Handbook for Social Justice in Counseling Psychology: Leadership, Vision, and Action

Handbooks

Edited by: Rebecca L. Toporek, Lawrence H. Gerstein, Nadya A. Fouad, Gargi Roysircar & Tania Israel

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  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Part I: Training

    Part II: Schools

    Part III: Marginalized Communities

    Part IV: Career and Vocational Issues

    Part V: Social Justice in Health Care

    Part VI: Counseling Psychologists in the International Arena

    Part VII: Policy and Legislative Change

    Part VIII: Future Directions

  • Copyright

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    Dedication

    With deep humility and respect, we dedicate this Handbook to all the individuals, families, communities, organizations, and institutions working toward social justice in all its many forms. Among the many notable efforts around the world, we reflect on two recent historical events as we submit this dedication: Hurricane Katrina and the recent passing of Kenneth B. Clark. In the wake of Hurricane Katrina, we honor those affected by the devastation, persons helping with survival and adjustment, and individuals striving to identify and eliminate the injustices that emerged as a result of this tragic sequence of events. Your sacrifices and unwavering courage inspire us to even more fervently pursue equality, justice, and a truly compassionate world. In this past year, we have also noted the legacy of Kenneth B. Clark as one of the first psychologists to influence national policy in the face of racial discrimination through research, scholarship, and legislative advocacy. His work and the work of Mamie Clark stand as examples of the power and role that individuals and psychologists can have in shaping this nation.

    Rebecca L. Toporek: To my many mentors, students, and clients for their generosity, wisdom, and faith. To Kaiya, Dylan, Phil, Cynthia, Veronica, and Daniel for their patience and love. To my parents, Walter and Doreen, for their unwavering belief in the need for a just world.

    Lawrence H. Gerstein: In memory of my parents, Helen and Melvin, who modeled the ideal in social activism.

    Nadya A. Fouad: To Bob, Nick, Andrew, and Patrick, with love and thanks for all the support.

    Gargi Roysircar: For my students sharing in tsunami outreach in Tamilnadu, India.

    Tania Israel: For my parents, Mary and John Israel, my early role models for political activism, cultural complexity, and community involvement.

    Foreword

    I was both delighted and humbled to be asked to write a foreword for this note worthy and timely book. This important Handbook, edited by Rebecca Toporek, Lawrence Gerstein, Nadya Fouad, Gargi Roysircar, and Tania Israel, presents a map for our field that will transform the next generation of training, research, and practice for counseling psychologists. Moreover, this book underscores counseling psychology's role as a leader in professional psychology in advancing a perspective that is singularly unique, expansive, and visionary. One of the strengths of counseling psychology has been its role within the general psychological community in advocating for a careful and systematic consideration of gender and culture as critical factors in human development. In my view, this book will help to locate a broad and inclusive social justice mission on our collective radar screens, once again placing counseling psychology at the leadership role in advancing a more engaged and activist course for professional psychology.

    The increasing focus on social justice in counseling psychology represents the logical culmination of our historic commitment to understanding the role of culture, race, gender, ability/disability status, and sexual orientation in counseling, training, prevention, and research. The editors and authors of this book have each thoughtfully developed their contributions on the shoulders of the brave and courageous leaders in our field who have shed light on the influences of sexism, classism, racism, and heterosexism in human development. As readers have no doubt observed if they have explored any aspect of counseling psychology in recent years, the focus on context as a frame for individual experience has increasingly defined one of our unique contributions to psychological discourse. By exploring the role of schools, communities, work/career, health care, and the broader international context, as well as graduate training and public policy advocacy, the authors of the chapters in this Handbook have articulated a clear vision of what is at stake, and possible, in our work. In short, our work as counseling psychologists takes us to the forefront of the boundary where individual experience encounters social and economic forces that powerfully shape people's lives. Without giving voice to these external factors and describing their impact in the lives of our clients, I believe that we collude with the status quo to sustain inequity. The editors and chapter authors of this groundbreaking book have provided us with the tools to turn our passion, anger, and empathy into effective, engaged action that can transform the context of our richly diverse communities.

    By focusing on these pernicious aspects of the context, the editors and authors have created a compelling case that human behavior is inherently embedded in a complex web of cultures, political structures, socioeconomic affordances, and social systems. When considered collectively, the authors describe how differential access to resources and barriers so powerfully shapes the trajectory of human life.

    One of the main themes that emerges in these chapters is the reality that life is not fair. Although this phrase has generated a great deal of interest from policy analysts and government leaders (as well as parents, who hear this from their kids ad nauseum), it also underscores a critical reality in our society. People are born into families that have widely disparate resources and equally diverse opportunities for the sort of self-concept implementation that has been so long espoused as an aspirational value for our clients. In my humble opinion, this book has the very real capacity to transform the nature of our work as counseling psychologists, encompassing all aspects of our diverse roles.

    The book you are about to read is akin to the message heard in the music of Woody Guthrie, an American folksinger and icon during the Great Depression. I have always been impressed with the confidence and commitment reflected in Guthrie's work and his bold statement about the impact of his art. Like Guthrie, who exposed many of the social and political forces that kept people of color and the poor from reaching the “land of plenty,” the editors and authors have created a body of work that will help to take the nascent social justice movement in our field to the next level of maturation and effectiveness. Much like Guthrie's work, the material in this Handbook articulates how social and economic forces constrain our natural striving for a healthy life of meaningful relationships, access to meaningful work, and the opportunity for a healthy expression of our inner spirit. I believe that this book will hold an equally significant place in our field's history, inspiring new generations of activist scholars and therapists.

    A close examination of the organizing structure of this book reveals the editors' thoughtful ideas about the array of contextual factors that influence the trajectory of individual life experiences. By focusing on training at the outset of the Handbook, the editors have wisely positioned their contribution as playing a key role in educating the next generation of counseling psychologists and other counseling professionals. The chapters in the section on schools build on an emerging discourse in counseling psychology on the role of psychosocial supports in the academic enterprise, highlighting a challenge that has been woefully ignored in recent reform efforts. In the section exploring the role of counseling psychologists in marginalized communities, the authors push the envelope of our typical considerations by providing specific tools for counseling psychologists that help to expand the theoretical knowledge needed to create a fully engaged social justice agenda in counseling psychology.

    In the vocational psychology section, the emphasis on social justice, which encourages readers to consider everyone who works, marks a noted change from the prevalent focus on the work lives of people with considerable choice and volition. The section on health care helps to link the social justice agenda to another critical human context, while also detailing the critical role of social class in the maldistribution of health resources in the United States.

    The focus on the international context continues a healthy movement away from the insularity that characterized much of U.S. psychology during the 20th century. The underlying theme of this section is articulated in a thoughtful way in the final chapter of this section, which describes how the process of international collaboration is transformative for all of the participants, including clients, psychologists, and other change agents. The final section of the Handbook focuses on the contributions that counseling psychologists make in shaping policy and legislation.

    When considered collectively, the chapters represent more than the sum of their individual parts. As the editors and chapter authors have conveyed in this Handbook, many people lead hard lives, with few, if any, reasons to hope for a better future. The ideas presented here, in my view, can help to change the sharp edges of social and economic forces that so powerfully constrain our access to dignified, healthy, and engaged lives. The editors of this Handbook have demonstrated considerable vision in mapping the terrain of the social justice agenda for counseling psychology. Similarly, the chapter authors rose to the occasion by developing clearly detailed ideas that can be easily adopted by readers. The potential for transforming the landscape of our field is detailed eloquently in these pages; it is now up to us, as readers, to assume the challenges that have been described in this landmark publication.

    David L.BlusteinBoston College
  • Author Index

    About the Editors

    Rebecca L. Toporek, Ph.D., is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Counseling, Career and College Counseling Specializations, at San Francisco State University. Her research and writing interests include social justice and multicultural supervision and training, advocacy competencies, attitudes toward race and poverty, systemic interventions in discrimination, and career and college counseling. She was a co-editor of the Handbook of Multicultural Competencies and is a co-editor of an emerging electronic journal of social justice in counseling and psychology. Rebecca developed and maintains the Multicultural Competence and Social Justice Professional Development and Resources Webtool and is a founding member of Counselors for Social Justice of the American Counseling Association. She received her doctorate degree in counseling psychology from the University of Maryland, College Park. Her most important roles include mother, partner, sister, daughter, friend, colleague, teacher, ally, community member, and global citizen.

    Lawrence H. Gerstein, Ph.D., is a Professor of Psychology and Director of Doctoral Training in Counseling Psychology at Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana. He has published over 75 scholarly articles and book chapters, and is active in professional organizations serving on numerous editorial boards and committees. Professor Gerstein's academic expertise is in community, peace, and family psychology, and consultation and research methodology. He is a Fellow of the Society of Counseling Psychology of the American Psychological Association. Gerstein was honored with the Carl D. Perkins Government Relations Award from the American Association for Counseling and Development, and the Kitty Cole Human Rights Award from the American Counseling Association. Professor Gerstein earned his Ph.D. in counseling and social psychology from the University of Georgia in 1983. Professor Gerstein became involved in the Tibet Movement in the 1980s when Taktser Rinpoche (His Holiness The Dalai Lama's oldest brother) requested his help. Gerstein co-founded the International Tibet Independence Movement (ITIM) with Rinpoche. Since 1998, Gerstein has been the president of ITIM (http://www.rangzen.org), which is a not-for-profit volunteer organization comprised of over 20,000 supporters around the world dedicated to returning Tibet to the Tibetans through nonviolent action.

    Nadya A. Fouad, Ph.D., is a professor in the Department of Educational Psychology at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee and training director of the Counseling Psychology program there. She was president of Division 17 from 2000 to 2001, and previously served as vice president for Diversity and Public Interest (1996–1999). She is chair of the Council of Counseling Psychology Training Programs (2003–2007). She serves on the editorial boards of the Journal of Counseling Psychology, Journal of Vocational Behavior, Career Development Quarterly, and the Journal of Career Assessment. She has published articles and chapters on cross-cultural vocational assessment, career development, interest measurement, cross-cultural counseling, and race and ethnicity. She has served as co-chair (with Patricia Arredondo) of the writing and implementation team with Division 45 of the Multicultural Guidelines, which were approved by APA in August 2002 and published in the American Psychologist in May 2003.

    Gargi Roysircar is the Founding Director of the Antioch New England Multicultural Center for Research and Practice (http://www.multiculturalcenter.org) and Professor in the Department of Clinical Psychology, Antioch New England Graduate School. She does research on the interface of acculturation and ethnic identity with the mental health of immigrants and ethnic minorities, worldview differences between and within cultural groups, multicultural competencies and training in professional psychology, and multicultural assessment and instrumentation. She has authored several journal articles and chapters on these topics. Her recent co-edited books are Multicultural Competencies: A Guidebook of Practices (2003) and Multicultural Counseling Competencies 2003: Association for Multicultural Counseling and Development (2003). Gargi Roysircar has recently been involved in tsunami recovery efforts in Tamil Nadu, India, and is now focusing on education in disaster trauma and psychosocial skills specific to disaster work. She is a Fellow of the American Psychological Association (APA) and a Past President of the Association for Multicultural Counseling and Development. She is the editor of the Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development. She was awarded the 2002 Extended Research Award of the American Counseling Association.

    Tania Israel is an Associate Professor in the Counseling, Clinical, and School Psychology Program at the University of California, Santa Barbara. She received her doctoral degree in counseling psychology from Arizona State University in 1998, and was honored with the Barbara Kirk Award for Outstanding Graduate Student Research from the Society of Counseling Psychology and the Glen E. Hubele National Graduate Student Award from the American Counseling Association. She received a 5-year career development grant from the National Institute of Mental Health to develop her research on counseling services for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender clients. She is the recipient of awards for her service to the UCSB Resource Center for Sexual and Gender Diversity and for her work with the Peace Education Project of Santa Barbara. She is the current Membership Chair and past newsletter editor for the Section for the Advancement of Women of the Society of Counseling Psychology. Her first act of social justice occurred at age 4 when she wrote a letter to President Nixon asking him to stop the war in Vietnam. She continues her dedication to social justice through her scholarship, teaching, mentoring, and service related to feminism, sexuality, marginalized individuals, intersecting identities, and social change.

    About the Contributors

    Tamara M. Abousleman is a doctoral student in the counseling psychology program at the University of Utah. She earned her B.A. in psychology at Pomona College in 1993. Her current scholarly pursuits include feminist multicultural therapy outcomes and outcomes measurement and qualitative research on career issues of women with HIV. Her counseling expertise includes a focus on issues particular to being a woman or an adolescent girl in U.S. society and the impact that multicultural (broadly defined) issues have on all people. As a biracial, middle-class feminist, she is beginning a process of integrating multiple sources of knowledge, information, and wisdom into her professional and personal activities.

    Eve M. Adams is an Assistant Professor and Director of Training for the Counseling Psychology Ph.D. Program at New Mexico State University. She received her doctorate in counseling psychology in 1988 from The Ohio State University and has served as a psychologist at the University of Akron's Counseling and Testing Center. Eve serves on the editorial board for the Journal of Counseling Psychology and has served on the Journal of Counseling and Development editorial board. Her research interests are multicultural identity development, gender role beliefs, sexual orientation, and career development. Her teaching interests are supervision, counseling skills, assessment, and career counseling.

    Dorienna M. Alfred (Harris) is a Psychological Resident at the University of Missouri Counseling Center in Columbia, Missouri. Her areas of research include chronic illness in women of color and applications of racial identity theory to teacher and counselor training.

    Margret E. Bell, Ph.D., recently received her doctorate from the Department of Counseling, Developmental, and Educational Psychology at Boston College. Focusing her research on victims' reactions to trauma and community and justice system responses to domestic violence, she has spent time in a number of settings providing counseling and advocacy services to victims as well as working on domestic violence public policy issues. Her research has been honored with awards from the Association for Women in Psychology, the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues, and the American Psychological Association's Divisions 35 and 12.

    Fred Bemak is currently a Professor and the Program Coordinator for the Counseling and Development Program in the Graduate School of Education at George Mason University. He has done extensive work in the areas of social justice and mental health, working in 30 countries and throughout the United States. Fred is a former Fulbright Scholar, a Kellogg International Fellow, and a recipient of the International Exchange of Experts and Research Fellowship through the World Rehabilitation Fund. At George Mason University, Fred has facilitated the development of master's and doctoral training programs that emphasize multiculturalism, social justice, leadership, and advocacy and has been working with these issues for more than 30 years.

    Carrie L. Castañeda is a doctoral candidate in the counseling psychology program at the University of Utah. She completed her predoctoral internship at the UC Davis counseling center, where her emphasis was the academic track of the Multicultural Immersion Program. Carrie works to make the spirit of social justice present in her clinical and research interests through a focus on the provision of multiculturally competent services to traditionally underserved populations. Her current research qualitatively examines the childhood experiences of Mexican heritage women who acted as language and cultural brokers for their parents and community.

    Angela M. Cavett is a practicing psychologist at Badlands Human Service Center in Dickinson, North Dakota, and is an adjunct professor at Dickinson State University. She received her Ph.D. in counseling psychology from the University of North Dakota. Professional interests include child and adolescent therapy; play therapy; attachment issues; ethics; psychologists' involvement in social change; and career aspirations of underserved groups, including welfare recipients and felons.

    Bobbie L. Celeste, Ph.D., serves as the Director of Professional Affairs for the Ohio Psychological Association and counsels and consults with individuals and groups. A graduate of the Counseling Psychology program at The Ohio State University, she is active with the Society of Counseling Psychology, serving two terms as their Federal Advocacy Coordinator. In recognition of her work on behalf of professional psychology, she received the American Psychological Association Karl F. Heiser Presidential Award in 2004. She is a member of APA Divisions 17, 31,35,45, and 52.

    Robert C. Chope is Professor of Counseling at San Francisco State University, where he coordinates the Career Counseling Program. He is also the founder of the Career and Personal Development Institute in San Francisco, a practice that he has had for more than 25 years. Dr. Chope received his Ph.D. from the University of Minnesota, Department of Psychology. He is a licensed psychologist and a licensed marriage and family therapist, as well as the author of Dancing Naked: Breaking Through the Emotional Limits That Keep You From the Job You Want and Shared Confinement: Healing Options for You and the Agoraphobic in Your Life, both published by New Harbinger Publications. His newest book is Family Matters: The Influence of the Family in Career Decision Making (Pro-Ed, 2005). He is a fellow of the National Career Development Association (NCDA), winner of the 2002 Robert Swan Lifetime Achievement in Career Counseling Award, and a winner of the 2004 NCDA Outstanding Career Practitioner of the Year award.

    Rita Chi-Ying Chung is an Associate Professor in the Counseling and Development Program, College of Education and Human Development, George Mason University. Her research focuses on social justice and multiculturalism through the psychosocial adjustment of refugees and immigrants, interethnic group relations and racial stereotypes, coping strategies in dealing with racism and its impact on psychological well-being, cross-cultural and multicultural issues in mental health, and cross-cultural achievement motivation and aspirations. Dr. Chung has lived and worked in the Pacific Rim, Asia, and Latin America.

    Rhanda B. Clow is Training Director in the University Counseling Center at the University of North Dakota. She received her Ph.D. in counseling psychology from the University of North Dakota. Her primary professional interests include training, counselor supervision, suicidality, experiential learning, clinical and training outcomes, and the welfare-to-work transition. Her current research is on training competencies and outcomes. Other research and clinical interests include personality disorders, psychological assessment, and administration.

    Lisa Cosgrove, Ph.D., is a clinical and research psychologist in the Graduate School of Education at the University of Massachusetts at Boston. She has published numerous articles and book chapters on critical psychology, research methods, feminist therapy, and theoretical and philosophical issues related to clinical practice. Her scholarship includes work in the areas of community psychology, social policy, women and homelessness, and the aftermath of trauma. Dr. Cosgrove's research has been supported through grants from NIMH (to the Murray Center of the Radcliffe Institute, Harvard University) and from the University of Massachusetts. She recently co-edited Bias in Psychiatric Diagnosis (Rowman & Littlefield) with Paula Caplan.

    Brian Daly is a Clinical Child Psychology Intern at the University of Maryland School of Medicine/VA Maryland Health Care System. He is currently working on his doctoral degree in the APA-approved program in Counseling Psychology at Loyola University Chicago. He received a master's degree in counseling psychology from Boston College and a master's degree in general psychology from Boston University. Mr. Daly has research interests related to risk and protective factors for urban children of color, the impact of poverty on the development of young children, prevention and clinical interventions for minority children and families, and university-community collaborations.

    Rachel E. Darrow is a third-year doctoral student in counseling psychology at the University of North Dakota. She received her Bachelor of Arts from the University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire. Her primary research interests include secondary traumatic stress and posttraumatic stress disorder. Her professional goals and interests include supervision, consultation for secondary traumatic stress in the workplace, program development, and disaster relief work. She is also interested in volunteering abroad for Doctors Without Borders.

    M. Meghan Davidson, Ph.D. is currently a Research Assistant Professor in the Department of Educational, School, and Counseling Psychology at the University of Missouri-Columbia. She earned her doctoral degree in counseling psychology from the University of Missouri-Columbia, and her dissertation consisted of constructing sex-specific scales to measure adolescent attitudes regarding dating relationships in an effort to create appropriate evaluation tools for sexual assault and relationship violence prevention. Her research interests include prevention, sexual assault and domestic violence, multicultural issues broadly defined, and career development. Dr. Davidson was awarded the Council of Counseling Psychology Training Programs (CCPTP) Outstanding Graduate Student Award in 2003.

    Sherri L. (Murry) Edwards is the staff psychologist at the Lawton VA Outpatient Clinic in Fort Sill, Oklahoma. As a practitioner and researcher, Dr. Edwards's primary interest is bridging the gap between science and practice relative to mental health and health promotion of African Americans. She completed her dissertation on the self-efficacy of preservice teachers in the Heritage Project. She maintains a small private practice, including consultation in HIV prevention and evaluation.

    Ruth E. Fassinger received her Ph.D. in psychology from The Ohio State University in 1987 and is a Professor in the Counseling Psychology Program at the University of Maryland. Her scholarly work is in the psychology of women and gender, sexuality and sexual orientation, the psychology of work, and advocacy and social justice issues. She is an APA Fellow in Divisions 17, 35, and 44; has served as Vice President for Scientific Affairs in Division 17 and Secretary-Treasurer in Division 44; and currently serves on the editorial boards of Psychology of Women Quarterly and Journal of Counseling Psychology. She has received numerous awards for her scholarship, teaching, and professional contributions, and maintains a therapy practice specializing in issues related to gender and sexuality.

    Susanna M. Gallor is a doctoral student in counseling psychology at the University of Maryland, College Park. She is a student affiliate in the Society of Counseling Psychology, the Society for the Psychological Study of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Issues, and the Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Issues. She was previously a Student Representative for the Section for Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Awareness as well as the Maryland State Advocacy Coordinator within the American Psychological Association Graduate Student Advocacy Coordinating Team. Her research interests include lesbian and gay issues, social support, the intersections of multiple identities, and multicultural training and competence.

    Patricia G. Garcia is a predoctoral student in counseling psychology at the Indiana University School of Education in the Department of Counseling and Educational Psychology. She holds a master's degree in counseling and a master's degree in biochemistry. She has completed her internship with a specialization of diversity issues at Ball State University Counseling Center. Patricia is a native of Argentina and immigrated to the United States 13 years ago. Her research interests focus on issues of oppression in general and more specifically on the impact of racism on interpersonal and psychological well-being. Currently, she is studying the intersection between spiritual development and racial identity development as it applies to White counselors and psychologists.

    Rufus Gonzales is a doctoral candidate in counseling psychology at Loyola University Chicago. He has previously earned a Master's of Education in Counseling and Personnel Services from the University of Maryland at College Park (1997) and a Bachelor of Fine Arts in Graphic Design from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (1995). His research interestes include subjective well-being in urban youth and resilience in Latino populations.

    Lisa A. Goodman is an Associate Professor in the Department of Counseling, Developmental, and Educational Psychology at Boston College. She is co-chair of the American Psychological Association's Task Force on Male Violence Against Women and former James Marshall Public Policy Research Fellow at APA. Her research focuses on institutional and community responses to intimate partner violence; the role of coercion in domestic violence; and the effects of violence against underserved women, including homeless, low-income, and severely mentally ill populations. In recent years, she and her students have become interested in alternative models of mental health intervention, especially for low-income women.

    Adam Guilmino is a fourth-year doctoral student in the counseling psychology program at the University of North Dakota. He received his bachelor's degree from Loyola University of New Orleans. His dissertation focuses on career success among Native American populations. Other research interests include the school-to-work transition, students' engagement in high school, and domestic violence awareness and work needs of domestic violence survivors. Upon graduation, Adam plans to practice in a community mental health clinic in a rural community serving underrepresented clientele.

    Donna M. Hawxhurst is a staff consultant at the University of Utah's Women's Resource Center (WRC), where she also acts as training coordinator for the Feminist Multicultural Counseling Training Practicum. She received her Ph.D. in counseling psychology at Arizona State University in 1972 and has worked primarily as a practitioner, teacher, and consultant for most of her professional life, always welcoming opportunities to collaborate with her partner, Sue Morrow, in projects directed toward social justice. A longtime feminist therapist and activist, she has been committed to integrating a broad multicultural perspective into her life and her work. Her own cultural lenses and worldview have been enormously influenced by her identity as a White, middle-class, lesbian feminist and by her involvement since the early 1960s in civil rights and social justice movements.

    Nancy Hensler-McGinnis, M.A., is pursuing a doctorate in counseling psychology at the University of Maryland, College Park. Her first research involvements included qualitative studies on women's career development. More recently, Nancy's clinical experiences at the Center for Posttraumatic Disorders (Psychiatric Institute of Washington) and as the campus victim advocate for survivors of sexual assault and relationship violence have furthered her commitment to integrating counseling practice with cross-disciplinary and culturally attuned theory and research, specifically in the areas of violence against women, trauma recovery, and women's health.

    Mary Ann Hoffman is a Professor in the counseling psychology program, Department of Counseling and Personnel Services, at the University of Maryland. She received her Ph.D. in psychology from the University of Minnesota with a specialty in counseling psychology. Her primary areas of research and writing are the psychosocial aspects of chronic disease and wellness, psychotherapy process and outcome, and counselor training and supervision. She is the author of a book titled Counseling Clients With HIV Disease: Assessment, Intervention, and Prevention (Guilford, 1996), which was designated by Doody's rating service as one of the top health/medical books of 1997. She is the author or co-author of more than 40 other book chapters, journal articles, and monographs. She has presented more than 60 papers at international and national conferences. She is the Associate Editor of The Counseling Psychologist and a Fellow of Division 17 (Society of Counseling Psychology) of the American Psychological Association. She is the 2002 recipient of the Dorothy Booz Black Award for Health Counseling Psychology (Society of Counseling Psychology) of the American Psychological Association.

    Joshua A. Hopps is a graduate student in counseling psychology and neuropsychology at the University of Iowa and is currently working at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics. He is interested in the interface between the health care system and individuals from different cultural and social class groups at the individual and systemic levels. Other interests include neuropsychological testing with culturally diverse individuals and trends in referrals for neuropsychological testing throughout the history of the subspecialty He and his wife are expecting their first child.

    Sharon G. Horne is an Associate Professor of Counseling Psychology at the University of Memphis. Her research and teaching interests include gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgendered issues and gender, as well as domestic violence and international social justice concerns. She has lived and worked in many postcommunist countries, including Russia, Romania, Hungary, and Uzbekistan, as well as in West Africa.

    Uyen K. Huynh is a clinical psychologist specializing in developmental disabilities and traumatic brain injury. Her research focuses on refugee mental health and public policy. She is currently working on a book on disaster mental health relief work.

    Cindy L. Juntunen is a Professor in the Department of Counseling at the University of North Dakota. She received her Ph.D. in counseling psychology from the University of California at Santa Barbara. Her primary research interest includes vocational psychology, with an emphasis on the work and social needs of marginalized groups. Her work has focused on the school-to-work transition, the welfare-to-work transition, and vocational needs and issues for American Indian populations. Her current research is addressing the integration of vocational and emotional needs among disenfranchised populations. Other research and teaching interests include supervision, feminist therapy, and ethical decision making.

    Jennifer Kaplan is a doctoroal student in the counseling psychology program at the University of Maryland.

    Ouyporn Khuankaew is the director of the Thailand-based organization International Women's Partnerships for Peace and Justice. Ouyporn and Kathryn Norsworthy work individually and collaboratively in Asia and the United States on projects devoted to building communities of peace and justice within grassroots communities and with governmental and nongovernmental groups.

    Doris Kirkpatrick, M.A., is a student in the counseling psychology doctoral program at Ball State University. She is specializing in the study of Peace Psychology and has presented on this topic at several conferences, including the First Annual (2004) Gandhian Nonviolence Conference, Memphis, TN. Current areas of research and clinical interest to her include the development level, and stalking research.

    William M. Liu, Ph.D., is Assistant Professor of Counseling Psychology at the University of Iowa. He received his doctorate from the University of Maryland at College Park. His research interests are in social class, classism, poverty, homelessness, men and masculinity, and multicultural competencies. He is co-editor of the Handbook for Multicultural Competencies in Psychology and Education, and he is on the editorial review boards for The Counseling Psychologist, Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, Psychology of Men and Masculinity, Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, and the Clinicians Research Digest.

    Michael I. Loewy grew up in Los Angeles; did his undergraduate work in sociology and psychology at University of Nevada, Las Vegas; and received his master's degree and Ph.D. in counseling psychology at University of California, Santa Barbara, in 1994. He has been a Professor of Counseling and Counseling Psychology since then. Dr. Loewy's career has been focused on teaching and supervising graduate students in clinical training and theory as well as research. His primary interest and emphasis is multicultural competence. All of his research and teaching reflects his passion for social justice and serving the underserved and underrepresented.

    Susan S. Mathews obtained her doctorate in counseling psychology from the University of Memphis. She pursued advanced clinical training in the counseling centers at the University of Minnesota and The Ohio State University. Dr. Mathews has worked as a licensed psychologist in the Psychological and Career Counseling Unit at the University of Memphis since 2003. Her clinical interests include women's issues, emotional change, relational violence, sexual orientation/identity and supervision/training. Her research interests also include international consultation, particularly in Eastern Europe, as well as implementing qualitative methods to explore therapeutic outcome and effectiveness.

    Christopher J. McNally is currently a doctoral candidate in the Collaborative Program in Counseling Psychology at the University of Akron. A 3-year appointment to Ohio's largest community mental health board furthered his commitment to social justice-training environments, the subject of his doctoral dissertation research. He completed his psychology internship at the Counseling and Consultation Service of The Ohio State University and has served the Society of Counseling Psychology as Student Affiliate Group Co-Chair. Related interests include constructivist and postmodern approaches to psychotherapy and cultural interpretation, philosophical and historical foundations of psychology, and the psychology/public policy interface.

    Robert H. McPherson is Executive Associate Dean and Professor at the University of Houston where he teaches a mental health public policy course. He and Stewart Pisecco are co-founders of a software company providing behavioral management programs for schools and mental health facilities. Former president of the Texas and Houston Psychological Associations, and former chair of the Council of Counseling Psychology Training Programs, Bob is an APA Fellow, a member of the National Academies of Practice, and recipient of the APA Karl Heiser Award for his legislative efforts. He is current Director of Professional Affairs and APA Council representative for the Texas Psychological Association.

    Benedict T. McWhirter, Ph.D., is an associate professor in the counseling psychology program at the University of Oregon, where he has served for most of his tenure as Director of Training. Among his scholarship activities, he co-authored At-Risk Youth: A Comprehensive Response (3rd ed., 2004, Brooks/Cole). His scholarship focuses on at-risk youth, college student development, training issues, and multicultural competence within these areas. He was named a 2004 Fulbright Scholar to Chile, where he taught at the Universidad del Desarrollo (University of Development) in Santiago, conducted research on Chilean youth and their families, and provided pro bono community consultation and training.

    Ellen Hawley McWhirter, Ph.D., is an associate professor in the counseling psychology program at the University of Oregon. A recipient of the Fritz and Lynn Kuder Early Career Scientist-Practitioner Award, Dr. McWhirter authored Counseling for Empowerment (1994, ACA Press) and co-authored At-Risk Youth: A Comprehensive Response (3rd ed., 2004, Brooks/Cole). She was a 2004 Fulbright Scholar to Chile, conducting research on Chilean youth, providing consultation and training in the community, and serving as a visiting professor to the Universidad de Chile in Santiago. Her scholarship focuses on empowerment in counseling, training, and consultation, and on adolescent vocational development.

    Scott L. Moeschberger, M.A., is a Ph.D. candidate from Ball State University where he received the Benjamin V. Cohen Peace Fellowship to conduct research on reconciliation in Northern Ireland. He recently completed his predoctoral internship at the University of Missouri-Columbia. Currently he works for Taylor University as the On-site Academic Director for the Irish Studies Program in Greystones, Ireland. His travels for humanitarian and research work have taken him to Northern Ireland, Ireland, Russia, Kenya, and Albania. His current research is focused on empathy, forgiveness, and social justice in post-conflict communities.

    Ana Y. Montes de Vegas is a doctoral candidate in the counseling psychology program at the University of Utah. She is currently completing a predoctoral internship at the University of Hawaii, Manoa. She completed a practicum at the University of Utah's Women's Resource Center. Her academic interests include multicultural and gender issues, student leadership, and stereotype development. Her research interests include ethnic identity and acculturation, standardized testing, feminist/multicultural supervision, and stereotypes. She has a strong commitment to teaching, psychotherapy, research, and outreach.

    Melissa Morgan received a Bachelor of Arts degree in psychology from Southwestern University in 1991 and a Master of Arts degree in clinical psychology from Stephen F. Austin State University in 1996. She is currently pursuing a Ph.D. in counseling psychology at Loyola University Chicago. She is a Teaching Fellow for the School of Education and teaches such courses as Identity and Pluralism and Adolescent Psychology. Ms. Morgan's research interests include the study of cross-cultural resilience and subjective well-being.

    Susan L. Morrow is an associate professor in the counseling psychology program at the University of Utah. She earned her Ph.D. in counseling psychology at Arizona State University in 1992. Her scholarly interests include multicultural, gender, and lesbian/gay/bisexual/transgender (LGBT) issues and qualitative research methodology. Her academic interests have been informed by her herstory of activism in the civil rights, women's liberation, peace, and LGB movements since the 1960s. Her counseling expertise includes a focus on women, adult survivors of childhood trauma, and LGB issues. As a European American, middle-class, lesbian feminist, she is committed to an ongoing and often complicated process of integrating multicultural issues into her consciousness and writing. She has been partners in life, work, scholarship, and politics with co-author Donna Hawxhurst for 30 years.

    Alisa Matteson Mundt, Psy.D., received her doctorate degree in clinical psychology from the Illinois School of Professional Psychology in Chicago. She also studied rehabilitation counseling at the University of South Florida in Tampa, and she completed her predoctoral internship at Grand Valley State University in Michigan. She is currently completing her postdoctoral fellowship at Health and Psychological Services at William Rainey Harper College in Illinois. She is an Adjunct Professor at Argosy University in Chicago. Her interests include the multicultural aspects of disability, college/university counseling, professional development, and psychoanalytic theory/practice.

    Kathryn L. Norsworthy is a licensed counseling psychologist and Cornell Distinguished Professor of Graduate Studies in Counseling, Rollins College, Winter Park, Florida. She is also the executive director of the U.S.-based nongovermental organization (NGO) Ahimsa International: Projects for Peace, Justice and Mindful Living. Ouyporn Khuankaew and Kathryn work individually and collaboratively in Asia and the United States on projects devoted to building communities of peace and justice within grassroots communities and with NGO and governmental groups.

    Karen M. O'Brien, Ph.D., is an Associate Professor in the Department of Psychology at the University of Maryland. Her interests include conducting applied research that can be used to advance the vocational success of at-risk populations or promote the functioning of adoptive families. Dr. O'Brien serves on the Board of Directors for House of Ruth, a program for battered and homeless women and their children in Washington, DC. She developed a service learning course focused on domestic violence that included the placement of more than 25 student advocates in volunteer positions at the House of Ruth.

    Alicia Ordóñez graduated as a psychologist from the Universidad Centroamericana “José Simeón Cañas,” El Salvador. She worked at its psychology department and coordinated its psychology clinic. Alongside traditional counseling services, the clinic collaborated in different projects and movements to address needs identified by vulnerable sectors. She also offered independent consultant services to national and international organizations working for human and children's rights. This line of work included doing research to unveil structural injustice and influence policy making. She graduated with a double master's degree in preclinical and educational psychology and is completing her doctorate in counseling psychology at Ball State University, Indiana.

    Barbara J. Palombi is the director of the Counseling and Career Development Center at Grand Valley State University, Allendale, Michigan. She received her Ph.D. from Michigan State University and has recently received a diploma in counseling psychology from the American Board of Professional Psychology. Her writing emphasis is on professionals and students with disabilities.

    Sheetal Patel, M.A., is a doctoral candidate in counseling psychology in the Department of Counseling and Personnel Services at the University of Maryland. Her professional interests include violence against women, the acculturation and adaptation experiences of children from immigrant families, and vocational interventions for at-risk populations. Sheetal was enrolled in Dr. O'Brien's service learning course on domestic violence, and conducted her undergraduate honors thesis on assessing the growth and learning of students who completed this course.

    Shonali Raney is a graduate student at Ball State University. She works as part of a voluntary organization with different underprivileged groups, including projects such as working in the rural areas of India, interacting with individuals with disabilities, street children and the children of prostitutes, and highlighting a social issue each year through a poster exhibition. Shonali has also worked in a grade school providing counseling and helping the school make counseling services available.

    Clare Reilly is a second-year counseling psychology doctoral student and Cullen Presidential Scholar at the University of Houston. She graduated with honors from Rice University with an undergraduate degree in psychology. Clare is a member of Phi Beta Kappa and was the recipient of the Rice University John W. Brelsford Award for outstanding contributions in psychology. She received an APA Student Travel Award to present her research at the 2004 APA Annual Convention in Hawaii. Her research interests include etiological factors in eating disorders, adult attachment theory, and romantic relationship processes.

    Venessa Rempel is a doctoral student in counseling psychology at the University of North Dakota, where she also received her M.A. in counseling. Her research interests include religion and spirituality in the counseling process and performance anxiety. Currently, she is examining musical performance anxiety and how it interacts with anxiety sensitivity and vocational identity to predict career success among classically trained musicians.

    Azara L. Santiago-Rivera, Ph.D., is an Associate Professor in the Department of Educational Psychology, Counseling Psychology program at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. She earned a doctorate in counseling from Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan. Her publications and research interests include multicultural issues in the counseling profession, bilingual therapy, and the impact of environmental contamination on the biopsychosocial well-being of Native Americans. She has presented on these topics at major conferences and has published in such journals as the Journal of Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, the Journal of Counseling and Development, the Journal of Community Psychology, the Journal of College Student Development, and the Latino Research Review.

    Christa K. Schmidt, Ph.D., is a visiting Assistant Professor in Counseling Psychology at the University of Maryland, College Park. She completed her doctorate at the University of Missouri-Kansas City in 2004, has presented her research at multiple conferences, and published in scholarly journals. As an early career counseling health psychologist, Christa's research program is focused on the impact of chronic and terminal illness on individuals, families, and communities. Her work with women with HIV, cancer patients and their families, and the training of counseling psychology graduate students as social change agents all informed her contribution to this innovative publication in counseling psychology.

    Jui Shankar, M.A., is a third-year doctoral student in the Department of Counseling Psychology and Guidance Services at Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana. Her research interests include community-based solutions for peacebuilding between groups, social justice, nonviolence, and sustainable development. As a recipient of the Benjamin V. Cohen Peace Award (2003–2004), she conducted interviews with Hindus and Muslims in India in an attempt to understand their solutions for peace in their communities. She is currently working on extending this study for her dissertation.

    Sandra L. Shullman is the Managing Director of the Columbus office of the Executive Development Group, an international leadership development and consulting firm, and graduate faculty in the Psychology Department at Cleveland State University. She received her Ph.D. in counseling psychology from The Ohio State University. Dr. Shullman co-authored Performance Appraisal on the Line and has written and presented extensively on organizational development and management, career development, self-esteem and motivation, diversity management, sexual harassment, and AIDS. She is Past President of the Ohio Psychological Association and was recently elected to the Board of Directors of the American Psychological Association.

    Ted Strickland is currently a United States Congressman representing the State of Ohio. The son of a steelworker, and one of nine children, Ted received a B.A. in History from Asbury College in Kentucky, a Master of Divinity from Asbury Theological Seminary, and a doctoral degree in counseling psychology in 1980 from the University of Kentucky. Professionally, Ted has served as a minister, a psychologist, and a college professor. He was the director of a Methodist children's home, an assistant professor of psychology at Shawnee State University, and a consulting psychologist at the Southern Ohio Correctional Facility (SOCF). During his last five terms in Congress, Ted has fought to secure a meaningful prescription drug benefit under Medicare and to reform the managed care industry; fought to protect American industry and jobs from unfair foreign competition; and been tireless in his advocacy for full funding of promised veterans' health programs.

    Kristin Talka is a fourth-year doctoral student in the Department of Educational and Counseling Psychology at the University at Albany, State University of New York. As a graduate student, she has been afforded the wonderful opportunity to work with Dr. Azara Santiago-Rivera as a supervisor. Through their work together in the division of Counselors for Social Justice of the American Counseling Association, Dr. Santiago-Rivera introduced her to the area of social justice and advocacy in the counseling profession. Social justice and advocacy is now a large part of her identity and work as a psychologist in training. Ms. Talka has conducted clinical work in community mental health centers, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute's College Counseling Center, and the Albany VAMC. She enjoys conducting neuropsychological testing with brain-injured patients as well as serving as a graduate assistant at her university's career center. In addition to the area of social justice research, she is working on her dissertation, focusing on men's fears of intimacy in romantic relationships. Once she receives her Ph.D., she is looking forward to pursuing a career as a psychologist in a college counseling center as well as continuing to serve.

    Regine M. Talleyrand is an Assistant Professor with the Counseling and Development Program in the Graduate School of Education at George Mason University. Dr. Talleyrand completed her Ph.D. in counseling psychology from the University of Maryland in August 2001. Her research focuses on the use of racial identity theory and acculturation in the development of physical and mental health models for people of color. She has served as an ad hoc reviewer for the Journal of Counseling Psychology, The Counseling Psychologist, the Assessment Journal, and the Journal of Black Psychology.

    Nicole Taylor, M.A., is a doctoral student in the counseling psychology program, Department of Counseling and Personnel Services, at the University of Maryland. Her master's thesis focused on coping styles in daughters of women with breast cancer, which reflects her primary area of interest in counseling health psychology, chronic disease and its impact on families, social justice, and the psychosocial aspects of genetic disease. She is a 2004–2005 University of Maryland research fellowship recipient.

    Charu Thakral is currently working on her Ph.D. in counseling psychology at Loyola University Chicago and received her MS in clinical psychology at Illinois State University. She is presently completing her doctoral-level internship at Children's Memorial Hospital in Chicago. Her research interests include areas of study ranging from subjective well-being to stress, coping, and resilience in ethnic minority children and adolescents. Her teaching and clinical interests include advocacy and education in areas of multicultural counseling and competence.

    Chalmer E. Thompson is Associate Professor in the Department of Counseling and Educational Psychology at Indiana University, Bloomington. She is also a licensed psychologist. Her areas of research include critical psychotherapy process research and the development of racial identity theory as applied to a range of contexts, including professional development training for teachers, supervision, and classroom settings with people of all ages. She is also the founder of the Heritage Project.

    Amy W. Tully, MSEd, LPC, is currently completing a Ph.D. in counseling psychology at the University at Albany, State University of New York. She has provided psychotherapy, career counseling, and crisis intervention services within community mental health clinics, hospitals, and higher education settings. Her experience also includes program development, administration, and teaching undergraduate and graduate courses. Amy has conducted presentations at national and regional conferences on topics such as developing multicultural competencies in counseling and administration and facilitating academic and career decision making.

    Elizabeth Vera is an Associate Professor in Counseling Psychology at Loyola University Chicago in the School of Education. She received her Ph.D. in 1993 from The Ohio State University. In 2002, Dr. Vera received the Fritz and Lynn Kuder Early Career Scientist-Practitioner Award from Division 17 of the American Psychological Association. Dr. Vera's recent publications are in the areas of prevention, urban adolescents, and social justice issues in psychology. She teaches classes in Prevention, Human Development, Adolescence, Family Therapy, and Multicultural Issues.

    Michael Waldo received a bachelor's degree in psychology from the University of California, Berkeley, and a doctorate in counseling psychology from the University of Utah. He completed internships at the University of Utah Counseling Center and the Veterans Administration Medical Center in New Orleans. He has served as a faculty member at the University of Maryland and Montana State University, and is currently a professor with the Counseling and Educational Psychology Department at New Mexico State University. He served as chair of the Society of Counseling Psychology's Prevention Section. Dr. Waldo supports the legalization of gay marriage.

    David H. Whitcomb is on the faculty at the University of North Dakota, where he is the training director of the M.A. in Counseling program. His research focuses on the intersection of sexual orientation and gender roles, the scholarship of teaching and learning, and health issues for gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (GLBT) persons. His social justice work includes running the first HIV prevention workshop in North Dakota for gay and bisexual men and being an officer and founding member of Equality North Dakota, the state's first GLBT human rights group.

    Robert A. Williams, Ph.D., is an Assistant Professor of Counseling at San Francisco State University and is the Coordinator of the Marriage and Family Therapy Specialization in the Department of Counseling. He was awarded a NIMH grant in 2004 to study cultural protective factors against drug abuse and delinquency in African American adolescents in low-income communities. His clinical specialties focus, among other areas, on developing group interventions to appropriately empower adolescents when in conflict with adults and peers. His interest in culture-specific and systems approaches is integral to his approach to therapy, education, research, community involvement, and ethics.


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