The International Handbook of Sociology

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Edited by: Stella R. Quah & Arnaud Sales

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  • Part I: Introduction

    Part II: Conceptual Perspectives

    Part III: Social and Cultural Differentiation

    Part IV: Changing Institutions and Colective Action

    Part V: Demography, Cities and Housing

    Part VI: Art and Leisure

    Part VII: On Social Problems

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    Foreword

    This book is the first attempt in years to provide a balanced and well-informed assessment of the state of the art of sociology in many of its most important specialized fields. A first, distinctive character of the volume is the choice to focus on specialized fields instead of general theories. It is a wise choice since, while the leading theorists are well known in the profession as a whole, the bulk of the sociological community is made of specialists who, although less widely known, often have a greater impact on the public discourse, on education, and on policy-oriented decision making. A second, related, distinctive character is that the 23 chapters are written by experts in the respective fields who are also leaders of research committees of the International Sociological Association (ISA), with two positive consequences which we do not find in most handbooks of sociology: the book guarantees a more international coverage of the various fields (although sociologists from the non-Western world are still under-represented) and it provides a comprehensive review of the contributions to each specialized field by scholars belonging to different competitive schools. As President of the International Sociological Association, I am glad to add that this book also shows ISA's vitality and its growing importance and legitimation in the world sociological community.

    The picture of sociology at the dawn of the 21st century which emerges from the volume is a picture of continuities and breakthroughs in research findings, cooperation and conflict among competing paradigms, achievements in theory and method, and unresolved problems. Major continuities are the ongoing concern with a core of perennial questions of inquiry, such as social order, conflict and change, the meanings of social action, power and legitimacy, inequality and social reproduction, and the reinterpretation of the classics, such as Weber, Marx, Durkheim, Simmel, Pareto among others, as sources of theoretical inspiration, although with the awareness that their analyses are historically bounded.

    The common heritage—made of continuing research questions and influences of the classics—did not amount, however, to a core, widely shared, disciplinary paradigm. Actually, the multiplicity of paradigms and theoretical approaches clearly appears as a basic distinctive character of contemporary sociology. For most sociologists this is perceived as an advantage. Antony Giddens remarks that “the fact that there is no single theoretical approach which dominates the whole of sociology” demonstrates that “the jostling of rival theoretical approaches and theories is an expression of the vitality of the sociological enterprise”. And Raymond Boudon argues that “sociology is in crisis when it pretends to have reached the conditions of a normal science and to be led by a unique paradigm”. Not all sociologists are indeed convinced of this advantage, given the fact that some of them prefer to turn to the rational action paradigm of economics; but most seem persuaded that the subject matter of sociology requires a plurality of conceptual perspectives and methods of investigation and that alternative theoretical approaches can be tested with regard to the analysis of specific phenomena.

    I think that the advantages and disadvantages of having a core paradigm for a discipline tend to balance each other. The case of economics is illuminating in this respect. In economics alternative approaches do exist, but they do not challenge the core paradigm, which is based on the combined assumptions of rational maximizing behavior, market equilibrium, and stable preferences. This creative simplification of human action has brought undeniable theoretical achievements, which are exemplified in Leon Walras general equilibrium model as a response to the question of the efficient functioning of a market economy made of millions of individual decisions. But it has also fostered limitations in the number and type of hypotheses which can be derived from the paradigm, as well as apories and difficulties in the empirical validation of the theoretical hypotheses; and it has constrained the imagination of scholars in providing interpretations of emerging economic processes.

    The reverse seems true for sociology: the freedom from paradigmatic dogma has been paid at the cost of more precarious accumulation of knowledge, greater ambivalence, bitter paradigmatic fights which often amount to a waste of intellectual energies. And it has prevented widely accepted solutions to central theoretical questions. A similar question to that of the economists relation between rational individual actors and general market equilibrium is at the heart of the sociological inquiry: it is the question of the relationship between structure and agency, with the strictly related ones of the micro-macro links, and of the relation between causal and interpretative methodologies. But there is no theoretical solution to these questions, which could parallel Walras general equilibrium model. The preference which most sociologists seem to share for multiple paradigms could, then, be as well a forced preference, since major attempts to provide a unifying paradigm, from Talcott Parsons to James Coleman to Anthony Giddens, have not lasted or have not been accepted by the majority of scholars. Failures may be due to the fact that the features of homo sociologicus are different from those of homo economicus, and do not allow the creative simplification of the iper-rationalist assumption, or to the fact that core theoretical questions have to be rephrased and/or most adequate responses must be worked out.

    In this situation, however, most sociologists working in specialized fields have not been paralyzed by the absence of a unified grand theory, but have proceeded along the most viable paths of Robert Merton's “middle-range theories”, Arthur Stinchcombe's “toolkit of analytical instruments” and Jon Elster's concept of “mechanisms”. As the latter author argues, “there should be a shift in emphasis in social sciences from theories to mechanisms”, i.e. “small and medium-sized descriptions of ways in which things happen. A mechanism is a little causal story, recognizable from one context to another. A theory has greater pretensions: it is supposed to tell you which mechanisms operate in which situation… Generalizations should take the form of mechanisms, not theories”. This approach, which is close to Weber's and Simmel's attitude toward sociology, seems particularly valid for sociological research in specialized areas. In fact, in these situations, the analyst-interpreter will extract from the toolkit those tools, models, mechanisms, that he considers relevant, will adapt them to the concrete research questions, and will verify the correspondence on the basis of the available data and methods.

    The continuing work of many sociologists along those lines in specialized fields, as this volume shows, explains why the difficulties in general theory construction have not prevented significant sociological advances in recent years; advances which can be summarized in: methodological advances, better knowledge in specialized fields, and greater consensus of most sociologists on the basic tensions of their work.

    Knowledge achievements in specialized fields are well documented in the 23 chapters (and they could be equally easily shown in those areas which are not covered in the volume, such as those of economic sociology), and they are related to the reasonable adoption of the toolkit approach I have discussed.

    Methodological advances are also effectively shown in several chapters. They are related to the development of the computer, and range from improved multivariate analysis to graph theory and network analysis, from more extensive comparative research to more rigorous methods of recording and analyzing micro interactional data. Besides, as Smelser points out in a recent work, there is a significant convergence in sociological methodology in the trend toward multi-method analysis with a loss of importance of the qualitative-quantitative contrast and a growing acknowledgment of the bounded applicability of a given methodology.

    Positive changes have also taken place in the mode of sociological debate, which have improved from that of destructive attacks aiming at annihilating rivals to constructive critical analysis, with some attempts to bridge contending paradigms and building larger theoretical syntheses. Finally, a growing consensus has developed among most sociologists about the basic tensions of our work, such as the necessary linkage between theory and method and between understanding and explanation.

    And there is a growing awareness of both the tension between the universal and the particular, and the tension between involvement and disengagement. In this last respect, sociologists seem increasingly aware of the need to try to combine the search for universality with the respect for specific identities, cultures and languages, and to avoid that legitimate specific cultural and political commitments of individual sociologists prevent a more important and general commitment of the sociological community to collectively validated truth and to knowledge-based public discourse.

    AlbertoMartinelliPresident International Sociological Association

    Preface

    The idea for this Handbook took concrete shape in our conversations in late November 1996 in Colima, Mexico, where both of us were attending a meeting of the International Sociological Association (ISA) Executive Committee. We felt that it was important for the ISA Research Council to continue the scholarly task of taking stock of the progress in sociology at important cross-roads in its development.

    The previous review of developments by ISA was conducted in 1980 under the leadership of Magdalena Sokolowska who organized a conference of the ISA Research Council in the Chateau de Jablonna near Warsaw with the theme “Sociology: The State of the Art”. Coincidentally, the dates of that meeting turned out to be of historical significance. It took place on 26–29 August 1980, at the time of the famous Gdansk strike that gave birth to the Solidarnosc movement. The outcome of that conference was the book by the same title edited by Tom Bottomore, Stefan Novak and Magdalena Sokolowska and published in 1982. Its chapters reviewed the existing conceptual and methodological trends in the discipline in some of the fields of specialization represented by the ISA Research Committees. Those chapters also reflected the social and intellectual agitation of the 1960s and 1970s. Two decades later as we enter the year 2000, we are at a new cross-roads and it is time once again to assess the development of our discipline.

    This book represents the collaborative effort of an international group of sociologists motivated by their dedication to scholarship. The process of creation of this volume involved three kinds of invaluable contributors: the authors, the reviewers, and the supporters of the publication. The authors are expert sociologists with multiple and pressing commitments in teaching, research, consultancy and other activities related to their academic positions. Many of them were also in the leadership ranks of the ISA's Research Committees that embody the full range of specialized fields in sociology. Yet, despite their heavy commitments, they generously accepted our invitation to write their chapters and invested considerable time on this project. The authors presented their chapter drafts at the ISA Research Council Conference especially organized for the critical discussion of the drafts in Montreal on 6–7 August 1997. We wish to express our thanks to the University of Montreal's Recteur, Dr Rene Simard, and to the Head of the Department of Sociology, Professor Nicole Laurin, for their generosity in hosting the conference. We also appreciate the kind collaboration of Gilles Pronovost who was the chairman of the Local Organizing Committee for the XIV World Congress of Sociology held in Montreal in July 1998.

    After the conference we invited renowned experts in the respective specialized fields of sociology to serve as reviewers. We then sent each of the 26 submitted chapter drafts to two referees for double-blind anonymous peer review. Chapters that were rejected by the two reviewers were excluded from this volume. Every one of the reviewers has our deepest gratitude for accepting our invitation knowing that this was purely a labour of scholarship without any financial rewards. This project would not have been possible without their invaluable collaboration and critical assessment of each original chapter. In recognition of their effort, and as a gesture of our gratitude, we have enclosed the reviewers names in this volume.

    The strong support of the ISA, especially the President, Alberto Martinelli, and the Executive Secretary Izabela Barlinska, to the publication of this book is greatly appreciated. At their meetings preceding the XIV World Congress in July 1998, the ISA's Research Coordinating Committee, Publications Committee and Executive Committee placed this book as a top priority publication for ISA. Our appreciation goes also to SAGE Publications in London, in particular to Stephen Barr (Managing Director), Chris Rojek (Senior Editor for Sociology) and Jackie Griffin (Assistant Editor for Sociology) and to Julia Evetts, Editor of the SAGE Studies in International Sociology Series, for their cooperation in facilitating the publication of this Handbook.

    We are indebted to all these colleagues in the international community of sociologists for their invaluable collaboration and support. We are delighted that our arduous task as editors has brought us two remarkable rewards: a better understanding of the transformation of our discipline; and the opportunity to work together in this project with a very distinguished and congenial group of authors, reviewers and supporters.

    StellaQuahArnaudSales Editors January 2000

    About the Contributors

    Martin Abraham, Ph.D., is Assistant Professor at the Institute of Sociology, University of Leipzig, Germany. His main fields of research are sociological theory, economic sociology and sociology of organizations. He is especially interested in problems of cooperation and trust in economic, organizational and private relationships. Within this framework, empirical and theoretical research projects focus on employment relationships, family and work, self-employment, and inter-firm relations.

    Jon Alexander, Ph.D., teaches political science at Carleton University in Ottawa, Canada. A former Visiting Scholar at the Center for the Study of Democratic Institutions, he taught at UCLA, Emory University and Columbia University, and has lectured in nine other countries. His research interests include philosophy of science and technology (S&T), S&T policy, democratic theory, political communications and social engineering. He has published five books and numerous articles in, e.g., the American Political Science Review, the Canadian Political Science Review, Public Administration Review, Canadian Review of American Studies, Reseaux, Mondes en developpement, and Nouvelles de la science et des technologies.

    Nehama Babin, Ph.D., is Associate Director in the Office of Institutional Studies at the University of Maryland and Assistant Editor on the journal Armed Forces and Society. She was Research Sociologist at the U.S. Army Research Institute for approximately eleven years, before moving into higher education. Her areas of specialization are military, organizational, and comparative sociology. Her research covers cross-national studies of the transformation of military organizations over time. From 1994 to 1998 she was Executive Secretary of the International Sociological Association's Research Committee on Armed Forces and Conflict Resolution.

    Eleonora Barbieri Masini, Ph.D., is Professor of Futures Studies for Human and Social Development, Faculty of Social Sciences, Pontifical Gregorian University (from 1976). She was chairperson of the Futures Research Committee of the International Sociological Association (1978–1997) and President of the World Futures Studies Federation (1980–1990). She is a member of the Club of Rome and coordinator of the Project WIN Emergency and Solidarity, UNESCO (from 1994). She has been awarded the Doctor Honoris Causa from the University of Economic Sciences, Budapest (1998). Among her recent publications are: Women, Household and Change, UNU Press, Tokyo, 1991; Why Futures Studies?, Grey Seal Books, London, 1993; The Futures of Cultures, ed., UNESCO, Paris, 1994.

    Richard G. Braungart, Ph.D., is Professor of Sociology, Political Science, and International Relations in the Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs at Syracuse University. He teaches courses in political sociology, international political psychology, and life-course and generational politics. Richard received his Ph.D. in sociology from the Pennsylvania State University, and taught at Pennsylvania State and University of Maryland. He served as a Research Director for the President's Commission on Campus Unrest in 1970, co-founded the American Sociological Association Section on Political Sociology, and is the past President of the ISA's Committee on Political Sociology, an international organization jointly affiliated with the International Political Science Association. He is the author and editor of eleven books and has published over one hundred articles and chapters.

    Margaret M. Braungart, Ph.D., is Professor of Psychology in the Department of Health Sciences and Human Studies at the State University of New York Health Science Center at Syracuse. She teaches courses in developmental psychology, educational psychology, gerontology, health psychology, and illness and death. She received her Ph.D. in Psychology from Syracuse University in 1980, and has co-authored a number of articles in the area of life-course and generations, most recently related to the topics of youth violence and citizenship, youth movements, and political socialization and education. She is Co-Director of the Center for Research on Life-Course and Generational Politics. Margaret and Richard Braungart's works have been translated into eight languages.

    William C. Cockerham, Ph.D., is Professor of Sociology, Medicine, and Public Health at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. He serves as Chair of Sociology and Co-Director of the Center for Social Medicine. He is author of Medical Sociology (Prentice-Hall, 1998) and numerous other books and journal articles in the sociology of health. His most recent books include Health and Social Change in Russia and Eastern Europe (Routledge, 1999) and the edited Blackwell Companion to Medical Sociology (Blackwell, forthcoming). His current interest is health lifestyles and post-modernity.

    Graham Dann, Ph.D., received his doctorate in sociology from the University of Surrey, United Kingdom in 1975. For the next 21 years he taught at the University of the West Indies, Barbados, before returning to Britain to take up a professorial position in tourism at the University of Luton. He is a founder member of the International Academy for the Study of Tourism and of the research committee on tourism of the International Sociological Association. He is a member of the editorial board of four leading tourism journals. His research interests lie in the sociology of tourism and, in particular, the areas of motivation and promotion.

    Mattei Dogan, Ph.D., is Director of Research at the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique in Paris, and Professor of Political Science at the University of California, Los Angeles. He is chairman of the Research Committee on Comparative Sociology of the International Sociological Association, and of the Committee on Political Elites of the International Political Science Association. His recent publications include Pathways to Power; L'Innovation dans les sciences sociales; Comparing Nations; and Elites, Crises and the Origins of Regimes.

    Harry B.G. Ganzeboom, Ph.D., is Professor of Sociology at Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands. He has published widely on social stratification and social mobility, in Dutch and in English, as well as on the sociology of arts and culture. He was the secretary of the Research Committee on Social Stratification and Social Mobility of the International Sociological Association (1990–1998). He is the principal designer of the International Socio-Economic Index of occupational status (ISEI) and maintains the International Stratification and Mobility File (http://www.fss.uu.nl/soc/hg/ismf).

    Carla A. Green, Ph.D., is a sociologist and senior research associate at the Kaiser Permanente Center for Health Research. As a Fulbright scholar, she studied physical and emotional well-being among Moroccan women, and later worked on a cross-national study examining, among other things, quality of life among groups of never-treated and treated Moroccan and American schizophrenic patients. She is currently working on projects assessing the home- and community-based care needs of severely mentally ill HMO members, the effects of closure of a Social HMO, and quality-of-life outcomes among elderly individuals receiving home care.

    Line Grenier, Ph.D., is Associate Professor in the Department of Communications at the Universite de Montreal. Her field of specialization is popular music studies. She has published on French-language popular music in Quebec in journals such as Popular Music, New Formations, Communication, Sociologie et Societes, and Cultural Studies. Her current research focuses on the genealogy of the “chanson dispositif” in Quebec, its role in the development of music-related industries as well as its effect on the politicization of fame.

    Pierre Hamel, Ph.D., is Professor of Urban Planning and Sociology at the University of Montreal. His research interests are focused on new models of urban governance and social movements. He has recently finished a research project on local democracy and public consultation. His books include Action Collective et Democratic Locale (Presses de l'Universite de Montreal, 1991) and Urban Movements in a Globalising World (co-editor, Routledge, forthcoming).

    Antoine Hennion, Ph.D., is Director of the Centre de Sociologie de l'Innovation, Ecole des Mines de Paris, France. His areas of research include innovation, culture, and music. His current research is on sociology of culture, mass media and sociology of music. He is President of the Research Committee on Sociology of Arts of the International Sociological Association. He is a nominated member of the Comite Scientifique de la Recherche at the Ministere de la Culture in France, and of the Conseil du Patrimoine ethnologique and the Conseil scientifique du Musee de la Musique.

    Christine Inglis, Ph.D., is Associate Professor of Sociology in the School of Social and Policy Studies in Education; Associate Dean for Research at the Faculty of Education; and Director of the Multicultural Research Centre at the University of Sydney. She is past President of the Resarch Committee on Ethnic, Race and Minority Relations of the International Sociological Association (ISA) and current Vice-President for Publications of ISA. She has published extensively on ethnic and minority relations. Among her publications are: Multiculturalism: New Policy Responses to Diversity (1996); and (with J. Elley and L. Manderson) Asians in Australia: The Dynamics of Migration and Settlement (1992).

    Devorah Kalekin-Fishman was born in New York City. She earned a B.A. degree at Queens College (CUNY); an M.A. in sociology at the University of Haifa; and a doctorate (Dr. Rer. Soc.) at the University of Konstanz, in Germany, where she studied with Thomas Luckmann. Currently President of the International Sociological Association's Research Committee for the Study of Alienation, she has edited a book of readings, Designs for Alienation (Jyvskyl, Finland: SoPhi Press). Her research, in about 70 publications, focuses for the most part on the explicit and implicit ways mustered in educational institutions to ensure an acceptance of alienating conditions as the natural human state.

    Susan Kinnevy received her MSW from George Warren Brown School of Social Work at Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri and is currently a Ph.D. student in the School of Social Work at the University of Pennsylvania. Her area of expertise is child welfare, with a concentration in juvenile justice. Her research includes diversion programs for juvenile offenders, behavioral interventions with high-risk adolescents, and group work with pregnant and parenting teenagers. She is active internationally, working for U.S. ratification of the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child.

    Bert Klandermans, Ph.D., is Professor of Applied Social Psychology at Free University Amsterdam, the Netherlands. He has published widely on social movement mobilization and participation. He edited (with Hank Johnston) Social Movements and Culture, and (with Craig Jenkins) The Politics of Social Protest, both published in 1995 by the University of Minnesota Press. His book The Social Psychology of Protest was published in 1997 by Blackwell. He is the editor of the book series Social Movements, Protest, and Contention published by the University of Minnesota Press. From 1994–1998 he was President of the Research Committee on Social Movements, Collective Action and Social Change of the International Sociological Association (ISA). Currently, he is a member of the Executive Committee of ISA.

    Henri Lustiger-Thaler, Ph.D., is Associate Professor of Sociology and Chair of the Department of Sociology at Ramapo College, New Jersey, USA. He has written widely on social movements, globalization and new citizenship questions. He is currently working on a book relating issues in visual sociology to urban forms of collective behavior.

    Louis Maheu, Ph.D., is Professor of Sociology and Dean of the Graduate School at the University of Montreal. He currently chairs the Research Committee on Social Movements and Social Classes of the International Sociological Association. Among his recent publications are the edited volume Social Movements and Social Classes: The Future of Collective Action (1995) and “Social Movements in Quebec: Environmental Groups as a Cultural Challenge to the Neo-Corporatist Order” in Quebec Society: Critical Issues (edited by M. Fournier et al., 1997).

    William Michelson, Ph.D., is S.D. Clark Professor of Sociology at the University of Toronto, Canada, where he also serves as Associate Dean, Social Sciences, in the Office of the Dean of Arts and Science. His longstanding research interests focus on the place of social and physical contexts in people's everyday lives, with most recent applications to home-based work. He is the author of Man and his Urban Environment: A Sociological Approach; Environmental Choice, Human Behavior, and Residential Satisfaction; From Sun to Sun: Daily Obligations and Community Structure in the Lives of Employed Women and their Families, and other works.

    Clyde R. Pope, Ph.D., is a sociologist and senior investigator at the Kaiser Permanente Center for Health Research, an adjunct professor in the Department of Sociology at Portland State University, and adjunct professor of psychiatry and of public health at Oregon Health Sciences University. In his 12 years as associate director of the Center for Health Research, he helped develop the Center's research programs in mental health and substance abuse. His current interests include mental health and mental health services research; studies of health beliefs, health attitudes, and health behaviors; and investigations of patient satisfaction and consumer choices.

    Dudley L. Poston, Jr., Ph.D., is Professor of Sociology, and the George T. and Gladys H. Abell Professor of Liberal Arts, at Texas A&M University. His research interests include demography, human ecology, and the sociology of gender, with special attention to the populations of China, Taiwan and Korea. His most recent books are (with David Yaukey) The Population of Modern China (1992); (with Leon F. Bouvier) Thirty Million Texans? (1993); (with Toni Falbo and Zhenming Xie) Research on Single Children in China (1997, in Chinese); and (with Michael Micklin), Continuities in Sociological Human Ecology (1998).

    Rumi Kato Price, Ph.D., M.P.E. is an epidemiologist/sociologist specializing in psychiatric and substance abuse epidemiology. She is currently Research Assistant Professor at the Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, Missouri, United States. Dr. Price is the recipient of a US National Institute on Drug Abuse Independent Scientist Award to investigate interactions between psychopathology and environments relevant to substance abuse and psychiatric illness. She is Principal Investigator of several research grants from the US National Institutes of Health, including a 25-year follow up of a U.S. cohort and a five-country international epidemiology project.

    Gilles Pronovost, Ph.D., is Professor at the Université du Québec Trois-Rivires since 1970. He was the President of the ISA Research Committee on the Sociology of Leisure (1994–1998) and President of the Organising Committee for the 14th World Congress of Sociology, Montréal, 1998. In 1978 he founded the international journal Loisir et Société/Society and Leisure, published twice a year by l'Université du Québec. He recently published The Sociology of Leisure (Current Sociology, vol. 46–3, 1998), Loisir et société. Traitede sociologie empirique (1993, 2nd edn 1997); Sociologie du temps (1996); and Médias et pratiques culturelles (1996). His research focuses on the sociology of time, cultural participation, the social uses of the new information technologies with respect to intergenerational relationship.

    Stella R. Quah, Ph.D., is Associate Professor of Sociology at the National University of Singapore. Her areas of research interest include medical sociology, sociology of the family, social policy and sociology of the professions. She has published extensively on these areas. Among her books are: Friends in Blue: The Police and the Public in Singapore, with J.S.T. Quah (Oxford, 1987); The Triumph of Practicality (ISEAS, 1989); Social Class in Singapore, co-author (Times Academic Press, 1991); and Family in Singapore (Times Academic Press, Second Edition, 1998). She was Vice-President for Research of the International Sociological Association (ISA) and Chairman of the ISA Research Council (1994–1998).

    Rhoda Reddock, Ph.D., is Senior Lecturer and Head of the Centre for Gender and Development Studies of the University of the West Indies, St. Augustine campus. She was Associate Lecturer at the Institute of Social Studies, The Hague, and former Chairperson of the Research Committee on Women and Society of the International Sociological Association. She has published numerous articles and books including, Women, Labour and Politics in Trinidad and Tobago, A History (Zed Books, 1994), Women Plantation Workers: International Experiences (Berg, 1998), and Caribbean Sociology: Introductory Readings (co-editor, in press). She is an active member of the women's movement and founder of the Caribbean Association for Feminist Research and Action. Her current research interests are in the area of race/ethnicity, social class and gender in the Caribbean.

    Arnaud Sales, Ph.D. (Doctorat dÉtat ès Lettres et Sciences Humaines, Université de Paris VII) is Professeur titulaire at the Department of Sociology, Université de Montréal. He has published numerous articles in international refereed journals. He is author, co-author or editor of several books and issues of academic journals, among them La Bourgeoisie industrielle au Québec (1979), Développement national et économie mondialisée (Editor, 1979), Décideurs et gestionnaires (1985), La recomposition du politique (Co-editor, 1991), Québec, fin de siecle (Co-editor, 1994). He is a specialist in economic sociology focusing on administrative and economic elites, knowledge workers and the sociology of enterprise. He was Vice-Dean of the University of Montreal's Faculty of Graduate Studies (1987–1992); and Vice-President, International, of the Society for the Advancement of Socio-Economics (1995–1998) where he founded the Knowledge, Economy and Society Network. He was elected Vice-President for Research (1998–2002) of the International Sociological Association.

    David R. Segal, Ph.D., is Distinguished Scholar-Teacher, Professor of Sociology and of Government and Politics, and Director of the Center for Research on Military Organization at the University of Maryland. He is a past president of the International Sociological Association's Research Committee on Armed Forces and Conflict Resolution, former chair of the American Sociological Association Section on Peace, War and Social Conflict, and current president of the Inter-University Seminar on Armed Forces & Society. His research focuses on peacekeeping operations, and on military manpower and personnel issues.

    Barbara H. Settles, Ph.D., is Professor of Individual and Family Studies and Senior Fellow in the Center for Community Development and Family Policy, University of Delaware. She is president of the Committee for Family Research of the International Sociological Association (second term); president of the Delaware-Panama Partners of the Americas chapter; life member and past vice-president of Public Policy of the National Council on Family Relations; former President and elected to the Academy of the Groves Conference on Marriage and the Family; has served on the executive committee of the family section of the American Sociological Association and on the Council of the American Association of University Professors. She is recipient of federal and state funded research projects on families and youths planning for their futures.

    Donald J. Treiman, Ph.D., is Professor of Sociology at the University of California, Los Angeles. His areas of specialization are stratification and mobility, demography, and comparative and historical sociology. His current research focuses on cross-national comparative study of social stratification and mobility, social stratification in South Africa, in post-Communist Central and Eastern Europe. He has published widely on these areas of research.

    Ivan Varga, Ph.D., is Professor Emeritus of Sociology at Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada. He is President of the Research Committee on Sociology of Religion of the International Sociological Association, a member of the Editorial Board of International Sociology and Scientific Advisor of the Institute of Sociology, Hungarian Academy of Science. Among his most recent publications are “A la recherche de temps futur: Religion et politique en Hongrie aprs 1989”, in P. Michel (ed.), Religion, Politique et Société en Europe Centrale et Orientale (L'Autre Europe, No. 36–37, 1999, Paris); and “Time and Everyday Life in the Transformation of East European Societies”, in A. Nesti, P. De Marco, A. Iacopozzi (eds.), Il tempo e il sacro nelle societ post-industriali (Milan 1997).

    Willem Van Vliet, Ph.D., He is a Professor of Sociology at the University of Colorado. He is editor of the recently published Encyclopedia of Housing.

    Thomas Voss, Ph.D., is Professor of Sociology at the Institute of Sociology, University of Leipzig, Germany. His research interests include rational choice theory, economic sociology and organization theory. He currently works on game theoretical explanations of social norms. In economic sociology, he is doing empirical research on the social embeddedness of economic transactions between business firms. Since 1998 he has been president of the Research Committee on Rational Choice of the International Sociological Association.

    John Walton is Professor of Sociology at the University of California, Davis. He studies and writes about history, international development, rebellion, urban and community sociology. His most recent book is Free Markets and Flood Riots: The Politics of Global (Blackwell, 1994). Soon to be released is Reclaiming History: Community and Collective Memory in Monterey. He has been closely associated for several decades with the International Sociological Association's Research Committee on Urban and Regional Development.

  • Reviewers

    Richard Alba, Professor, Department of Sociology, State University of New York at Albany, United States.

    Margaret Archer, Professor and Chair, Department of Sociology, University of Warwick, United Kingdom.

    Zaheer Baber, Assistant Professor, National University of Singapore.

    Jacques Baré, Professeur, Chaire des Sciences Sociales, École Royale Militaire, Belgium.

    Bernadette Bawin-Legros, Directrice, Département de Sciences Sociales, Université de Lige, Belgium.

    James Beckford, Professor, Department of Sociology, University of Warwick, United Kingdom.

    Felix M. Berardo, Ph.D., Professor, Department of Sociology, University of Florida, Gainesville, United States.

    Paul Bernard, Professeur Titulaire, Département de Sociologie, Université de Montréal, Canada.

    John L. Boies, Professor, Department of Sociology, Texas A&M University, United States.

    Bernard P. Cohen, Ph.D., Department of Sociology, Stanford University, United States.

    Bob Coles, Ph.D., Professor, Department of Social Policy and Social Work, University of York, Heslinton, United Kingdom.

    Francine Dansereau, Professor, Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, INRS-Urbanisation, Montréal, Canada.

    Michele Dillon, Ph.D., Associate Professor and Director of Undergraduate Studies, Department of Sociology, Yale University, New Haven, United States.

    Christian Lalive d'Epinay, Directeur du Centre Interfacultaire de Gérontologie, Université de Genve, Switzerland.

    Scott L. Feld, Ph.D., Professor, Department of Sociology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, United States.

    Lee J. Haggerty, Ph.D., Professor, Department of Sociology, Portland State University, Portland, Oregon, United States.

    Marie-Franoise Lanfant, Directeur de recherche au Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, France.

    Barbara Laslett, Ph.D., Professor, Department of Sociology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, United States.

    Marco Martiniello, Chercheur qualifié FNRS, Faculté de Droit—Science Politique Université de Lige, Belgium.

    John D. McCarthy, Ph.D., Professor, Department of Sociology, The Catholic University of America, Washington D.C., United States.

    David Mechanic, Ph.D., Professor and Director, Institute for Health, Health Care Policy, and Aging Research, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, United States.

    Alberto Melucci, Professor, Department of Sociology, Universit degli Studi di Milano, Italy.

    David S. Meyer, Professor, Department of Political Science, Cuny/City College, New York, United States.

    Anthony Oberschall, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, United States.

    Anthony M. Orum, Department of Sociology, University of Illinois, Chicago, United States.

    Bernice A. Pescosolido, Ph.D., Professor, Department of Sociology, Indiana University, Bloomington, United States.

    Anita Rubin, Ph.D., Finland Futures Research Centre, Turku, Finland.

    Lawrence J. Saha, Professor and Dean, Faculty of Arts, Australian National University.

    Saskia Sassen, Professor, Department of Sociology, University of Chicago, United States.

    Teresa Scheid, Professor, Department of Sociology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, United States.

    David Schweitzer, Professor, Department of Anthropology & Sociology, University of British Columbia, Canada.

    Melvin Seeman, Ph.D., Professor, Department of Sociology, University of California, Los Angeles, United States.

    Robert Sevigny, Professeur titulaire, Département de Sociologie, Université de Montréal, Canada.

    Susan M. Shaw, Ph.D., Professor, Department of Recreation and Leisure Studies, University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.

    Theda Skocpol, Ph.D., Professor, Department of Sociology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, United States.

    David Sly, Professor, Department of Sociology, Florida State University, Tallahassee, United States.

    Neil J. Smelser, Director, Center for the Advanced Study of the Behavioral Sciences, Stanford, United States.

    Nico Stehr, Professor, Peter Wall Institute for Advanced Studies, University of British Columbia, Canada.

    John Stimson, Ph.D., Professor, Department of Sociology, William Paterson College, Wayne, New Jersey, United States.

    Patricia Stokowski, Ph.D., Professor, Recreation, Parks, and Tourism Department, Texas A&M University, College Station, United States.

    Piotr Sztompka, Professor, Institute of Sociology, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland.

    Robert Witkin, Ph.D., Professor, University of Exeter, United Kingdom.

    Erik Olin Wright, Ph.D., Professor, Department of Sociology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, United States.

    Sharon Zukin, Professor, City University Graduate School, New York, United States.

    Name Index


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