Policy for a Networked Society, Verhulst was the founder and director of the Programme in Comparative Media Law and Policy (PCMLP) at Oxford University, as well as Senior Research Fellow at the Centre for Socio-Legal Studies. In that capacity he was appointed the socio-legal Research Fellow at Wolfson College (Oxford). In addition, he was the UNESCO Chairholder in Communications Law and Policy for the UK. Before his move to Oxford in 1996, he had been a Lecturer on communications law and policy issues in Belgium and founder and co-director of the International Media and information-communications Policy and Law studies (IMPS) at the School of Law, University of Glasgow. Verhulst has served as consultant to various international and national organizations including the Council of Europe, the European Commission and Parliament, UNESCO, UNDP, USAID and DFID. He has published several books and numerous articles on communications law and policy issues and is invited regularly to speak at conferences globally. He is also the founder of the International Journal of Communications Law and Policy and the Communications Law, in Transition Newsletter.
Frank Webster is Professor of Sociology at City University London. He has published many books, including: The New Photography: Responsibility in Visual Communication (1980), Information Technology: A Luddite Analysis (with Kevin Robins, 1986), The Technical Fix: Computers, Industry and Education (with Kevin Robins, 1989), The Postmodern University? Contested Visions of Higher Education (with Anthony Smith, 1997), Times of the Technoculture: From the Information Society to the Virtual Life (with Kevin Robins) (1999); Understanding Contemporary Society: Theories of the Present (with Gary Browning and Abigail Halcli, 2000), and Politics and Culture in the Information Age: A New Politics? (2001), The Virtual University (with Kevin Robins, 2002), Theories of the Information Society (1995, 2nd edition 2002); The Intensification of Surveillance (with Kirstie Ball, 2003), The Information Society Reader (2004), and Manuel Castells, 3 vols (2004). He is currently preparing, with Howard Tumber, Front Line Correspondents and Information War and a 3rd edition of Theories of the Information Society.
J. Macgregor Wise (PhD, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign) is Associate Professor and Chair of Communication Studies at Arizona State University, West Campus. His work is situated at the intersection of cultural studies, media studies, and the sociology and philosophy of technology. He is author of Exploring Technology and Social Space (Sage, 1997), co-author (with Jennifer Daryl Slack) of Culture and Technology: A Primer (Peter Lang, 2005), and co-author (with Lawrence Grossberg, Ellen Wartella, and D. Charles Whitney) of Media Making: Mass Media in a Popular Culture, 2nd edition (Sage, in press).[Page xx]