Handbook of Collaborative Management Research


Edited by: A.B. Shani, Susan Albers Mohrman, William A. Pasmore, Bengt Stymne & Niclas Adler

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  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Part I: Framing the Issues

    Part II: Collaborative Research Mechanisms and Processes

    Part III: Exemplars: Cases and Projects

    Part IV: The Multiple Voices in Collaborative Research

    Part V: Enablers, Challenges, and Skills

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    If Kurt Lewin was correct that the best way to understand something is to change it, then we ought to have a lot of opportunities to develop new understandings in our 21st-century world, with more on the way. The rate of change and the criticality of developing new knowledge about management and organization have never been greater. The development of a global economy has radically transformed the practice of managing organizations, is introducing change that challenges the viability of longstanding social and governmental practices, and is threatening the global and local ecologies that make possible life and society as we know them. Surely this amount of change brings all kinds of requirements and opportunities to develop greater understanding. And yet, the field of management studies is not adequately responding to the challenges and opportunities that are being presented. Practice is moving far faster than traditional academic approaches to research. Even when scientific breakthroughs occur, their dissemination through publications and executive education programs is painfully slow and not likely to be recognized by the vast majority of managers of organizations and systems. We believe that obtaining superior knowledge about how organizations and systems can be helped to achieve their immediate goals while at the same time advancing the practice of managing complex systems should be of key concern to scientists, managers, policy makers, and citizens.

    This Handbook reflects our desire as an editorial team to bring attention to a mode of research that tightly links practice and theory development, generating knowledge that builds on established theory and empirical knowledge of the academy but is tightly coupled with the actions that organizations take in real time as they develop solutions. We are advocating a truly combinatorial knowledge-production process—putting knowledge into context, and acknowledging that true advances in understanding, particularly if they are to be more than esoteric academic exercises, require that the knowledge from many fields of the academy and of practice need to be combined if we are to understand and deal with the complexity of the systems that need to change in today's world.

    The original idea for this Handbook dates back to a 2004 symposium on collaborative research at the annual conference of the Academy of Management. It centered on the insights from a recently published book titled Collaborative Research in Organizations: Foundations for Learning, Change, and Theoretical Development (Adler, Shani, & Styhre, 2004). The book captured the insights from five years of ambitious and innovative collaborative research endeavors, most of which were conducted within the context of a long-standing tradition of boundary spanning between management researchers and companies in Sweden. The dialogue with the audience at the symposium triggered the realization that many more academics and practitioners around the globe have been involved in an emerging research paradigm that we label “collaborative management research.”

    Collaboration is not a new approach to research. Indeed, many of the early advances in management and organizational sciences came from academics who were working very closely with companies that were beginning to rationalize their production and administrative practices (Taylor and scientific management, Mayo and the human relations model, and Trist and Emery and the sociotechnical systems school, for example). These studies involved managers, organization members, and researchers who were investigating issues of mutual interest and resulted in changes in practice at the participating companies and widespread dissemination of the frameworks that resulted. More broadly, it can be argued that over the years, the field of organization development has incorporated collaborative research methods into the diagnostic phase of many of its methodologies.

    Research institutes have been set up to house collaborative research, and all of the editors have been associated with such centers. For example, noting that practice was leading theory, and that academic studies were in danger of becoming irrelevant, Edward Lawler in 1979 established the Center for Effective Organizations (CEO) at the University of Southern California for the express purpose of setting up collaborative research relationships. In their foundational book Doing Research That Is Useful for Theory and Practice (Lawler, Mohrman, Mohrman, Cummings, & Ledford, 1985), Lawler and the other researchers at CEO argue that the greatest progress in the organizational sciences will occur when researchers bring strong theoretical and empirical perspectives to bear on the problems that companies are actually facing. They also advocate that the research be collaborative, with academics and practitioners working together with the joint goals of testing and advancing theory while contributing to and studying the changes that companies make to address complex problems. The FENIX Centre in Sweden was established in 1997 and had a similar mission. Its goals were to create a transdisciplinary program of research in management, to intensify collaboration between managers and researchers throughout the research process, to advance theory by linking research and action, to develop new collaborative research methodologies, to deliver scientific training to managers, and to more broadly influence the course of management research in universities. The organizational behavior department at Case Western Reserve University was founded in 1964 by Herb Shepard and became known for its action research and later appreciative inquiry methodologies, which encouraged students and faculty to work closely with organizations and systems in formulating research, theory, and action. Many other centers have been founded in universities and institutes around the world to address complex management problems, in some cases with a purposefully collaborative approach.

    We are impressed with the growing influence of research programs that are addressing critical organizational and societal problems and at the same time furthering organizational theory and developing new research methodologies. For example, the collaborative work at Harvard of Wheelwright and Clark about new product development and of Cohen, Gibson, and Mankin at CEO about virtual teams have introduced frameworks that are in use in companies around the world. In England, academics such as Andrew Pettigrew and Paul Bate are applying the knowledge of the organizational sciences to transform the National Health Services and, in the process, engaging in many different research collaborations. Researchers at Case Western Reserve, FENIX, and many other academic institutions are engaging deeply with practitioners to understand, define, and learn how to achieve environmental sustainability. It is safe to say that the kinds of problems that these scholars are dealing with can be neither understood theoretically nor solved without combining theory and practice.

    Today, more and more voices in the academic literature are calling for a shift in the way research is conducted. “Contemporary writings in the natural, social, and management sciences indicate some fundamental changes in the social production of knowledge” (Pettigrew, 2004). These changes center on who is involved in the knowledge production process, the types of available knowledge, new settings for data collection, and new opportunities for knowledge dissemination and use. The emerging changes in the nature of knowledge production rest on broad theoretical and empirical arguments that are anchored in the coevolutionary process between science and society (Gibbons et al., 1994; Hatchuel & Glise, 2004). These changes are being contested and debated in the natural, social, and managerial sciences. The historical model of research, in which the experimenter completely controls the variables that affect experimental outcomes, is still the dominant paradigm. Against this paradigm, researchers in the social sciences have learned that there can be no best way in which to frame, produce, disseminate, and use knowledge (Pettigrew, 2004). Moreover, we have begun to recognize that the methodologies and technologies that exist at a certain point in time are inadequate for addressing all the problems that are experienced at that moment, not to mention challenges that will appear in the future. The current millennium's social science concerns are increasingly focused on phenomena that are caused by complex interactions among variables that are not easily controlled by an experimenter. In these situations, it is recognized that methodologies will be required take into account such factors as human beliefs, aspirations, and whims. We believe that collaborative approaches to management research are an integral part of the emerging paradigms of research.

    We (the editors) began our journey with the basic belief that broader and deeper collaboration between academic researchers, managers of organizations, union leaders (when they are a part of the system), management consultants, and other stakeholders can yield significant benefits to all parties involved. Researchers would have access to organizations to discover and test new theories and hypotheses, thereby advancing knowledge and using it to enhance undergraduate, graduate, and executive education. Managers would learn much more about how organizations function and new approaches to managing complex systems, thereby improving their individual and organizational performance. Managers, union leaders, and other stakeholders would learn how to enhance partnerships, and management consultants would gain access to new management knowledge and models that could become the basis for their practices—a key way that such knowledge becomes widely disseminated. Our discovery is that collaborative management research is even more powerful than we initially envisioned.

    What we did not realize at the time we began this effort was how much we would learn about collaborative management research from our colleagues who have contributed manuscripts to this volume and how much we would learn from one another as editors. In essence, our collective efforts have begun to build a global collaborative research community that is framing the field of study, describing its evolution, illuminating its scientific discovery mechanisms, and shaping its present and future direction. The 30 chapters in this Handbook were written by 82 authors, conducting collaborative management research in 13 countries, involving a wide variety of organizations and systems, in diverse industries and regions. Researchers involved in these studies came from 20 different universities and eight different research, training, or consulting institutions. The rich and diverse set of projects reviewed here, seen through the lenses of a multidisciplinary group of researchers, led to the discovery that our contributors have very different ideas about what constitutes collaborative management research. Nevertheless, all share a common belief in the merit of collaborative management research as a scientific discovery process that generates knowledge relevant to both science and practice.

    We have had internal debates about the wisdom of calling this collaborative management research. Some of us were focused on for-profit organizations, while others were concerned about broader community, regional, and global issues. In some of these larger, more complex systems, it would be difficult to identify who the “manager” of the system is; and yet, the processes that shape how these systems operate can be influenced and therefore, to some extent, “managed.” We decided to use the term management to refer to intentional efforts to influence a system (any system) toward its purposes and goals. Actors of all kinds, individuals and groups, aspire to influence the behavior or performance of a given organization, and thus are engaged in managing the system, even if they are not officially designated as “managers.”

    Researchers are actors who aspire to understand and explain these same systems. Collaborative management research looks upon knowledge creation as a joint undertaking between researchers and managers. The basic premise is that scientific discourse is likely to benefit from the perspective of those applying management theories, and that managerial practice will benefit from more systematic research regarding which methods produce improvements in the operation of complex systems.

    As this Handbook will demonstrate, collaborative management research requires skills and methodologies that may be new to the traditional researcher. Creating productive collaborative research partnerships that produce mutual benefits for scientists and practitioners requires that a great deal of effort be put into the relationship between the parties, the formulation of research plans and methods, and the interpretation, application, and diffusion of results. As it turns out, these things are more easily said than done. Despite these hurdles, we believe that collaborative management research provides perhaps the most promising new approach to advancing knowledge of how to make organizations and systems more effective in an increasingly competitive and chaotic (some would say dangerous) world.

    Existing research methods have not provided the needed knowledge, and while there is no guarantee that collaborative management research will do so either, it is our hope that this new collection of methodologies will advance our ability to make the contributions to knowledge and practice that are so badly needed. We consider the development of sound approaches to collaborative research to be a work in progress. Toward that end, this Handbook offers both theoretical contributions and empirically based findings about the ways in which collaborative management research can be designed and managed. Our contributors provide guidance concerning a variety of ways to build boundary-spanning knowledge-creation processes through new types of partnerships, and they offer empirical results that were obtained through interventions in organizations and complex systems. From working with individuals to groups to organizations and regions, our contributors have demonstrated the usefulness of collaborative management research methods in a wide variety of settings.

    This Handbook is a stimulus for continued dialogue, rather than a complete description of the methodology. Our wish is that students of management and organization studies, academics, managers, union leaders, consultants, policy makers, and change agents will find it to be a valuable resource for research, learning, reflection, and practice. Our purpose will have been achieved if the dialogue begun here continues and collaborative research approaches evolve and become much more common, thus stimulating further application of these methods to organizational and global issues.

    Adler, N., Shani, A. B. (Rami), & Styhre, A.(2004). Collaborative research in organizations: Foundations for learning, change, and theoretical development. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Gibbons, M., Limoges, L., Nowotny, H., Schwartman, S., Scott, P., & Trow, M.(1994). The new production of knowledge: The dynamics of science and research in contemporary societies. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446221853
    Hatchuel, A., & Glise, H.(2004). Rebuilding management. In N.Adler, A. B. (Rami)Shani, & A.Styhre (Eds.), Collaborative research in organizations: Foundations for learning, change, and theoretical development (5–22). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Lawler, E., Mohrman, A. M., Mohrman, S. A., Cummings, T., & Ledford, G. (Eds.). (1985). Doing research that is useful for theory and practice. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Pettigrew, A. M.(2004). Some challenges of collaborative research. In N.Adler, A. B. (Rami)Shani, & A.Styhre (Eds.), Collaborative research in organizations: Foundations for learning, change, and theoretical development (xv-xviii). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

    Dedications and Acknowledgments

    All knowledge builds on the pillars that have been established by those who came before. We dedicate this book to many sage individuals whose work helped shape us and our deep concern with collaborative research. We clearly cannot name all those whose work was instrumental in the shaping of our views and professional aspirations, but we will name a few in honor of the many.

    • Kurt Lewin, for his pioneering work in action research.
    • Herbert Simon, for introducing and evolving the notion of the sciences of the artificial.
    • Eric Rhenman, whose work helped shape the Scandinavian School of Management and its collaborative management research approach.
    • Einar Thorsrud, who, with Fred Emery, Eric Trist, and other Tavistock researchers, initiated collaboration between researchers, unions, and industry in the democratization of working life.
    • Yvonna Lincoln and Egon Guba, who helped us understand just how collaborative research can and should be, and made it clear that while there is a place for objective and detached research in the sciences, there is just as important a place for inquiry that involves collaboration.

    We also acknowledge and thank institutions where we have been privileged to carry out our work and test our ideas. In many cases, the very existence of these institutions was the work of one or more visionary individuals. Heartfelt thanks go to the following:

    • The Department of Organizational Behavior in the Weatherhead School of Management at Case Western Reserve University, for the faculty's willingness to support innovative approaches to research and intense collaboration with organizations as a way of helping people learn how complex systems really work. It has provided a remarkable environment for ongoing stimulating discussions about scientific inquiry and learning in and around the workplace.
    • The Stockholm School of Economics (SSE), which has always engaged with Swedish industry. Under the leadership of Per Jonas Eliaeson, the school entered a long-lasting relationship with the Chalmers University of Technology by establishing IMIT (the Institute for Management of Innovation and Technology), with the expressed aim of carrying out collaborative research with industry and researchers in both management and engineering.
    • Flemming Norrgren and Horst Hart, who, despite many challenges, have protected, developed, and established the collaborative management research agenda in Sweden through the Gothenburg Centre for Work Sciences, the Centre for Organizational Renewal (CORE), and the FENIX Centre for Innovations in Management.
    • The Center for Effective Organizations (CEO) at the University of Southern California and its founder, Edward Lawler, who bucked the U.S. trend toward purely positivistic research and set up an institution dedicated to collaborative research in pursuit of advances in theory and practice.
    • The Center for Management Studies, CGS at l'Écoles des Mines de Paris under the leadership of Armand Hatchuel, for their continuous innovative and inspiring work to push the boundaries of collaborative management research.
    • Mercer Delta Consulting for continuing to value research as a part of consulting.
    • The Management Group at Orfalea College of Business, CalPoly, who provided the support and inspiration in searching for ways to bring management practice into academic programs and in the continuous search for the integration of theory and practice via the “learning by doing” philosophical orientation.

    We are also grateful to Hilary Bradbury and Peter Reason, who have established a journal and edited handbooks that build a community of practice in the area of action research. Similarly, the establishment of Human Relations by the Tavistock institute, and Dick Woodman's leadership and dedication first as coeditor of the long-standing series Research on Organizational Change and Development and more recently as editor of the Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, have played a large role in providing publishing outlets for this work, and thus in making it possible for it to be carried out by academics.

    We also thank the many, many companies with which we have been privileged to work. There are far too many to list, but rest assured that we understand that collaborative research can only occur if there are individuals in companies willing to pioneer this approach, and interested in finding out what companies and academics can do together to make work and society better for all.

    We have been blessed with incredible colleagues, only some of whom are represented among the authors in this volume. There are far too many to list, but you know who you are. Having collaborated, we carry around a bit of each other as we proceed through life. We are grateful that our work and lives have intersected.

    Books are clearly not produced without collaboration with our very critical colleagues who help behind the scenes and make everything go so much more smoothly than it would if only academics were involved. Special recognition goes to

    • Anita Söderberg-Carlsson, at SSE, for managing the project and the manuscript, and for dealing with the numerous contingencies that are bound to happen in a project containing 82 authors and 30 contributions.
    • Arienne McCracken, at CEO, for managing our Web site, which turned out to be a dynamic and well-used communication device for authors and editors.
    • Kelly Olsson for her contribution as a linguistic editor. In this undertaking, comprising contributions of scholars from many countries, Kelly Olsson has done a much-appreciated job by ensuring that the authors' ideas will be readily discerned.

    Our Sage editor (pun intended), Al Bruckner, has been tremendously important to this project, first by encouraging us to edit a handbook on this topic, and then by arguing persuasively for getting it out in a timely fashion. We are grateful to him for both contributions, as well as for his many substantive ideas and suggestions.

    We are grateful to our authors, who delivered multiple drafts of contributions in support of our concern for the coherence of the book and our desire for the readers of this book to benefit from the rich experience and knowledge of each. Thank you to these many busy people for the timely and responsive turnaround of these contributions.

    And finally, we acknowledge each other. In this process we have learned—about the topic of the book, collaborative management research; about collaboration across cultures, continents, time zones, institutional bases, and life stages; and about ourselves and the limitations of our own assumptions. During this project, our team members have experienced births and deaths, and countless other transitions and traumas that are part of life. We are grateful to our families, who have borne the extra strain with us. We feel enriched by having worked together on this project for the past two years—and we, too, will happily carry a bit of each other with us as we proceed to our next opportunities and challenges.

    List of Tables

    I.l Four Approaches to Collaboration Between Management Research and Practice 2

    2.1 The Four Contributions of Management Research 38

    2.2 Main Examples of Academic Contributions in the Four Cases 40

    3.1 A Description of Scholar-Practitioner Projects and Outcomes of Dual Relevance 56

    3.2 Strategies for Interrelating Theory and Practice 66

    3.3 Potential Roles for Collaborative Management Research Communities Seeking to Produce Actionable Scientific Knowledge by Interrelating Theory and Practice 68

    4.1 The Stages of Insider/Outsider (I/O) Research 74

    5.1 The Different Logics of Research and Consulting 101

    5.2 Needs and Strategies for Collaboration 104

    II.1 Part II: Overview of Chapters 121

    6.1 Parallels Between Personal and Organizational Developmental Action-Logics 127

    6.2 The Relationship Between LDR's Three Leadership Cultures and Torbert's Developmental Action-Logics 128

    6.3 Methods and Tools Supporting Developmental Action Inquiry and Interdependent Organizing in the LDR Case 134

    7.1 A Typology of Research Potential Defined by the Joint Analysis of Existing CTUs and ETUs 149

    7.2 IRM Collaborative Protocol: A Synthesis 155

    10.1 Comparing Three Learning Forums 220

    III.l Overview of the Chapters in Part III 227

    12.1 Research Stages and Stakeholders 249

    12.2 Mechanisms in Collaborative Research 256

    16.1 Samples of Trade Unions and Collaborative Research: An Illustrative Summary 319

    17.1 MIT's Industrial Partnerships 344

    17.2 Vision for Benefits of the Ford-MIT Alliance 358

    17.3 Balancing Values for Ford and MIT in Alliance Projects 359

    17.4 Basic Assumptions in Ford's and MIT's Organizational Cultures 361

    20.1 Participants, Areas of Interest, and Affiliations 426

    20.2 Assigned Reading for the Symposium 430

    IV.1 The Multiple Voices in the Collaborative Research Chapters: A Comparative Preview 441

    21.1 Action Researcher Key Tasks 447

    21.2 Case A: Collaborative Improvement Initiatives and Their Outcomes 450

    21.3 Case B: Collaborative Improvement Initiatives and Their Outcomes 454

    22.1 A Two-Dimensional Model of Partnership: Identity and the Relationship Structure 475

    V.l Comparison Between Methodological Features of Laboratory and Collaborative Management Research 541

    27.1 Elements of Rigorous Collaborative Management Research 572

    27.2 Elements of Reflective Collaborative Management Research 576

    27.3 Elements of Relevant Collaborative Management Research 579

    28.1 Primary Foci at Different Stages of the Research 587

    28.2 Dimensions of the Pragmatic Tradition in Action Research 590

    29.1 Creating a Collaborative Management Research Community: Tasks and Relational Issues 605

    29.2 Quality in a Collaborative Management Research Community: A Checklist for Action 611

    List of Figures

    5.1 Profiles of Three Potential Collaborators 103

    5.2 Tensions Challenging the Collaborative Search for Understanding 112

    8.1 Schematic Organization of Past and Ongoing European Collaborative Research Programs 165

    8.2 The Main Phases and Activities of the Collaborative Research Team in the Skandia Project 173

    10.1 Academic-Practitioner Forums: Structure, Agenda, and Purpose 208

    10.2 Executive Forum on Corporate Citizenship: Timeline 210

    10.3 Two Models of Organization Change: Executive Forum on Corporate Citizenship 214

    10.4 Balancing the Paradoxes of Brand Management 218

    11.1 Percentage Improvement of Emotional and Social Intelligence Competencies of Different Groups of MBA Graduates Taking the Intentional Change Course 234

    11.2 Boyatzis's Intentional Change Theory 235

    12.1 Elements and Flow of the Dynamic Strategic Alignment Process 245

    12.2 Principal Collaborators 248

    12.3 The Five S's of Alignment as a Dynamic Balancing Act® 258

    15.1 The Regional Playing Field: Location of the Shared Management Model 298

    16.1 Learning Paths of the Collaborative Researcher 324

    16.2 Learning “Away” in the SALTSA Network 326

    16.3 The Learning Cycle at Home: Anglian Water 329

    16.4 The Learning Cycle at Home (Vertex) 332

    16.5 A Typical Decision-Making Consensus Curve 334

    16.6 Decision Making and “Boxing and Dancing” 335

    17.1 MIT Seal 345

    17.2 MIT's Research Funding 347

    17.3 Icon Developed as a Symbol for the Ford-MIT Alliance 362

    18.1 Inflation in Sweden, 1980–2005 378

    18.2 Basic Outline of Inflation's Adjustment With Alternative Stabilization Policy Preferences 382

    18.3 Number of Hits for “Inflation Targeting” From a Search in EconLit 389

    18.4 Number of Articles Authored by Riksbank Economists in Scientific Journals 391

    19.1 High and Low Collaboration in Knowledge Production 406

    21.1 Researcher Networks 446

    22.1 The Action Research Center: An Initial “Espoused Theory” for Building College-Community Partnership (March 2005) 470

    22.2 The Action Research Center's “Theory-in-Use” for Building College-Community Partnership (March 2006) 483

    24.1 Schematic Representation of the Trajectories of Activities at HP and CEO Before, During, and After the Collaboration 519

    24.2 HP's Knowledge Asset Value Delivery Model 525

    25.1 Capacity for Effective Collaboration in Collaborative Management Research: Developing the Infrastructure for Partnership 532

    26.1 Managers' Unwillingness to Leave Their Comfort Zone 556

    26.2 The Strategic Fitness Process: A Platform for Collaborative R&D in Management That Matters 558

    26.3 The Primary Strengths of Each Model in Transforming Knowledge and Practice Between Contexts 562

    28.1 The Consequences of Actionability 591

  • Author Index

    About the Authors

    Ibrahim Abu Elhaija is managing director of the Nazareth-based Masar Institute for Education and is a founder of its alternative school. He is a founder of the Action Research Center and a member of the ARC research team at the Max Stern Academic College of Emek Yezreel and is cochairperson of its steering committee. Since moving from the fields of marketing and hi-tech 10 years ago, he has led development of new visions in education using action research methods. He has supervised participatory action research dealing with issues such as collaborative management methods in schools, developing critical thinking through language teaching, and the use of swimming classes as a means of perceiving reality in new ways. He has been a project facilitator in the Ministry of Education's Division of Experiments and Initiatives.

    Niclas Adler is a professor in business administration and dean at Jonkoping International Business School. He is the founding director of the FENIX Centre for Innovations in Management and the founding president of the Stockholm School of Entrepreneurship, and he is engaged as a researcher at the Stockholm School of Economics, the Chalmers University of Technology, I'École des Mines de Paris, the Institute for Management of Innovation and Technology, and the Sunningdale Institute in the UK. His work has been published in such scientific journals as Human Relations, R&D Management, and European Management Review and by Sage, Oxford University Press, Open University Press, and Elsevier Science. In addition to his academic engagements, he is the cofounder of 14 companies, is engaged as director at TruePoint Partners, Boston, and is a board member in seven technology-based companies.

    Catrina Alferoff has worked on a number of ESRC- and EU- funded projects and also carried out independent research. Most recently she has worked on the ESRC project “The Dynamics of Knowledge Production in the Business School: A Comparative Study,” focusing on the topic of business school-industry collaborative networks and forums. Recent publications have been on call centers, the delivery of financial services in the home, and out-of-hours health provision.

    Mikael Apel, Ph.D. (economics), is senior economist at the Division for Applied Research at the Monetary Policy Department of the Riksbank (the Swedish central bank), where he was first employed in 1994. From 2001 to 2003, he worked at the National Institute of Economic Research. He has also acted as secretary on government commissions on responsibility for exchange rate policy and on stabilization policy in the monetary union.

    Gabriele Bammer is a professor at the National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health in the College of Medicine and Health Sciences at the Australian National University and a research fellow at the Hauser Center for Nonprofit Organizations at Harvard University. She is developing a new cross-cutting specialization—integration and implementation sciences—to provide new concepts and methods to enhance knowledge by drawing on multiple disciplines and practice areas, as well as to increase the uptake of research in practice.

    Jean M. Bartunek is the Robert A. and Evelyn J. Ferris Chair and professor of organization studies at Boston College. Her doctorate in social and organizational psychology is from the University of Illinois at Chicago. She is a fellow and past president of the Academy of Management and an associate editor of the Journal of Applied Behavioral Science. Her research focuses on organizational change, conflict, and social cognition, and on methodologies by which inside members and external researchers can collaborate to study organizations. She is coeditor with Mary Ann Hinsdale and James Keenan of Church Ethics and Its Organizational Context: Learning From the Sex Abuse Scandal in the Catholic Church (Rowman and Littlefield, 2006).

    Michael Beer is Cahners-Rabb Professor of Business Administration, Emeritus, at the Harvard Business School, and cofounder and chairman of TruePoint Partners and the not-for-profit TruePoint Center for High Commitment and Performance. Prior to joining the Harvard faculty, Dr. Beer was director of organization research and development at Corning, Inc. His research and writing are in organization effectiveness, organizational change, and human resource management. Dr. Beer has authored or coauthored nine books and numerous articles and book chapters. He has received several awards for his writing and professional contributions and is a fellow of the Society of Industrial & Organizational Psychology and the Academy of Management.

    Richard E. Boyatzis is professor in the departments of organizational behavior and psychology at Case Western Reserve University and an adjunct professor at ESADE in Barcelona. He is the author of more than 150 articles and books that include The Competent Manager; the international bestseller Primal Leadership, coauthored with Daniel Goleman and Annie McKee (published in 29 languages); and Resonant Leadership, coauthored with Annie McKee (published in 18 languages). Professor Boyatzis has a B.S. in aeronautics and astronautics from MIT and an M.S. and a Ph.D. in social psychology from Harvard University.

    Hilary Bradbury, Ph.D., is director of sustainable business programs at the University of Southern California's Center for Sustainable Cities and an associate research professor in the College of Letters, Arts, and Sciences. She brings her expertise in action research—a community design approach—to work with businesses dealing with sustainable development. She was previously associate professor of organizational behavior at Case University's Weatherhead School of Management. She has published widely in journals including Organization Science and Academy of Management Executive. She is coeditor of the Sage journal Action Research and of the Handbook of Action Research (2001, 2007). She grew up in Ireland and lived and worked in Germany, Switzerland, and Japan. She now lives in Los Angeles with her family.

    David Coghlan is at the School of Business, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland, and is a Fellow of the College. He specializes in organization development and action research and is active in both communities internationally. He is currently on the editorial review boards of several journals, including Action Research and the Journal of Applied Behavioral Science. His recent coauthored books include Doing Action Research in Your Own Organization (2nd ed., Sage, 2005) and Organizational Change and Strategy (Routledge, 2006).

    Susan G. Cohen was a senior research scientist at the Center for Effective Organizations in the Marshall School of Business at the University of Southern California. She has coauthored and/or edited books, articles, and book chapters about teams and teamwork, employee involvement and empowerment, and human resource strategies. Her most recent books are, with Don Mankin, Business Without Boundaries: An Action Framework for Collaborating Across Time, Distance, Organization and Culture (Jossey-Bass, 2004); and, with Don Mankin and Tora Bikson, Teams and Technology: Fulfilling the Promise of the New Organization (Harvard Business School Press, 1996). With Cristina Gibson, she edited Virtual Teams That Work: Creating Conditions for Virtual Team Effectiveness (Jossey-Bass, 2003).

    Paul Coughlan has, since 1993, researched, taught, and published in the areas of operations management and product development at the University of Dublin, School of Business, Trinity College, Ireland. He holds a Ph.D. from the University of Western Ontario, Canada, and M.B.A. and B.E. degrees from University College, Cork, Ireland. He is president of the board of the European Institute for Advanced Studies in Management and a member of the board of the European Operations Management Association.

    Albert David is professor of management at I'École Normale Supérieure, France. He has been collaborating with the Centre de Gestion Scientifique (I'École des Mines de Paris) for many years. He recently created M-Lab, an “R&D in management” research team. Albert David's publications are about the structure and dynamics of management innovation and the epistemology of management research.

    Helena Syna Desevillia is a social-organizational psychologist by training and a faculty member at the sociology anthropology department at the Max Stern Academic College of Emek Yezreel. There, she is among the founders of the Action Research Center and serves on its steering committee. Her research focuses on interpersonal and intergroup relations in organizations, especially on intragroup dynamics, processes of cooperation versus competition, team building, and development of partnerships. She has an expertise in program evaluation of social projects and, recently, a special interest in action research. She is on the editorial board of Conflict Resolution Quarterly, Negotiation and Conflict Management Research, and the International Journal of Conflict Management and publishes her work in these as well as organization-related journals.

    Peter Docherty, Ph.D., D.Sc, is a member of the faculty of the Institute for Management of Innovation and Technology at Chalmers University of Technology in Gothenburg, Sweden, and senior researcher at ATK Arbetsliv. He was formerly professor at the National Institute for Working Life, Stockholm. His research is mainly in the fields of learning at the individual, group, organization, and network levels and the organization and management of sustainable organizations.

    Martha Farrell received an M.S.W. from Delhi School of Social Work in 1981. She is currently the director of the Society for Participatory Research in Asia's (PRIA's) Continuing and Distance Education Programme, where programs on civil society building, panchayati raj, urban governance, gender mainstreaming, and participatory development are being developed. Ms. Farrell has coauthored several books for children on environmental issues. She has also prepared learning materials and manuals on gender and other developmental issues. She is the chairperson of the Society for Participatory Research in Asia's (PRIA's) Committee for Gender Awareness and Mainstreaming. Her experience in gender issues includes conducting training programs for a range of different audiences.

    Victor J. Friedman is associate professor of organizational behavior with a joint appointment in behavioral sciences and sociology-anthropology at the Max Stern Academic College of Emek Yezreel. He is a founder of the Action Research Center and is cochairperson of the Steering Committee. His life's work has been to help individuals, groups, organizations, and communities learn through “action science”—ongoing experimentation and critical reflection in everyday life. He works with educational, social service, and business organizations to promote organizational learning, social entrepreneurship, and social inclusion. He is a senior associate of the Action Evaluation Research Institute and is on the editorial board of Action Research. He is an author, with R. Lipshitz and M. Popper, of The Demystification of Organizational Learning (Sage, 2006).

    Denis Gregory teaches labor relations and labor economics at Ruskin College, Oxford. He has been a consultant to the Trade Union Research Unit at Ruskin for more than 30 years, supporting many UK unions as a consultant and trainer. He is also an associate consultant to the TUC Partnership Institute.

    Larry Greiner is professor of management and organization at the University of Southern California, where he currently serves as academic director of the school's Shanghai Global Executive MBA Program. Professor Greiner is the author of numerous publications on the subjects of organization growth and development, management consulting, and strategic change.

    Goolabri Group is a collaborative research team that included Professor Bammer and Robyn Attewell, Stephen Buckman, Ann Curthoys, Kate Delaney, Stephen Dovers, Liz Furler, Sasha Grishin, Alan Hájek, John Handmer, Judith Jones, Steve Longford, John Mackey, Michael McFadden, Michael Moore, Paul Perkins, Pascal Perez, Stephen Pickard, Aileen Plant, John Quiggin, Alison Ritter, Michael Smithson, and Ian White.

    Norman Halpern is president of Halpern Associates, Inc., a Toronto, Canada-based firm specializing in organization design. He is adjunct professor in the department of mechanical and industrial engineering at the University of Toronto.

    Gunilla Härnsten, Ph.D., is professor of education at Växjö University, with a special focus on adult education and gender. Over the years, her research has become more and more participatory and inspired by feminist research. She is the author of The Research Circle: Building Knowledge on Equal Terms (2003).

    Armand Hatchuel is professor and deputy director of the Center for Management Science at I'École des Mines de Paris and a guest professor at the FENIX Centre, Chalmers Institute, Gothenburg, Sweden. His research is on the theory and history of management and design, focusing on innovative firms, design processes, and collaborative research principles. He has published books and papers and is on the editorial boards of international journals and on national scientific boards in France and Sweden. In 1996, he was awarded a French prize for his work in management, and in 2003 he received the medal of the School of Arts and Crafts for his work on design theory. He is also columnist for management issues at the French newspaper Le Monde.

    George W. Hay, Ph.D., is a scholar-practitioner of business research and organization development and change. He is a director of Global Consumer and Business Insight at McDonald's Corporation. His academic interests involve the creation of actionable knowledge, critical realism as a model for organization change, and executives as internal change agents.

    Lars Heikensten, Ph.D. (economics), was from 1972 to 1984 a researcher and teacher at the Stockholm School of Economics. In 1985, he was appointed assistant undersecretary at the Swedish Ministry of Finance and in 1990 undersecretary for economic affairs. He became chief economist at Svenska Handelsbanken in 1992, deputy governor of the Swedish central bank responsible for monetary policy in 1995, and governor in 2003. He has held several board positions in government agencies, companies, and universities. He has also represented Sweden at the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the Bank for International Settlements (BIS), and the European Central Bank (ECB). Since 2006, he has been a member of the European Court of Auditors.

    Lars Holmstrand, Ph.D., is professor of education at Växjö University. He has a broad research background in traditional educational areas. For over two decades he has also been engaged in working-life research. His main interests are research circles and democratic knowledge processes.

    Anita Howard is a Ph.D. candidate in the department of organizational behavior at Weatherhead School of Management, Case Western Reserve University. Her research interests are emotional and social intelligence, leadership, intentional change, and executive coaching. She is an executive coach and organizational consultant with experience in corporate, nonprofit, and educational settings. Before coming to Weatherhead, she cofounded a management consulting company and codeveloped training models to enhance the performance of African American and nontraditional performers in secondary school, college, and professional settings. She also worked in college administration at Radcliffe College, Harvard University, and Tufts University.

    Tony Huzzard is currently an associate professor at the Department of Business Administration, Lund University, and was formerly visiting research fellow at the National Institute for Working Life in Malmö. He has researched and published widely on organizational development, work organization, and industrial relations.

    Per Jansson, Ph.D. (economics), is associate professor of economics at the University of Uppsala. Since 2006, he has been state secretary at the Ministry of Finance. Previously, he was deputy director at the Monetary Policy Department of the Swedish central bank, where he was first employed in 1995. From 2001 to 2003, he worked at the National Institute of Economic Research.

    David Knights is professor of organizational analysis in the School of Economic and Management Studies at Keele University. He is a founding and continuing editor of the journal Gender, Work and Organisation and has published widely in the field of management and organization analysis. His most recent books are Management Lives: Power and Identity in Work Organisation (Sage, 1999) (with H. Willmott); Organization and Innovation: Gurus Schemes and American Dreams (Open University Press, 2003) (with D. McCabe); and (with H. Willmott) Introducing Organizational Behaviour and Management (Thomson Learning, 2007).

    Harvey Kolodny is professor emeritus with the Rotman School of Management and the Faculty of Applied Science and Engineering at the University of Toronto. His current research, writing, and academic work are in the areas of change management, project management, and organization design.

    Ed Kur teaches in the organization change doctoral program at Pepperdine University. He has published in Training and Development, Supervisory Management, Personnel Administrator, Journal of Management Inquiry, and Leadership and Organization Development. He has taught at Arizona State University, Universidad de Monterrey, and Loyola Marymount University. He has consulted nationally and internationally on team-based systems, organization change, leadership development, organization design, and strategic planning in many industries. He has worked with Motorola, SmithKline Beecham, VLSI Technology, Phelps Dodge, Boehringer Engelheim, Sundstrand, Marion Merrell Dow, American Express, Taco Bell, and Bank One. His Ph.D. is from UCLA.

    Jan Löwstedt, Ph.D., is professor of business administration at Mälardalen University. He is currently conducting research on integration processes in company mergers, knowledge collaboration in and between organizations, and the management of school organizations. His most recent book is Producing Management Knowledge (2006, coedited with T. Stjernberg).

    John McGuire's diverse work history includes senior business management positions in private and not-for-profit organizations; he is president of the McGuire Consulting Group. John is currently a senior faculty member at the Center for Creative Leadership and holds master's degrees from Harvard and Brandeis University.

    Philip H. Mirvis is an organizational psychologist whose research and private practice concern large-scale organizational change and the character of the workforce and workplace. A consultant to businesses in the United States, Europe, Latin America, and Asia, he has authored eight books on his studies, including The Cynical Americans (social trends), Building the Competitive Workforce (human resource investments), and Joining Forces (the human side of mergers). His most recent book is a business transformation story, To the Desert and Back. Mirvis is currently a senior research fellow, Boston College, Center for Citizenship.

    Allan M. Mohrman Jr. was a founding member of the Center for Effective Organizations (CEO) in the Marshall School of Business at the University of Southern California. His research and publications focus on performance management, organization design, team-based organizations, and research methodologies that bridge theory and practice.

    Susan Albers Mohrman is senior research scientist at the Center for Effective Organizations (CEO) in the Marshall School of Business at the University of Southern California. Her research and publications focus on organizational design for lateral integration and flexibility, networks in basic science, management of knowledge and knowledge workers, organizational change and implementation, and research methodologies for bridging theory and practice. She is cofounder and a faculty director of CEO's certificate program in organization design.

    Ernesto Olascoaga was the founder, in 1976, of Grupo Visión Global (GVG), a consulting firm. He specializes in strategic change management, leadership development, and organization/process redesign for collaborative work systems. As a business coach and consultant, Ernesto has helped thousands of leaders and teams in organizations from a wide range of sectors to keep focused and aligned while executing their strategies. His passion has been to blend his organizational change competencies with information technology products for achieving performance enhancement through productive participation. He has worked with General Motors, Coca-Cola, Unilever, SCA, Roche, Pizza Hut, and Pepsico International. He received his master's degree in organizational behavior from Brigham Young University and his doctorate in organizational change from Pepperdine University.

    Michal Palgi is the chair of the department of sociology and anthropology at the Max Stern Academic College of Emek Yezreel and a senior researcher at the Institute for Research of the Kibbutz and the Cooperative Idea at Haifa University. She is a founder of the Action Research Center and a member of its Steering Committee. Her research, publications, and activity are in the areas of organizational democracy, organizational change, gender-based inequality, social justice, kibbutz society, organization democracy, and community development. Professor Palgi is an adviser to the Austrian-German research project ODEM (Organizational Democracy—resources of organizations for social behavior readiness conducive to democracy). She is the coeditor of the Journal for Rural Cooperation.

    Charles J. Palus, Ph.D., is a senior faculty member in research and innovation at the Center for Creative Leadership. Palus is the author and designer of numerous publications, programs, and products related to creativity and leadership, including The Leader's Edge, the Leading Creatively program, and Visual Explorer.

    William A. Pasmore (Ph.D., Purdue University) is a partner at Oliver Wyman Delta Organization & Leadership Consulting in New York. He works with CEOs and senior executives on organization change, organization design, and executive development/succession. As a former full professor at Case Western Reserve University, he taught in the Weatherhead School of Management's programs at the Ph.D., M.B.A., and undergraduate levels and served as director of the master's degree program in organization development. He is the author or editor of more than 20 books, including the series Research in Organizational Change and Development with Richard Woodman. He currently resides in Maine.

    Brigette Rapisarda, ED.M., is director of training for Royal Caribbean Cruise Lines.

    George Roth is a senior research associate in MIT's Sloan School of Management and Lean Aerospace Initiative program. His research examines leadership, culture, learning, and change, with a current focus on change across sets of organizations (enterprise value streams). George has been a part of many collaborative research efforts and has coauthored four books, including The Dance of Change and To the Desert and Back.

    Michal Shamir is a teaching assistant at the Max Stern Academic College of Emek Yezreel, where she received her B.A. in organizational behavior and human resources from the department of sociology and anthropology. She is currently studying for a research M.A. in applied sociological research at Haifa University, specializing in the transfer and use of knowledge through social networks linking individuals in organizations. She is among the founders of the Action Research Center and a member of its Steering Committee. She teaches courses in research methods, anthropology, human services, introductory sociology, and Israeli society.

    Orit Shamir is a teaching assistant at the Max Stern Academic College of Emek Yezreel, where she received her B.A. in organizational behavior and human resources from the department of sociology and anthropology. She is among the founders of the Action Research Center and a member of its Steering Committee. She is a doctoral student in sociology and anthropology at the University of Haifa, specializing in distance learning in organizations. She teaches courses in research methods, organizational theory, introductory sociology, and Israeli society.

    A. B. (Rami) Shani is professor and chair of the Management Area at the Orfalea College of Business at California Polytechnic State University and a visiting adjunct professor at the FENIX Centre for Innovations in Management at the Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden. He has held visiting professorship appointments at the Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden; Politecnico di Milano, Italy; and Recanati Graduate School of Business Administration, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv, Israel. He also served on the board of the Organization Development and Change division of the Academy of Management for five years and acted as chair of the division. His research and publications focus on work and organization design, organizational change and development, collaborative research methodologies, learning in and by organizations, and new product development. His most recent books include Creating Sustainable Work Systems, Learning by Design, and Collaborative Research in Organizations.

    Aneika L. Simmons is an assistant professor at Sam Houston State University in Huntsville, Texas. She received her Ph.D. in management from Texas A&M University in 2006. She also has a B.B.A. from the University of Texas at Austin and an M.A. from the University of Houston. Her primary research interests are related to individual creative performance, organizational justice, and discrimination issues.

    Ken Starkey is professor of management and organizational learning and head of the strategy division at Nottingham University Business School. His research interests include strategy and learning, the theory and practice of organization and organization development, and management education. He is author of 10 books, including How Organisations Learn (International Thomson Press, 2004), and of over 100 articles in journals such as Sociology, Strategic Management Journal, Academy of Management Review, and Organization Science. He is former chair of the British Academy of Management Research Committee and author of a number of reports on the future of management research and management education. He is currently writing The Future of the Business School for Cambridge University Press.

    Michael W. Stebbins, Ph.D., is emeritus professor of organization design at Cal Poly's Orfalea College of Business. His consulting and research interests include new product development, change processes, and building sustainable work systems. In retirement, his interests include travel with his wife, Margaret, gardening, and visiting his new granddaughter, Stella Buckley.

    Bengt Stymne is professor emeritus of organization theory at the Stockholm School of Economics. At present he is carrying out a study of how different regions in the world succeed in encouraging their firms, entrepreneurs, and scientists to make product innovations. He was a cofounder and management director of the Scandinavian Institutes of Administrative Research and has been a managing director of the Economics Research Institute in Stockholm and of the Institute for Management of Innovation and Technology in Gothenburg, Sweden. He is a founder of the Stockholm School of Entrepreneurship and was director of research at the FENIX Centre. He has published books and articles on organization design and strategy, organizational values, industrial democracy, IT and management, and research methodology.

    Israel Sykes has master's degrees in organizational behavior from Tel Aviv University and in family therapy from Hahneman University in Philadelphia. He has worked over the years as a therapist, social entrepreneur, organizational consultant, and researcher. He is currently a freelance organizational consultant specializing in social service development and social entrepreneurship.

    Rajesh Tandon is an internationally acclaimed leader and practitioner of participatory research and development. In 1982, he founded the Society for Participatory Research in Asia (PRIA), a voluntary organization providing support to grassroots initiatives in South Asia. He has a Ph.D. from Case Western Reserve University. Dr. Tandon has served on government task forces and committees and has also held key positions in national and international organizations. He has published in the areas of participatory research, participatory training, NGO-government relations, NGO management, and the role of civil society and voluntary development organizations in development. His recent publications include Does Civil Society Matter? Governance in Contemporary India (coeditor), Sage, 2003; Voluntary Action, Civil Society and the State, Mosaic Books, New Delhi, 2002; Civil Society and Governance (coauthor), Sanskriti, New Delhi, 2002; Participatory Research: Revisiting the Roots (editor), Mosaic Books, New Delhi, 2002; and Reviving Democracy (coauthor), Earthscan, UK, 2002.

    Scott Taylor, Ph.D., is assistant professor in the Department of Organizational Behavior at Boston University.

    Ramkrishnan (Ram) V. Tenkasi is professor with the Ph.D. program in Organization Development and Change at Benedictine University. His research and practice interests cover the topics of organizational knowledge, learning, innovation, and change. Multiple grants from federal agencies and private corporations have supported his research in the above areas.

    Nick Tiratsoo has worked at a number of British universities and is now retired. He has published widely in the fields of British contemporary history, planning history, and business history and has edited, with Duncan Tanner and Pat Thane, Labour's First Century (Cambridge University Press, 2000). He is affiliated with the Business History Unit, London School of Economics.

    Bill Torbert taught at Yale, SMU, and Harvard before coming to Boston College as graduate dean and later director of the Ph.D. program in Organizational Transformation. A board member of Trillium Asset Management and various academic journals, Torbert has also consulted widely in Europe, Latin America, and the United States.

    Judy L. Valenzuela, Pharm. D., is pharmacy services director for Orange County in Kaiser Permanente's Southern California Region. She has more than 25 years' experience in pharmacy management and is responsible for outpatient, inpatient, ambulatory care, and drug education/utilization services for a patient population of more than 350,000 health plan members.

    Mary Lindenstein Walshok, Ph.D., is associate vice chancellor for public programs at the University of California, dean of the University Extension, and adjunct professor of sociology. She has been a visiting professor at the Stockholm School of Economics and in 2004 held an international appointment at Oxford University. Walshok is responsible for UCSD's outreach programs including executive education, continuing professional education, UCSD-TV, and a variety of community and economic development initiatives. She has authored many chapters and journal articles and two books: Blue Collar Women and Knowledge Without Boundaries. The latter deals with the role of research universities in the economy. She has received many awards, including the Kellogg Foundation's Leadership Fellowship, and was recently inducted into Sweden's Royal Order of the Polar Star.

    Andreas Werr is an associate professor at the Stockholm School of Economics. His research interests include different aspects of management consulting, professional service firms, and interorganizational collaboration. He has acted as supervisor in several collaborative executive Ph.D. projects.

    Stu Winby is founder and managing partner of Sapience-Silicon Valley and of Innovation Point, two Silicon Valley firms specializing in strategy, organization, and innovation. He has more than 30 years of executive and management experience in organization strategy and effectiveness. As director and general manager for Hewlett-Packard's Strategic Change Organization, he innovated and introduced new management technologies to the company and the field.

    Richard W. Woodman (Ph.D., Purdue University) is the Fouraker Professor of Business and Professor of Management at Texas A&M University, where he teaches organizational behavior, organizational change, organizational creativity and innovation, and research methodology. He is editor of the Journal of Applied Behavioral Science and coeditor of the annual series Research in Organizational Change and Development, published by Elsevier. His research interests focus on organizational change and organizational creativity. In a previous life, Dr. Woodman was a military intelligence officer in the U.S. Army, worked in both the petroleum and banking industries, and served for several years as vice president of a financial institution.

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