Handbook of Lesbian and Gay Studies
`The creation of a new field of lesbian and gay studies over the past thirty years has been a fascinating project. This volume brings together key authors in the field in 26 major essays and provides a clear sense of just how much has been achieved. It is a guide to the state of the art, and invaluable for scholars throughout the world' - Ken Plummer, Professor of Sociology, University of Essex; and Editor of Sexualities `This book is unique in lesbian and gay studies. From politics to health, cyber-queers to queer families, the review essays in this volume cover all the important bases of GLB history and politics. The Introduction is a simple and accessible overview of the changing faces of theory and research ...
- Front Matter
- Subject Index
Part I: History and Theory
- Chapter 2: From Liberation to Transgression and Beyond: Gay, Lesbian and Queer Studies at the Turn of the Twenty-First Century
- Chapter 3: The Heterosexual/Homosexual Binary: Past, Present and Future
- Chapter 4: The Mainstreaming of Lesbian and Gay Studies?
- Chapter 5: Unusual Fingers: Scientific Studies of Sexual Orientation
- Chapter 6: Heterosexuality: It's Just Not Natural!
- Chapter 7: The Comparative Sociology of Homosexualities
Part II: Identity and Community
- Chapter 8: From the Bowery to the Castro: Communities, Identities and Movements
- Chapter 9: New Technologies and ‘Cyber-queer’ Research
- Chapter 10: Queer Bodies and the Production of Space
- Chapter 11: The Forgotten: A Community Without a Generation—Older Lesbians and Gay Men
- Chapter 12: Queer Diaspora
- Chapter 13: Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual Youth
- Chapter 14: The Bisexual Menace: Or, Will the Real Bisexual Please Stand Up?
Part III: Institutions
- Chapter 15: Imagining the Place of the State: Where Governance and Social Power Meet
- Chapter 16: Lesbian and Gay Health: Power, Paradigms and Bodies
- Chapter 17: Innocence and Experience: Paradoxes in Sexuality and Education
- Chapter 18: Lesbian and Gay Bodies of Law
- Chapter 19: Religious Views of Homosexuality
- Chapter 20: Gays and Lesbians as Workers and Consumers in the Economy
- Chapter 21: Sweating in the Spotlight: Lesbian, Gay and Queer Encounters with Media and Popular Culture
- Chapter 22: Queer Families Quack Back
Part IV: Politics
- Chapter 23: Making a Minority: Understanding the Formation of the Gay and Lesbian Movement in the United States
- Chapter 24: Anti-Gay and Lesbian Violence and its Discontents
- Chapter 25: Globalization and the International Gay/Lesbian Movement
- Chapter 26: Nationalism Has a Lot to Do with It! Unraveling Questions of Nationalism and Transnationalism in Lesbian/Gay Studies
- Chapter 27: Sexual Citizenship: Marriage, the Market and the Military
With this benchmark work, lesbian and gay studies come of age. Drawing from a rich team of global contributors, and carefully structured to elucidate the core issues in the field, theHandbook of Lesbian and Gay Studies constitutes an unparalleled resource for teaching, research, and debate.
The volume is organized into 4 sections:
- History and Theory: This covers the roots of lesbian and gay studies; the institutionalization of the subject in the Academy; the ‘naturalness’ of heterosexuality; science and sexuality; the comparative sociology of homosexualities; and the heterosexual/homosexual division.
- Identity and Community: This examines the formation of gay and lesbian identities; communities, and movements; ‘cyber-queer’ research; sexuality and space; generational issues in lesbian and gay lifecycles; and the subject of bisexuality.
- Institutions: This investigates questions of the governance of sexualities; lesbian and gay health, sexualities and education; religion and homosexuality; homosexuality and the law; gay and lesbian workers; homosexuality and the family; and lesbian, gay, and queer encounters with the media and popular culture
- Politics: This explores the formation of the gay and lesbian movements; impact of globalization; antigay and lesbian violence; nationalism and transnationalism in lesbian and gay studies; and sexual citizenship
The result is an authoritative book that demarcates the field, stimulates critical discussion and provides lesbian and gay studies with an enriching focal reference point. It is, quite simply, a breakthrough work that will galvanize discussion and research for years to come.
“The creation of a new field of lesbian and gay studies over the past thirty years has been a fascinating project. This volume brings together key authors in the field in 26 major essays and provides a clear sense of just how much has been achieved. It is a guide to the state of the art, and invaluable for scholars throughout the world.” - Ken Plummer, Professor of Sociology, University of Essex; and Editor of Sexualities
““This book is unique in lesbian and gay studies. From politics to health, cyber-queers to queer families, the review essays in this volume cover all the important bases of GLB history and politics. The Introduction is a simple and accessible overview of the changing faces of theory and research over many decades. This book is bound to be an important resource in a burgeoning field.” - Janice Irvine, Associate Professor of Sociology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst
“The Handbook of Gay and Lesbian Studies, assembled by two leading theorists of sexuality, makes available more than two dozen new cutting-edge essays in gay studies. Essential for social science scholars and students of gay/queer studies.” - David F. Greenberg, Professor of Sociology, New York University
Introduction © Diane Richardson and Steven Seidman, 2002
Chapter 1 © Barry D. Adam, 2002
Chapter 2 © Sasha Roseeneil, 2002
Chapter 3 © Peter M Nardi, 2002
Chapter 4 © Lynda Burke, 2002
Chapter 5 © Chrys Ingrahim, 2002
Chapter 6 © Stephen O. Murray, 2002
Chapter 7 © Verta Taylor, Elizabeth Kaminski and Kimberly Dugan, 2002
Chapter 8 © Nina Wakeford, 2002
Chapter 9 © Gill Valentine, 2002
Chapter 10 © Stephen Pugh, 2002
Chapter 11 © Anne-Marie Fortier, 2002
Chapter 12 © Melinda S. Miceli, 2002
Chapter 13 © Kristin G. Esterberg, 2002
Chapter 14 © Daviana Cooper, 2002
Chapter 15 © Tamsin Wilton, 2002
Chapter 16 © Debbie Epstein, Sarah O'Flynnand and David Telford, 2002
Chapter 17 © Leslie J. Moran, 2002
Chapter 18 © Dawne Moon, 2002
Chapter 19 © Marieka M. Klawitter, 2002
Chapter 20 © Joshua Gamson, 2002
Chapter 21 © Judith Stacey and Elizabeth Davenport. 2002
Chapter 22 © Stephen Engel, 2002
Chapter 23 © Valerie Jenness and Kimberley D. Richman, 2002
Chapter 24 Dennis Altman, 2002
Chapter 25 © Jyoti Puri, 2002
Chapter 26 © David Bell and Jon Binnie, 2002
First published 2002
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Notes on Contributors[Page ix]
Barry D. Adam is University Professor of Sociology at the University of Windsor, Canada. He is the author of The Survival of Domination (Elsevier, 1978), The Rise of a Gay and Lesbian Movement (Twayne, 1995), Experiencing HIV (with Alan Sears, Columbia University Press, 1996), and co-editor of The Global Emergence and Gay and Lesbian Politics (Temple University Press, 1999).
Dennis Altman is Professor of Politics at La Trobe University, Australia, and author of ten books, including Homosexual Oppression and Liberation (Outerbridge and Dienstfrey, 1971), The Homosexualization of America (St. Martin's Press, 1982), Power and Community (Falmer, 1994) and Global Sex (University of Chicago Press, 2001). He was a founding member of the AIDS Society of Asia and The Pacific and the Asia Pacific Council of AIDS Service Organizations, and co-chair in 2001 of the Sixth International Congress on AIDS in Asia and the Pacific. He has also published a novel, The Comfort of Men, and a memoir, Defying Gravity.
David Bell teaches Cultural Studies at Staffordshire University. He is co-author of Consuming Geographies (Routledge, 1997) and The Sexual Citizen (Polity, 2000), and co-author of Mapping Desire (Routledge, 1995), City Visions (Prentice-Hall, 2000) and The Cybercultures Reader (Routledge, 2000). His most recent book is An Introduction to Cybercultures, published by Routledge in 2001.
Jon Binnie teaches Human Geography at Manchester Metropolitan University. He is co-author of The Sexual Citizen (Polity, 2000) and Pleasure Zones (Syracuse University Press, 2001). He is currently completing a book on globalization and sexuality, to be published by Sage in 2002.
Lynda Birke is a feminist biologist, who has written extensively about the intersections between biological ideas and gender/sexuality. She did research for many years on animal behaviour, focusing on how behaviour and hormones interact; later, she was Senior Lecturer in the Centre for the Study of Women and Gender at the University of Warwick, where her research focused on feminist science studies. Her books include: Women, Feminism and Biology (Wheatsheaf, 1986), Feminism, Animals and Science (Open University, 1994), and Feminism and the Biological Body (Edinburgh University Press, 1999). She has been out in print ever since she wrote a chapter on science and lesbians in the 1970s, while part of the Brighton Women and Science Group—a defiant act for a scientist, who is not supposed to admit to personal details in their writing at all. She lives in North Wales, with her partner and lots of animals (including a dyke dog called Penny).[Page x]
Davina Cooper is Professor of Law and Social Science Faculty Research Dean at Keele University. She is the author of Sexing the City (Rivers Oram Press, 1994), Power in Struggle (Open University Press, 1995), and Governing out of Order (Rivers Oram Press, 1998). She is currently completing a book on radical political and normative theory. Her research interests include governance conflicts, feminist political theory and socio-legal studies.
Elizabeth Davenport is Assistant Dean for student affairs at the University of Southern California, addressing issues of gender, sexual identity and sexual violence on campus. She is a doctoral candidate in social ethics at USC, currently researching intersections of religion and postmodern family identity. She is also an Episcopal priest, and has worked in diverse ecclesiastical settings in the United States as well as in France, Israel, and her native England.
Kimberly Dugan is an Assistant Professor at Eastern Connecticut State University. Her research focuses on the dynamics between the Christian right and the gay, lesbian and bisexual movement. Current work involves issues of identity and identity salience on movement success and the packaging and promoting of claims in an anti-gay ballot initiative. She also teaches a course on gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgendered lives.
Stephen Engel completed an interdisciplinary Master of Arts in Humanities and Social Thought at New York University in the spring of 2001. At present he is researching how high cultural notions regarding the performative identity and socially constructed nature of reality are gaining expression in outlets of popular or mass culture. His first book, The
Unfinished Revolution: Social Movement Theory and the Gay and Lesbian Movement, was published by Cambridge University Press.
Debbie Epstein is Professor of Education and Head of the Department of Educational Studies at Goldsmiths College, University of London. Her recent publications include Schooling Sexualities (written with Richard Johnson, Open University Press, 1998), Border Patrols: Policing the Boundaries of Heterosexuality (co-edited with Deborah Lynn Steinberg and Richard Johnson, Cassell, 1997), and A Dangerous Knowing: Sexuality Pedagogy and Popular Culture (co-edited with James T. Sears, Cassell, 1999). She is currently working on a book with Sarah O'Flynn and David Telford, entitled Silenced Sexualities in Schools and Universities.
Kristin G. Esterberg is Associate Professor of Sociology at the University of Massachusetts at Lowell. She is the author of Lesbian and Bisexual Identities: Constructing Communities, Constructing Selves (Temple University Press, 1997) as well as numerous articles and book chapters on lesbian and bisexual identity and community. Her second book, Qualitative Methods in Social Research, was recently published by McGraw Hill.
Anne-Marie Fortier is a lecturer in the Sociology Department, Lancaster University. She is the author of Migrant Belongings: Memory Space, Identity (Berg, 2000), as well as a [Page xi]number of articles, including publications in Theory, Culture & Society, Diaspora, and The International Journal of Canadian Studies. She is currently working on representations of multicultural Britain, with a focus on the sexual politics of multiculturalism.
Joshua Gamson is Associate Professor of Sociology at Yale University, and author of Claims to Fame: Celebrity in Contemporary America (University of California Press, 1994) and Freaks Talk Back: Tabloid Talk Shows and Sexual Nonconformity (University of Chicago Press, 1998) which won awards from the Society for Cinema Studies and the American Sociological Association, and was selected as one of The Voice Literary Supplement's 25 favourite books of 1998. He has published numerous scholarly articles on social movements, media and culture, and sexuality and has written about television, popular culture, and lesbian and gay politics for The Nation, The American Prospect, Tikkun, and The Utne Reader.
Chrys Ingraham is Associate Professor of Sociology at Russell Sage College for women in Troy, New York. She also directs the Helen M. Upton Center for Women's Studies and the Allies Center for the Study of Difference and Conflict. Dr Ingraham is the author of White Weddings: Romancing Heterosexuality in Popular Culture (Routledge, 1999), co-editor of Materialist Feminism: A Reader in Class, Difference and Women's Lives (Routledge, 1997), and is editor of two new readers Heterosexuality: A Critical Historical Reader and Straight Talk, both published by Routledge in 2002.
Valerie Jenness is an Associate Professor in the Department of Criminology, Law and Society and in the Department of Sociology at the University of California, Irvine, as well as the Chair of the Department of Criminology, Law and Society. Her research has focused on the links between deviance and social control (especially law), gender, and social change. She is the author of Making Hate a Crime: From Social Movement to Law Enforcement (with Ryken Grattet, 2001), Hate Crimes: New Social Movements and the Politics of Violence (with Kendal Broad, 1997), and Making it Work: The Prostitutes' Rights Movement in Perspective (1993)—as well as numerous articles on the politics of prostitution, AIDS and civil liberties, hate crimes and hate crime law, and the gay/ lesbian movement and the women's movement in the USA.
Elizabeth Kaminski is a graduate student in the Department of Sociology at Ohio State University. Her research interests include gender, sexuality, social movements and women's health. She recently published an article on lesbian health in The Journal of Lesbian Studies (2000).
Marieka M. Klawitter is Associate Professor of Public Affairs at the Daniel J. Evans School of Public Affairs at the University of Washington. Her research focuses on public policies that affect work and income. Her work includes studies of the effects of child support policies, welfare policies and antidiscrimination policies for sexual orientation. Professor Klawitter teaches courses on public policy analysis, quantitative methods, women and work and sexual orientation and public policy.[Page xii]
Melinda S. Miceli is an assistant Professor of Sociology at the University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire. She received her doctoral degree in sociology from the University at Albany in 1998. Her dissertation, entitled ‘Recognizing all the Differences: Gay Youth and Public Education in America Today’, was the culmination of three years of interview, field and document research into the school experiences of gay, lesbian and bisexual youth and the social debate that surrounds them. She continues to conduct research on this topic specifically focusing on examinations of school gay straight alliances as a social movement and the political framing processes used by social movement organizations that support, and those that oppose, the rights of gay, lesbian and bisexual students.
Dawne Moon is an Assistant Professor of Sociology at the University of California, Berkeley. She received her PhD from the University of Chicago in 2000. Her forthcoming book is an ethnographic study of debates about homosexuality within two United Methodist congregations.
Leslie Moran is Reader in the School of Law at Birkbeck College, University of London. He has written extensively on matters relating to gay issues in the law. His monograph, The Homosexual(ity) of Law was published in 1996 (Routledge). He has edited special edition's of Social and Legal Studies entitled ‘Legal Perversions’ (1997) and co-edited Legal Queeries with colleagues in 1998 (Cassell). His current research is on homophobic violence. He is one of a multi-disciplinary team undertaking the largest study of lesbians, gay men, violence and safety in the UK. The project is funded by the Economic and Social Research Council as part of a 20-project initiative on violence research. The project website is http://les1.man.ac.uk/sociology/vsrp. The team are completing a book provisionally entitled Violence and the Politics of Sexuality. He is a member of the Metropolitan Police Lesbian Gay Bisexual Transgender Advisory Group and a member of the management committee of GALOP, the gay and lesbian police monitoring organization.
Stephen O. Murray earned a PhD in sociology from the University of Toronto and was a postdoctoral fellow in anthropology at the University of California, Berkeley. He has worked as a consultant to California county health departments and done research in Canada, Guatemala, Mexico, Taiwan and Thailand. He wrote a series of books about the social organization of homosexualities in various culture areas, culminating in Homosexualities, published by the University of Chicago Press in 2000.
Peter M. Nardi is Professor of Sociology at Pitzer College of the Claremont Colleges in California. His is the author of Gay Men's Friendships (Chicago, 1999), editor of Gay Masculinities (Sage, 2000) and co-editor of Social Perspectives in Lesbian and Gay Studies: A Reader (Routledge, 1998), among other books. He is also the editor of Sociological Perspectives the journal of the Pacific Sociological Association.
Sarah O'Flynn is a doctoral candidate at Goldsmiths College, University of London Institute of Education. Her interests are in sexuality and education, particularly in [Page xiii]relation to inequality. She is currently writing her thesis exploring the links between young women's sexualities and educational achievement. She has worked for the past ten years in secondary schools in London teaching English. She is currently working with young traveller pupils in London, supporting their access to education.
Stephen Pugh qualified as a social worker in 1987, with a particular interest in working with older people. In 1992, he moved into social service management concentrating on field and home care services. Throughout his social work career, Stephen developed interests in carer support, abuse of older people and assessment issues with an underlying emphasis on quality. Since 1995, he has been a Lecturer in Social Work with older people at the University of Salford. With colleagues, Stephen developed a Master's programme in Social Gerontology and is currently Director of Social Work and Social Care at the university. He is currently undertaking doctoral study, exploring service provision for older lesbian and gay men.
Jyoti Puri is Assistant Professor in the Departments of Sociology and Women's Studies in Simmons College, Boston. She is also the Director of the master's program in Gender/Cultural Studies. She has published in the areas of gender and sexuality. Her recent book is entitled Woman, Body, Desire in Post-colonial India: Narratives of Gender and Sexuality (Routledge, 1999). An article on a feminist critique of the Kamasutra is forthcoming in the journal of SIGNS. She has also authored an article entitled, ‘Reading Romances in Postcolonial India’, which was published in Gender and Society. She is currently working on a book on nationalism for Blackwell Publishers.
Diane Richardson is Professor and Head of the Department of Sociology and Social Policy and Director of the Center far Sender and Women's Studies at the University of Newcastle. She has written extensively about feminism and sexuality and her publications include Women and the AIDS Crisis (Pandora Press, 1989), Women, Motherhood and Childrearing (Macmillan, 1993), Theorising Heterosexuality (Open University Press, 1996) and, as co-editor, Introducing Women's Studies (Macmillan/New York University Press, 1997). Her latest book is Rethinking Sexuality (Sage, 2000).
Kimberly D. Richman is a doctoral candidate in the Department of Criminology, Law and Society at the University of California, Irvine. Her interests include gender, sexuality, law, the construction and social control of vice and morality, and court processes. She is the author of two articles on the topic of domestic violence, appearing in Sociological Inquiry and Studies in Law, Politics, and Society. She has also published on victimless crime and homosexuality. Her current research analyses judicial narratives and meaning-making in child custody cases involving gay and lesbian parents.
Sasha Roseneil is Professor of Sociology and Gender Studies and Director of the Centre for Interdisciplinary Gender Studies at the University of Leeds. She is the author of Disarming Patriarchy (Open University Press, 1995) and Common Women, Uncommon Practices: The Queer Feminisms of Greenham (Cassell, 2000), and co-editor of Stirring[Page xiv]It: Challenges for Feminism (Taylor and Francis, 1994), Practising Identities (Macmillan, 1999), Consuming Cultures (Macmillan, 1999) and Globalization and Social Movements (Palgrave, 2001).
Steven Seidman is a Professor of Sociology at the State University of New York at Albany. He is the author or editor of, among other books, Embattled Eros (Routledge, 1992), Queer Theory/Sociology (Blackwell, 1996), Difference Troubles (Cambridge University Press, 1997), and his latest book, Gay and Lesbian Life after the Closet will be published next year.
Judith Stacey is the Streisand Professor of Contemporary Gender Studies and Professor of Sociology at the University of Southern California. Her primary research and teaching interests focus on the relationship between social change and the politics of gender, family and sexuality. Currently she is conducting ethnographic research on gay male family and kinship relationships and values in Los Angeles. Her publications include In the Name of the Family: Rethinking Family Values in the Postmodern Age (Beacon Press, 1996) and Brave New Families: Stories of Domestic Upheaval in Late Twentieth Century America (University of California Press, 1998). She is a founding board member of the Council on Contemporary Families, a group committed to public education about research on family diversity.
Verta Taylor is Professor of Sociology and Member of the Graduate Faculty in Women's Studies at Ohio State University. She is co-author with Leila J. Rupp of Survival in the Doldrums: The American Women's Rights Movement, 1945 to the 1960s; co-editor with Laurel Richardson and Nancy Whittier of Feminist Frontiers; author of Rock-a-by Baby: Feminism, Self-Help and Postpartum Depression; and has published numerous articles on social movement theory, women's movements and the gay and lesbian movement. Her forthcoming book (with Leila Rupp) What Makes a Man a Man: Drag Queens at the 801 Cobaret, examines the role of drag performances in the gay and lesbian movement.
David Telford taught economics and social sciences in secondary schools in Melbourne, Australia, before beginning his doctoral studies at London University where he is a research student at Goldsmiths College. His research is on young gay men at university. In addition, he has worked as a researcher at the Institute on a project concerned with the evaluation of Education Action Zones and at the London School of Economics on a project investigating the lives of young lesbian and gay university students and young lesbian and gay homeless people.
Gill Valentine is Professor of Geography at the University of Sheffield where she teaches social and cultural geography, approaches to geography and qualitative methods. She is author of Social Geographies: Space and Society (Pearson, 2001), co-author of Consuming Geographies: You Are Where You Eat (Routledge, 1997), editor of Lesbian Geographies: From Nowhere to Everywhere (Harrington Park Press, 2000) and co-editor of Children's Geographies: Playing, Living, Learning (Routledge, 2000), Cool[Page xv]Places: Geographies of Youth Cultures (Routledge, 1998) and Mapping Desire: Geographies of Sexualities (Routledge, 1995).
Nina Wakeford is the Director of INCITE—the Incubator for Critical Inquiry on Technology and Ethnography—in the Department of Sociology, University of Surrey (http://incite.soc.surrey.ac.uk). Her past research include's ethnographic work in the UK and the USA on computing and Internet culture, studies of cybercafés, online discussion groups and new media start-up companies. Currently, she is directing two research projects, one investigating the use of mobile phones in urban spaces, and the other exploring the use of cultural theory and ethnography by product and interface designers. She is the author of Network of Desire (Routledge, 2002), and co-editor with Peter Lyman of Analyzing Virtual Societies: New Directions in Methodology (American Behavioral Scientist/Sage, 1999).
Tamsin Wilton is Reader in Sociology at the University of the West of England. She has been a teacher, writer and activist on queer issues since the mid-1980s. Her many publications include Sexualities in Health and Social Care (Open University Press, 2000), Lesbian Studies: Setting an Agenda (Routledge, 1995) and EnGendering AIDS: Deconstructing Sex, Texts, Epidemic (Sage, 1997). She is busy writing her next book, Who Do Women Want? which sets out to establish an empirical foundation for social constructionist theories of sexuality.