The SAGE Handbook of International Higher Education
Publication Year: 2012
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Section A: Contextual, Conceptual, and Historical Frameworks
- Chapter 1: Internationalization within the Higher Education Context
- Chapter 2: Concepts, Rationales, and Interpretive Frameworks in the Internationalization of Higher Education
- Chapter 3: The History of Internationalization of Higher Education
- Chapter 4: Comprehensive and Strategic Internationalization of U.S. Higher Education
- Chapter 5: Europe's Bologna Process and Its Impact on Global Higher Education
- Chapter 6: An Overview and Analysis of International Education Research, Training, and Resources
- Section B: Strategic Dimensions in International Higher Education
- Chapter 7: Leadership in International Higher Education
- Chapter 8: Institutional Strategies and International Programs: Learning From Experiences of Change
- Chapter 9: Collaborating on the Future: Strategic Partnerships and Linkages
- Chapter 10: Outcomes Assessment in the Internationalization of Higher Education
- Chapter 11: Employer Perspectives on International Education
- Chapter 12: International Student Security
- Chapter 13: Legal, Health, and Safety Issues: Crisis Management and Student Services in International Higher Education
- Section C: Internationalization at Home
- Chapter 14: Internationalization of the Curriculum
- Chapter 15: Leveraging Technology and the International Classroom for Cross-Cultural Learning
- Chapter 16: Intercultural Competence: An Emerging Focus in International Higher Education
- Chapter 17: Globalism and Interculturalism: Where Global and Local Meet
- Section D: Internationalization Abroad
- Chapter 18: Cross-Border Delivery: Projects, Programs, and Providers
- Chapter 19: International Joint, Double, and Consecutive Degree Programs: New Developments, Issues, and Challenges
- Chapter 20: Transnational Research and Development Partnerships in Higher Education: Global Perspectives
- Chapter 21: Global Student Mobility
- Chapter 22: International Student Recruitment in Australia and the United States: Approaches and Attitudes
- Chapter 23: Designer Immigrants? International Students and Two-Step Migration
- Section E: The Future of International Higher Education
- Chapter 24: The Internationalization of Higher Education: Future Prospects
- Chapter 25: Bridges to the Future: The Global Landscape of International Higher Education
Copyright © 2012 by SAGE Publications, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Printed in the United States of America
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
The SAGE handbook of international higher education /edited by Darla K. Deardorff, Hans de Wit, John Heyl.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-1-4129-9921-2 (cloth)
1. International education—Cross-cultural studies.
2. Education, Higher—Cross-cultural studies. I. Deardorff, Darla K. II. Wit, Hans de, 1950- III. Heyl, John.
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
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When I meet new people who learn I am associated with higher education, they invariably ask what my “specialization” is. Everybody is apparently expected to have one, so I often answer “international education.” Yet, I always feel that such an answer is totally inadequate to explain that my field is untraditional; that it is not a disciplinary “specialty;” that it does not reside in its own “box” but that it is found in many boxes; that it is a composite of borrowings from virtually every academic discipline and every culture; and that international education is therefore multidimensional, multidisciplinary, and cross-cultural. This Handbook goes a long way to explain and interpret this growing field not only to outsiders, but perhaps—unexpectedly—also to insiders, international education professionals themselves.
The editors are to be congratulated for putting together such an impressive collection of chapters that help define the field and do what such handbooks are designed to do. A Handbook of this kind tends to upgrade the field; to increase, codify, and solidify its knowledge base; and by implication to raise the standard of the profession that is associated with this academic venture. If there were a “Who's Who in International Education,” the editors and contributors would be prominently featured in it because they are serious scholars with distinguished professional records.
The complexity and structure of the field are reflected well by the way the Handbook is organized. Thus, the table of contents tells a great deal about the intellectual and cognitive frameworks of the writers and their mental maps, which determine their categories and units of analysis. Furthermore, the way a book is put together reveals the extent to which the authors raise the levels of their analyses each time a new variable, such as culture is introduced, thus also raising the complexity of the field, as in the case in this Handbook.
It is especially good to see the Handbook reflecting a variety of cultural and national perspectives by including prominent educators and scholars from a variety of countries where international education has made extraordinary strides, especially in Europe, Africa, and Asia. We should strive to internationalize international education just as we internationalize domestic education.
The Handbook is broken down into several sections that represent the trajectory of the field, from its history, context, and conceptual foundations, to a look at future trends.
I was especially delighted to see a chapter on the context of international education within the larger field of higher education. Context is extremely important in this field and is often also neglected. Here we have a paradox, in that international education in practice is a small segment of higher education, while its subject is much larger than any part of the system of education, indeed of any country—because it deals with the entire world. International education literature touches on three important aspects: First, it is leadership driven; second, it is for the future; and third, its primary foundation is knowledge and its production, dissemination, transfer, and utilization. All these three aspects are taken into account in this Handbook.
As I reflect on the past 60 years of my own career in this field, I can hardly recognize how far the international education field has evolved—from the time when we were essentially pioneers with no prior training, without road maps and tools of the trade, handbooks or research that might guide our practice. So it is especially fitting that this Handbook also addresses the leadership of the profession as the reason why the field prospers and advances. In my own writings, I claim that [Page viii]there are no other functions in higher education that are as comprehensive, knowledge driven, multidimensional, intellectually demanding, and creative as the posts occupied by these international education professionals. Moreover, international educators possibly function at a higher level of organizational complexity than most educational administrators, including college presidents, vice presidents, and deans, who may understand the level of domestic and internal intricacies but who seldom demonstrate that level of complexity internationally.
The idea that international education is for the future is found and replayed throughout the Handbook. Trends are difficult to identify because they do not begin and end at any particular time and often change dramatically and rapidly. I am fond of a quote that is attributed to a futurist, Kenneth Boulding, who was skeptical of the obsession with causation of some in the social sciences, when he stated famously that “things are the way they are because they got that way.”
Internationalization means change, in this case, planned change that brings a large number of issues out into the open, and international education professionals can provide the necessary leadership and vision to move institutions forward. Such leadership is desperately needed, given that universities’ mission statements do not often appear to address adequately what it is that we are doing differently by educating students for the future. Institutional strategic plans tend to reflect more the limits of their capacities and the present problems than anticipated future global needs. Similarly, these strategic plans do not explain what happens to the domestic knowledge after the infusion of international knowledge occurs. Thus, leadership and future orientation are major themes of this Handbook.
I broke into the field when some literature and research was beginning to be made available through publications and support of major foundations and the U.S. government. In fact, I was fortunate to be invited to a 2-week international education seminar back in 1961 where we examined some 180 pieces of research and publications dealing with international education and more specifically with international students. This is all that we could find then, but we concluded that this exercise was very useful. Now when I see the extent of published works that deal with various aspects of the field, I am amazed not only at the size and scope of the literature but also at the relative lack of interconnectedness. As I suggested earlier in this foreword, I always look at bibliographies because they tell you what theories and concepts are being taken into account by the authors. It amazes me to find that many seminal pieces of research are dominated by narrow conceptual and theoretical frames of a single discipline and are neglecting relevant knowledge from others. This Handbook, however, addresses the need not only to do research internationally but also to research this interdisciplinary and intercultural field itself.
I am honored to be asked to provide these thoughts as part of an extraordinary venture that will raise the bar of competencies and knowledge of the field and highlight the roles of international educators who have come a long ways—often alone—to develop the field to the point at which it is now, and that is a very high point indeed.St. Paul, Minnesota, United States
The 21st century, characterized by expanding globalization, has impacted higher education in multiple ways. In the course of the millennial transition, the internationalization of higher education has moved from a marginal to a core dimension of higher education worldwide. This increased mainstreaming of internationalization is a fascinating phenomenon: new concepts, programs, providers, and methods of delivery are emerging; impressive national and regional scholarship programs and networks have been established; radical reforms have been undertaken to make higher education globally competitive; and mobility of students and scholars has increased around the world. This publication presents a broad and interpretive overview of these developments in a combination of issues and regional accounts.
In 1992, the Association of International Education Administrators, a professional organization for leaders in the international education field, published Bridges to the Future: Strategies for Internationalizing Higher Education, edited by Charles Klasek with contributions by U.S.-based association members. One of the first landmark publications to document and conceptualize a relatively new field at that time, Bridges’ purpose was to present the major issues in international education in a period of important changes in world history: the collapse of the Iron Curtain and the fall of the Berlin Wall, the first Gulf War, the acceleration of globalization, and the initial spread of the Internet, all at the end of the 20th century. As editor Charles Klasek (1992) stated then, international education was moving “from a peripheral activity in higher education to one which was integral to the teaching, research, and service mission of the colleges and universities in the United States” (p. i). At the time of the publication of the 1992 edition of Bridges, the Cold War was over, a period of dramatic growth in cross-national immigration was beginning, U.S. higher education had emerged as a global model, and the liberalization of global trade was about to occupy the attention of world leaders. For these reasons, Klasek noted that Bridges was seen as a way “to assist higher education in the creation, development, and enhancement of international programs in colleges and universities in an effusive growth period” (p. ii).
Twenty years later, the world and the field of international higher education have changed dramatically, which necessitates not just a revision of the seminal Bridges to the Future, but a new publication that documents the issues, trends, and conceptualizations of the current field within a broader global context. The SAGE Handbook of International Higher Education is written in a period of even bigger challenges and change. On the one hand, the attacks of 9/11 catapulted the United States into long and costly wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, as well as an aggressive approach to a “global war on terrorism.” The subsequent neglect of diplomacy and “soft power” left the United States increasingly isolated in the world. At the same time, the rising prominence of other nations and regional associations such as the European Union impacted the flow of educational mobility and immigration. Meanwhile the global economy appeared to be booming throughout most of this period, particularly spurred by a worldwide housing speculation in the early 21st century and the greed of large multinational financial institutions. When this boom came to an abrupt halt in 2008, the most severe economic downturn since the Great Depression of the 1930s threatened the entire global economy. The economic crisis, however, coincided with the election in the United States of the first African American president, who had a [Page x]decidedly multiethnic and international background and who faced leadership in a time of increased ethnic tensions around the world. Furthermore, pressing global problems such as poverty, health care, ethnic and gender diversity, and sustainable development created a context in which global cooperation was no longer a choice but rather an imperative. Higher education and research play a more important and international role than ever in a global economy that is driven by knowledge and innovation.
Given these global changes and challenges, the questions posed by the current volume—in terms of what this all means for international higher education—are not so different from those in 1992, but the context and the relevance have changed substantially. Will the next decades lead to increasing nationalism and protectionist politics? Will divisions grow between the Western Judeo-Christian world and the Islamic world? Or will the world move into an era of economic recovery, increasing mutual understanding among nations and cultures, narrowed inequality between global North and South, and a healthy environment? How will international higher education ensure that students are well prepared to live and work in this century and to engage globally in addressing world problems? As in 1992, the internationalization of higher education can and must play an important role in a world that is more global and at the same time more local than ever before.
This Handbook serves as an ambitious guide to international education in this millennium and offers global perspectives and new strategies for the further creation, development, and enhancement of the internationalization of higher education in the years to come. The time is right to bring new voices into the current and future role of internationalization in postsecondary education. While the pioneering generation of senior international education administrators and scholars involved in this field and its professional associations, such as the Association of International Education Administrators, developed the initial strategies of institutional internationalization, the succeeding generations are engaged in moving the field forward around the globe. Increasingly more international, more intentional, more strategic, and more selfconsciously global in their thinking, these leaders in international education are not only internationalizing their institutions but also engaging globally within the broader contexts of the pressing issues of the 21st century.
In a conscious attempt to bridge two generations of scholars and practitioners, this Handbook includes contributions by experienced authors as well as by emerging scholars, in most cases writing together. Often, coauthors have been intentionally paired together in a way that brings different perspectives to the issues discussed in the chapters. Furthermore, each chapter's focus is sharpened through boxes that highlight concrete institutional, national, or regional experiences in an effort to bring theory and practice together, as well as to infuse the book with multiple perspectives. The global tenor of this Handbook, set by the editorial team spanning three continents, provides a unique contribution to the field of international education as it comes of age in the 21st century.
Inspired by Bridges to the Future and building on the legacy of that publication, this Handbook comprises five sections. The first section includes chapters placing internationalization of higher education in a conceptual and historic context. This section includes a chapter focusing on recent developments in internationalization in the United States, as well as a chapter on the Bologna Process in Europe and its global implications. The second section presents seven chapters with different strategic dimensions of internationalization. These include leadership, institutional strategies (including partnerships), outcomes assessment, risk management, international student security, and employee perspectives. The third section offers four chapters on “internationalization at home”—that is, what international educators can do on their own campuses to infuse more global dimensions into their institutions. This includes helping to internationalize the curriculum, exploring the teaching and learning processes, developing intercultural and global competences, and examining the intersections between the local and the global. Some chapters in this section also discuss ways in which study abroad experiences can be better integrated into the institution. The fourth section turns outward and addresses the mobility of students, scholars, institutions, programs, and projects around the globe in various ways, including through international development. The fifth and concluding section contains two chapters that provide insights, future directions, and global trends in international education, as [Page xi]well as a discussion of remaining issues that must be considered.
The coeditors intentionally decided not to organize this Handbook by various components of international education such as education abroad, international student advising, foreign language learning, and so on since international education in the 21st century requires a more wide-ranging discussion of salient issues, given that these components by themselves (or even together) cannot adequately measure or achieve the comprehensive internationalization that is needed at higher education institutions today. Rather, this volume reaches for a more strategic approach to internationalization that goes beyond its (presumed) component parts and aims at changing the quality of higher education itself. Most chapters include text boxes with a regional, national, thematic or institutional focus. These boxes are intended as case studies to underline the trends as described in the chapter. They are in general written by external authors, who are mentioned by their name and current position. In some cases, the boxes are written by one or all the chapter authors, in which cases no names are mentioned.
This comprehensive publication will be of interest to everyone involved in higher education as a leader, senior administrator, scholar, researcher, trainer, or commentator. In addition, we hope that those newer to the profession will also feel that this volume provides a baseline of knowledge and informed perspectives that will shape the future of the field and, quite possibly, their careers; we also hope to inform emerging leaders in higher education as they educate the next generation., , [Page xii]
Acknowledgments and Dedication[Page xiii]
We express deep appreciation to all of the chapter authors for the contributions that are the substance of this volume, as well as to the authors of the focused boxes found throughout the chapters. We owe special thanks both to the Association of International Education Administrators (AIEA), which conceived and supported this multiyear effort, and to the Journal of Studies in International Education, whose authors have provided the data and research insights that have shaped so much scholarship in the field of international education. SAGE and its editors have been very generous with both their support and guidance, for which we are most grateful. And thanks goes to Harvey Charles, chair of AIEAs Editorial Board, for his support throughout this process, as well as to Gulnaar Kaur and Rosemary Holland for their staffing support of this project.
We dedicate this volume to Dr. Tony Adams, a most valued Australian colleague and giant in the field of international education. Tony was a member of the editorial team from the beginning of this project, and his imprint can be found throughout its pages. He offered insightful and collegial advice on every chapter until his death on May 12, 2011. We miss him and hope that this volume adds to his very substantial legacy to our profession.
List of Acronyms[Page 487]
Acronym Title Function ACE American Council onEducation http://www.acenet.edu ACE, the major coordinating body for all of the nation's higher education institutions, seeks to provide leadership and a unifying voice on higher education issues and to influence public policy through advocacy, research, and program initiatives. AU African Union http://www.au.int AU, with more than 20 member states, works toward an integrated, prosperous and peaceful Africa, driven by its own citizens and representing a dynamic force in global arenas. AHELO Assessment of Higher Education Learning Outcomes http://www.oecd.org/edu/ahelo AHELO is a landmark project involving about 15 countries with the goal of developing frameworks and instruments in the fields of engineering and economics; it is evaluating the feasibility of assessing learning outcomes in cross-culturally relevant ways. AIEA Association of International Education Administrators: Leaders in International Higher Education http://www.aieaworld.org/ AIEA is a member-based professional association comprised of leaders in international higher education around the world who are engaged in advancing the international dimensions of higher education through opportunities of networking, exchanging ideas, sharing institutional strategies and knowledge, and being an effective voice on matters of public policy. AIRC American International Recruitment Council http://www.airc-education.org AIRC is a nonprofit membership association of accredited U.S. postsecondary institutions and student recruitment agencies that work together to establish quality standards for international student placement within the United States. [Page 488] ANIE African Network for Internationalization of Education http://www.anienetwork.org ANIE is a membership-based association aiming to take the lead in enhancing the understanding and development of the international dimension of higher education in Africa by expanding knowledge and building, strengthening, and sustaining a cohort of competent professionals in this field. ASEAN Association of Southeast Asian Nations http://www.aseansec.org ASEAN is a broadly grounded organization of southeast Asian states, which locates education at the core of its development process, creating a knowledge-based society and contributing to the enhancement of ASEAN competitiveness.l AUCC Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada http://www.aucc.ca AUCC is the national voice for Canadian universities, representing 95 public and private not-for-profit universities and university degree-level colleges; it provides university presidents with a unified voice and a forum for collective action. CAPRI Centre for AcademicPractice and Research inInternationalization http://www.leedsmet.ac.uk/world-widehorizons/index_CAPRI.htm Based at Leeds Metropolitan University, CAPRI seeks to revolutionize thinking through the development of a community of practitioners focusing on a forward-looking research, implementation and evaluation agenda. As a global professional community, CAPRI aims to share experience and resources, collaborate in research projects and offer insights from around the world as reference points and sources of information with a view to enhancing practice in international education. CIBER Centers For International Business Education and Research) better known by acronym http://www.ciberweb.msu.edu CIBER were created by the U.S. Congress to increase and promote the nation's capacity for international understanding and competitiveness; administered by the U.S. Department of Education, the CIBER network links the manpower and technological needs of the U.S. business community with the international education, language training, and research capacities of universities across the country. CIHE Center for International Higher Education http://www.bc.edu/research/cihe.html The Center for International Higher Education, based at Boston College, defines its mission as advancing knowledge about the complex realities of higher education in the contemporary world through research, publications, and conferences. CONAHEC Consortium for North American Higher Education Collaboration http://www.conahec.org CONAHEC advises and connects institutions interested in establishing or strengthening collaborative programs in the North American region. CONAEVA Comisión Nacional de Evaluación de la Educación Superior Mexico's CONAEVA is dedicated to the promotion and support of the development of a national higher education evaluation system. [Page 489] CONEAU Comisión Nacional de Evaluación y Acreditación Universitaria [known by acronym] http://www.coneau.edu.ar CONEAU, a decentralized organization working within the Office of the Ministry of Education in Buenos Aires, was created with the aim of contributing to the improvement of university education. EAIE European Association for International Education http://www.eaie.org EAIE, a nonprofit, member-led organization, is the acknowledged European leadership center for expertise, networking, and resources in the internationalization of higher education, assisting members with training, conferences, and knowledge acquisition and sharing. ECTS European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System http://www.ec.europa.eu/education/lifelong-learning-policy/ects_en.htm ECTS facilitates the transfer of learning experiences between different European institutions, fosters greater student mobility and more flexible routes to gain degrees, and aids curriculum design and quality assurance. EHEA Europe Higher EducationArea http://www.ehea.info/ EHEA was created as part of the Bologna Process to ensure more comparable, compatible, and coherent systems of higher education in Europe; its permanent website will play a key role in this process of intense internal and external communication. ENQA European Network for Quality Assurance in Higher Education http://www.enqa.eu/ ENQA disseminates information, experiences, and good practices in the field of quality assurance (QA) in higher education to European QA agencies, public authorities, and higher education institutions. Erasmus European Action Scheme for the Mobility of University Students http://ec.europa.eu/education/lifelong-learning-programme/doc80_en.htm Erasmus is the EU's flagship education and training program, enabling 200,000 students to study and work abroad each year; it funds cooperation between higher education institutions across Europe and supports students, professors, and business staff. EUA European UniversityAssociation http://www.eua.be/ EUA represents and supports higher education institutions in 47 countries, providing them with a unique forum to cooperate and keep abreast of the latest trends in higher education and research policies; it plays an essential role in shaping tomorrow's European higher education and research landscape. EURASHE European Association of Institutions in Higher Education http://www.eurashe.eu EURASHE includes 800 higher education institutions in 32 of the Bologna signatory countries; it is traditionally an association of national associations. I AU International Association of Universities http://www.iau-aiu.net IAU is the UNESCO-based worldwide association of higher education institutions, bringing together institutions and organizations from some 120 countries for reflection and action on common concerns. [Page 490] ICHEM International Centre for Higher Education Management http://www.bath.ac.uk/ichem/ ICHEM is a major interdisciplinary research center based at the University of Bath, facilitating academic work in the field of higher education management and policy. IIE Institute of http://InternationalEducationiie.org IIE, an independent not-for-profit organization founded in 1919, is among the world's largest and most experienced international education and training organizations, committed to delivering program excellence to a diverse range of participants, sponsors, and donors. IEAA International Education Association of Australia http://www.ieaa.org.au/ IEAA is Australia's leading international education professional organization, its mission to enhance the quality and standing of Australian international education by serving the professional needs and interests of its members and by promoting international education within Australia and internationally. IMPI Indicators for Mapping & Profiling Internalisation http://www.impi-project.eu The IMPI project focuses on mapping and profiling internationalization of higher education institutions to give them insight into their performance in internationalization and measures for improvement. NAFSA NAFSA: Association of International Educators http://www.nafsa.org NAFSA, the world's largest nonprofit professional association dedicated to international education, seeks to advance public policies that promote international education and to support a broad public dialogue about the value and importance of international education. NONIE Network of Networks on Impact Evaluation http://www.worldbank.org/ieg/nonie/ NONIE comprises various international committees to form a network drawn from the regional evaluation associations. NUFFIC Netherlands organization for international cooperation in higher education http://www.nuffic.nl/ Based in the Netherlands, NUFFIC is an organization dedicated to linking knowledge worldwide. N VAO Accreditation Organisation of the Netherlands and Flanders http://www.nvao.com NVAO is an independent organization aiming to ensure the quality of higher education by assessing quality control at higher education institutions and accrediting their programs. RIACES Red Iberoamericana Acreditación de la Calidad de la Educación Superior http://www.riaces.net RIACES (in English, the Latin American Network to Accreditation of Quality of Higher Education), is a nonprofit partnership of agencies and organizations for evaluation and accreditation of the quality of higher education. SRHE Society for Research Into Higher Education http://www.srhe.ac.uk SRHE is a UK-based international learned society aimed at advancing understanding of higher education, especially through the insights, perspectives and knowledge offered by systematic research and scholarship. WES World Education Services http://www.wes.org WES, a not-for-profit organization that evaluates credentials, is the leading source of international education intelligence; it provides an Internet portal to trusted, accurate research and intelligence about foreign academic credentials, institutions, and trends.
About the Editors[Page 521]Darla K. Deardorff
Darla K. Deardorff is currently executive director of the Association of International Education Administrators, a national professional organization based at Duke University, where she is also a research scholar in education and an educator with Duke Corporate Education. In addition, she is a visiting professor at Leeds-Metropolitan University in the United Kingdom, an adjunct professor at North Carolina State University, the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, the Monterey Institute for International Studies, and a faculty member of the Summer Institute for Intercultural Communication in Portland, Oregon.
Deardorff is founder of ICC Global (http://www.iccglobal.org), a global network of researchers on issues of intercultural competence. She has received numerous invitations from around the world to speak on her research on intercultural competence and assessment and is a noted expert on these topics. With nearly 20 years of experience in the international education field, she has published widely on topics in international education and was editor of The SAGE Handbook of Intercultural Competence, among other books. She serves as a consultant and trainer on international education, global leadership, faculty development, intercultural competence development and assessment for universities, corporations, and nonprofit organizations around the world, including UNESCO. She is the recipient of numerous awards including an outstanding alumnus award from her undergraduate alma mater as well as a distinguished alumnus award for the department at her graduate alma mater, and several professional awards.
She has been active in numerous international education professional organizations including as a leader in NAFSA, Forum on Education Abroad, and as a Trainer in European Association of International Education (EAIE). Deardorff serves as a reviewer for numerous journals including the Journal of Studies in International Education (JSIE) and is a member of IAU's Ad-Hoc Expert Group on Internationalization as well as the Network of International Education Associations (NIEA).
Deardorff holds a master's degree and a doctorate from North Carolina State University where she specialized in international education. Her dissertation, on the definition and assessment of intercultural competence, has drawn national and international attention, and her intercultural competence models developed through research are being used by organizations and postsecondary institutions worldwide. A member of International Academy of Intercultural Research, she has lived and worked in Germany, Japan, and Switzerland.Hans de Wit
Hans de Wit is professor (lector) of internationalization of higher education at the School of Economics and Management of the Hogeschool van Amsterdam, University of Applied Sciences and, as of 2012, also professor of internationalization of higher education and academic director at the International Education Research Centre (IERC) of the Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore (UCSC) in Milan. Since 2010, he is a visiting professor at the Centre for Academic Practice and Research in Internationalization (CAPRI) of Leeds Metropolitan University, United Kingdom. In 2005–2006, he was a New Century Scholar of the Fulbright Program, Higher Education in the 21st Century. He was a visiting scholar in the United States in 1995 and 2006 and in Australia in 2002.[Page 522]
He is the coeditor of the Journal of Studies in International Education (Association for Studies in International Education/SAGE publishers). He has (co)written several other books and articles on international education and is actively involved in assessment and consultancy in international education for organizations like the European Commission, UNESCO, World Bank, IMHE/OECD, and ESMU. His latest books are Trends, Issues and Challenges in Internationalization of Higher Education (2011) and, as editor, Measuring Success in Internationalization of Higher Education (2009).
Among his other books are: Internationalization of Higher Education in the United States of America and Europe: a Historical, Comparative and Conceptual Analysis (2002), United States; Higher Education in Latin America: The International Dimension, coedited with Isabel Cristina Jaramillo, Jocelyne Gacel Avila and Jane Knight (2005), and European Responses to the Global Perspective, edited with Barbara Kehm (2006).
He has undertaken quality reviews of a great number of institutions of higher education in the framework of the visiting advisors program (VAP), IQRP, IQR, Eurostrat, and NVAO. He is coeditor of Quality and Internationalization of Higher Education’ with Jane Knight (1999).
He has been director of the Office of Foreign Relations, vice president for International Affairs, and senior advisor international at the Universiteit van Amsterdam, in the period 1986 to 2005 and director of international relations at Tilburg University from 1981 to 1985. He was assistant professor in Latin American Studies at Utrecht University, 1979 to 1981. He has a bachelor's, master's and PhD from the University of Amsterdam.
Hans de Wit is founding member and past president of the European Association for International Education (EAIE). Currently, he is a member of the Board of Trustees of World Education Services (New York), member of the ESL TOEFL Board (as of 2011), and member of the Consell Assessor de l'Institut Internacional de Postgrau de la Universitat Oberta de Catalunya.
In 2008, he received the Constance Meldrum Award for Vision and Leadership of the European Association for International Education (EAIE) in Antwerp. Previously, he received awards from the University of Amsterdam (2006), AIEA (2006), CIEE (2004 and 2006), NAFSA (2002), and EAIE (1999).John D. Heyl
John D. Heyl's career in international higher education has included teaching at the undergraduate and graduate level at three U.S. institutions, leadership in local, regional, and national professional associations and practitioner in both the public and private sector. He is currently vice president for strategic partnerships at CEA Global Education, an education abroad program provider based in Tempe, Arizona.
He has served as senior international officer (SIO) at three U.S. universities. At Illinois Wesleyan University (Bloomington, Illinois), a private, liberal arts campus, he chaired the history department and social science division and co-founded the international studies program. At the University of Missouri-Columbia, a public land grant institution, he helped develop the award-winning Global Scholars Program for faculty development. At Old Dominion University (Norfolk, Virginia), he helped expand study abroad participation at an urban, historically commuter institution and co-founded the master's program in international higher education leadership. He has won awards for both his teaching and administrative work.
Active in professional associations, Heyl served as president of the Association of International Education Administrators (AIEA) (2000–2001) and has presented papers and led workshops at NAFSA: Association of International Educators and the European Association for International Education (EAIE). He has consulted widely at U.S. universities and has advised on global education initiatives at the middle and high school levels as well. He is the author of The Senior International Officer (SIO) as Change Agent (2007).
Heyl has led or co-led numerous U.S. Department of Education Title VI and U.S. State Department grants for internationalizing the curriculum, enhancing faculty development, and training high school teachers worldwide. He has also reviewed applications for funding from these agencies.
Heyl earned his BA in history from Stanford University, with Phi Beta Kappa honors. He focused his doctoral work in European and [Page 523]German history at Washington University in St. Louis. He has held several Fulbright grants to Germany and has written on the interplay between politics and economics in the German depression of the 1930s. He taught for 20 years on a wide range of subjects, including German history, world history, comparative revolutionary movements, and international higher education leadership.Tony Adams (1944–2011)
On Thursday, May 12, 2011, at the age of 67, Tony Adams, co-editor of The SAGE Handbook of International Higher Education, passed away.
Tony commenced as a lecturer in the Department of Computer Science at RMIT in1978. Following five years as Head of Department of Business Computing at RMIT, he acted for a year as Dean of Business in 1990–91, being appointed to the position of Dean International Programs in 1992, a position he held until 1998. Tony was appointed a member of the Foundation Professoriate at RMIT in 1992.
In 1997 he was awarded the inaugural IDP award for excellence in International Education and in 2006 he received the Charles Klasek Award for his contribution to international education from the Association of International Education Administrators (AIEA).
In 1998 he took up the position of Director International Programs at Macquarie University. In 2004, he was appointed as Pro Vice Chancellor International at Macquarie, a position he held until January 2007. During his time at Macquarie University, he developed an extensive quality network of partnerships which made this university an institution with active international mobility and exchange. In January 2007, Tony and his wife Pauline formed Tony Adams and Associates, international education consultants. Together, they have worked with universities in Australia, Mexico, the Netherlands and Italy as well as with U.S. British and Canadian organizations.
Tony is widely published in the areas of educational computing and international education. Among the many publications he is (co) author of are three JSIE Published Papers: Adams, T, The Operation of Transnational Degree and Diploma Programs, The Australian Case, 1998; Walters, D., Adams, T., Global Reach Through a Strategic Operations Approach: An Australian Case Study, 2001; and Adams, T., The Development of International Education in Australia, 2007. In 2008 he became co-editor of the Journal of Studies in International Education.
Tony has been the founding and immediate Past President of the International Education Association of Australia (IEAA), Vice Chairman of the Board of the International Student Exchange Program (ISEP), special advisor to Università Cattolica Del Sacre Cuore (UCSC), and special advisor to the Mexican Association of International Education (AMPEI). He was a regular trainer and presenter at workshops, sessions and seminars during the conferences of NAFSA, EAIE, AIEA and his own association IEAA. He was a member of a working group that created a new Network of International Education Associations (NIEA).
As described in a tribute by IDP Education Australia, “One of the most rewarding aspects of serving the international education community is the relationships we are able to form with people truly passionate about what they do. Perhaps no one was more passionate than Tony Adams.”[Page 524]
About the Authors