Leadership in Science and Technology: A ReferenceHandbook
Publication Year: 2012
This 2-volume set within the SAGE Reference Series on Leadership tackles issues relevant to leadership in the realm of science and technology. To encompass the key topics in this arena, this handbook features 100 topics arranged under eight headings. Volume 1 concentrates on general principles of science and technology leadership and includes sections on social-scientific perspectives on S&T leadership; key scientific concepts about leading and innovating in S&T; characteristics of S&T leaders and their environments; and strategies, tactics, and tools of S&T leadership. Volume 2 provides case studies of leadership in S&T, with sections considering leadership in informal communities of scientists and engineers; leadership in government projects and research initiatives; leadership in industry research, development, and innovation; and finally, leadership in education and university-based research. ...
- Front Matter
- Subject Index
Part I: Scientific Approaches
- Chapter 1: Anthropology
- Chapter 2: Cognitive Science
- Chapter 3: Economics
- Chapter 4: Futures Studies
- Chapter 5: Linguistics
- Chapter 6: Network Science: Theory,Tools, and Practice
- Chapter 7: Political Science
- Chapter 8: Social Psychology
- Chapter 9: Sociology
- Chapter 10: Urban and RegionalPlanning
Part II: Key Concepts
- Chapter 11: Controversies
- Chapter 12: Creative Destruction
- Chapter 13: Design Science
- Chapter 14: Diffusion ofInnovations
- Chapter 15: Group Processes
- Chapter 16: Human SubjectsResearch
- Chapter 17: Mechanizing Ethics
- Chapter 18: National Preeminence
- Chapter 19: Research Groups
- Chapter 20: Research Misconduct
- Chapter 21: The Scientific Method
- Chapter 22: Social Complexity
- Chapter 23: Sustainability
- Chapter 24: Technology Convergence
Part III: Contexts
- Chapter 25: Fallibility andAuthority
- Chapter 26: Inclusive Technologies
- Chapter 27: Intellectual PropertyRights
- Chapter 28: Moral Exemplars
- Chapter 29: Multicultural Teams
- Chapter 30: New Media
- Chapter 31: Political Economy
- Chapter 32: Product Liability
- Chapter 33: Productivity ofInvention
- Chapter 34: Public Attitudes towardScience and Technology
- Chapter 35: Religion and Science
- Chapter 36: Science Careers
- Chapter 37: Social Movements
- Chapter 38: Virtual Organizations
Part IV: Tactics and Tools
- Chapter 39: Computer Simulation
- Chapter 40: Creative Cognition
- Chapter 41: Followership
- Chapter 42: Gatekeeping
- Chapter 43: Management Tools forInnovation
- Chapter 44: Peer Review
- Chapter 45: The PrecautionaryPrinciple
- Chapter 46: Program Evaluation
- Chapter 47: Science of SciencePolicy
- Chapter 48: Strategic Thinking
- Chapter 49: The Triple Helix
- Chapter 50: Workshops and Networks
Part V: Discovery and Debate
- Chapter 51: Advice to the U.S.Government
- Chapter 52: ArtificialIntelligence
- Chapter 53: The Chicago School ofSociology
- Chapter 54: The Climate ChangeDebate
- Chapter 55: Fuzzy Logic
- Chapter 56: The Harvard Department ofSocial Relations
- Chapter 57: Human Dimensions ofBiology
- Chapter 58: Natural Disasters
- Chapter 59: The PsychoanalyticMovement
- Chapter 60: Quantum Mechanics
- Chapter 61: Science Fiction
- Chapter 62: Service Science
- Chapter 63: The SETI Institute
- Chapter 64: Sociobiology
- Chapter 65: Spectral Music
- Chapter 66: Transhumanism
Part VI: Collaboratories
- Chapter 67: Blacksburg ElectronicVillage
- Chapter 68: Computer Tomography VirtualOrganization
- Chapter 69: Data-IntensiveAstronomy
- Chapter 70: Human Relations AreaFiles
- Chapter 71: Information TechnologyResearch
- Chapter 72: The Mars Exploration RoverMission
- Chapter 73: The Perseus Project
- Chapter 74: Polar Research
- Chapter 75: The Protein Data Bank
- Chapter 76: Social Science DataArchives
- Chapter 77: University Corporation forAtmospheric Research
Part VII: Technology Development
- Chapter 78: Apollo Project
- Chapter 79: Avatars
- Chapter 80: The Digital LibraryInitiative
- Chapter 81: Energy ProgramEvaluation
- Chapter 82: Environmentally CompatibleTextiles
- Chapter 83: From ARPAnet, throughNSFnet, to Internet
- Chapter 84: Geographic InformationSystems
- Chapter 85: Harpsichord Makers
- Chapter 86: The Manhattan Project
- Chapter 87: National Nano TechnologyInitiative
- Chapter 88: Open Source SoftwareDevelopment
- Chapter 89: Robotics in Japan
- Chapter 90: Television
- Chapter 91: The V-2 Rocket Program
- Chapter 92: Vaccination
Part VIII: Education
- Chapter 93: American Association for theAdvancement of Science Education Programs
- Chapter 94: Educational Games andVirtual Reality
- Chapter 95: Engineering Education
- Chapter 96: International ComparativeStudies in Education
- Chapter 97: National Science DigitalLibrary
- Chapter 98: The New Math
- Chapter 99: The Open University(UK)
- Chapter 100: Undergraduate BiologyEducation
William Sims BainbridgeConsulting Editor
- Lucretia McCulley, University ofRichmond
Copyright © 2012 by SAGE Publications, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized inany form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying,recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, withoutpermission in writing from the publisher.
Printed in the United States of America.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Leadership in science and technology: a reference handbook / edited byWilliam Sims Bainbridge.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-1-4129-7688-6 (hardback)
1. Scientists. 2. Technologists. 3. Science. 4. Technology. 5. Leadership. 6.Leadership—Case studies. I. Bainbridge, William Sims.
11 12 13 14 15 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
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List of Entries
- Advice to the U.S. Government
- American Association for the Advancement of ScienceEducation Programs
- Apollo Project
- Artificial Intelligence
- Blacksburg Electronic Village
- The Chicago School of Sociology
- The Climate Change Debate
- Cognitive Science
- Computer Simulation
- Computer Tomography Virtual Organization
- Creative Cognition
- Creative Destruction
- Data-Intensive Astronomy
- Design Science
- Diffusion of Innovations
- The Digital Library Initiative
- Educational Games and Virtual Reality
- Energy Program Evaluation
- Engineering Education
- Environmentally Compatible Textiles
- Fallibility and Authority
- Futures Studies
- From ARPAnet, Through NSFnet, to Internet
- Fuzzy Logic
- Geographic Information Systems
- Group Processes
- Harpsichord Makers
- The Harvard Department of Social Relations
- Human Dimensions of Biology
- Human Relations Area Files
- Human Subjects Research
- Inclusive Technologies
- Information Technology Research
- Intellectual Property Rights
- International Comparative Studies in Education
- Management Tools for Innovation
- The Manhattan Project
- The Mars Exploration Rover Mission
- Mechanizing Ethics
- Moral Exemplars
- Multicultural Teams
- National Nano technology Initiative
- National Preeminence
- National Science Digital Library
- Natural Disasters
- Network Science: Theory, Tools, and Practice
- The New Math
- New Media
- Open Source Software Development
- The Open University (UK)
- Peer Review
- The Perseus Project
- Polar Research
- Political Economy
- Political Science
- The Precautionary Principle
- Product Liability
- Productivity of Invention
- Program Evaluation
- The Protein Data Bank
- The Psychoanalytic Movement
- Public Attitudes Toward Science and Technology
- Quantum Mechanics
- Research Groups
- Research Misconduct
- Religion and Science
- Robotics in Japan
- Science Careers
- Science Fiction
- Science of Science Policy
- The Scientific Method
- Service Science
- The SETI Institute
- Social Complexity
- Social Movements
- Social Psychology
- Social Science Data Archives
- Spectral Music
- Strategic Thinking
- Technology Convergence
- The Triple Helix
- Undergraduate Biology Education
- University Corporation for Atmospheric Research
- Urban and Regional Planning
- The V-2 Rocket Program
- Virtual Organizations
- Workshops and Networks
- Blacksburg Electronic Village
- Computer Tomography Virtual Organization
- Data-Intensive Astronomy
- Human Relations Area Files
- Information Technology Research
- The Mars Exploration Rover Mission
- The Perseus Project
- Polar Research
- The Protein Data Bank
- Social Science Data Archives
- University Corporation for Atmospheric Research
- Discovery and Debate
- Advice to the U.S. Government
- Artificial Intelligence
- The Chicago School of Sociology 472
Andrew V. Papachristos
- The Climate Change Debate
- Fuzzy Logic
- The Harvard Department of Social Relations
- Human Dimensions of Biology
- Natural Disasters
- The Psychoanalytic Movement
- Quantum Mechanics
- Science Fiction
- Service Science
- The SETI Institute
- Spectral Music
- Key Concepts
- Scientific Approaches
- Tactics and Tools
- Technology Development
- Apollo Project
- The Digital Library Initiative
- Energy Program Evaluation
- Environmentally Compatible Textiles
- From ARPAnet, through NSFnet, to Internet
- Geographic Information Systems
- Harpsichord Makers
- The Manhattan Project
- National Nano technology Initiative
- Open Source Software Development
- Robotics in Japan
- The V-2 Rocket Program
When the editors at SAGE Publications approached me nearly 4 years ago todescribe a new leadership handbook series they hoped to develop and to ask if Imight be interested in serving as a series consulting editor, I was intrigued.From the viewpoint of a librarian who has worked with the Jepson School ofLeadership Studies at the University of Richmond, I was familiar firsthand withthe needs of both faculty researchers and undergraduate students and topics ofinterest and relevance. From this perspective, I collaborated with SAGE todevelop a list that, over the intervening years, has evolved into a series oftwo-volume reference handbooks on political and civic leadership, gender andwomen's leadership, leadership in nonprofit organizations, leadership inscience and technology, and environmental leadership.
It is my hope that students, faculty, researchers, and reference librarians willbenefit from this series by discovering the many varied ways that leadershippermeates a wide variety of disciplines and interdisciplinary topics.SAGE's Encyclopedia of Leadership (2004) has beenan outstanding reference tool in recent years to assist students withunderstanding some of the major theories and developments within leadershipstudies. As one of the newest interdisciplinary fields in academia in the past20 years, leadership studies has drawn on many established resources in thesocial sciences, humanities, and organizational management. However, academicresources that are wholly dedicated and developed to focus on leadership as anacademic study have been few and far between. The SAGE Reference Series onLeadership will provide an excellent starting place for students who want athorough understanding of primary leadership topics within a particulardiscipline. The chapters in each of the handbooks will introduce them to keyconcepts, controversies, history, and so forth, as well as helping them becomefamiliar with the best-known scholars and authors in this emerging field ofstudy. Not only will the handbooks be helpful in leadership studies schools andprograms, they will also assist students in numerous disciplines and otherinterdisciplinary studies programs. The sources will also be useful for leadersand researchers in nonprofit and business organizations.
I would like to acknowledge Jim Brace-Thompson, senior editor, and Rolf Janke,vice president and publisher at SAGE Reference for their guidance, superborganization, and enthusiasm throughout the handbook creation process. I admireboth of them for their intellectual curiosity and their willingness to createnew reference tools for leadership studies. I would also like to acknowledge thefaculty, staff, and students of the Jepson School of Leadership Studies for themany contributions they have made to the establishment of leadership studies asan academic field. Founded in 1992, the Jepson School of Leadership Studies isthe only institution of its kind in the world, with a full-time,multidisciplinary faculty dedicated to pursuing new insights into thecomplexities and challenges of leadership and to teaching the subject toundergraduates. When I was assigned to serve as the liaison librarian to the newschool in 1992, I had no idea of how much I would learn about leadershipstudies. Over the past 18 years, I have audited courses in the school, attendednumerous Jepson Forums and speaker series, taught library and informationresearch skills to Jepson students, assisted faculty and staff with variousresearch questions, and engaged in enlightening conversations with both facultyand students. Through these many experiences, my knowledge and understanding ofthe field has grown tremendously, and it is has been a unique experience toobserve the development of a new field of study in a very brief time. I thank myJepson colleagues for including me on the journey.[Page xii]
Introduction: The Scope of Leadership in Science and Technology[Page xiii]
The future of civilization depends on continued progress in science andtechnology. In the short term, world peace requires economic growth that bringsprosperity to poor nations without reducing the prosperity of rich nations. Inthe long term, a shift to a stable and sustainable technical culture may benecessary, but at present, we have little idea how to achieve it. At all times,it is essential to maximize the benefit and minimize the harm from science-basedtechnology. Yet science and technology are not automatic, impersonal forces, butthey result from the hard work of individual scientists and engineers, each ofwhom plays a leadership role of greater or lesser extent.
Progress in science and technology is a truly global enterprise, and leaders musthave not only organizational skills and solid scientific expertise but also avision to see farther than others do, plus the social skills to join togetherother creative scientists and engineers to recognize how their work mightcontribute to a greater whole. All citizens of the modern world need tounderstand the powerful forces of innovation that change it every day, and eachtechnically trained person can be a leader in his or her own immediate area.Although there is no one secret that can ensure success, the authors of the 100chapters in this handbook offer a wealth of ideas, insights, and informationthat will be of great value to readers with many different goals and locationsin the world of science and technology.
There are three related audiences for this handbook. First, students will use itas a reference work, certainly for their school projects and perhaps even tohelp them think through future careers they themselves might have in science andtechnology. Second, faculty and social science researchers will draw on it forresearch ideas, lecture material, literature citations, and other informationthat will contribute to their work. Third, policy makers, investors, and otherleaders in science and technology fields will use it for inspiration andpractical advice, whether they work in government, industry, or academia.
The primary market for this handbook will be reference collections of college anduniversity libraries for undergraduate and graduate students, researchers, andfaculty in such programs and schools as the sciences, engineering, management,and public administration. However, because each author has written for a widerange of colleagues in diverse fields, each chapter is lucid and all significanttechnical terms are clearly defined. Therefore, a very wide range of readerswill find these chapters useful and even stimulating, whether they encounter thehandbook in a public library or even obtain one for home use. An additionalsubstantial audience consists of the leaders of industrial corporations,research laboratories, and technology-related government agencies.
The authors are scientists, engineers, administrators, and significant leaders intheir fields. Many are social scientists who have studied their particulartopics closely and are thus able to introduce readers to the key themes ofscience and technology leadership in a lucid and authoritative manner. Othersare leaders who are experienced in creating, promoting, and improving theorganizations that conduct scientific research, technology development, andeducation. As it happens, many are or were connected to the National ScienceFoundation, including former NSF division directors. This handbook is notofficially connected to NSF in any way, and the authors have expressed their ownviews rather than those of any organization with which they are associated. Yetthey are not merely a collection of individuals, but they are representatives ofscience and engineering leadership in the United States and the world at large,and thus, they are connected to each other in many profound ways.
This introduction begins with an overview of the structure and contents of thishandbook, and then it considers the challenges and opportunities scientists,engineers, and educators will face in the future. One section focuses onwell-known issues that have been widely discussed among professionals and havebeen the focus of reports from the [Page xiv]National Academy of Sciences.The concluding section takes a longer view, referring to wider issues that arevery difficult to analyze rigorously yet may become crucially important as thedecades pass.Organization of the Handbook
The 100 chapters of this handbook are logically organized into two volumes,the first covering general principles of science and technology leadershipand the second offering case studies of especially informative and diverseexamples. Each volume is then divided into four roughly equal sectionsexpressing major themes and perspectives. Of course, there is considerableoverlap of themes, especially in the second volume where a case study mayillustrate several major principles that were more abstractly introduced inthe first volume. Chapters in the first volume refer to case studiesbriefly, to illustrate their more general points. Thus, the volumes areoriented very differently; yet they join together in an integratedintellectual unity.
Each chapter is a complete essay that can stand on its own merits; yet eachsupports the others in their exploration of issues of tremendous importanceto humanity. In addition, each chapter introduces further readings, servinglike a door into a new world for people who have not yet become familiarwith it. However, even advanced experts in a field will find fresh insightsand challenging questions in the chapters that relate most closely to theirown work, and they can gain from chapters even very remote from their ownfield through analogies they will be able to see and abstract principlesthat might apply very broadly.
Volume 1 begins with a section of chapters in Part Ithat covers major concepts, theories, and methodologies of each of therelevant social sciences. Collectively, they offer an introduction to themultidisciplinary field of Science and Technology Studies, and students orprofessors who are familiar with one social science will learn greatly fromreading about the others. It can be especially stimulating to read two orthree chapters and then consider how their fields relate to each other,through both similarities and differences. If only this first section of thehandbook existed, it would constitute an excellent textbook for a course onthe social science of science and technology.
Part II of Volume 1 approaches science andtechnology in terms of key concepts about leading and innovating,crosscutting disciplinary boundaries. Everybody needs to understandsomething about the dynamics of these defining forces in the modern world,but students will especially find these concepts useful in understandingfactors vitally important for their future careers. Academics will use thissection as a rich resource for classroom lectures and a storehouse of ideasfor research and citations for publications. Leaders will naturally findmuch advice in these pages because the concepts will help them understandtheir own immediate practical choices. However, the deeper lesson is that noleader can rely on any single concept, no matter how powerful and cogent itmay seem, because the real world is complex. Indeed, one way of definingleadership is the ability to weigh options in the light of multipleperspectives and a variety of empirical data, thus applying the scientificmethod to the very act of leading.
Part III of Volume 1 surveys the landscape and thecast of characters who play key roles in it—the characteristics ofleaders and their environments. Indeed, from the standpoint of any givenleader, all the other leaders are part of the environment that must be takeninto account. Any individual scientist or engineer needs to deal withseveral leaders plus the environment, and this collection of chapters offersnot only ideas to inform understanding but also practical advice on how tohandle real-world situations. To students and social scientists, Part III presents research and innovation in itsproper context, a system in which people, facilities, institutions, andelements of the wider culture interact.
Volume 1 concludes with Part IV, which outlines thestrategies, tactics, and tools of leadership. From policy making to peerreview, these topics span a wide range of levels of organization andtechnical detail. Some require effective use of the newest technologies forcommunication and information management, whereas others are based onfundamental principles of human social structure. A tool of management isnot like a hammer, good for one task only and harmful if used for adifferent purpose, because leaders modify management tools in the very actof employing them. By definition, leaders take groups in new directions, sothey must constantly innovate, magnifying a tactic to create a strategy, orrefining a strategy to produce a tactic, always with a full awareness of thecollective wisdom about tactics and strategies.
Volume 2 consists of case studies of leadership in science and technology,written by scholars who have studied the given case, or by leaders who haveplayed important roles in it. To be sure, some authors express pride intheir own leadership accomplishments, and they have every right to do so.However, some case studies are extremely critical of the actions of leaders.There are failure stories as well as success stories, and other tales areambiguous as to success or failure. For the purposes of this handbook, thosevariations are ideal because they communicate the widest possible range ofinsights and offer a valuable mixture of inspirations and warnings forfuture leaders.
Part V of Volume 2 describes the complex, even attimes chaotic, debate among scientists required for discovery. New ideas inscience often come into existence in a half-formed condition, receivingsevere criticism from established leaders, and being promoted by enthusiastswho may claim too much. At the beginning of a new theory, method, or fieldof science, it may be impossible for any external observer to judge. Thus,there can exist tremendous scope for leaders to promote, resist, or attemptto adjudicate the novelties. However, this is not the only scenario, andanother describes discovery at the intersection of two fields, or whendevelopments outside science [Page xv]render innovation possible. Inthose cases, the most effective leaders may be communicators, whosubordinate their own personal vision in the endeavor to bring together manycolleagues with varied expertise and diverse goals, to achieve a newsynthesis.
Part VI of Volume 2 explores the ways in whichlarge-scale progress can be achieved through communities andcollaboratories. Since the days of the ancient Greeks, science was carriedout by communities in which teachers had students, researchers hadassistants, and all of them relied on communication with colleagues. Yet inrecent decades, the communities have grown quite large, requiring ever morecomplex social organizations to manage communication, and the emergence ofnew information technologies designed to facilitate communication. Digitallibraries and databases provide new kinds of resources for research andeducation, and shared resources imply a shared responsibility to create andmaintain them. Both within a particular research study, and in a broadprogram of research carried out by people at many institutions, leaders mustfind the optimal ways to motivate and guide collaborative work.
Part VII examines case studies of major technologydevelopment. In the modern era, the development of a new technology hasoften (but certainly not always) required a major, focused investment byexisting large-scale organizations such as governments and industrialcorporations. Large technology development projects require a clear andachievable goal, a strategy for garnering sufficient support from externalsources to fund the work, and an organization capable of creating andassembling all the needed components. The possible outcomes are more variedthan simply success or failure. The intended development may be achieved,but then it may prove to have unintended consequences, including unexpectedbenefits as well as harmful second-order effects. When a project has dualmotivations, for example, serving the needs of the patrons who provide themoney plus the vision of the technological entrepreneurs, it may turn outthat one of these is satisfied and the other disappointed. Not infrequently,the potential of the new technology turns out to be different from what wasexpected—more, less, or in a different direction.
The capstone for this handbook, Part VIII of Volume2, concerns innovation in education. The theme is not only how to teachscience and engineering in a manner suitable for future leaders, but alsohow to apply the newest developments in science and technology to maximizethe effectiveness of teaching. Several of the case studies describe veryinfluential campaigns to improve education in one area or another, many ofthem highly successful, but some of them less successful, even in thespectacular sense of taking science education in the wrong direction. Keylessons concern goal setting, motivating educators around a shared vision,and using well-validated methods for teaching students. In a sense,education should be the first section of the handbook because it comes firstin the personal experience of any individual scientist or engineer. But itdeserves its placement here at the end precisely because it prepares thefuture of science and technology, long after this handbook is published.Well-Grounded Analyses of the Future
Leadership consists not only of the ability to motivate and organize theefforts of other people but also of the ability to see some distance intothe future, not only to set high but attainable goals but also to considerthe contingencies likely to arise, whether they are challenges to beovercome or opportunities to be exploited. In science and engineering, oneof the explicit functions of leading individuals and institutions is tocommunicate these insights about future developments, both to keep progressmoving forward and to adjust course as needed. Thus, well-grounded analysesof the future in science and engineering are based on solid knowledge ofcurrent problems and resources, and they are communicated throughwell-established media of communication. The chief responsibility ofscientific journals is communicating the latest discoveries and innovations,so setting agendas for future research and development tends to be theresponsibility of special commissions, workshops, and study groups assembledon an ad hoc basis to explore a particular issue.
Many agencies and organizations sponsor such efforts, but for the purposes ofthis introduction, we can focus on one—which bureaucraticallyconsists of an alliance of four organizations covering the territory of thishandbook. Headquartered in Washington, D.C., the National Academies serve asadvisors on science, engineering, and medicine, and they combine theNational Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, theInstitute of Medicine, and the National Research Council. Again and againsince Abraham Lincoln established the National Academy of Sciences in 1863,experts in a particular field or multidisciplinary experts on a particulartopic have been brought together and asked to develop a sober but insightfulreport that would be published for the benefit of the nation and of theworld. Here we will describe 15 of these reports, which happened to berecent at the time this handbook was completed and to cover wideterritories, to illustrate the kinds of issues that leaders in science andtechnology must face. The first five will be covered most closely becausethey also illustrate five very different formats of publication in whichleaders play somewhat different roles, and the remaining ten identify twovery important areas of social concern: health care and the environment.Part VIII ends with consideration of two otherreports that illustrate the different roles that government may play inscoping out the future and that concern the role of information technologyin serving all the sciences.
Some reports are relatively brief white papers or research agendas developedby participants in a workshop, in the first instance to provide guidance toresearchers, but also to [Page xvi]help funding agencies understand therole they need to play in supporting innovative research in the given area.For example, From Molecules to Minds: Challenges for the21st Century (Hogan and Altevogt 2008) is a workshop report on newmethods and concepts for studying the human brain, which is an immense taskthat will require the cooperation of top scientists in several fields. Ithighlights three grand challenges, questions that canbe answered in the near future but that require great effort and a highquality of thinking. How does the human brain function to produce mentalactivity? How does a person's biology and life experience combine tomake the individual's distinctive qualities? How can the health ofthe brain be maintained or restored? In outlining recent approaches to thesequestions, the report is not afraid to play with language and to proclaimparallels with other fields. It uses the term brainbow (brain-rainbow) to describe a method for making animalbrain neurons fluoresce in different colors to map their connections andfunctions. It repeatedly notes that there are more neurons in our brain thanthere are stars in our galaxy, and it draws comparisons between future brainresearch and the already-successful Human Genome Project to map the geneticcode.
Many other reports are book-length compendia of information andrecommendations at every possible scale where leadership might be exercised.For example, New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy andAstrophysics, produced by the Committee for a Decadal Survey ofAstronomy and Astrophysics (National Research Council 2010a), outlined ingreat detail a comprehensive plan covering the years 2012–2021, withimplications as well for the decade following that one. It cataloged recentdiscoveries, suggested a research agenda, and sketched the instruments thatwould be required to achieve it. Lengthier reports tend to have executivesummaries, written to arouse enthusiasm among leaders in government andother fields of science, often rather sweeping and visionary while the bulkof the report provides solid technical details. The first paragraph of theexecutive summary of this lengthy report sets the idealistic stage for adecade of research:
Our view of the universe has changed dramatically. Hundreds of planets ofstartling diversity have been discovered orbiting distant suns. Blackholes, once viewed as an exotic theoretical possibility, are now knownto be present at the center of most galaxies, including our own.Precision measurements of the primordial radiation left by the big banghave enabled astronomers to determine the age, size, and shape of theuniverse. Other astronomical observations have also revealed that mostof the matter in the universe is dark and invisible and that theexpansion of the universe is accelerating in an unexpected andunexplained way. Recent discoveries, powerful new ways to observe theuniverse, and bold new ideas to understand it have created scientificopportunities without precedent. (National Research Council 2010a:ES-1)
Clearly, rhetoric is a potent tool for leaders in science and engineering,but only if the audience for it trusts the ability of the leaders to fulfilltheir grand visions. Another factor that governs the influence of scienceand technology leaders is the degree to which other leaders in societyrecognize that a difficult problem exists that cannot be solved withouttechnical expertise. A good example is the problem of nuclear weaponsproliferation, addressed in the book-length report, Internationalization of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Goals, Strategies, andChallenges (National Research Council 2008a). Aggressive use ofcivilian nuclear power to help satisfy the world's growing needs forenergy not only produces vast amounts of nuclear wastes, which ideallyshould be recycled to the extent possible, but also the danger that the moreintensive the fuel cycle becomes the easier it will be for nations todevelop the materials needed for nuclear weapons, most obviously plutonium.This report is also a good example of the way in which differentorganizations can come together to exercise collective leadership. Threeorganizations connected with the National Academy of Sciences cooperated inproducing it: the U.S. Committee on the Internationalization of the CivilianNuclear Fuel Cycle; the Committee on International Security and ArmsControl, Policy and Global Affairs; and the Nuclear and Radiation StudiesBoard of the Division on Earth and Life Sciences. Most crucially, a fourthorganization also partnered in this effort, the Russian Committee on theInternationalization of the Civilian Nuclear Fuel Cycle.
Nuclear weapons proliferation is an old problem, although it has many newdimensions in an increasingly high-tech world, but other security-relatedproblems are entirely new. The centrality of the Internet and comparablecomputer systems to modern society means that their vulnerability toinsidious cyberattacks poses a great danger to the economy as well as tonational security. Part of the technical response must, of necessity, besecret, so that “the enemy” will be kept in the dark and thusprevented from finding ways around the defenses. But some other partsrequire public discussion, as in Proceedings of a Workshopon Deterring CyberAttacks: Informing Strategies and Developing Optionsfor U.S. Policy (National Research Council 2010b), which wasdeveloped at the request of the U.S. Office of the Director of NationalIntelligence yet intended for a wide audience. For example, one barrier todevelopment of effective protective measures was the reluctance of companiesand other organizations to admit when they had been attacked, so bringingthe problem into the light of day was an essential step in solving it. Asthe title implies, this book is a set of proceedings, and each of itschapters has different authors.
A fifth example, representing a different format, focused on one particulararea of pure science having practical importance: EarthScience and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the NextDecade and Beyond (National Research Council 2007). Like the firsttwo examples, it promotes a scientific agenda; yet in its bulk andorganization, this 456-page volume is rather like a textbook. After threechapters that introduce the field, it offers a section devoted to briefdescriptions of proposed projects [Page xvii]that could incidentally givestudents a vivid picture of the cutting-edge work in the field. A longersection then offers seven chapters that are reports of decadal surveypanels, but they serve to introduce their topics in a manner not verydifferent from textbook chapters: Earth Science Applications and SocietalBenefits; Human Health and Security; Land-Use Change, Ecosystem Dynamics,and Biodiversity; Solid-Earth Hazards, Natural Resources, and Dynamics;Climate Variability and Change; Weather Science and Applications; as well asWater Resources and the Global Hydrologic Cycle.
Each of these five publications lists many leaders who contributed to it,including people who work for the sponsoring organizations as well asoutside people who took leadership roles in organizing the projects, and allthe participants in the workshop or conference meetings. In the first case,Matthew Hogan and Bruce Altevogt were actually listed as rapporteurs, rather than as editors, and the others do notexplicitly have editors. In the case of the cyberattacks workshopproceedings, the writers of individual chapters are given full authorship,but that is not the case for the earth sciences book. Collective leadership,as illustrated by these five reports, presents the challenge of how toapportion honor and responsibility among people, all of whom may beconsidered leaders. This dilemma runs parallel to the question of whichareas of science and technology deserve emphasis in public funding.
During a period when the structure and economy of the health care industrywas being hotly debated, many reports examined challenging scientificquestions that needed to be answered. Some of them concerned significantchanges that were occurring in the context in which medicine is practiced.Antibiotic Resistance: Implications for Global Healthand Novel Intervention Strategies (Choffnes, Relman, and Mack 2010)was an overview and provided a large collection of papers by specificauthors on the declining effectiveness of antibiotics, as evolution gavebacteria greater resistance to these medications. Much smaller, but stillawarding authorship to writers of chapters, another report examined Grand Challenges of Our Aging Society (Smith 2010).Without either specific authors or editors, BioWatch andPublic Health Surveillance: Evaluating Systems for the Early Detectionof Biological Threats tackled the difficult problems of how todetect that a biowarfare attack had taken place, and of how to determine itsscope (National Research Council 2009). Other reports focused on the needfor improved methods to determine the effectiveness and safety of newmethods, such as two evaluating the procedures for developing and approvingnew drugs (Lebovitz, English, and Claiborne 2010; Wizemann 2010), anotherconsidering the potential of genetic diagnosis and screening technologies(Wizemann and Berger 2010), and one setting priorities for research on thecomparative effectiveness of a wide range of treatments (Institute ofMedicine 2009).
Social issues clearly shape the research investment priorities of anyparticular point in history, and another area of concern was sustainabilityand environmental protection. This is a domain where trade-offs betweendifferent values are a major challenge, such as the traditional issue ofexploiting the economic value of coal versus the costs of reducing itspollution impact. Appropriate compromises can be decided only on the basisof rather solid facts, for example, the issue of how much food prices mightbe affected by more extensive use of biofuels based on food crops like corn,which is outlined but not fully determined in ExpandingBiofuel Production: Sustainability and the Transition to AdvancedBiofuels (Koshel and McAllister 2010). Other reports examined thedifficult balance between economic development and exploitation of energyresources in light of the potential for increased global warming, notablyThe National Academies Summit on America'sEnergy Future (National Research Council 2008b) and Facilitating Climate Change Responses: A Report of TwoWorkshops on Insights from the Social and Behavioral Sciences(Stern and Kasperson 2010).
Reports like the 15 just described tend to draw on the leadership ofscientists and engineers in academia and industry, but it should not beforgotten that many expert leaders work in government agencies, and onoccasion they produce especially fine reports themselves. A good example is“Grand Challenges: Science, Engineering, and Societal AdvancesRequiring Networking and Information Technology Research andDevelopment,” which was produced entirely by employees of the U.S.government, through the Interagency Working Group on Information TechnologyResearch and Development (Strawn, Howe, and King 2003). Through a largenumber of meetings and much effort in small groups and as individuals, theteam identified fully 16 illustrative grand challenges by which computingand communication technologies could serve other fields of science andengineering and, thus, benefit humanity:
- Knowledge Environments for Science and Engineering
- Clean Energy Production through Improved Combustion
- High Confidence Infrastructure Control Systems
- Improved Patient Safety and Health Quality
- Informed Strategic Planning for Long-Term Regional ClimateChange
- Nanoscale Science and Technology: Explore and Exploit the Behavior ofEnsembles of Atoms and Molecules
- Predicting Pathways and Health Effects of Pollutants
- Real-Time Detection, Assessment, and Response to Natural or Man-MadeThreats
- Safer, More Secure, More Efficient, Higher-Capacity Multi-ModalTransportation System
- Anticipate Consequences of Universal Participation in a DigitalSociety
- Collaborative Intelligence: Integrating Humans with IntelligentTechnologies
- Generating Insights from Information at Your Fingertips
- Managing Knowledge-Intensive Organizations in DynamicEnvironments
- Rapidly Acquiring Proficiency in Natural Languages
- SimUniverse: Learning by Exploring
- Virtual Lifetime Tutor for All
A report issued directly from the White House, “Designing a DigitalFuture: Federally Funded Research and Development in Networking andInformation Technology,” was organized by the same interagency officeas the Grand Challenges report, but it was authored by a special, standingadvisory group, the President's Council of Advisors on Science andTechnology (2010). Interestingly, this council consists entirely of expertsin the physical sciences, and no social scientists or behavioral scientistsbelong to it. However, several of the observations and recommendations ofthis report about networking and information technology (NIT) directlyconcern the social sciences or have implications for them, for example:
NIT-driven transformation and convergence of communications,entertainment, journalism, and public discourse, enabling an explosionof online content and service offerings. NIT brings a boundless libraryof books, newspapers, and video into every home and school, transformingpolitical and social debate, and giving any entrepreneur with a greatidea access to a global audience. …
The emergence of social computing, communication, and interaction: socialnetworks, crowdsourcing, coordination at a distance. The way peopleinteract has been transformed, the data we have from and about people istransformational, and the ability to crowdsource knowledge createstremendous new opportunities. People around the world can collaborate tocreate an encyclopedia; we can “friend” and“follow” our relatives, colleagues, and long-lostacquaintances. …
Games for learning, and immersive environments: Develop and evaluate“serious games” that combine the engaging experience ofelectronic games with a serious educational purpose. Create immersiveenvironments that can emulate situations in which students apply whatthey have learned. Devise tools to make the development of games andenvironments easier, cheaper, and more practical for teachers.…
NIT-enabled sociology is not merely a matter of using the Internet andWorld Wide Web for investigating questions of traditional sociology onlarge scales (though it holds great promise there as well), but isparticularly important for NIT itself, since so many important questionstoday involve the interaction of technology with large numbers ofpeople. One “grand works” project would be the creation ofa national infrastructure for large-scale, controlled Web-basedhuman-subject studies. (President's Council of Advisors onScience and Technology 2010:10, 33, 45)
Leaders face a constant decision whether to lead by forcefully advancing anagenda already defined by other people, or to chart a new path in hopes theycan convince others to follow. Both extremes are hazardous because manyother people will compete to accomplish any well-defined positive agenda,and most unexplored paths lead to dead ends. Logically, leaders need to befully conversant with conventional agendas like those defined by theNational Academies or government agencies, but they need to be alert forneeds and opportunities to explore in new directions that no group oftraditional experts could possibly predict. Thus, leaders constantly face achoice between old agendas and new visions, seeking the wisdom to judge whenone or the other would be the best course.Visionary Perspectives on the Future
In the 1960s, serious academics sketched scenarios for alternative futuresthat would result from the interaction of technological progress and socialfactors. Especially notable was Towards the Year 2000edited by Daniel Bell (1968), which was originally published in Daedalus, the quarterly journal of the AmericanAcademy of Arts and Sciences. So-called think tanksalso produced collections of scenarios describing possible futures, such asThe Year 2000, by Herman Kahn and Anthony J.Wiener (1967). Given that these writers of the 1960s focused on the year2000, their future has become our past, and we can evaluate their work inretrospect. Bell's volume offered visions of digital librariesoperating on something like the Internet, perhaps more centralized than whathas actually developed but not bad as predictions go. Indeed, the point wasnot so much to prophesy the one future that would actually take place but toidentify alternative visions to illuminate issues for consideration in thepresent.
When the year 2000 actually arrived, futurology had become institutionalizedto a certain extent. For example, the World Future Society was founded in1966 by Edward Cornish and a group of level-headed visionaries in theWashington, D.C., area, and by the turn of the century, it had become awell-established publisher of The Futurist magazineand occasional reports. Writing in a book edited by Cornish and published bythe Society, Robert Constanza (2000) sketched four visions of the year 2100,depending on whether technology will make it possible to overcomelimitations in natural resources:
- Star Trek: Public policies are optimistic,assuming that technology will overcome limitations, and in facttechnology does achieve this, leading to expansion into the solarsystem.
- Mad Max: Public policies are optimistic, assumingthat technology will overcome limitations, but technology fails toachieve this, so civilization crashes.
- Big Government: Public policies are pessimistic,assuming there are strict limits to economic growth, but in facttechnology could have overcome these limits, so progress isunnecessarily suppressed.
- Ecotopia: Public policies are pessimistic,assuming there are strict limits to economic growth, and this assumptionis correct, so civilization achieves a necessary harmony with theenvironment.
In 1968, the journal Futures first appeared, currentlypublished by Elsevier and edited by Ziauddin Sardar in London. At the turnof the century, it examined the three scenarios sketched for the year 3000by the Millennium [Page xix]Project of the American Council for theUnited Nations University (Glenn 2000):
- Human civilization still exists in the year 3000, ina form similar to the year 2000, but with numerous specificchanges.
- The human species has become extinct by the year3000, but robots and other machines originally built by humans haveevolved into the dominant form of intelligence.
- Human civilization has given birth to severaldifferent kinds of intelligence: one similar to traditional Homo sapiens, others that have merged humans withcomputers, and others that are artificial life forms.
We need not look a millennium into the future to see issues with potentiallyradical consequences, nor even a century forward. As many chapters in thishandbook demonstrate, the practice of science and invention seems to bechanging, perhaps accelerating trends that began decades ago. Solitaryscientists and lone inventors seem like dinosaurs in a world dominated bylarge research and development teams. Methodologies of investigation employpowerful computers to crunch the data in vast databases. The results ofresearch have become extremely complex, no longer presented in a simpleformula like f = ma or e= mc2. Conceivably, as costsescalate and problems increase in complexity, progress will becomeincreasingly difficult, even just over the next decade.
In 1945, presidential science advisor Vannevar Bush sat alone in his studyand wrote a tremendously important report about the need for continuedgovernment support of scientific research after World War II, which led tothe creation of the National Science Foundation five years later and wasinfluential for decades. Its title called science “the endlessfrontier,” implying that discovery could continue forever. The word frontier resonated to the famous thesis byFrederick Jackson Turner (1921) that the open frontier of Western lands wascrucial to the development of American democracy—and to progress inscience, technology, and education and, thus, important for progress acrossthe entire world. However, the geographic frontier was already closing aboutthe time Turner began writing his ideas in AmericanHistorical Review, 50 years before Bush used the frontier metaphor,so there was reason to worry that the intellectual frontier of science mightsomeday close as well.
In 1995, Sigma Xi, a prestigious scientific research honor society, held aconference called “Vannevar Bush II,” bringing togetherhundreds of scientists to look forward as Bush had done solo 50 yearsearlier, with special emphasis on how government should support science(Ahearne 1995). Some speakers examined the changing relationships betweenscience and technology, including the ways in which research funded toaddress societal needs could also promote pure science. A clear consensusfelt that the emphasis in government science support needed to shift towardthe social sciences, both supporting fundamental research in those fieldsand applying the social sciences to the development of new technologies sothey could benefit human beings to the maximum extent possible. However,although the original Bush report was hugely influential, Bush II vanishedwithout a trace, and a decade into the twenty-first century, there seemed nopolitical basis for support for the social sciences.
Strong government and industry support continues to be given to thetraditionally supported sciences, such as those that contribute tomanufacturing and health-related industries. Yet serious questions have beenraised about whether “the low-hanging fruit” has already beenpicked in these traditionally wealthy sciences and whether the point ofdiminishing returns from investment in them has been reached (Horgan 1996).There can be no doubt that continued progress in these areas is bothpossible and cost-effective, but serious questions must be raised aboutwhether each and every traditional approach deserves to be continued. Forexample, the manned space programs of major nations produce very littlescientific payoff, compared with the unmanned programs that launch spacetelescopes and planetary probes; yet for political reasons, it is difficultfor government leaders to terminate them (Bainbridge 2009). Yet some oldprograms must be shut down if funds are to be invested in the best newprograms.
One extremely fruitful approach in the early twenty-first century, which isillustrated by many chapters of this handbook, is convergence of previouslyseparate fields of science and engineering (Roco and Bainbridge 2003;Bainbridge and Roco 2006a, 2006b). One practical advantage is that suchconvergence may be cheap, as funds already going into two adjacent areas canshift slightly to bring them together. Advances may be swift becausecombining the cutting-edge competencies of two fields may quickly lead todiscoveries and inventions. In military terminology, a reverse salient is a section of an advancing front that has fallenbehind in its forward movement. As a metaphor, this can be applied to theareas between well-defined technical fields where rapid progress is possiblebecause it represents catching up to the more general advance of science inpreviously neglected sectors. Another way to conceptualize adjacent fieldsis to call them cultures, and innovation can beespecially rapid at the border between two cultures because principles fromone can be combined with principles from the other.
This suggests a strategy for transcending the political unpopularity of thesocial and behavioral sciences because they can be brought in at a point ofconvergence between other fields, to assist their merger and ensure maximumhuman benefit from their marriage (Bainbridge 2007). Indeed, one purpose ofthis handbook is to link responsible, nonideological social and behavioralscience with the natural sciences and with technology. Each of the manyfields covered in these two volumes needs all the others, whether directlyto accomplish its near-term goals, or indirectly as part of the broadercommunity of technically competent innovators who lead the world not byenacting laws or commanding armies, but by discovering and inventing.[Page xx]Conclusion
This is a handbook, not a cookbook. That means it offers information andinsights of great value to leaders in science and technology but not preciserecipes for success that must be followed exactly. Each leader has thespecific knowledge of his or her own application area required to apply thewisdom contained in these two volumes. Indeed, if the way forward wereentirely clear, we would not need leaders. A combination of creativity basedon solid expertise and responsibility energized by dedication to humanbetterment is the hallmark of good leaders in science and technology. Unlikepolitical leaders, at least as they too frequently behave, a scientist orengineer must respect facts as well as ideas, and this handbook is astorehouse for both. It is said that the truth shall set us free; yet weneed freedom to discover the truth. Thus, leaders in science and technologymust accept responsibility for the results of their work and for the meansthey use to accomplish it. Fundamental to that responsibility is respect forfacts, for creativity, and for colleagues.References and Further ReadingsAhearne, JohnF., ed. 1995.Vannevar Bush II: Science for the 21st Century.Research Triangle Park, NC: SigmaXi.2007.Nanoconvergence. Upper Saddle River,NJ: Prentice Hall.“Motivations for Space Exploration.”Futures200941:514–22.Bainbridge, WilliamSims andMihail C.Roco, ed. 2006a.Managing Nano-Bio-Info-Cogno Innovations: Converging Technologiesin Society. Berlin, Germany:Springer.Bainbridge, WilliamSims andMihail C.Roco, ed. 2006b.Progress in Convergence: Technologies for HumanWellbeing. New York: New YorkAcademy of Sciences.Bell,Daniel, ed. 1968.Towards the Year 2000. Boston, MA:Beacon Press.1945.Science—the Endless Frontier.Washington, DC: U.S. GovernmentPrinting Office.Choffnes, EileenR.,David A.Relman, andAlisonMack, eds. 2010.Antibiotic Resistance: Implications for Global Health and NovelIntervention Strategies. Washington,DC: National Academies Press.2000.“Four Visions of the Century Ahead.”19–24in Exploring Your Future, edited byE.Cornish.Bethesda, MD: World FutureSociety.“Millennium Project's Draft Scenarios for the Next1000 Years.”Futures200032:603–12.Hogan,Matthew andBruceAltevogt, eds. 2008.From Molecules to Minds: Challenges for the 21st Century.Washington, DC: National AcademiesPress.1996.The End of Science. Reading, MA:Addison-Wesley.Institute of Medicine. 2009.Initial National Priorities for Comparative EffectivenessResearch. Washington, DC:National Academies Press.1967.The Year 2000. New York:Macmillan.Koshel,Patricia andKathleenMcAllister, eds.2010.Expanding Biofuel Production: Sustainability and the Transitionto Advanced Biofuels. Washington, DC:National Academies Press.Lebovitz,Yeonwoo,RebeccaEnglish, andAnneClaiborne, eds.2010.Building a National Framework for the Establishment of RegulatoryScience for Drug Development. Washington,DC: National AcademiesPress.National Research Council. 2007.Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperativesfor the Next Decade and Beyond. Washington,DC: National AcademiesPress.National Research Council. 2008a.Internationalization of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Goals,Strategies, and Challenges. Washington,DC: National AcademiesPress.National Research Council. 2008b.The National Academies Summit on America's EnergyFuture. Washington, DC:National Academies Press.National Research Council. 2009.BioWatch and Public Health Surveillance: Evaluating Systems forthe Early Detection of Biological Threats.Washington, DC: National AcademiesPress.National Research Council. 2010a.New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics.Washington, DC: National AcademiesPress.National Research Council. 2010b.Proceedings of a Workshop on Deterring CyberAttacks: InformingStrategies and Developing Options for U.S. Policy.Washington, DC: National AcademiesPress.President's Council of Advisors on Science andTechnology. 2010.“Designing a Digital Future: Federally Funded Research andDevelopment in Networking and InformationTechnology.”Washington, DC: Executive Office of thePresident.Roco, MihailC. andWilliamSims Bainbridge, eds.2003.Converging Technologies for Improving Human Performance.Dordrecht, Netherlands:Kluwer.2010.Grand Challenges of Our Aging Society.Washington, DC: National AcademiesPress.Stern, PaulC. andRoger E.Kasperson, eds.2010.Facilitating Climate Change Responses: A Report of Two Workshopson Insights from the Social and Behavioral Sciences.Washington, DC: National AcademiesPress.2003.“Grand Challenges: Science, Engineering, and SocietalAdvances Requiring Networking and Information Technology Researchand Development.”Arlington, VA: National CoordinationOffice for Information Technology Research andDevelopment.1921.The Frontier in American History. NewYork: Henry Holt.2010.Public Health Effectiveness of the FDA 510(k)Clearance Process: Balancing Patient Safety and Innovation.Washington, DC: National AcademiesPress.2010.The Value of Genetic and Genomic Technologies.Washington, DC: National AcademiesPress.
About the Editor[Page xxi]
William Sims Bainbridge earned his doctorate in sociologyfrom Harvard University, taught in universities for 20 years, and then joinedthe National Science Foundation, where he currently is a program director inhuman-centered computing. He is author or coauthor of 19 scientific books andmore than 200 shorter publications, as well as editor or coeditor of 10scientific volumes. Several of his major projects were based on computersoftware he programmed, most recently, the 2006 book God fromthe Machine: Artificial Intelligence Models of Religious Cognition.Four of his earlier projects were textbook-software packages: Experiments in Psychology (1986), SociologyLaboratory (1987), Survey Research: AComputer-Assisted Introduction (1989), and SocialResearch Methods and Statistics (1992). In 2004, he edited thetwo-volume Berkshire Encyclopedia of Human-ComputerInteraction. His doctoral dissertation and two later books focused onthe sociology of space exploration: The SpaceflightRevolution (1976), Dimensions of Science Fiction(1986), and Goals in Space: American Values and the Future ofTechnology (1991). He has also published extensively in the sociologyof religion, notably The Sociology of Religious Movements(1997) and Across the Secular Abyss (2007). Mostrecently, he has written about virtual gameworlds in OnlineMultiplayer Games (2010) and The WarcraftCivilization (2010). His 2007 book, Nanoconvergence, followed a series of volumes on nanotechnology andtechnological convergence coedited with Mihail C. Roco, including Societal Implications of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology(2001), Converging Technologies for Improving HumanPerformance (2003), Nanotechnology: SocietalImplications (two volumes, 2006), and Progress inConvergence (2006).
About the Contributors[Page xxii]
Many of the 123 authors hold prominent positions in major science and technologyorganizations, but they wrote their chapters as individuals. Therefore, theviews they express are not necessarily the views of those organizations, and thechapters should not be mistaken for official statements. A number of the authorsare employed by the National Science Foundation (NSF) or were in the past, so itis important to note that the chapters represent the best independent scientificand scholarly work of the individual authors, but they do not in any way statethe position of the NSF, the U.S. government, or any other organization.
Sun Joo Ahn is an assistant professor of advertising andpublic relations at the University of Georgia. She completed her undergraduateeducation at Seoul National University and received a BA in communication and asecond BA in business administration. She obtained her MA degree incommunication at Stanford. Ahn's research focuses on social influencewithin virtual environments and how it influences interactions in the physicalworld. Her main areas of interest are persuasive communication and perspectivetaking within online and immersive virtual environments. She explores consumerdecision making and brand preferences using interactive media, and sheinvestigates how virtual platforms compare to mental imageries in elicitingprosocial attitudes and behaviors. Furthermore, she has looked at usinginteractive media technology to measure nonverbal behaviors, automaticallytracking facial feature movements to predict emotional and behavioral changes.Her findings have been recently accepted for publication in the Journal of Advertising and IEEEIntelligent Systems.
Marietta L. Baba is dean of the College of Social Scienceand a professor of anthropology at Michigan State University. She also holds anappointment as Professor II at the Institute for Social Anthropology at theNorwegian University of Science in Trondheim, Norway. From 1994 to 1996, she wasprogram director of the National Science Foundation's industry-fundedresearch program titled Transformations to QualityOrganizations (now Innovation and OrganizationalChange). She is the author of more than 75 scholarly and technicalpublications in the fields of evolutionary processes, technological change, andthe anthropology of work and institutions. She has studied and writtenextensively about organizations from an anthropological perspective for the pasttwo decades, and she has been an observer and commentator on the role ofanthropology in business and industry since the field was revitalized in the1980s. Baba was a founding member and past president of the National Associationfor the Practice of Anthropology (NAPA, 1986–1988), a section of theAmerican Anthropological Association (AAA). She served on the executivecommittee and board of directors of the AAA (1986–1988). In addition, shewas appointed Advisory Editor for Organizational Anthropology for the American Anthropologist (1990–1993). In 2008, shewas honored with the Conrad Arensberg Award for her contributions to theanthropology of work by the Society for the Anthropology of Work, a section ofthe American Anthropological Association. Baba holds an MBA (with highestdistinction) from the Advanced Management Program at Michigan StateUniversity's Eli Broad Graduate School of Management as well as a PhD inphysical anthropology from Wayne State University (doctoral research conductedin the School of Medicine). She is listed in Who's Whoin America.
Christopher D. Bader is an associate professor of sociologyat Baylor University and specializes in the sociology of religion and deviantbehavior. He has published more than 30 articles in journals in the fields ofsociology, deviance, criminology, as well as the sociology of religion andeducation. He was principal investigator of the first two waves of the BaylorReligion Survey and currently serves as associate director at the Association ofReligion Data Archives. His first two books America'sFour Gods and Paranormal America appeared inOctober 2010.[Page xxiii]
Jeremy N. Bailenson is founding director of StanfordUniversity's Virtual Human Interaction Lab and an associate professor inthe Department of Communication at Stanford. He earned a BA (cum laude) from theUniversity of Michigan in 1994 and a PhD in cognitive psychology fromNorthwestern University in 1999. After receiving his doctorate, he spent fouryears at the Research Center for Virtual Environments and Behavior at theUniversity of California, Santa Barbara, as a postdoctoral fellow and then as anassistant research professor. Bailenson's main area of interest is thephenomenon of digital human representation, especially in the context ofimmersive virtual reality. He explores the manner in which people are able torepresent themselves when the physical constraints of body and veridicallyrendered behaviors are removed. Furthermore, he designs and studiescollaborative virtual reality systems that allow physically remote individualsto meet in virtual space and explores the manner in which these systems changethe nature of verbal and nonverbal interaction. His findings have been publishedin more than 70 academic papers in the fields of communication, computerscience, education, law, political science, and psychology. His work has beenconsistently funded by the National Science Foundation for more than a decade,and he receives grants from various Silicon Valley and internationalcorporations. Bailenson consults regularly for U.S. government agencies,including the Army, the Department of Defense, the National Research Council,and the National Institutes of Health on policy issues surrounding virtualreality.
Helen M. Berman received her PhD in chemistry in 1967 inthree years from the University of Pittsburgh under the direction of George AlanJeffrey and stayed on for postdoctoral training as a National Institutes ofHealth Trainee. She then joined the Fox Chase Cancer Center in 1969 and spentthe next 20 years developing her own research program that focused on nucleicacid crystallography and the interactions between nucleic acids and drugs. In1989, she joined the faculty at Rutgers, The State University in New Brunswick,New Jersey, where she is now a Board of Governors Professor of Chemistry andChemical Biology. At Rutgers, she expanded her crystallographic program to thestudy of proteins, including the structures of collagen, protein-nucleic acidinteractions, and binary and ternary complexes with catabolite activatingprotein (CAP), while developing structural databases and ontologies. As head ofthe Research Collaboratory for Structural Bioinformatics (RCSB), Berman becamethe director of the Protein Data Bank (PDB) in 1998 and was a founding member ofthe Worldwide Protein Data Bank (wwPDB) collaboration in 2003. The wwPDBsupports scientific research and education by providing the essential PDBarchive of information about the experimentally determined structures ofproteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies to the global community. Otherbioinformatics efforts include the Electron Microscopy Data Bank (EMDB), aglobal deposition and retrieval network for cryoEM map, model, and associatedmetadata, and the PSI-Nature Structural Genomics Knowledgebase (PSI SGKB), aresource that turns the products of the Protein Structure Initiative intoknowledge that is important for understanding living systems and disease. Inparallel to her research, Berman is extremely active in the community and serveson a variety of committees and professional societies. She was president of theAmerican Crystallographic Association (ACA), on the Study Section for theNational Institutes of Health, and on an advisory panel for the biologicaldirectorate at the NSF. Berman is a fellow of the American Association for theAdvancement of Science and of the Biophysical Society, from which she receivedthe Distinguished Service Award in 2000. She is a recipient of the ACA'sBuerger Award (2006) and the University of Pittsburgh's 2010 Departmentof Chemistry Alumni Award, and a Distinguished Lecturer for Sigma Xi(2007–2009).
Magdalena Bielenia-Grajewska is an assistant professor atthe University of Gdansk (Institute of English, Department of TranslationStudies and Intercultural Communication). She is a linguist (MA in EnglishStudies, PhD in linguistics, University of Gdansk) and an economist (MA ineconomics, Gdansk University of Technology). Her doctoral dissertation was of aninterdisciplinary character, being devoted to linguistics, interculturalcommunication, translation, and investment banking. She is a member of theEditorial Board of International Journal of Actor-NetworkTheory and Technological Innovation (IJANTII) and serves as an ad hocreviewer in some international journals. Her scientific interests includeorganizational discourse, intercultural communication, sociolinguistics,actor-network theory, and symbolism in management studies.
Chris Bissell is a professor of telematics at the OpenUniversity, where he has contributed to a variety of courses in technology andrelated subjects since 1980. His major research interests are in the history oftechnology, engineering education, and educational technology.
William A. Blanpied served as a senior international analystat the National Science Foundation (NSF) from 1983 until his retirement from thefederal government in January 2003, except for the period from July 1999 throughAugust 2002 when he served as director of the NSF Tokyo Regional Office. Priorto and during his service with NSF, he both studied and contributed to U.S.science and technology policy, frequently in cooperation with the office of thepresident's science advisor from the Carter through the Clintonadministrations. After his retirement from NSF and through 2008, Blanplied was aconsultant to the George Mason University's Science and Trade PolicyProgram. In that capacity, he was principal point of contact in the UnitedStates for organizing an approximately annual series of Sino-U.S. Science PolicyDialogues, funded in part by NSF. Prior to his service with NSF, which he joinedin 1976, Blanpied held faculty appointments in the physics departments at CaseWestern Reserve, [Page xxiv]Yale, and Harvard universities. From 1969 to1971, he was a member of NSF's Science Education Liaison staff in NewDelhi, India. Blanpied received his BS degree from Yale in 1955 and his PhD fromPrinceton in 1959. He is the author or coauthor of three books and has publishednumerous articles and reviews in the professional literature on physics, historyof science, international science, and science policy. During the fall 2003semester, he was a visiting lecturer at Tsinghua University, Beijing, where heoffered a graduate course on comparative science and technology policy in China,Japan, and the United States.
Bridget Blodgett is a doctoral student with the College ofInformation Sciences and Technology. Blodgett researches collaboration,coordination, and social movements in virtual worlds.
Katy Börner is the Victor H. Yngve Professor ofInformation Science in the School of Library and Information Science, an adjunctprofessor in the School of Informatics and Computing, an adjunct professor inthe Department of Statistics in the College of Arts and Sciences, Core Facultyof Cognitive Science, a research affiliate at the Biocomplexity Institute, afellow of the Center for Research on Learning and Technology, a member of theAdvanced Visualization Laboratory, and the founding director of theCyberinfrastructure for Network Science Center at Indiana University. She is acurator of the Places & Spaces: Mapping Science exhibit. Her researchfocuses on the development of data analysis and visualization techniques forinformation access, understanding, and management. She is particularlyinterested in the study of the structure and evolution of scientificdisciplines; the analysis and visualization of online activity; and thedevelopment of cyberinfrastructures for large-scale scientific collaboration andcomputation. She is the coeditor of Visual Interfaces toDigital Libraries and of a special issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences on “MappingKnowledge Domains” (2004). Her new book Atlas ofScience: Guiding the Navigation and Management of Scholarly Knowledgewas published in 2010. She holds a MS in electrical engineering from theUniversity of Technology in Leipzig, 1991, and a PhD in computer science fromthe University of Kaiserslautern, 1997.
Myles Boylan is a program director in both the Division ofUndergraduate Education (DUE) and the Division of Graduate Education (DGE) atthe National Science Foundation. Boylan has worked in a variety of educationprograms, including Course, Curriculum, and Laboratory Improvement (now calledTransforming Undergraduate Education in STEM [Science, Technology, Engineering,and Mathematics]), the STEM Talent Expansion Program, the National STEM DigitalLibrary Program, and the Science Masters Program. In addition, he has workedwith the NSF education research program titled Research and Evaluation onEducation in Science and Engineering in the Division of Research on Learning(DRL), and with the ethics program titled Ethics Education in Science andEngineering, a cross-directorate program managed in the Directorate for Social,Behavioral, and Economic Sciences (SBE). Within DUE, Boylan has managed projectsin the social, behavioral, and interdisciplinary sciences and in research andassessment. He earned his doctorate at Case Western Reserve University ineconomics.
John M. Braxton is a professor of education in the HigherEducation Leadership and Policy Program at Peabody College, VanderbiltUniversity. One of his major programs of research centers on the study of theacademic profession with particular interest in the social control of facultyresearch and teaching misconduct. His publications on these topics include hisbook Faculty Misconduct in Collegiate Teaching (1999)coauthored with Alan E. Bayer, his coedited volume with Alan E. Bayer titled Addressing Faculty and Student Classroom Improprieties(2005), and his edited book titled Perspectives on ScholarlyMisconduct in the Sciences (1999).
Robin Cantor is a principal at Exponent, Inc. and has morethan 30 years experience in the areas of applied economics, environmental andenergy economics, statistics, risk management, and insurance claims analysis.She received her PhD in economics from Duke University and her BS in mathematicsfrom Indiana University of Pennsylvania. Cantor has testimonial experience inproduct liability estimation in bankruptcy matters and insurance disputes,analysis of premises and product claims, reliability of statistical models andestimation methods, and economic analysis of consumer and industrial productsand markets. Prior to joining Exponent, Cantor directed the product liabilityand insurance coverage practice at Navigant Consulting and the environmental andinsurance coverage practice at LECG. Other positions she has held includeprogram director for Decision, Risk, and Management Sciences, a research programof the U.S. National Science Foundation and senior researcher at Oak RidgeNational Laboratory. Cantor is on the executive board of the Women'sCouncil on Energy and the Environment. She was the president of the Society forRisk Analysis in 2002, and from 2001 to 2003 she served as an appointed memberof the Research Strategies Advisory Committee of the U.S. EnvironmentalProtection Agency's Science Advisory Board.
Daryl E. Chubin became founding director in 2004 of theCenter for Advancing Science & Engineering Capacity, at the AmericanAssociation for the Advancement of Science. Prior to that, he was senior vicepresident for Research, Policy & Programs at the National Action Councilfor Minorities in Engineering after nearly 15 years in federal service. Postsincluded senior policy officer for the National Science Board; division directorfor Research, Evaluation and Communication at the National Science Foundation;and assistant director for Social and Behavioral Sciences (and Education) at theWhite House Office of Science and Technology Policy. He began his federal [Page xxv]career in 1986 at the congressional Office of Technology Assessment(Science, Education, and Transportation Program, until 1993). He has also servedon the faculty of four universities, 1972–1986, achieving the rank ofprofessor at the Georgia Institute of Technology. He earned a PhD in sociologyfrom Loyola University (Chicago). Since 1991, he has been an adjunct professorin the Cornell in Washington Program. Chubin is the author of eight books andnumerous policy reports and articles on science policy, education policy andevaluation, and careers and workforce development in science andengineering.
Claudio Cioffi-Revilla (DottScPol, University of Florence,Italy; PhD, State University of New York) is a professor of computational socialscience at George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia. In 2002 he founded theMason Center for Social Complexity, an internationally oriented researchfacility focused on social simulation and computational social science. In 2007he also founded Mason's new Department of Computational Social Science,the first in the United States with a doctoral program in computational socialscience. His research is funded by the National Science Foundation, the Officeof Naval Research, and other national and international agencies.Cioffi's research focuses on quantitative and computational modeling withemphasis on complex systems with social, technological, and natural components.He serves as a National Academies Jefferson Science Fellow and Senior Scienceand Technology Adviser at the U.S. Department of State, Office of Geographic andGlobal Issues.
Gavin Clarkson is an associate professor at the Universityof Houston Law Center, where he conducts research in two distinct areas:intellectual property strategy and tribal economic development. Clarkson holdsboth a bachelor's degree and an MBA from Rice University, a doctoratefrom the Harvard Business School in Technology and Operations Management, and isa cum laude graduate of the Harvard Law School, where he was the managing editorof the Harvard Journal of Law and Technology andpresident of the Native American Law Students Association. Clarkson has heldfaculty positions at Rice University and the University of Michigan, and he wasa KPMG fellow at the Harvard Business School. His intellectual property strategyresearch involves the identification and analysis of patentthickets—dense webs of overlapping intellectual property rights that anorganization must “hack” its way through in order to commercializenew technology. In industries characterized by cumulative innovations andmultiple blocking patents, the existence of densely concentrated patent rightscan have the perverse effect of stifling innovation rather than encouraging it.Clarkson's research is developing fundamental insights into theinterrelationships between multiple technologies, particularly in the case ofpatent pools (an organizational structure where multiple firms aggregate patentrights into a package for licensing), which are a potential solution to theproblem of patent thickets. Clarkson was awarded a grant from the NationalScience Foundation for his Patent Cartography project, which is examining waysto simplify the process of searching through the patent space.
Kellina M. Craig-Henderson, PhD, is a program director atthe National Science Foundation in the Social Psychology Program within theBehavioral and Cognitive Sciences division of the Directorate for Social,Behavioral and Economic Sciences. She retains an affiliation with the Departmentof Psychology at Howard University where she was promoted to the rank of fullprofessor shortly before officially joining the federal service to work with NSFCraig-Henderson, who also serves as the Foundation's Human SubjectsResearch Protections Officer, has published numerous reports of empiricalresearch as well as a book on interracial relationships. Her research includesstudies of groups, cross-cultural gender and race stereotyping, and aggression.The National Science Foundation, the Ford Foundation, and the AmericanPsychological Association have provided support for her work. She has presentedfindings from her research activities at a variety of regional, national, andinternational research and pedagogical meetings. Craig-Henderson remainspassionate about broadening the participation of underrepresented groups inscience, and she has been involved in a number of activities at NSF that sharethis focus.
Gregory Crane is the Winnick Family Chair of Technology andEntrepreneurship, professor and chair of classics, and adjunct professor ofcomputer science at Tufts University. Crane has conducted research in classicsand in digital humanities for more than a quarter century.
Jonathon Cummings is an associate professor of management atthe Fuqua School of Business, Duke University. During graduate school heinterned at Intel (studying collaborative software) and at Motorola (studyingknowledge management). After completing his dissertation and postdoctoraltraining at Carnegie Mellon University, he spent three years at the MIT SloanSchool of Management as an assistant professor, where he received an NSF EarlyCareer Award for his research on innovation in geographically dispersed teamsand networks. His subsequent research focused on virtual teams in corporationsas well as collaboration in science, and his publications have appeared injournals ranging from management science to research policy to MIS Quarterly. He is also faculty director for the Center forTechnology, Entertainment, and Media (CTEM) at Fuqua, where he is initiating newresearch on technological disruption in knowledge-based firms.
Jim Dator is a professor and director of the Hawaii ResearchCenter for Futures Studies, Department of Political Science, and an adjunctprofessor in the Program in Public Administration, the College of Architecture,and the Center for Japanese Studies, of the University of [Page xxvi]Hawaiiat Manoa; cochair, Space and Society Division, International Space University,Strasbourg, France; former president, World Futures Studies Federation; as wellas fellow and former member of the Executive Council, World Academy of Art andScience. He also taught at Rikkyo University (Tokyo, for six years), theUniversity of Maryland, Virginia Tech, the University of Toronto, and theInterUniversity Consortium for Postgraduate Studies in Dubrovnik,Yugoslavia.
Arlene de Strulle is a program director in the area ofadvanced learning technologies at the National Science Foundation (NSF). Sheearned her doctorate in educational technology jointly at San Diego StateUniversity and the University of San Diego with research focusing on learningwith virtual reality. The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) andthe National Science Foundation have sponsored her research on game-basedmilitary education and training and its transferability to science learning. Sheis the cofounder of Amphodon, a technology company specializing in the design ofvirtual reality environments in the service of national defense, multiculturallearning exchange across global boundaries, and learning at museums and sciencecenters. De Strulle served on the Department of State's InteragencyWorking Group on Science and Technology to bring science and technology toMuslim countries and has been studying Arabic. She began her career in oceanscience and education and interned as a policy analyst for the CongressionalResearch Service/Oceans Policy Division in Washington, D.C. where she authoredthe Draft Marine Mammal Protection Act Amendments Policy Report for Congress. DeStrulle has served as the director of education at three science educationinstitutions; has served as an educational technology consultant for exhibits atmuseums and science centers; and has served on innumerable professional boardsand committees in science and technology. She is the coauthor of an aquaticentomology book, Guide to Freshwater Animals withoutBackbones, and has published research on the effects of virtual realityon learning in Identity, Learning and Support in VirtualEnvironments and Worlds. She currently works across NSF to shapeinvestments in the future of learning with emerging technologies. DeStrulle's research interests are in emerging areas of visual learningsystems: data visualizations; walkthrough holographs; use of artificiallyintelligent virtual humans for globally distributed lifelong learning; effectsof virtual and augmented realities on learning, including enhancement ofcognitive skills for Alzheimer's and brain injury patients; game-basedscience learning in distributed systems; assistive robotics technologies; andnanorobotics for ocean research and defense.
S. George Djorgovski is a professor of astronomy and acodirector of the Center for Advanced Computing Research at California Instituteof Technology (Caltech), as well as the director of the Meta-Institute forComputational Astrophysics. After receiving his PhD from the University ofCalifornia, Berkeley, he was a Harvard Junior Fellow, before joining the Caltechfaculty in 1987. He was a Presidential Young Investigator, an Alfred P. SloanFoundation Fellow, among other honors and distinctions, and he is an author orcoauthor of several hundred professional publications. He was one of thefounders of the Virtual Observatory concept and was the Chairman of the U.S.National Virtual Observatory Science Definition Team. He was or is the principalinvestigator or a coprincipal investigator of several major digital sky surveys.His e-scientific interests include definition and development of the universalmethodology, tools, and frameworks for data-intensive and computationallyenabled science, as well as various aspects of data mining and virtualscientific organizations. His astrophysical interests include digital skysurveys, exploration of observable parameter spaces, formation and earlyevolution of quasars, galaxies, and other cosmic structures, time-domainastronomy, and the nature of dark energy.
Carol R. Ember is president of the Human Relations AreaFiles at Yale University. She has served as president of the Society forCross-Cultural Research and is currently the president-elect of the Society forAnthropological Sciences. She was the principal director of the SummerInstitutes for Comparative Anthropological Research, supported by the NationalScience Foundation. Most of her research career has been devoted tocross-cultural research on variation in marriage, family, kin groups, genderroles, and predictors of war and other forms of violence. She is interested inresearch that integrates the fields of anthropology as well as anthropology withother disciplines. She has authored or edited more than 50 books and more than70 articles or chapters. Her textbook on how to do cross-cultural research, withMelvin Ember (Cross-Cultural Research Methods, 2002), wona Choice award for outstanding academic titles; it is nowin its second edition.
Henry Etzkowitz is a visiting scholar at the Human SciencesTechnology Advanced Research Institute (H-STAR), Stanford University, and avisiting professor at the Centre for Entrepreneurship Research, EdinburghUniversity Business School. Etkowitz is president of the Triple HelixAssociation and cofounder of its international conference series. He is theauthor of MIT and the Rise of Entrepreneurial Science(2002) and The Triple Helix: University-Industry-GovernmentInnovation in Action (2008); coauthor of AthenaUnbound: The Advancement of Women in Science and Technology (2000); andcoeditor of The Capitalisation of Knowledge: A Triple Helix ofUniversity-Industry-Government (2010).
Kaye Husbands Fealing is a professor at the Hubert H.Humphrey School of Public Affairs, University of Minnesota, where she receivedthe distinction of “Teacher of the Year” for the academic years2008–2009 and 2009–2010. She is [Page xxvii]also the studydirector for the science, technology, and innovation innovators project at theCommittee on National Statistics, National Academy of Sciences. Prior toteaching at the Humphrey, she was the William Brough Professor of Economics atWilliams College, where she began her teaching career in 1989. Husbands Fealingdeveloped the National Science Foundation's Science of Science andInnovation Policy Program and cochaired the Science of Science PolicyInteragency Task Group from June 2006 through January 2008. She also served as aprogram director in NSF's Economics Program. Husbands Fealing was avisiting scholar at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Centerfor Technology Policy and Industrial Development, where she conducted researchon the North American Free Trade Agreement's (NAFTA) impact on theMexican and Canadian automotive industries, and research on strategic alliancesbetween aircraft contractors and their subcontractors. Husbands Fealing is thecoeditor of the forthcoming Handbook of the Science of SciencePolicy, with Julia Lane, John H. Marburger III, and Stephanie Shipp.She also participates on several panels and boards at the National ScienceFoundation. Husbands Fealing is the Midwest representative for the AmericanEconomic Association's Committee on the Status of Women in the EconomicsProfession, is on the Advisory Committee of the National ScienceFoundation's Social, Behavioral and Economics Sciences, and is a memberof the AAAS Committee on Science, Engineering and Public Policy. HusbandsFealing received her BA in mathematics and economics from the University ofPennsylvania and her PhD in economics from Harvard University.
Joshua Fineberg, American composer, began his musicalstudies at the age of five. In addition to composition, they have includedviolin, guitar, piano, harpsichord, and conducting. He completed hisundergraduate studies at the Peabody Conservatory with Morris Moshe Cotel wherehe won first prize in the biannual Virginia Carty de Lillo CompositionCompetition. In 1991, he moved to Paris and studied with Tristan Murail. Thefollowing year he was selected by the IRCAM/Ensemble InterContemporain readingpanel for the course in composition and musical technologies. In the fall of1997, he returned to the United States to pursue a doctorate in musicalcomposition at Columbia University, which he completed in May 1999. Afterteaching at Columbia for a year, he went to Harvard University where he taughtfor seven years and was the John L. Loeb Associate Professor for the Humanities.In September 2007, Fineberg left Harvard to assume a professorship incomposition and the directorship of the electronic music studios at BostonUniversity. He has won numerous national and international prizes andscholarships and is published by Editions Max Eschig and Gérard BillaudotEditeur. Fineberg's works are widely performed in the United States,Europe, and Asia. A monographic CD of his music recorded by the EnsembleCourt-Circuit was released in 2002 as part of Unviersal France'sAccord/Una Corda collection and a new CD recorded by the Ensemble FA wasreleased by Mode Records in June 2009.
Roger Finke is a professor of sociology and religiousstudies at Pennsylvania State University and is director of the Association ofReligion Data Archives. He is the past president of two major professionalassociations, is the president-elect of a third, and has served as a member ofmultiple national and international councils and boards. He has coauthored twoaward-winning books with Rodney Stark, and his most recent book (with BrianGrim), The Price of Freedom Denied: Religious Persecution andViolence, was published in 2011.
Douglas H. Fisher is an associate professor of computerscience and of computer engineering at Vanderbilt University. His research is inartificial intelligence and machine learning, with applications that includecancer informatics and modeling human problem solving. He has been a facultymember in residence, living among students in the university'sdormitories, for the past eight years. It was in this role that his concernswith the segregation of computing and technology from its broader impacts grew;he learned that students had substantial concerns with the future, and althoughthey were issues intimately tied to technological advance, as a faculty memberhe had offered them no real opportunity to talk about those concerns in his owntechnical classes. He also became increasingly interested in climate change andthreats to human health, and what computing could offer in the way of solutions.From July 2007 through August 2010, he served as a program director at theNational Science Foundation (NSF), where he oversaw research in artificialintelligence and served as a point person for computing and sustainability,representing NSF and the United States overseas. He received a Director'sAward for Excellence for this and other efforts in 2010.
David Folz is a professor in the Department of PoliticalScience at the University of Tennessee–Knoxville where he teachesresearch methods and program evaluation. He is a faculty associate with theHoward Baker Jr. Center for Public Policy and has more than 25 years of appliedevaluation research experience.
Jesse Fox is an assistant professor in the Department ofCommunication at Ohio State University. She earned undergraduate degrees at theUniversity of Kentucky (BA in English; BA in communication) and master'sdegrees in communication at the University of Arizona and Stanford University.She completed her PhD at Stanford University, conducting research in the VirtualHuman Interaction Lab. Fox's research interests focus on the effects ofcommunication technologies. She is interested in the depiction of sex, gender,and sexuality in virtual environments and video games and their effects onusers. She also studies the use of interactive technologies for health behaviorchange. Her research has appeared in many journals, including Media [Page xxviii]Psychology, Sex Roles, and PRESENCE: Teleoperators & Virtual Environments.
Mélanie Frappier obtained her undergraduate degree inphysics engineering at Laval (Québec City) before completing a PhDdissertation on Heisenberg's philosophy of physics at the University ofWestern Ontario. She has taught philosophy and philosophy at Minnesota StateUniversity, Mankato, before moving to the University of King's College(Halifax, Nova Scotia) where she teaches the history of modern physics and thehistory of technology. Her research focuses on the history of philosophy ofmodern physics and on the role thought experiments play in the development ofscience.
Catherine Fry is a project manager for the NSF-fundedinitiative Mobilizing STEM Education for a SustainableFuture. Catherine earned her PhD in ecology and evolutionary biology in2006 from the University of Maryland, College Park. During her graduate studies,she was highly engaged in teaching, mentoring, and outreach activities for STEMundergraduates, and she won a variety of campus awards for this work. Aftercompleting her PhD, she was awarded a competitive two-year AAAS Science &Technology Policy Fellowship. As a fellow, she worked at the National ScienceFoundation's Division of Undergraduate Education (DUE), conductingprogram analysis and communicating DUE's activities and interests todiverse audiences and stakeholders. While at NSF, she was also engaged in anational initiative working to transform postsecondary biology education (Vision& Change in Undergraduate Biology Education). Based in the Washington,D.C., metro area, she also holds a BA in biology and environmental science fromKnox College.
Jeffrey L. Furman (PhD, 2001, MIT-Sloan) is an associateprofessor of strategy and innovation at Boston University and a researchassociate at the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER). Furman'sresearch agenda examines the impact of institutions on the accumulation ofscientific and technical knowledge and the strategic management of science-basedfirms. His projects investigate the factors that affect country-level innovativeoutput, the geography of innovation in the pharmaceutical industry, and theinstitutions that affect the rate of scientific progress. His research has beenpublished (or is forthcoming) in the American Economic Review,Nature, the Journal of Economic Behavior andOrganization, Research Policy, and Industrial andCorporate Change. Furman has earned degrees in psychology from theUniversity of Pennsylvania and economics from the Wharton School, as well as aPhD from MIT's Sloan School of Management and a Fulbright Scholarship forresearch and study in Germany. During his time at Boston University, Furman haswon awards for both research and teaching excellence.
Susan R. Fussell is an associate professor in the Departmentof Communication and the Department of Information Science at CornellUniversity. She received her BS degree in psychology and sociology from TuftsUniversity in 1981 and her PhD in social and cognitive psychology from ColumbiaUniversity in 1990. Fussell's primary interests lie in the areas ofcomputer-supported cooperative work and computer-mediated communication. Hercurrent projects focus on intercultural communication, collaborativeintelligence analysis, group brainstorming, and sustainability. Fussell haspublished numerous papers in the areas of social psychology, computer-supposedcooperative work, and related disciplines. She is also the editor of two books,The Verbal Communication of Emotions: InterdisciplinaryPerspectives (2002) and, with Roger Kreuz, Social andCognitive Approaches to Interpersonal Communication (1998). She iscurrently serving as a program director in the Human-Centered Computing (HCC)cluster in the Division of Information and Intelligent Systems (IIS) in theDirectorate for Computer and Information Science and Engineering (CISE) at theNational Science Foundation.
Amber M. Gaffney is a doctoral student in social psychologyat Claremont Graduate University in Claremont, California. She received herbachelor's degree in psychology from Humboldt State University and hermaster's degree in applied social psychology from Claremont GraduateUniversity. Her current research focuses on social influence processes within asocial identity framework, including group processes and leadership.
John S. Gero is a research professor inthe Krasnow Institute for Advanced Study and in the Volgenau School ofEngineering and Information Technology and the Department of ComputationalSocial Science, George Mason University. Previously he was a professor of designscience and a codirector of the Key Centre of Design Computing and Cognition,University of Sydney. He has been a visiting professor of architecture, civilengineering, computer science, cognitive psychology, design and computation, andmechanical engineering. His research focuses on design science, designcomputing, and design cognition.
Julia C. Gluesing is a business and organizationalanthropologist and research professor in industrial and manufacturingengineering at Wayne State University. Gluesing also serves as the associatedirector of the Institute for Information Technology and Culture (IITC) and isan adjunct professor of anthropology. In her current assignment in engineering,she is codirector of the Global Executive Track doctoral program in Industrialand Manufacturing Engineering, where she teaches a global perspectives inengineering management course and a series of courses integrating theperspectives of international business, anthropology, economics and finance, andpolitical science to focus on specific regions and cultures of the world.Gluesing also teaches the management of technology change and virtual teaming inglobal organizations and serves as a leadership project advisor in the Ford [Page xxix]and Visteon Engineering Management Masters Program (EMMP). She wasthe principal investigator from 2005 to 2010 on a National Science FoundationGrant, the “Digital Diffusion Dashboard,” to study the diffusionof innovation across the global enterprise by tapping into anorganization's information technology infrastructure. She has publishedprofessionally, most recently as an editor and contributing author of Mobile Work Mobile Lives: Cultural Accounts of LivedExperiences (2008) and a contributing author in Virtual Teams That Work: Creating Conditions for Virtual TeamEffectiveness (2003), Handbook of Managing GlobalComplexity (2003), and Crossing Cultures: Lessonsfrom Master Teachers (2004).
Michael F. Goodchild is a professor of geography at theUniversity of California, Santa Barbara, and a director of UCSB's Centerfor Spatial Studies. He received his BA degree from Cambridge University inphysics in 1965 and his PhD in geography from McMaster University in 1969. Hiscurrent research interests center on geographic information science, spatialanalysis, and uncertainty in geographic data.
Michael E. Gorman earned a master's (1978) and adoctorate (1981) in social psychology from the University of New Hampshire. Heis a professor in the Department of Science, Technology & Society at theUniversity of Virginia, where he teaches courses on ethics, invention,psychology of science, and communication. Currently he is working as a programdirector in the Science, Technology & Society Program at the NationalScience Foundation (NSF). His research interests include experimentalsimulations of science, as described in SimulatingScience (1992), and cognition, invention, and ethics, as described inTransforming Nature (1998). With support from NSF, heconducted a multiyear cognitive study of the invention of the telephone, whoseresults appeared in Social Studies of Science and Thinking and Reasoning. NSF supported his work withPatricia Werhane on case studies that combined ethics, invention, and design, asdescribed in Ethical and Environmental Challenges toEngineering (2000). NSF also supported work that led to his editedvolumes Scientific and Technological Thinking (2005) andTrading Zones and Interactional Expertise: Creating NewKinds of Collaboration (forthcoming). He is a member of the editorialboards of the Journal of Psychology of Science andTechnology and TopiCS in CognitiveScience—for the latter, he edited a special issue on Cognition inScience and Technology. His current research is in the kind of interdisciplinarytrading zones that will be needed for scientists, engineers, and otherstakeholders to collaborate on the development of new technologies.
Liah Greenfeld is a university professor and professor ofsociology, political science, and anthropology at Boston University. She is acoauthor of two volumes of a trilogy on modern culture, Nationalism: Five Roads to Modernity (1993) and TheSpirit of Capitalism: Nationalism and Economic Growth (2001), and sheis currently completing the third volume of this trilogy, Mind, Modernity, Madness: The Impact of Culture on HumanExperience.
Reiner Grundmann teaches sociology at Aston University(Birmingham, UK), where he is also deputy director of the Aston Centre forCritical Infrastructures and Services (ACCIS). He is the author of Marxism and Ecology (1991) and Transnational Environmental Policy (2001) and the coauthor with NicoStehr of Experts and The Power ofKnowledge. He has published several journal articles on climate changeand is currently researching the construction of climate change discourse in themedia. He is also a coauthor of The Hartwell Paper: A NewDirection for Climate Policy after the Crash of 2009.
Edward J. Hackett is a professor in the School of HumanEvolution and Social Change at Arizona State University, with joint appointmentsin the School of Sustainability and the Consortium for Science Policy andOutcomes. He has written about the social organization and dynamics of science,science policy, environmental justice, and organizational behavior. His mostrecent work has to do with interdisciplinarity and the process of synthesis inscientific research. With Olga Amsterdamska, Michael Lynch, and Judy Wajcman, heedited The Handbook of Science and Technology Studies(2008).
Patrick W. Hamlett, associate professor of science,technology, and society (STS) and of political science at North Carolina StateUniversity, received his PhD from the University of California, Santa Barbara,in political science. He has been active in STS research throughout his careerand most recently involved in NSF-funded research into adapting the DanishConsensus Conference process into the United States. His other interests includedeliberative democracy, public policy, and science policymaking.
Vicki L. Hanson is a professor of inclusive technologies atthe University of Dundee and Research Staff Member Emeritus with IBM Research.She has been working on issues of inclusion for older and disabled peoplethroughout her career, first as a postdoctoral fellow at the Salk Institute forBiological Studies. She joined the IBM Research Division in 1986 where shefounded and managed the Accessibility Research Group. Her primary research areasare computer-human interaction (CHI), aging, and cognition. Applications she hascreated have received multiple awards from organizations representing older anddisabled users. She is past chair of the Association for ComputingMachinery's (ACM) Special Interest Group (SIG) on Accessible Computing(SIGACCESS) and is the founder and co-editor-in-chief of ACM's Transactions on Accessible Computing. Hanson is a fellowof the British Computer Society and was named ACM fellow in 2004 forcontributions to computing technologies for people with disabilities. In 2008,she received the ACM SIGCHI Social Impact Award for the application of CHIresearch to pressing [Page xxx]social needs. She currently is chair of theACM SIG Governing Board and is the holder of a Royal Society Wolfson MeritAward.
Rebecca C. Harris is an assistant professor of politics atWashington and Lee University, Lexington, Virginia. She received her PhD inpolitical science from the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. Harris isthe author of Black Robes, White Coats (2008). Herresearch interests explore policy making on the frontiers of science.
Albert A. Harrison earned his PhD in social psychology fromthe University of Michigan, after earning his BA and MA in psychology from theUniversity of California, Santa Barbara. In 1967 he joined the faculty of theDepartment of Psychology at the University of Michigan, advanced to fullprofessor in 1979, and gained emeritus status in 2005. Since the mid-1970s hisresearch has focused on spaceflight psychology and SETI, the scientific searchfor extraterrestrial intelligence. His books include LivingAloft: Human Requirements for Extended Spaceflight (with M. M. Connorsand F. R. Akins, 1985); From Antarctica to Outer Space: Lifein Isolation in Confinement (coedited with C. P. McKay and Y. A.Clearwater, 1990), After Contact: The Human Response toExtraterrestrial Life (1997), Spacefaring: The HumanDimension (2001), and Star struck: Cosmic Visions inScience, Religion, and Folklore (2007). In 2005, he was guest editor ofa special issue of Aviation, Space and EnvironmentalMedicine that addressed new directions in spaceflight behavioralhealth. Harrison served on NASA's Space Human Factors Element Science andTechnology Working Group and the International Academy of Astronautics SpaceArchitecture Study Group, and he is a long-term member of the Academy'sPermanent SETI Committee. His interests extend to planetary defense, or theprotection of Earth from the threat posed by asteroids and comets, and hecontinues to write on the cultural implications of astrobiology and SETI.
Joseph C. Hermanowicz is an associate professor of sociologyand a fellow in the Institute of Higher Education at the University of Georgia.He earned a PhD in sociology from the University of Chicago. His researchfocuses on academic careers, the academic profession, and the study of rewardsystems in organizations. He is the author of Lives inScience: How Institutions Affect Academic Careers (2009), The Stars Are Not Enough: Scientists—Their Passions and Professions (1998), College Attrition at American Research Universities: Comparative CaseStudies (2003), and an edited volume, The AmericanAcademic Profession: Transformation in Contemporary Higher Education(2011).
Michael A. Hogg received his PhD from Bristol University,and he is currently professor of social psychology at Claremont GraduateUniversity, an honorary professor of psychology at the University of Kent, and afellow of numerous associations including the Association for PsychologicalScience and the Society for Personality and Social Psychology. He is foundationcoeditor of Group Processes and Intergroup Relations andhas published widely on social identity theory and intergroup and groupprocesses.
Wesley S. Huey is an assistantprofessor at the United States Naval Academy in the Department of Leadership,Ethics, and Law. His research interests center on problems of leadership inorganizational groups, particularly in military contexts. His dissertation was agroup process experiment that examined how a formally defined hierarchy ofauthority affected the group's ability to innovate in a group task,relative to groups with no defined hierarchy. He spent 20 years as an activeduty naval officer, including an assignment as an FA-18 squadron commander.
Chuck Huff is a social psychologist who teaches at St. OlafCollege in Northfield, Minnesota. He received his PhD from Princeton University.He does research on moral exemplars in computing in order to understand howpeople integrate moral concern into their professional lives. His research groupat St. Olaf College is currently looking at issues of moral diversity andmisbehavior among exemplars in computing.
James J. Hughes, PhD, is a bioethicist and sociologist atTrinity College in Hartford, Connecticut, where he teaches health policy, andserves as director of Institutional Research and Planning and the executivedirector of the Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technologies. He holds adoctorate in sociology from the University of Chicago, where he also taughtbioethics at the MacLean Center for Clinical Medical Ethics. Hughes is author ofCitizen Cyborg: Why Democratic Societies Must Respond tothe Redesigned Human of the Future, and he is working on a second bookon the use of neurotechnology to enhance virtue and spirituality. Since 1999 hehas produced a syndicated weekly radio program, ChangesurferRadio.
Kelly Hughes is a senior at St. Olaf College and a member ofChuck Huff's research group. She is leading the team that will beinvestigating ethical misbehavior among moral exemplars in computing.
Ronald Inglehart (PhD, political science, University ofChicago, 1967) is the Lowenstein Professor of Political Science and a researchprofessor at the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan.Inglehart has received honorary doctorates from Uppsala University (Sweden,2006) and the Free University of Brussels (Belgium, 2010). He is president ofthe World Values Survey Association and a fellow of both the American Academy ofPolitical and Social Science and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.Inglehart helped found the Euro-Barometer surveys and directs the World ValuesSurvey, which has surveyed representative national samples of the publics of 97countries containing almost 90 percent of the world's population. Hisresearch deals with changing belief systems and their impact on social andpolitical change. His most recent books are (with Pippa Norris) [Page xxxi]Cosmopolitan Communications: Cultural Diversity in aGlobalized World (2009); (with Christian Haerpfer, Patrick Bernhagen,and Christian Welzel) Democratization (2009); (withChristian Welzel) Modernization, Cultural Change andDemocracy: The Human Development Sequence (2005); (with Pippa Norris)Sacred and Secular: The Secularization ThesisRevisited (2004); and (with Pippa Norris) RisingTide: Gender Equality in Global Perspective (2003). He also coeditedHuman Beliefs and Values: A Cross-Cultural SourcebookBased on the 1999–2001 Values Surveys (2004) and Changing Values and Beliefs in 85 Countries: Trends from theValues Surveys (2008).
Ana-Cristina Ionescu is deputy director of the ChamberPractices Division, within the Chamber of Commerce and Industry ofRomania—CCIR. She holds a BA in communication and public relations fromthe National School of Political and Administrative Studies and an MS ininternational business studies from the Economical Studies Academy, Bucharest,Romania. She has spent the last six years working in the European ChamberSystem; in addition to her role as deputy director, she also has served as thehead of a training center and as a public relations specialist at a regionalcenter for continuous improvement of the entrepreneurs within the CCIR, which isthe catalyst of the chamber system and the nationwide promoter of sustainableeconomic development in Romania. Her work at the CCIR focuses on providingsupport services for companies, business development, training, EuropeanUnion-financed projects, events organizing, and attracting membershipstrategies. She has presented at more than 30 international events (conferences,round tables, bilateral forums, economic debates, and training programs) and hasserved as an expert on vocational education and training for TAIEX (theTechnical Assistance and Information Exchange instrument managed by theDirectorate-General Enlargement of the European Commission). Her fields ofexpertise are public affairs, social sciences, chambers systems, corporatesocial responsibility, gender equality, as well as innovation and innovativeentrepreneurship. Her writings include a chapter on corporate socialresponsibility and innovation for small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in SMEs and Open Innovation: Global Cases and Initiativesand one on information communication technology and gender-based rights in Human Rights and Information Communication Technologies:Trends and Consequences of Use.
Clifford A. Jacobs has been at the National ScienceFoundation (NSF) for 26 years and provides oversight to the National Center forAtmospheric Research (NCAR) and activities at the University Corporation forAtmospheric Research (UCAR). His oversight responsibilities cover a wide rangeof topics from supercomputers to aircraft and from climate modeling to impactson society resulting from natural and anthropogenic induced changes in theenvironment. Jacobs has represented geosciences in a variety of NSF studies andinitiatives related to high-performance computing and information technology,including the recent Blue Ribbon Panel on Cyberinfrastructure. From 1995 to June2009, Jacobs served as the section head for UCAR and Lower AtmosphericFacilities Oversight in NSF's Division of Atmospheric Sciences. Prior tocoming to NSF, Jacobs was executive vice president and senior research scientistat The Center for the Environment and Man (CEM) in Hartford, Connecticut. Hisbasic research interests include four-dimensional computer models of the ocean,atmosphere, and land processes; data analyses of large environmental databases;and the development of computer graphics software for the analysis of observedand model data. Domestic and foreign governments as well as private industrysponsored Jacobs's research. Jacobs received his Bachelor of Arts degreein mathematics from Texas A&M University and his Master of Science degreein oceanography, also from Texas A&M University. His Doctor of Philosophydegree was awarded by New York University in oceanography.
Melissa L. Jacquart is a science assistant at the NationalScience Foundation. She works with the Science, Technology, and Society (STS)Program; Methodology, Measurement, and Statistics (MMS) Program; and EthicsEducation in Science and Engineering (EESE) Program. She received herbachelor's degree in astronomy-physics, physics, and philosophy from theUniversity of Wisconsin–Madison in 2009. Her current area of interest isin philosophy of science, specifically physics and cosmology.
Chris Jensen is a postdoctoral scholar at the Institute forSoftware Research at the University of California, Irvine. His research areasinclude open-source software development, software processes, softwaredevelopment governance, project structure, software ecosystems, and softwarelicensing. He received his PhD in information and computer science in 2009 atthe University of California, Irvine, focusing on issues and approaches fordiscovering free/open-source software development processes in projects likeNetBeans, Mozilla, and Apache.
Sally M. Kane is an independent consultant who specializesin public policy and public decision making, climate policy and research, andrisk analysis. She has broad experience working for federal science researchagencies on science-based policy problems relating to natural resourcemanagement and the environment. Her career has also taken her to policy officesin the White House and the U.S. Senate. Her current interests include naturaldisasters, adaptation to climate change, climate policy, regional air qualitymanagement, human behavior, new directions in journalism, and the value andcommunication of scientific information. Kane received her PhD from JohnsHopkins University in economics and systems analysis for public decision making.She has an MS in agricultural and [Page xxxii]resource economics from theUniversity of Maryland, College Park. Trained as a neoclassical micro-economist,she is increasingly incorporating risk analysis and risk communication into herwork, and she is the incoming president of the National Capital Area Chapter ofthe Society for Risk Analysis. Dr. Kane's previous positions includesenior economist for the President's Council of Economic Advisors,special advisor and congressional fellow for Senator Joe Lieberman, and senioradvisor (and member of the leadership team) for the Social, Behavioral, andEconomic Sciences Directorate at the National Science Foundation. Kane hasauthored numerous papers and reports, and she has coedited a book on societaladaptation to climate change and variability with Dr. Gary Yohe of WesleyanUniversity. She has been a member of numerous U.S. delegations to internationalmeetings on science assessments and to international negotiations on the UnitedNations Framework Convention on Climate Change, including ministerialsessions.
Andrea Kavanaugh is a social scientist collaborating closelywith colleagues in computer science. Her work focuses on social computing, thatis, the use and social impact of computing, and the requirements analysisrelated to social software. She also studies the use of information technologyin developing countries, primarily North Africa and the Middle East. She is theformer director of research for the Blacksburg Electronic Village (BEV), aproject in Information Systems, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and StateUniversity (1993–2001). She continues to conduct research and publish onthe use and social impact of computing since joining the Center for HumanComputer Interaction. Her work is supported primarily by the National ScienceFoundation. She is the author or editor of three books; her work is alsopublished in Interacting with Computers, American BehavioralScientist, Computer Supported Cooperative Work, Information, Communicationand Society, and The Information Society, amongothers. She currently serves on the board of directors of the Digital GovernmentSociety and until recently served on the board of the InternationalTelecommunications Society.
Christopher P. Kelly is a doctoral candidate in sociology atthe University of Iowa. His areas of expertise are the social psychology ofleadership and the sociology of occupations and organizations. Recentpublications include “Humor and the Effectiveness of DiverseLeaders,” “Power and Status as the Building Blocks of EffectiveBusiness Leadership,” and “Leading Innovation: Managing SocialPower for Local and Global Collaboration.”
Sara Kiesler is the Hillman Professor of Computer Scienceand Human-Computer Interaction at Carnegie Mellon University. Her researchapplies behavioral and social science research methods and theory to understandhow computer-based technologies are changing individuals, groups, andorganizations, and the human factors dimensions of people's use of, andinteractions with, technology. Her research with Lee Sproull, and later withRobert Kraut, showed how computer networking, the Internet, and, especially,online communities, influenced people's well-being, social interactions,and group dynamics. Her research in human-computer interaction examined itssocial aspects in different domains—in science, health, and education.With colleagues Pamela Hinds and Susan Fussell she has contributed to a betterunderstanding of distributed work and collaboration. With Jodi Forlizzi andtheir students, she studied the cognitive and social design of human-robotinteraction. She is an American Psychological Association fellow and a recipientof the Computer-Human Interaction Lifetime Achievement Award and the Associationfor Computing Machinery Fellowship.
John King is an economist in the Resource Environmental& Science Policy Branch of the USDA Economic Research Service. Hisresearch explores public and private decision making for investments in R& D, including the role of intellectual property, industry structure,licensing, knowledge flows, and effects on technological change. Special areasof interest include biotechnology, genetically modified crops, water quality,and the pesticide industry. He helped to develop the online AgriculturalBiotechnology Intellectual Property database, a tool to examine technologicalchange, industry structure, and intellectual property rights ownership. Workingwith the USDA Agricultural Research Service, he has researched how public-sectorscience agencies assess the economic impact of their research, and how licensingpolicies influence technology transfer from the public to the sector. Since2006, he has served on the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC)Science of Science Policy interagency task group. Prior to joining the EconomicResearch Service in 1999, he received PhD and BA degrees in economics fromVanderbilt University.
Kyriakos M. Kontopoulos (PhD, Harvard University, 1976) is aprofessor of sociology at Temple University. He is interested in complexitytheory and in the methods used by econophysicists and systems biologists. Hewrote Logics of Social Structure (1993) and is currentlycompleting a book with the tentative title Extreme Events:Social Theory on the Rise of the Unexpected.
Fae L. Korsmo has a doctorate in political science from theUniversity of New Mexico. Her dissertation focused on indigenous peoples in theArctic. She has published articles and book chapters on various aspects of polarresearch, including research ethics, legal and political aspects of indigenousclaims, and recent history of polar science. She was an associate professor atthe University of Alaska Fairbanks and came to the National Science Foundationin 1997 to direct the Arctic Social Sciences Program. She has been a programofficer in the National Science Foundation's [Page xxxiii]Office ofPolar Programs and Directorate for Education and Human Resources, and presentlyserves as a senior advisor in the Office of the Director.
Frederick M. Kronz is a permanent program director for theScience, Technology, and Society (STS) Program at the National ScienceFoundation. He was appointed to that position in June 2008 after serving atwo-year term as a rotator. Prior to his term at NSF, he served for 21 years onthe faculty of the philosophy department at the University of Texas (UT) atAustin. He has numerous publications in top journals of his field, including Philosophy of Science and Studies inthe History and Philosophy of Modern Physics. He was director ofUT's History and Philosophy of Science Program for six years, was aresearch fellow for six months at the Center for Philosophy of Science at theUniversity of Pittsburgh in 1998, and has directed the dissertation of severalstudents, all of whom were placed in tenure-track positions. He earned a PhD andan MA from the Johns Hopkins University and a BA from the University ofPittsburgh. He also has a substantial background in mathematics and physics.
Andreas Kuehn is a doctoral candidate and Fulbright Scholarat the School of Information Studies, Syracuse University; a research associateat the Wireless Grid Lab, Syracuse University; and a research associate at theSwiss Competence Center for Public Management and E-Government, Bern Universityof Applied Sciences, Switzerland. Previous appointments include the AustrianMinistry of Finance (2006) and the Swiss Federal Department of the Environment,Transport, Energy and Communications (2010). Kuehn received an MS in informationsystems in 2006 from the University of Zurich, Switzerland. His researchinterests center on information policy, science and technology studies, andeconomic sociology with a particular focus on regulatory issues. His previouswork on information management in the public sector includes research oninteroperability, standardization, and government architecture. The AustrianComputer Society has awarded his work on e-government with an eGovernmentInnovation Prize in 2009.
Julia Lane is the program director of the Science of Scienceand Innovation Policy Program at the National Science Foundation. Her previousjobs included senior vice president and director, Economics Department atNORC/University of Chicago, director of the Employment Dynamics Program at theUrban Institute, senior research fellow at the U.S. Census Bureau, andassistant, associate, and full professor at American University. Lane haspublished more than 60 articles in leading economics journals, as well as in Science and Nature, and hascoauthored or coedited six books. She became an American Statistical AssociationFellow in 2009. She has been the recipient of more than $20 million ingrants from foundations such as the National Science Foundation, the SloanFoundation, the MacArthur Foundation, the Russell Sage Foundation, the SpencerFoundation, and the National Institutes of Health; from government agencies suchas the Departments of Commerce, Labor, and Health and Human Services in theUnited States, the Economic and Social Research Council in the United Kingdom,and the Department of Labour and Statistics New Zealand in New Zealand; as wellas from international organizations such as the World Bank. She has organizedmore than 30 national and international conferences, received several nationalawards, given keynote speeches all over the world, and serves on a number ofnational and international advisory boards. She is one of the founders of theLongitudinal Employer-Household Dynamics program at the Census Bureau, which isthe first large-scale linked employer-employee dataset in the United States. Anative of England who grew up in New Zealand, Lane has worked in a variety ofcountries, including Australia, Germany, Malaysia, Madagascar, Mexico, Morocco,Namibia, Sweden, and Tunisia.
Roger D. Launius is senior curator in the Division of SpaceHistory at the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum inWashington, D.C., where he was division chair (2003–2007). Between 1990and 2002, he served as chief historian of the National Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration. A graduate of Graceland College in Lamoni, Iowa, he received hisPhD from Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, in 1982. He has written oredited more than 20 books on aerospace history, including the Smithsonian Atlas of Space Exploration (2009); Robots in Space: Technology, Evolution, and Interplanetary Travel(2008); Societal Impact of Spaceflight (2007); Critical Issues in the History of Spaceflight (2006); Space Stations: Base Camps to the Stars (2003), whichreceived the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics's (AIAA)history manuscript prize; Reconsidering a Century ofFlight (2003); To Reach the High Frontier: A Historyof U.S. Launch Vehicles (2002); Imagining Space:Achievements, Possibilities, Projections, 1950–2050 (2001); Reconsidering Sputnik: Forty Years since the SovietSatellite (2000); Innovation and the Development ofFlight (1999); Frontiers of Space Exploration(1998, revised edition 2004); Spaceflight and the Myth ofPresidential Leadership (1997); and NASA: A Historyof the U.S. Civil Space Program (1994, revised edition 2001). He is afellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, theInternational Academy of Astronautics, and the American Astronautical Society,and an associate fellow of the AIAA. He also served as a consultant to theColumbia Accident Investigation Board in 2003 and presented the prestigiousHarmon Memorial Lecture on the history of national security space policy at theUnited States Air Force Academy in 2006. He is frequently consulted by theelectronic and print media for his views on space issues, and he has been aguest commentator on National Public Radio and all the major television networknews programs.[Page xxxiv]
Michael Lesk, after receiving a PhD in chemical physics in1969, joined the computer science research group at Bell Laboratories, where heworked until 1984. From 1984 to 1995, he managed the computer science researchgroup at Bellcore and then joined the National Science Foundation as head of theDivision of Information and Intelligent Systems. Since 2003, he has been aprofessor of library and information science at Rutgers University, and servedas chair of that department from 2005 to 2008. He is best known for work inelectronic libraries; his book Practical DigitalLibraries was published in 1997, and the revision Understanding Digital Libraries appeared in 2004. His research hasincluded the CORE project for chemical information, and he wrote some Unixsystem utilities, including those for table printing (tbl), lexical analyzers(lex), and inter-system mail (uucp). His other technical interests includedocument production and retrieval software, computer networks, computerlanguages, and human-computer interfaces. He is a fellow of the Association forComputing Machinery, received the Flame Award from the Usenix Association, andin 2005 was elected to the National Academy of Engineering. He chairs theNational Research Council Board on Research Data and Information.
Tzung-De Lin earned his PhD in sociology/science andtechnology studies from the University of Edinburgh. He teaches undergraduateand graduate courses on science, technology, and society at National Tsing HuaUniversity, Taiwan. His research interest includes information systems and largetechnical systems, and science and technology in East Asia.
José Lobo is an urban economist at Arizona StateUniversity with research interests on how urban environments affect inventionand innovation. His work has also examined technological search by firms, and(using patent data) the sources of technological novelty. He has held positionsat Cornell University, the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, and the SantaFe Institute.
Michael J. Lovaglia is a professor of sociology at theUniversity of Iowa. His research investigates power, status, and identity andthen applies the results to problems of leadership. Articles describing hisresearch have appeared in the American Sociological Review,American Journal of Sociology, Social Psychology Quarterly, and othermajor social science journals. His book, Knowing People: ThePersonal Use of Social Psychology (2007), shows readers how to use theresults of important social psychological research to improve their lives atwork, at home, and in relationships.
Jeffrey W. Lucas (PhD, University of Iowa) is an associateprofessor of sociology at the University of Maryland, College Park. At Maryland,he operates a group processes experimental laboratory in which he andcollaborators carry out research on status, power, and leadership in groups. Inaddition to his research, he teaches leadership each year to U.S. Navy andMarine officers preparing to assume positions as company officers at the UnitedStates Naval Academy.
Wayne G. Lutters, PhD, is an associate professor ofinformation systems in the College of Engineering and Information Technology atthe University of Maryland, Baltimore County (UMBC). His research interests areat the nexus of computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW), social computing,and knowledge management. He specializes in field studies of IT-mediated work,from a sociotechnical perspective, to better inform the design and evaluation ofcollaborative systems. His ongoing focus is in understanding and supporting thework of technical administration. Recent projects have included visualizationtools for intrusion detection analysts, usable privacy and security inhealth-care management, virtualized help desk systems for small businesses, andmoderation for reflective social media spaces for adolescents. Lutters earnedhis MS and PhD in information and computer science from the University ofCalifornia, Irvine, and his BA in both cognitive systems and history fromConnecticut College.
Mary Lou Maher is a senior research scientist at the HCILabin the iSchool at the University of Maryland, College Park, and an honoraryprofessor of design computing in the Design Lab at the University of Sydney.Maher completed a Bachelor of Engineering in civil engineering at ColumbiaUniversity in 1979, and a Master of Science and PhD at Carnegie MellonUniversity, completing the PhD in 1984. Her research includes the development ofcognitive and computational models of design and their evaluation throughempirical studies of new technologies to support design and enhance creativityof individuals, teams, and large-scale collective intelligence.
Jane Maienschein specializes in the history and philosophyof science and the way that biology, bioethics, and biopolicy play out insociety. Focusing on research in embryology, genetics, and cell biology,Maienschein combines detailed analysis of epistemological standards, theories,laboratory practices, and experimental approaches with study of the people,institutions, and changing social, political, and legal context in which sciencethrives. She loves teaching and is committed to public education about the lifesciences and their human dimensions. Maienschein has won the History of ScienceSociety's Joseph Hazen Education Award and all of Arizona StateUniversity's major teaching and other distinguished faculty awards. As aRegents’ professor, President's professor, and Parent'sAssociation professor, she directs ASU's Center for Biology and Society.She is also an adjunct senior scientist at the Marine Biological Laboratory,where she directs the History and Philosophy of Science Program. Her three booksand 12 (co)edited books include the well-received Whose Viewof Life? Embryos, Cloning, and Stem Cells (2003).[Page xxxv]
Shirley M. Malcom is head of the Education and HumanResources Programs of the American Association for the Advancement of Science(AAAS). The directorate includes AAAS programs in education, activities forunderrepresented groups, and public understanding of science and technology.Malcom was head of the AAAS Office of Opportunities in Science from 1979 to1989. Between 1977 and 1979, she served as a program officer in the ScienceEducation Directorate of the National Science Foundation (NSF). Prior to this,she held the rank of assistant professor of biology, University of NorthCarolina, Wilmington, and for two years was a high school science teacher.Malcom received her doctorate in ecology from The Pennsylvania State University;master's degree in zoology from the University of California, LosAngeles; and bachelor's degree with distinction in zoology from theUniversity of Washington. In addition, she holds 16 honorary degrees. She servedon the National Science Board from 1994 to 1998, and from 1994 to 2001, sheserved on the President's Committee of Advisors on Science andTechnology.
Cathy Manduca is director of the Science Education ResourceCenter (SERC) at Carleton College. SERC is engaged in professional developmentprojects for undergraduate faculty that use workshops, virtual events, andcommunity authored websites to facilitate sharing of teaching materials andexpertise. SERC has developed tools and strategies for disseminating educationalresources and engages in evaluation and research projects, including research onfaculty learning in professional development programs and its impact on teachingand student learning. Manduca is also the executive director of the NationalAssociation of Geoscience Teachers (NAGT). Established in 1937, NAGT works tofoster improvement in the teaching of the earth sciences at all levels of formaland informal instruction, to emphasize the cultural significance of the earthsciences, and to disseminate knowledge in this field to the general public.Manduca received her BA in geology from Williams College and her PhD in geologyfrom the California Institute of Technology for locating the boundary betweenoceanic and continental lithosphere in west-central Idaho and describing itshistory. She is a fellow of the AAAS and of the Geological Society of Americaand has received the American Geophysical Union Prize for Excellence inGeophysical Education, as well as the Science Prize for Online Resources inEducation.
Brian Martin is a professor of social sciences at theUniversity of Wollongong, Australia. His PhD in theoretical physics is from theUniversity of Sydney. He has researched controversies over fluoridation, nuclearpower, ozone depletion, pesticides, nuclear winter, and the origin of AIDS.
Lee W. McKnight is an associate professor in the School ofInformation Studies, Syracuse University, and an inventor of ad hoc distributedresource coordination. McKnight directs the Wireless Grid Lab and the NationalScience Foundation Partnerships for Innovation Wireless Grids Innovation Testbed(WiGiT), a joint project with Virginia Polytechnic Institute and StateUniversity. McKnight is a Member of the Editorial Advisory Board of Policy andInternet and serves on the boards of directors for the Wireless GridsCorporation, which he founded, and Summerhill Biomass Systems. He is presidentof Marengo Research. McKnight's research focuses on wireless grids andvirtual markets, national and international technology policy, convergence ofthe Internet and telecommunications industries, and Internet governance andpolicy. His research and publications span policy, economic, business, andtechnical aspects of the global information economy. In addition to manypeer-reviewed journal articles in technical and policy journals, his workincludes several soon to be published books on virtual markets and wirelessgrids. His previous books include Creative Destruction:Business Survival Strategies in the Global Internet Economy (2001,2002, Japanese translation by Toyo Kezai 2003, Chinese translation 2007), Internet Telephony (2001), The GordianKnot: Political Gridlock on the Information Highway (1997, 1999;McGannon Award Winner), and Internet Economics (1997), apath-breaking work that was the first to attempt to develop metrics for economicanalysis of Internet transactions. McKnight received a PhD in 1989 fromMassachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); an MA from the School of AdvancedInternational Studies, Johns Hopkins University in 1981; and a BA (magna cumlaude) from Tufts University in 1978. Among his awards and honors are“most innovative technology or product,” UNYTECH 2005;Massachusetts Telecom Professor of the Year, Mass High Tech 1998, andfellowships from the International Political Science Association, the PrometheeInstitute, Paris, and the Max Planck, Friedrich Ebert, and VolkswagenFoundations, Germany. He was previously a research associate professor ofcomputer science and associate professor and director of the Edward R. MurrowCenter at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Tufts University; lecturerfor the Technology and Policy Program, Sloan School of Management, andDepartment of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at MIT; principalresearch associate at the MIT Center for Technology, Policy and IndustrialDevelopment; and founder of the Internet Telephony Consortium. His activities inshaping digital HDTV, with colleagues at MIT and elsewhere, are chronicled in a1997 book, Defining Vision, written by Joel Brinkley.McKnight teaches courses such as “Survey of Information Policy andTelecommunications Regulation” at Syracuse University. McKnight haslectured on innovation annually at MIT since 1998.
Matthew M. Mehalik serves as program manager at SustainablePittsburgh, where he has created a sustainable business network for southwesternPennsylvania called Champions for Sustainability. He also teaches as an adjunctprofessor of environmental policy at Heinz College, School of Public Policy andManagement, Carnegie Mellon University. He has written multiple journal articlesin the areas of engineering sustainability and [Page xxxvi]engineeringeducation, and he has coauthored Ethical and EnvironmentalChallenges to Engineering with Michael E. Gorman and Patricia Werhane.Mehalik obtained a PhD in systems engineering with concentrations in innovation,ethics, and policy from the University of Virginia (2001). His research involvesmethods for building networks among businesses and communities, especiallyrelating to helping them adapt to challenges posed by globalization and naturalsystems.
Andy Miah, BA, MPhil, PhD, is chair of ethics and emergingtechnologies in the Faculty of Business and Creative Industries at theUniversity of the West of Scotland; fellow of the Institute for Ethics andEmerging Technologies, USA; and fellow at FACT, the Foundation for Art andCreative Technology, United Kingdom. He is the author of Genetically Modified Athletes (2004), coauthor with Emma Rich of The Medicalization of Cyberspace (2008), and editor ofHuman Futures: Art in an Age of Uncertainty(2008).
Jon D. Miller (PhD, political science, NorthwesternUniversity, 1970) is director of the International Center for the Advancement ofScientific Literacy in the Institute for Social Research at the University ofMichigan. He is also director of the Longitudinal Study of American Youth(LSAY), a 22-year longitudinal study of American young people sponsored by theNational Science Foundation, now located at the Institute for Social Research atthe University of Michigan. For three decades, Miller has studied thedevelopment of scientific literacy in adolescents, young adults, and adults inthe United States and adults in more than 30 other countries. He has publishedfour books and more than 50 articles and chapters on the development ofscientific literacy, public attitudes toward science and technology, and theconsequences of scientific illiteracy for democratic societies. He is a fellowof the American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Jeanne Narum is director emeritus of Project Kaleidoscope(PKAL), founding principal of PKAL Learning Spaces Collaboratory, and directorof the Independent Colleges Office (ICO), all located in Washington, D.C. Anationally recognized advocate for undergraduate education, her activitiescollectively reflect her commitment to ensure today'sundergraduates—no matter their background or careeraspiration—have access to learning environments that equip them to betomorrow's leaders. Since 1991, PKAL has played a major role incatalyzing discussions about the why and how of transforming undergraduateprograms in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields.Narum facilitated opportunities for informed conversations: among early-careerSTEM faculty; within and between STEM disciplinary societies; engaging leadersand leadership teams from campuses and organizations across the country. She hadprimary responsibility for PKAL workshops and for all PKAL publications over the20-year period. Through her efforts, PKAL has become a catalyst for shapingnational networks that are transforming undergraduate science and engineeringeducation. Narum serves on the Research Corporation's PresidentialAdvisory Board, the Puerto Rico Louis Stokes Alliances for MinorityParticipation (LSAMP) Program board, and the Advisory Board for the NationalScience Foundation's Office of International Science and Engineering. Shehas served as consultant/liaison to a variety of grant-funded initiatives withinthe larger STEM community, a consultant for the EU Internationalization in theTransatlantic Context initiative, and a member of the Board of Advisors forBiological and Chemical Sciences at the University of Maryland, College Park.She received the 2010 Founder's Award from the Society of College andUniversity Planners (SCUP), was made a 2010 Fellow of the American Associationfor the Advancement of Science (AAAS), received the Award for AcademicExcellence from the Council of Independent Colleges (CIC), a LifetimeAchievement Award from Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience, and aPresidential Citation from the American Psychological Association. She was namedan AWIS fellow by the Association for Women in Science. Narum has a Bachelor ofMusic degree from St. Olaf College and has been named a St. Olaf CollegeDistinguished Alumna. Narum served in administrative capacities at St. Olaf,Dickinson, and Augsburg colleges. She holds honorary degrees from GeorgeWashington University, St. Lawrence University, University of Redlands, RiponCollege, Hope College, Edgewood College, and the University of Portland.
Rosalie Ocker is a senior lecturer at the College ofInformation Sciences and Technology at Pennsylvania State University. She hasstudied virtual teams and distributed work in a series of experiments that spanten years, involving hundreds of project teams. Most recently, her research hasfocused on the dynamics of organizational structures in virtual teams.
Andrew V. Papachristos is an assistant professor ofsociology at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. Papachristos is asociologist who studies urban neighborhoods, social networks, street gangs,violent crime, and gun violence. His research uses social network analysis tostudy interpersonal violence, criminal organizations, and neighborhood-levelsocial processes. Papachristos's research has appeared in Foreign Policy, the American Journal ofSociology, Criminology & Public Policy, as well as otherpeer-reviewed journals and edited volumes. Much of Papachristos'sresearch uses social network analysis to examine (1) the social structures andgroup processes at the foundation of interpersonal violence; (2) the perceptionsactive offenders have of legal authority; and (3) the diffusion of crime andviolence among networks of youth in Chicago and Boston. Currently, Papachristosis expanding his use of network analysis to the study of “crimeepidemics” in U.S. cities, paying particular attention to the wayviolence diffuses among populations of youth. Papachristos received his PhD insociology from the University of Chicago.[Page xxxvii]
John N. Parker is a postdoctoral fellow at the U.S. NationalCenter for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis at the University of California,Santa Barbara. His main research focuses on scientific and intellectual socialmovements, group dynamics in research collaborations, scientific careers andscientific work life, and developing new methods to better link the productionof scientific knowledge to the information needs of public policy makers. He hasalso written about the social characteristics and publication patterns ofscientific elites, the role of boundary organizations in facilitatingscience-policy interactions, current attempts to integrate environmental andsocial science, and the role of affectivity and social bonding in fosteringcreativity and innovation.
Jean Peretz is the director of operations, Tennessee SolarInstitute, University of Tennessee. Previously, she held the position of seniorresearcher at the Institute for a Secure and Sustainable Environment, Universityof Tennessee. She has more than 20 years of experience in energy programevaluation and environmental policy analysis. She holds a master's inpublic administration from the University of Tennessee.
Joseph Psotka is a program manager for basic and appliedresearch in behavioral and social sciences at the Army Research Institute and acoeditor of Interactive Learning Environments. He earneda PhD degree in cognitive psychology from Yale University in 1975. His researchnow focuses on a broad array of neural networks and cognitive technologies, andhigher order thinking. The application of these technologies to link humans withcomputers for improving basic reading, writing, and thinking skills constitutesan extraordinary challenge to revolutionize the way we instruct and learn.Computers are beginning to be invisible helpers that connect minds to theimportant matters of human concern. Intellectual problems can be dissected inwonderful new ways from impossible perspectives that simplify and illuminate.Powerful computational environments for problem solving, knowledge baseorganization, internetworking, and conceptual decomposition are enabling rapidand dramatic new ways for perspicuous knowledge sharing. But these advances, assteady and certain as their unfolding may be, can be pushed forward only throughsteady research progress in understanding human memory, knowledge decomposition,mental models, problem-solving expertise, and other important topics incognitive science and artificial intelligence. His current role supervising,funding, and conducting research in these areas places him in an enviableposition for understanding and shaping the direction of this exciting work.
Ralph A. Raimi is professor emeritus of mathematics at theUniversity of Rochester. He holds a BS (1948) in physics and a PhD (1954) inmathematics from the University of Michigan. He has been at the University ofRochester since 1952, and he has served as chairman of the Department ofMathematics, associate dean for Graduate Studies in the College, and chairman ofthe Department of Sociology. In 1959–1960 he conducted an NSF Institutefor high school math teachers, with a program based on the Appendices to the1959 College Entrance Examination Board Commission Report.
Mihail C. Roco is the senior advisor for nanotechnology atthe National Science Foundation (NSF) and a key architect of the NationalNanotechnology Initiative. Prior to joining NSF, Roco was a professor ofmechanical and chemical engineering. He is the founding chair (in August 2000)of the U.S. National Science and Technology Council's Subcommittee onNanoscale Science, Engineering and Technology (NSET). Roco was a researcher inmultiphase systems, visualization techniques, computer simulations,nanoparticles, and nanosystems. He is credited with 13 patents, contributed morethan 200 archival articles and 20 books, including ParticulateTwo-Phase Flow (1993) and, more recently, ManagingNano-Bio-Info-Cognition Innovations (2007), MappingNanotechnology Knowledge and Innovation: Global and Longitudinal Patent andLiterature Analysis (2009), and NanotechnologyResearch Directions for Societal Needs in 2020 (2010). Roco is acorresponding member of the Swiss Academy of Engineering Sciences. He is afellow of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, fellow of the AmericanInstitute of Chemical Engineers, and fellow of the Institute of Physics, and heleads the Nanotechnology Group of the International Risk Governance Council.Roco was elected as Engineer of the Year by the U.S. Society of ProfessionalEngineers and NSF in 1999 and again in 2004. He was awarded the NationalMaterials Advancement Award from the Federation of Materials Societies in 2007“as the individual most responsible for support and investment innanotechnology by government, industry, and academia worldwide.”
Mary Beth Rosson is a professor of information sciences andtechnology at Pennsylvania State University, where she is codirector of theComputer-Supported Collaboration and Learning Lab. Before coming to Penn Statein 2003, she was a professor of computer science at Virginia PolytechnicInstitute and State University for 10 years and, prior to this, a research staffmember at IBM's T. J. Watson Research Center for 11 years.Rosson's research interests include the design and evaluation ofinteractive systems, particularly scenario-based design. She has worked for manyyears on the design and evaluation of collaborative systems for problem solvingand learning. She also has directed projects investigating the psychologicalissues associated with high-level programming languages and tools, most recentlyin the area of informal programming by end users.
Sherrilyn Roush is an associate professor of philosophy anda faculty member of the Group in Logic and the Methodology of Science, at theUniversity of California, Berkeley. She is the author of Tracking Truth: Knowledge, Evidence, and Science (2005). Her recentpapers include “The Value of Knowledge and the Pursuit ofSurvival,” “Second-Guessing: A Self-Help Manual,” and“Randomized [Page xxxviii]Controlled Trials and the Flow ofInformation.” She is currently writing a book called Rational Self-Doubt.
Philip Rubin is the chief executive officer and a seniorscientist at Haskins Laboratories in New Haven, Connecticut. He is alsoaffiliated with the Department of Surgery, Otolaryngology, at the Yale School ofMedicine and the Department of Psychology and the Interdisciplinary Center forBioethics at Yale University. His scientific research spans a number ofdisciplines to study embodied cognition, most particularly the biological basesof speech and language. He is best known for his work on articulatory synthesis(computational modeling of the physiology and acoustics of speech production),sinewave synthesis, signal processing, and perceptual organization. From 2000 to2003, Rubin was a director of the Division of Behavioral and Cognitive Sciencesat the National Science Foundation. He serves as chair of the National AcademiesBoard on Behavioral, Cognitive, and Sensory Sciences, chairs or is a member ofvarious National Research Council committees, and is on the executive committeeof the Federation of Associations in Behavioral and Brain Sciences.
Tim Ryan is a physical anthropologist with the Department ofAnthropology and the College of Information Sciences and Technology atPennsylvania State University. He is interested in the relationship between bonestructure and the locomotor and masticatory behaviors of mammals. Ryan'swork is particularly focused on the structure, function, and development oftrabecular bone and its relationship to musculoskeletal loading. Usingnondestructive techniques such as high-resolution computed tomography and thefinite element method, Ryan has also analyzed fossil primate specimens in orderto reconstruct their locomotor behaviors. Ryan is currently working on projectsto determine the interspecific scaling patterns of trabecular structure and todocument the ontogenetic development of bone structure in the human femur. Hehas also worked on the description and analysis of various fossil primates fromthe Eocene, Oligocene, and Miocene.
Walt Scacchi is a senior research scientist and researchfaculty member in the Institute for Software Research and director of researchat the Center for Computer Games and Virtual Worlds, both at the University ofCalifornia, Irvine. He received a PhD in information and computer science at UC,Irvine, in 1981. From 1981 to 1998, he was a professor at the University ofSouthern California. Scacchi returned to the University of California, Irvine,in 1999. His research interests include open-source software development,computer game culture and technology, virtual worlds for modeling and simulatingcomplex engineering and business processes, developing decentralizedheterogeneous information systems, software acquisition, and organizationalanalysis of system development projects. Scacchi is an active researcher withmore than 150 research publications, and he has directed more than 60 externallyfunded research projects. He also has had numerous consulting and visitingscientist positions with more than 25 firms or institutes, including fourstart-up ventures.
Martin Schweitzer is a Research and Development staff memberat Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), where he has worked since 1978. Duringhis time at ORNL, Schweitzer has studied the operations and outcomes of a widevariety of energy efficiency and renewable energy programs at all levels ofgovernment and in the private sector. Recent projects include the following:providing oversight and guidance for the new State Energy Program NationalEvaluation; helping design a national evaluation of the U.S. Department ofEnergy's (DOE's) low-income Weatherization Assistance Program;developing performance metrics to quantify the accomplishments of DOE'sCombined Heat and Power Regional Application Centers; designing and implementinga study to quantify the actions taken by recipients of training and softwareprovided by DOE's Industrial Technologies Program; and examining thefactors related to successful performance by partnerships operating underDOE's Rebuild America program. His work has appeared in Energy, Energy Policy, Applied Energy, The Electricity Journal, PublicUtilities Fortnightly, Utilities Policy, and other journals as well asin the International Energy Program Evaluation ConferenceProceedings.
Bruce E. Seely is a historian oftechnology whose scholarly interests have included the history of engineeringeducation, the history of transportation and transportation policy, and thesocietal implications of nanoscale science and engineering. He earned hisdoctorate at the University of Delaware (1982); he has held faculty positions atTexas A&M University (1981–1986) and Michigan TechnologicalUniversity (1986-present), where he currently serves as dean of the College ofSciences and Arts. In addition, he held the office of secretary of the Societyfor the History of Technology (1990–1995) and program director forscience and technology studies in the Directorate of Social, Behavioral andEconomic Sciences at the National Science Foundation (2000–2002).
Ullica Segerstrale is a professor of sociology at IllinoisInstitute of Technology in Chicago. She holds a PhD in sociology from Harvard,an MA in communications from the University of Pennsylvania, and master'sdegrees in organic chemistry and sociology from the University of Helsinki. Hermain research is in the sociology of science. She is particularly interested inthe reasoning of scientists and how they handle the tension between science andsocial values. Her work typically focuses on major academic feuds, such as thesociobiology controversy and the Science Wars, as well as famous cases involvingresearch ethics. It has been supported by, among others, the Guggenheim,Rockefeller, and Sloan foundations and the American Philosophical Society.Segerstrale is the author of Defenders of the Truth: TheBattle for Science in the [Page xxxix]Sociobiology Debate and Beyond(2000), a largely interview-based study of the scientific,moral/political, and personal issues informing the actors in that controversy.Her book Nature's Oracle, an intellectualbiography of W. D. (Bill) Hamilton, sociobiology's central figure, isforthcoming.
Eric Sellars is a graduate of the University of Houston LawCenter (JD, 2011), where he focused his studies on intellectual property law andis currently pursuing a career in patent prosecution. Sellars also holds abachelor's degree in computer sciences from the University of Texas atAustin, where he was also a software developer at the Office of TechnologyCommercialization for two years prior to attending law school.
Leslie D. Setlock is a doctoral student in communication atCornell University. Setlock earned an MA in rhetoric at Carnegie MellonUniversity, working jointly with the faculty of the Human-Computer InteractionInstitute and the Rhetoric Program, and received her BA in sociology andanthropology from Earlham College. Setlock does research at the intersection ofculturally bound communication practices, both verbal and nonverbal, andcomputer-mediated communication technologies (CMC). She has published in theareas of gestures in video conferencing, human-robot interaction,sustainability, and social networks, and other issues in computer-supportedcollaborative work. Her primary research interests include cultural dimensionsof computer-mediated communication, intercultural communication andcollaboration, and the experience of minorities and underrepresented groups inonline communities.
Shane Soboroff is a doctoral candidate in the Department ofSociology at the University of Iowa. His research focuses on influence, trust,and cohesion in task groups.
James C. Spohrer is the director of IBM's UniversityPrograms World Wide and Innovation Champion. His current research focus is thestudy of universities and cities as tightly coupled holistic service systems.Prior to his current role, Spohrer was the founding director of the IBM AlmadenService Research Group and before that founding chief technology officer ofIBM's Venture Capital Relations Group. While at Apple Computer in the1990s, Spohrer achieved DEST (Distinguished Engineer, Scientist, andTechnologist) for advancing the state-of-the-art in learning platforms. Spohrerhas a PhD in computer science/artificial intelligence from Yale and a BS inphysics from MIT.
Richard A. Stein is postdoctoral research associate in theDepartment of Molecular Biology at Princeton University. He holds an MD from the“Iuliu Hatieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy,Cluj-Napoca, Romania, and a PhD in biochemistry from the University of Alabamaat Birmingham. During the past few years, Stein published several researcharticles on bacterial chromosome organization and host-pathogen interaction,which appeared in journals that include Proceedings of theNational Academy of Sciences of the USA, The Journal of BiologicalChemistry, and Molecular Microbiology. Besidesconducing biomedical research in molecular biology, Stein is involved in publichealth and public policy work surrounding infectious disease epidemics andoutbreak preparedness plans. In addition to more than 40 invited book reviewsand several editorials that he published in medical and biomedical journals,Stein recently authored a book chapter on the anthropology of infectiousdiseases that was published in 21st Century Anthropology(SAGE Publications), and several articles on pandemics, host-pathogeninteraction, and infectious diseases in victims of human trafficking, which werepublished in journals that include The International Journalof Infections Diseases, Annals of Internal Medicine, and The Journal of The American Medical Association. Heserved a four-year appointment on the editorial board of the American Journal of Infection Control (2006–2009); is aneditorial board member of Biologicals, The European Journal ofInternal Medicine, and World Medical & HealthPolicy; and is an associate editor for infectious diseases at the International Journal of Clinical Practice.
George O. Strawn is the director of the NationalCoordination Office (NCO) for the federal government's multiagencyNetworking and Information Technology Research and Development (NITRD) Program.He served as chief information officer (CIO) of the National Science Foundation(NSF) from 2003 to 2009. Prior to his appointment as NSF CIO, he served as theexecutive officer of the NSF Directorate for Computer and Information Scienceand Engineering (CISE) and as acting assistant director for CISE. Previously, hehad served as the director of the CISE Division of Advanced NetworkingInfrastructure and Research, where he led NSF's efforts in thePresidential Next Generation Internet Initiative. His first appointment at NSFwas in 1991 as the NSFnet program officer, where he participated in the designand deployment of the then new Internet architecture that led to the commercialInternet. Prior to coming to NSF, Strawn was a computer science faculty memberat Iowa State University (ISU) for a number of years. He also served there asdirector of the ISU Computation Center and chair of the ISU Computer ScienceDepartment. He received his PhD in mathematics from Iowa State University andhis BA (magna cum laude) in mathematics and physics from Cornell College.
Deborah Strumsky is a professor at the University of NorthCarolina. The primary focus of her research is innovation and invention incities, specifically location-specific determinants of invention rates and theirrelationship to metrics of local economic performance. Research questions haveinvolved inventor mobility, scaling of invention in cities, regional effects ofnoncompete laws, and social networks of inventors. She is a member of the SantaFe Institute working group on urban scaling, was a researcher at the HarvardBusiness School, and currently is an assistant [Page xl]professor at theUniversity of North Carolina at Charlotte. Strumsky is from Maine, received herBS from the University of Southern Maine in economics, and a master's anddoctorate from Cornell University.
Larry E. Suter received his PhD in sociology from DukeUniversity. He joined the U.S. Bureau of the Census in 1969 and continued towork in government statistical agencies until 1990 when he joined the NationalScience Foundation as a program director and as editor of two volumes of Indicators of Mathematics and Science Education. He hasbeen involved with international comparative studies of educational achievementsince 1981.
Joseph A. Tainter is a professor in the Department ofEnvironment and Society, Utah State University, Logan, Utah. He received his PhDin 1975 from Northwestern University. Tainter has taught at the University ofNew Mexico and Arizona State University. He is the author of The Collapse of Complex Societies (1988) and the coauthor (with T.Allen and T. Hoekstra) of Supply-Side Sustainability(2003). Tainter's research has been used in more than 40 countries. Hiswork has been consulted in the United Nations Environment Programme, UNESCO, theWorld Bank, the RAND Corporation, the International Institute for AppliedSystems Analysis, the Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, the Earth PolicyInstitute, the Technology Transfer Institute/Vanguard, and other institutions.Tainter has been invited to present his research at the Getty Research Center,the University of Paris (Panthéon-Sorbonne), the Royal Swedish Academy ofSciences, and many other venues. His research has been applied in numerousfields, including economic development, energy, environmental conservation,health care, information technology, urban studies, and the challenges ofsecurity in response to terrorism. He appears in the film The11th Hour, produced by Leonardo DiCaprio, and in the ABC News special Earth 2100. Tainter'scurrent research focuses on sustainability, energy, and innovation.
Andrea Tapia, is an associate professor at the College ofInformation Sciences and Technology at Pennsylvania State University. She is asociologist with expertise in social research methods and social theory,applying those to the study of information and communication technologies (ICT)and their context of development, implementation, and use. Her current researchis focused on collaboration in virtual environments, including that ofscientists, emergency responders, and international humanitarian relieforganizations.
Mark Zachary Taylor is an assistant professor at the GeorgiaInstitute of Technology in the Sam Nunn School of International Affairs.Formerly a solid-state physicist, he earned his PhD in political science at theMassachusetts Institute of Technology. In his research, he seeks to explain whysome countries are better than others at science, technology, and innovation.His publications can be found in the journals Foreign Affairs,Harvard International Review, International Organization, Journal ofPolitical Science Education, and Review of PolicyResearch.
Bruce Tonn is a senior researcher in the EnvironmentalSciences Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory and a professor in theDepartment of Political Science, University of Tennessee–Knoxville. Tonnhas more than 25 years of experience in the area of energy program evaluation.He is currently leading the evaluation of the U.S. Department of Energy'sWeatherization Assistance Program.
Paul Trott is a professor of innovation and entrepreneurshipat Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands, and a reader in innovationmanagement at the Business School, University of Portsmouth, United Kingdom. Hereceived his PhD from Cranfield University. He has published more than 30articles on innovation management. His book InnovationManagement and New Product Development is in its fourth edition andused all over the world.
Janet A. Vertesi is a postdoctoral scholar in the Departmentof Informatics at the University of California, Irvine. She holds a PhD fromCornell University in Science and Technology Studies and a master's fromCambridge University in history and philosophy of science. She has been aCommonwealth Scholar and a Mellon Fellow at the Cornell Society for theHumanities; has held grants from the National Science Foundation, the SocialScience and Humanities Research Council of Canada, the National Aeronautics andSpace Administration (NASA) History Office, and History of Science Society; andhas recently been awarded a Costen Postdoctoral Fellowship at the Society ofFellows in the Liberal Arts at Princeton University. She has published articleson topics in the history of seventeenth-century astronomy, visualization andrepresentation in scientific practice, subway maps, science fiction,human-computer interaction, and ubiquitous computing. After her multiyear studyof the Mars Exploration Rover mission, she is currentlyworking on a comparative ethnography of the Cassinimission to Saturn.
René von Schomberg is at the European Commission,Directorate General for Research. He works on the ethics and governance ofemerging technologies and scientific developments. His background is inagricultural science, philosophy (PhD, J. W. Goethe University, Frankfurt amMain, Germany) and science and technology studies (PhD Twente University, theNetherlands). He taught argumentation theory, ethics, philosophy, science, andtechnology studies at Dutch universities for about a decade prior to joining theEuropean Commission where he held various positions. He was a European UnionFellow at George Mason University, School of Public Policy, Arlington, Virginia,during the 2007 fall semester where he taught on the social and ethical aspectsof the EU's science and technology policies. He is the author of numerousarticles, [Page xli]monographs, and working documents of the EuropeanCommission Services. His most recent book publication is Implementing the Precautionary Principle: Perspectives and Prospects(2006), coedited with Elisabeth Fisher and Judy Jones.
Wendell Wallach is a consultant, ethicist, and scholar atYale University's Interdisciplinary Center for Bioethics. He chairs thecenter's working research group on technology and ethics and is a memberof research groups on animal ethics, end of life issues, neuroethics, andposttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). He coauthored (with Colin Allen) Moral Machines: Teaching Robots Right from Wrong (2009),which maps the new field of enquiry variously called machine ethics, machinemorality, computational morality, or friendly AI (artificial intelligence).Formerly, he was a founder and the president of two computer consultingcompanies, Farpoint Solutions and Omnia Consulting Inc. Wallach holds a BA inthe College of Social Studies from Wesleyan University and an MEd from HarvardUniversity. He is currently writing a book on the societal, ethical, and publicpolicy challenges originating from technologies that enhance human faculties byaltering the mind/body. Another book in progress explores the ways in whichcognitive science, new technologies, and introspective practices are alteringour understanding of human decision making and ethics.
Thomas B. Ward is professor of psychology at the Universityof Alabama. He received his PhD in psychology from the University of Wisconsin,Madison. His research focuses on the nature of concepts, including how they areacquired, structured, combined, and used in creative and noncreative endeavors.Ward has studied the ways in which people apply existing knowledge to newsituations, including tasks as diverse as imagining life on other planets anddesigning practical products. His most recent line of research examinescreativity and problem solving in virtual environments. He also serves as editorof the Journal of Creative Behavior.
Cynthia Wei is currently an AAAS Science & TechnologyPolicy Fellow at the National Science Foundation (NSF) in the Division ofUndergraduate Education (DUE). As a fellow, she has worked with NSF educationprograms including the Climate Change Education Program (CCEP) and TransformingUndergraduate Education for STEM (TUES). She has also been involved withNSF-funded projects such as the AAAS Vision and Change inUndergraduate Biology Education Initiative and Mobilizing STEM Education for a Sustainable Future. Wei is a biologistspecializing in animal behavior, and she earned her PhD in zoology and ecology,evolutionary biology, and behavior from Michigan State University. As a teacher,she has worked with a wide range of students; she has taught elementary-levelgeneral science and high school biology at a K–12 school in Brooklyn, NewYork, as well as several undergraduate-level courses in biology at MichiganState University and the University of Nebraska, Lincoln, where she was apostdoctoral research associate.
Paul J. Werbos began training as a mathematician, takingmany university courses culminating in the graduate course in logic from AlonzoChurch at Princeton University while in middle and high school. Realizing thelimits of deductive logic, he began his quest to understand inductive logic andintelligence in the mind back in those days, inspired by the work of John VonNeumann, Donald Hebb, and early artificial intelligence investigators(Feigenbaum and Feldman). He obtained two degrees in economics from HarvardUniversity and the London School of Economics, divided equally between usingmathematical economics as a model for distributed intelligence and developingsome broader understanding. For his Harvard master of science, he took coursesin quantum field theory (QFT) from Julian Schwinger, but did not fullyunderstand the subject until many years later, after he started an activity inquantum technology and modeling at NSF. For his 1974 Harvard doctoraldissertation (reprinted in The Roots of Backpropagation,1994), he proposed the development of more powerful, more biologically plausiblereinforcement learning systems by the then new idea of using neural networks toapproximate dynamic programming (ADP), including the value function To implementADP in a local biologically plausible manner, he translated Freud'stheory of psychic energy into an algorithm later called backpropagation, and arigorous general theorem, the chain law for ordered derivatives, which lateralso became known as the reverse method or adjoint method for automatic orcircuit-level differentiation. He has spent many years advancing the fields ofADP and backpropagation and brain-like prediction, aimed at developing anddemonstrating the kind of designs that could actually explain the kind ofgeneral intelligence we see in the brain and in subjective humanexperience—collaborating at times with Karl Pribram and Walter Freemanand A. Pellionisz, among others, and proposing biological experiments to testthe theory. In looking for applications that are really important to areas likeenergy, sustainability, and space, he has also gotten deep into domain issuesand organization, as reflected at http://www.werbos.com, servingon boards of the National Space Society, the Millennium Project, the LifeboatFoundation, and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers EnergyPolicy Committee, and as a fellow in the U.S. Senate in 2009. From 1980 to 1989,he developed econometric forecasting models (two based on backpropagation) andwas lead analyst for the long-term future at Energy Information Administrationin the Department of Energy.
Andrew Whitehead is a doctoral candidate in the Departmentof Sociology at Baylor University and serves as a research associate at theAssociation of Religion Data Archives. He specializes in the sociology ofreligion and organizations, and he has published articles in the Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, Social ScienceQuarterly,[Page xlii]and Sociology of Religion. His dissertationinvestigates the responses of religious congregations to homosexuality.
Susan J. Winter, PhD, is a program officer incyberinfrastructure at the National Science Foundation managing and coordinatingprograms in virtual organizations as sociotechnical systems, science andtechnology centers, research coordination networks, cyberenabled discovery andinnovation, and cyberinfrastructure training, education, advancement, andmentoring. She received her PhD in business administration from the Universityof Arizona, her MA in organizational research methods from the ClaremontGraduate University, and her BA in organizational psychology from the Universityof California, Berkeley, and has more than 20 years of international managerialand consulting experience. Her research on the impact of information andcommunication technology on the organization of work has resulted in more than25 publications, seven grants, and 30 refereed conference presentations(including three Best Paper awards). Her work has appeared in Information Systems Research, Information & Management, Frontiers ofEntrepreneur ship Research, and the Database forAdvances in Information Systems, has been presented at the International Conference on Information Systems and atthe Academy of Management, and has been included aschapters in scholarly books. She currently serves on the editorial boards of theJournal of Information Technology, Information andOrganization, and Group and OrganizationManagement.
Junku Yuh is currently the fifth president of KoreaAerospace University (KAU). He is an elected Institute of Electrical andElectronics Engineers (IEEE) fellow and has received several prestigious awards,including a Lifetime Achievement Award from World Automation Congress (2004), aNational Science Foundation (NSF) Presidential Young Investigator Award fromformer U.S. President George H. W. Bush (1991), a Boeing Faculty Award (1991), aUniversity of Hawaii (UH) Fujio Matsuda Fellow Award (1991), and an AmericanSociety for Engineering Education's Dow Outstanding Young Faculty Award(1989). He has published more than 120 technical articles and edited/coedited 10books in the area of robotics. Prior to coming to KAU, Yuh was the head of theNational Science Foundation (NSF) Tokyo Regional Office, which is located withinthe U.S. Embassy Tokyo, covering all locations in the East Asia and Pacific(EAP) region (except China), such as Japan, Korea, Taiwan, and Australia. Priorto coming to NSF, Yuh was a professor of mechanical engineering and informationand computer science at the University of Hawaii (UH), where he also served asthe director of the Autonomous Systems Laboratory supervising about 30 peopleworking for his research projects. Yuh served as an associate editor for IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, and hecurrently serves as the editor-in-chief for the Journal ofIntelligent Service Robotics, as well as an associate editor for theInternational Journal of Engineering Design andAutomation and the International Journal ofIntelligent Automation and Soft Computing. Further, he serves on theeditorial board of the Journal of Autonomous Robots andthe International Journal of Intelligent Automation and SoftComputing. He has been an active member of technical societies in therobotics field: served as program chair of the 2003 IEEE/RSJ InternationalConference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS) and program cochair of the2006 and 2001 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation. Hefounded and chairs the technical committee on underwater robotics of the IEEERobotics and Automation Society.
Lee L. Zia is a program officer in the Division ofUndergraduate Education at the National Science Foundation in Arlington,Virginia. His primary responsibility is to serve as the lead program directorfor the National STEM Education Digital Library (NSDL) Program. Zia'sinvolvement with this program is a natural outgrowth of a longstanding interestin the application of information technology to education that began when hestarted as a faculty member in the Department of Mathematics at the Universityof New Hampshire in the mid-1980s. In addition to his research into applicationsof parameter estimation techniques to models of insect dispersal, Zia beganimplementing PC-based software applications for computing, animating, andvisualizing concepts in his classes in ordinary differential equations andlinear algebra. This work led to the receipt of multiple grants from theNational Science Foundation (NSF), which in turn led him to spend a two-year“rotation” at NSF as a program officer in the Division ofUndergraduate Education, managing a variety of proposal-driven grant programs.During this stint at NSF (1995–1996), Zia played a key role in developingthe concept and vision for a digital library program to support education in aworld of networked digital resources. When the current NSDL program came intobeing officially, he returned to NSF and became a permanent member of the staffin late 2000. Zia has published numerous articles about digital libraries andeducational applications of information technology, and he participates both inintra-agency working groups at NSF that deal with NSF's emerging emphasison cyberinfrastructure and in cross-agency interactions in this area.