The SAGE Handbook of International Higher Education


Edited by: Darla K. Deardorff, Hans de Wit, John D. Heyl & Tony Adams

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    When I meet new people who learn I am associated with higher education, they invariably ask what my “specialization” is. Everybody is apparently expected to have one, so I often answer “international education.” Yet, I always feel that such an answer is totally inadequate to explain that my field is untraditional; that it is not a disciplinary “specialty;” that it does not reside in its own “box” but that it is found in many boxes; that it is a composite of borrowings from virtually every academic discipline and every culture; and that international education is therefore multidimensional, multidisciplinary, and cross-cultural. This Handbook goes a long way to explain and interpret this growing field not only to outsiders, but perhaps—unexpectedly—also to insiders, international education professionals themselves.

    The editors are to be congratulated for putting together such an impressive collection of chapters that help define the field and do what such handbooks are designed to do. A Handbook of this kind tends to upgrade the field; to increase, codify, and solidify its knowledge base; and by implication to raise the standard of the profession that is associated with this academic venture. If there were a “Who's Who in International Education,” the editors and contributors would be prominently featured in it because they are serious scholars with distinguished professional records.

    The complexity and structure of the field are reflected well by the way the Handbook is organized. Thus, the table of contents tells a great deal about the intellectual and cognitive frameworks of the writers and their mental maps, which determine their categories and units of analysis. Furthermore, the way a book is put together reveals the extent to which the authors raise the levels of their analyses each time a new variable, such as culture is introduced, thus also raising the complexity of the field, as in the case in this Handbook.

    It is especially good to see the Handbook reflecting a variety of cultural and national perspectives by including prominent educators and scholars from a variety of countries where international education has made extraordinary strides, especially in Europe, Africa, and Asia. We should strive to internationalize international education just as we internationalize domestic education.

    The Handbook is broken down into several sections that represent the trajectory of the field, from its history, context, and conceptual foundations, to a look at future trends.

    I was especially delighted to see a chapter on the context of international education within the larger field of higher education. Context is extremely important in this field and is often also neglected. Here we have a paradox, in that international education in practice is a small segment of higher education, while its subject is much larger than any part of the system of education, indeed of any country—because it deals with the entire world. International education literature touches on three important aspects: First, it is leadership driven; second, it is for the future; and third, its primary foundation is knowledge and its production, dissemination, transfer, and utilization. All these three aspects are taken into account in this Handbook.

    As I reflect on the past 60 years of my own career in this field, I can hardly recognize how far the international education field has evolved—from the time when we were essentially pioneers with no prior training, without road maps and tools of the trade, handbooks or research that might guide our practice. So it is especially fitting that this Handbook also addresses the leadership of the profession as the reason why the field prospers and advances. In my own writings, I claim that there are no other functions in higher education that are as comprehensive, knowledge driven, multidimensional, intellectually demanding, and creative as the posts occupied by these international education professionals. Moreover, international educators possibly function at a higher level of organizational complexity than most educational administrators, including college presidents, vice presidents, and deans, who may understand the level of domestic and internal intricacies but who seldom demonstrate that level of complexity internationally.

    The idea that international education is for the future is found and replayed throughout the Handbook. Trends are difficult to identify because they do not begin and end at any particular time and often change dramatically and rapidly. I am fond of a quote that is attributed to a futurist, Kenneth Boulding, who was skeptical of the obsession with causation of some in the social sciences, when he stated famously that “things are the way they are because they got that way.”

    Internationalization means change, in this case, planned change that brings a large number of issues out into the open, and international education professionals can provide the necessary leadership and vision to move institutions forward. Such leadership is desperately needed, given that universities’ mission statements do not often appear to address adequately what it is that we are doing differently by educating students for the future. Institutional strategic plans tend to reflect more the limits of their capacities and the present problems than anticipated future global needs. Similarly, these strategic plans do not explain what happens to the domestic knowledge after the infusion of international knowledge occurs. Thus, leadership and future orientation are major themes of this Handbook.

    I broke into the field when some literature and research was beginning to be made available through publications and support of major foundations and the U.S. government. In fact, I was fortunate to be invited to a 2-week international education seminar back in 1961 where we examined some 180 pieces of research and publications dealing with international education and more specifically with international students. This is all that we could find then, but we concluded that this exercise was very useful. Now when I see the extent of published works that deal with various aspects of the field, I am amazed not only at the size and scope of the literature but also at the relative lack of interconnectedness. As I suggested earlier in this foreword, I always look at bibliographies because they tell you what theories and concepts are being taken into account by the authors. It amazes me to find that many seminal pieces of research are dominated by narrow conceptual and theoretical frames of a single discipline and are neglecting relevant knowledge from others. This Handbook, however, addresses the need not only to do research internationally but also to research this interdisciplinary and intercultural field itself.

    I am honored to be asked to provide these thoughts as part of an extraordinary venture that will raise the bar of competencies and knowledge of the field and highlight the roles of international educators who have come a long ways—often alone—to develop the field to the point at which it is now, and that is a very high point indeed.

    JosefMestenhauserSt. Paul, Minnesota, United States


    The 21st century, characterized by expanding globalization, has impacted higher education in multiple ways. In the course of the millennial transition, the internationalization of higher education has moved from a marginal to a core dimension of higher education worldwide. This increased mainstreaming of internationalization is a fascinating phenomenon: new concepts, programs, providers, and methods of delivery are emerging; impressive national and regional scholarship programs and networks have been established; radical reforms have been undertaken to make higher education globally competitive; and mobility of students and scholars has increased around the world. This publication presents a broad and interpretive overview of these developments in a combination of issues and regional accounts.

    In 1992, the Association of International Education Administrators, a professional organization for leaders in the international education field, published Bridges to the Future: Strategies for Internationalizing Higher Education, edited by Charles Klasek with contributions by U.S.-based association members. One of the first landmark publications to document and conceptualize a relatively new field at that time, Bridges’ purpose was to present the major issues in international education in a period of important changes in world history: the collapse of the Iron Curtain and the fall of the Berlin Wall, the first Gulf War, the acceleration of globalization, and the initial spread of the Internet, all at the end of the 20th century. As editor Charles Klasek (1992) stated then, international education was moving “from a peripheral activity in higher education to one which was integral to the teaching, research, and service mission of the colleges and universities in the United States” (p. i). At the time of the publication of the 1992 edition of Bridges, the Cold War was over, a period of dramatic growth in cross-national immigration was beginning, U.S. higher education had emerged as a global model, and the liberalization of global trade was about to occupy the attention of world leaders. For these reasons, Klasek noted that Bridges was seen as a way “to assist higher education in the creation, development, and enhancement of international programs in colleges and universities in an effusive growth period” (p. ii).

    Twenty years later, the world and the field of international higher education have changed dramatically, which necessitates not just a revision of the seminal Bridges to the Future, but a new publication that documents the issues, trends, and conceptualizations of the current field within a broader global context. The SAGE Handbook of International Higher Education is written in a period of even bigger challenges and change. On the one hand, the attacks of 9/11 catapulted the United States into long and costly wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, as well as an aggressive approach to a “global war on terrorism.” The subsequent neglect of diplomacy and “soft power” left the United States increasingly isolated in the world. At the same time, the rising prominence of other nations and regional associations such as the European Union impacted the flow of educational mobility and immigration. Meanwhile the global economy appeared to be booming throughout most of this period, particularly spurred by a worldwide housing speculation in the early 21st century and the greed of large multinational financial institutions. When this boom came to an abrupt halt in 2008, the most severe economic downturn since the Great Depression of the 1930s threatened the entire global economy. The economic crisis, however, coincided with the election in the United States of the first African American president, who had a decidedly multiethnic and international background and who faced leadership in a time of increased ethnic tensions around the world. Furthermore, pressing global problems such as poverty, health care, ethnic and gender diversity, and sustainable development created a context in which global cooperation was no longer a choice but rather an imperative. Higher education and research play a more important and international role than ever in a global economy that is driven by knowledge and innovation.

    Given these global changes and challenges, the questions posed by the current volume—in terms of what this all means for international higher education—are not so different from those in 1992, but the context and the relevance have changed substantially. Will the next decades lead to increasing nationalism and protectionist politics? Will divisions grow between the Western Judeo-Christian world and the Islamic world? Or will the world move into an era of economic recovery, increasing mutual understanding among nations and cultures, narrowed inequality between global North and South, and a healthy environment? How will international higher education ensure that students are well prepared to live and work in this century and to engage globally in addressing world problems? As in 1992, the internationalization of higher education can and must play an important role in a world that is more global and at the same time more local than ever before.

    This Handbook serves as an ambitious guide to international education in this millennium and offers global perspectives and new strategies for the further creation, development, and enhancement of the internationalization of higher education in the years to come. The time is right to bring new voices into the current and future role of internationalization in postsecondary education. While the pioneering generation of senior international education administrators and scholars involved in this field and its professional associations, such as the Association of International Education Administrators, developed the initial strategies of institutional internationalization, the succeeding generations are engaged in moving the field forward around the globe. Increasingly more international, more intentional, more strategic, and more selfconsciously global in their thinking, these leaders in international education are not only internationalizing their institutions but also engaging globally within the broader contexts of the pressing issues of the 21st century.

    In a conscious attempt to bridge two generations of scholars and practitioners, this Handbook includes contributions by experienced authors as well as by emerging scholars, in most cases writing together. Often, coauthors have been intentionally paired together in a way that brings different perspectives to the issues discussed in the chapters. Furthermore, each chapter's focus is sharpened through boxes that highlight concrete institutional, national, or regional experiences in an effort to bring theory and practice together, as well as to infuse the book with multiple perspectives. The global tenor of this Handbook, set by the editorial team spanning three continents, provides a unique contribution to the field of international education as it comes of age in the 21st century.

    Inspired by Bridges to the Future and building on the legacy of that publication, this Handbook comprises five sections. The first section includes chapters placing internationalization of higher education in a conceptual and historic context. This section includes a chapter focusing on recent developments in internationalization in the United States, as well as a chapter on the Bologna Process in Europe and its global implications. The second section presents seven chapters with different strategic dimensions of internationalization. These include leadership, institutional strategies (including partnerships), outcomes assessment, risk management, international student security, and employee perspectives. The third section offers four chapters on “internationalization at home”—that is, what international educators can do on their own campuses to infuse more global dimensions into their institutions. This includes helping to internationalize the curriculum, exploring the teaching and learning processes, developing intercultural and global competences, and examining the intersections between the local and the global. Some chapters in this section also discuss ways in which study abroad experiences can be better integrated into the institution. The fourth section turns outward and addresses the mobility of students, scholars, institutions, programs, and projects around the globe in various ways, including through international development. The fifth and concluding section contains two chapters that provide insights, future directions, and global trends in international education, as well as a discussion of remaining issues that must be considered.

    The coeditors intentionally decided not to organize this Handbook by various components of international education such as education abroad, international student advising, foreign language learning, and so on since international education in the 21st century requires a more wide-ranging discussion of salient issues, given that these components by themselves (or even together) cannot adequately measure or achieve the comprehensive internationalization that is needed at higher education institutions today. Rather, this volume reaches for a more strategic approach to internationalization that goes beyond its (presumed) component parts and aims at changing the quality of higher education itself. Most chapters include text boxes with a regional, national, thematic or institutional focus. These boxes are intended as case studies to underline the trends as described in the chapter. They are in general written by external authors, who are mentioned by their name and current position. In some cases, the boxes are written by one or all the chapter authors, in which cases no names are mentioned.

    This comprehensive publication will be of interest to everyone involved in higher education as a leader, senior administrator, scholar, researcher, trainer, or commentator. In addition, we hope that those newer to the profession will also feel that this volume provides a baseline of knowledge and informed perspectives that will shape the future of the field and, quite possibly, their careers; we also hope to inform emerging leaders in higher education as they educate the next generation.

    Darla K.Deardorff, Hansde Wit, John D.Heyl

    Acknowledgments and Dedication

    We express deep appreciation to all of the chapter authors for the contributions that are the substance of this volume, as well as to the authors of the focused boxes found throughout the chapters. We owe special thanks both to the Association of International Education Administrators (AIEA), which conceived and supported this multiyear effort, and to the Journal of Studies in International Education, whose authors have provided the data and research insights that have shaped so much scholarship in the field of international education. SAGE and its editors have been very generous with both their support and guidance, for which we are most grateful. And thanks goes to Harvey Charles, chair of AIEAs Editorial Board, for his support throughout this process, as well as to Gulnaar Kaur and Rosemary Holland for their staffing support of this project.

    We dedicate this volume to Dr. Tony Adams, a most valued Australian colleague and giant in the field of international education. Tony was a member of the editorial team from the beginning of this project, and his imprint can be found throughout its pages. He offered insightful and collegial advice on every chapter until his death on May 12, 2011. We miss him and hope that this volume adds to his very substantial legacy to our profession.

  • List of Acronyms

    ACEAmerican Council onEducation http://www.acenet.eduACE, the major coordinating body for all of the nation's higher education institutions, seeks to provide leadership and a unifying voice on higher education issues and to influence public policy through advocacy, research, and program initiatives.
    AUAfrican Union, with more than 20 member states, works toward an integrated, prosperous and peaceful Africa, driven by its own citizens and representing a dynamic force in global arenas.
    AHELOAssessment of Higher Education Learning Outcomes is a landmark project involving about 15 countries with the goal of developing frameworks and instruments in the fields of engineering and economics; it is evaluating the feasibility of assessing learning outcomes in cross-culturally relevant ways.
    AIEAAssociation of International Education Administrators: Leaders in International Higher Education is a member-based professional association comprised of leaders in international higher education around the world who are engaged in advancing the international dimensions of higher education through opportunities of networking, exchanging ideas, sharing institutional strategies and knowledge, and being an effective voice on matters of public policy.
    AIRCAmerican International Recruitment Council http://www.airc-education.orgAIRC is a nonprofit membership association of accredited U.S. postsecondary institutions and student recruitment agencies that work together to establish quality standards for international student placement within the United States.
    ANIEAfrican Network for Internationalization of Education http://www.anienetwork.orgANIE is a membership-based association aiming to take the lead in enhancing the understanding and development of the international dimension of higher education in Africa by expanding knowledge and building, strengthening, and sustaining a cohort of competent professionals in this field.
    ASEANAssociation of Southeast Asian Nations http://www.aseansec.orgASEAN is a broadly grounded organization of southeast Asian states, which locates education at the core of its development process, creating a knowledge-based society and contributing to the enhancement of ASEAN competitiveness.l
    AUCCAssociation of Universities and Colleges of Canada http://www.aucc.caAUCC is the national voice for Canadian universities, representing 95 public and private not-for-profit universities and university degree-level colleges; it provides university presidents with a unified voice and a forum for collective action.
    CAPRICentre for AcademicPractice and Research inInternationalization at Leeds Metropolitan University, CAPRI seeks to revolutionize thinking through the development of a community of practitioners focusing on a forward-looking research, implementation and evaluation agenda. As a global professional community, CAPRI aims to share experience and resources, collaborate in research projects and offer insights from around the world as reference points and sources of information with a view to enhancing practice in international education.
    CIBERCenters For International Business Education and Research) better known by acronym http://www.ciberweb.msu.eduCIBER were created by the U.S. Congress to increase and promote the nation's capacity for international understanding and competitiveness; administered by the U.S. Department of Education, the CIBER network links the manpower and technological needs of the U.S. business community with the international education, language training, and research capacities of universities across the country.
    CIHECenter for International Higher Education Center for International Higher Education, based at Boston College, defines its mission as advancing knowledge about the complex realities of higher education in the contemporary world through research, publications, and conferences.
    CONAHECConsortium for North American Higher Education Collaboration http://www.conahec.orgCONAHEC advises and connects institutions interested in establishing or strengthening collaborative programs in the North American region.
    CONAEVAComisión Nacional de Evaluación de la Educación SuperiorMexico's CONAEVA is dedicated to the promotion and support of the development of a national higher education evaluation system.
    CONEAUComisión Nacional de Evaluación y Acreditación Universitaria [known by acronym], a decentralized organization working within the Office of the Ministry of Education in Buenos Aires, was created with the aim of contributing to the improvement of university education.
    EAIEEuropean Association for International Education http://www.eaie.orgEAIE, a nonprofit, member-led organization, is the acknowledged European leadership center for expertise, networking, and resources in the internationalization of higher education, assisting members with training, conferences, and knowledge acquisition and sharing.
    ECTSEuropean Credit Transfer and Accumulation System facilitates the transfer of learning experiences between different European institutions, fosters greater student mobility and more flexible routes to gain degrees, and aids curriculum design and quality assurance.
    EHEAEurope Higher EducationArea was created as part of the Bologna Process to ensure more comparable, compatible, and coherent systems of higher education in Europe; its permanent website will play a key role in this process of intense internal and external communication.
    ENQAEuropean Network for Quality Assurance in Higher Education disseminates information, experiences, and good practices in the field of quality assurance (QA) in higher education to European QA agencies, public authorities, and higher education institutions.
    ErasmusEuropean Action Scheme for the Mobility of University Students is the EU's flagship education and training program, enabling 200,000 students to study and work abroad each year; it funds cooperation between higher education institutions across Europe and supports students, professors, and business staff.
    EUAEuropean UniversityAssociation represents and supports higher education institutions in 47 countries, providing them with a unique forum to cooperate and keep abreast of the latest trends in higher education and research policies; it plays an essential role in shaping tomorrow's European higher education and research landscape.
    EURASHEEuropean Association of Institutions in Higher Education http://www.eurashe.euEURASHE includes 800 higher education institutions in 32 of the Bologna signatory countries; it is traditionally an association of national associations.
    I AUInternational Association of Universities http://www.iau-aiu.netIAU is the UNESCO-based worldwide association of higher education institutions, bringing together institutions and organizations from some 120 countries for reflection and action on common concerns.
    ICHEMInternational Centre for Higher Education Management is a major interdisciplinary research center based at the University of Bath, facilitating academic work in the field of higher education management and policy.
    IIEInstitute of http://InternationalEducationiie.orgIIE, an independent not-for-profit organization founded in 1919, is among the world's largest and most experienced international education and training organizations, committed to delivering program excellence to a diverse range of participants, sponsors, and donors.
    IEAAInternational Education Association of Australia is Australia's leading international education professional organization, its mission to enhance the quality and standing of Australian international education by serving the professional needs and interests of its members and by promoting international education within Australia and internationally.
    IMPIIndicators for Mapping & Profiling Internalisation http://www.impi-project.euThe IMPI project focuses on mapping and profiling internationalization of higher education institutions to give them insight into their performance in internationalization and measures for improvement.
    NAFSANAFSA: Association of International Educators http://www.nafsa.orgNAFSA, the world's largest nonprofit professional association dedicated to international education, seeks to advance public policies that promote international education and to support a broad public dialogue about the value and importance of international education.
    NONIENetwork of Networks on Impact Evaluation comprises various international committees to form a network drawn from the regional evaluation associations.
    NUFFICNetherlands organization for international cooperation in higher education in the Netherlands, NUFFIC is an organization dedicated to linking knowledge worldwide.
    N VAOAccreditation Organisation of the Netherlands and Flanders http://www.nvao.comNVAO is an independent organization aiming to ensure the quality of higher education by assessing quality control at higher education institutions and accrediting their programs.
    RIACESRed Iberoamericana Acreditación de la Calidad de la Educación Superior http://www.riaces.netRIACES (in English, the Latin American Network to Accreditation of Quality of Higher Education), is a nonprofit partnership of agencies and organizations for evaluation and accreditation of the quality of higher education.
    SRHESociety for Research Into Higher Education is a UK-based international learned society aimed at advancing understanding of higher education, especially through the insights, perspectives and knowledge offered by systematic research and scholarship.
    WESWorld Education Services http://www.wes.orgWES, a not-for-profit organization that evaluates credentials, is the leading source of international education intelligence; it provides an Internet portal to trusted, accurate research and intelligence about foreign academic credentials, institutions, and trends.

    About the Editors

    Darla K. Deardorff

    Darla K. Deardorff is currently executive director of the Association of International Education Administrators, a national professional organization based at Duke University, where she is also a research scholar in education and an educator with Duke Corporate Education. In addition, she is a visiting professor at Leeds-Metropolitan University in the United Kingdom, an adjunct professor at North Carolina State University, the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, the Monterey Institute for International Studies, and a faculty member of the Summer Institute for Intercultural Communication in Portland, Oregon.

    Deardorff is founder of ICC Global (, a global network of researchers on issues of intercultural competence. She has received numerous invitations from around the world to speak on her research on intercultural competence and assessment and is a noted expert on these topics. With nearly 20 years of experience in the international education field, she has published widely on topics in international education and was editor of The SAGE Handbook of Intercultural Competence, among other books. She serves as a consultant and trainer on international education, global leadership, faculty development, intercultural competence development and assessment for universities, corporations, and nonprofit organizations around the world, including UNESCO. She is the recipient of numerous awards including an outstanding alumnus award from her undergraduate alma mater as well as a distinguished alumnus award for the department at her graduate alma mater, and several professional awards.

    She has been active in numerous international education professional organizations including as a leader in NAFSA, Forum on Education Abroad, and as a Trainer in European Association of International Education (EAIE). Deardorff serves as a reviewer for numerous journals including the Journal of Studies in International Education (JSIE) and is a member of IAU's Ad-Hoc Expert Group on Internationalization as well as the Network of International Education Associations (NIEA).

    Deardorff holds a master's degree and a doctorate from North Carolina State University where she specialized in international education. Her dissertation, on the definition and assessment of intercultural competence, has drawn national and international attention, and her intercultural competence models developed through research are being used by organizations and postsecondary institutions worldwide. A member of International Academy of Intercultural Research, she has lived and worked in Germany, Japan, and Switzerland.

    Hans de Wit

    Hans de Wit is professor (lector) of internationalization of higher education at the School of Economics and Management of the Hogeschool van Amsterdam, University of Applied Sciences and, as of 2012, also professor of internationalization of higher education and academic director at the International Education Research Centre (IERC) of the Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore (UCSC) in Milan. Since 2010, he is a visiting professor at the Centre for Academic Practice and Research in Internationalization (CAPRI) of Leeds Metropolitan University, United Kingdom. In 2005–2006, he was a New Century Scholar of the Fulbright Program, Higher Education in the 21st Century. He was a visiting scholar in the United States in 1995 and 2006 and in Australia in 2002.

    He is the coeditor of the Journal of Studies in International Education (Association for Studies in International Education/SAGE publishers). He has (co)written several other books and articles on international education and is actively involved in assessment and consultancy in international education for organizations like the European Commission, UNESCO, World Bank, IMHE/OECD, and ESMU. His latest books are Trends, Issues and Challenges in Internationalization of Higher Education (2011) and, as editor, Measuring Success in Internationalization of Higher Education (2009).

    Among his other books are: Internationalization of Higher Education in the United States of America and Europe: a Historical, Comparative and Conceptual Analysis (2002), United States; Higher Education in Latin America: The International Dimension, coedited with Isabel Cristina Jaramillo, Jocelyne Gacel Avila and Jane Knight (2005), and European Responses to the Global Perspective, edited with Barbara Kehm (2006).

    He has undertaken quality reviews of a great number of institutions of higher education in the framework of the visiting advisors program (VAP), IQRP, IQR, Eurostrat, and NVAO. He is coeditor of Quality and Internationalization of Higher Education’ with Jane Knight (1999).

    He has been director of the Office of Foreign Relations, vice president for International Affairs, and senior advisor international at the Universiteit van Amsterdam, in the period 1986 to 2005 and director of international relations at Tilburg University from 1981 to 1985. He was assistant professor in Latin American Studies at Utrecht University, 1979 to 1981. He has a bachelor's, master's and PhD from the University of Amsterdam.

    Hans de Wit is founding member and past president of the European Association for International Education (EAIE). Currently, he is a member of the Board of Trustees of World Education Services (New York), member of the ESL TOEFL Board (as of 2011), and member of the Consell Assessor de l'Institut Internacional de Postgrau de la Universitat Oberta de Catalunya.

    In 2008, he received the Constance Meldrum Award for Vision and Leadership of the European Association for International Education (EAIE) in Antwerp. Previously, he received awards from the University of Amsterdam (2006), AIEA (2006), CIEE (2004 and 2006), NAFSA (2002), and EAIE (1999).

    John D. Heyl

    John D. Heyl's career in international higher education has included teaching at the undergraduate and graduate level at three U.S. institutions, leadership in local, regional, and national professional associations and practitioner in both the public and private sector. He is currently vice president for strategic partnerships at CEA Global Education, an education abroad program provider based in Tempe, Arizona.

    He has served as senior international officer (SIO) at three U.S. universities. At Illinois Wesleyan University (Bloomington, Illinois), a private, liberal arts campus, he chaired the history department and social science division and co-founded the international studies program. At the University of Missouri-Columbia, a public land grant institution, he helped develop the award-winning Global Scholars Program for faculty development. At Old Dominion University (Norfolk, Virginia), he helped expand study abroad participation at an urban, historically commuter institution and co-founded the master's program in international higher education leadership. He has won awards for both his teaching and administrative work.

    Active in professional associations, Heyl served as president of the Association of International Education Administrators (AIEA) (2000–2001) and has presented papers and led workshops at NAFSA: Association of International Educators and the European Association for International Education (EAIE). He has consulted widely at U.S. universities and has advised on global education initiatives at the middle and high school levels as well. He is the author of The Senior International Officer (SIO) as Change Agent (2007).

    Heyl has led or co-led numerous U.S. Department of Education Title VI and U.S. State Department grants for internationalizing the curriculum, enhancing faculty development, and training high school teachers worldwide. He has also reviewed applications for funding from these agencies.

    Heyl earned his BA in history from Stanford University, with Phi Beta Kappa honors. He focused his doctoral work in European and German history at Washington University in St. Louis. He has held several Fulbright grants to Germany and has written on the interplay between politics and economics in the German depression of the 1930s. He taught for 20 years on a wide range of subjects, including German history, world history, comparative revolutionary movements, and international higher education leadership.

    Tony Adams (1944–2011)

    On Thursday, May 12, 2011, at the age of 67, Tony Adams, co-editor of The SAGE Handbook of International Higher Education, passed away.

    Tony commenced as a lecturer in the Department of Computer Science at RMIT in1978. Following five years as Head of Department of Business Computing at RMIT, he acted for a year as Dean of Business in 1990–91, being appointed to the position of Dean International Programs in 1992, a position he held until 1998. Tony was appointed a member of the Foundation Professoriate at RMIT in 1992.

    In 1997 he was awarded the inaugural IDP award for excellence in International Education and in 2006 he received the Charles Klasek Award for his contribution to international education from the Association of International Education Administrators (AIEA).

    In 1998 he took up the position of Director International Programs at Macquarie University. In 2004, he was appointed as Pro Vice Chancellor International at Macquarie, a position he held until January 2007. During his time at Macquarie University, he developed an extensive quality network of partnerships which made this university an institution with active international mobility and exchange. In January 2007, Tony and his wife Pauline formed Tony Adams and Associates, international education consultants. Together, they have worked with universities in Australia, Mexico, the Netherlands and Italy as well as with U.S. British and Canadian organizations.

    Tony is widely published in the areas of educational computing and international education. Among the many publications he is (co) author of are three JSIE Published Papers: Adams, T, The Operation of Transnational Degree and Diploma Programs, The Australian Case, 1998; Walters, D., Adams, T., Global Reach Through a Strategic Operations Approach: An Australian Case Study, 2001; and Adams, T., The Development of International Education in Australia, 2007. In 2008 he became co-editor of the Journal of Studies in International Education.

    Tony has been the founding and immediate Past President of the International Education Association of Australia (IEAA), Vice Chairman of the Board of the International Student Exchange Program (ISEP), special advisor to Università Cattolica Del Sacre Cuore (UCSC), and special advisor to the Mexican Association of International Education (AMPEI). He was a regular trainer and presenter at workshops, sessions and seminars during the conferences of NAFSA, EAIE, AIEA and his own association IEAA. He was a member of a working group that created a new Network of International Education Associations (NIEA).

    As described in a tribute by IDP Education Australia, “One of the most rewarding aspects of serving the international education community is the relationships we are able to form with people truly passionate about what they do. Perhaps no one was more passionate than Tony Adams.”

    About the Authors

    Foreword: Josef A. Mestenhauser

    Josef A. Mestenhauser is distinguished international emeritus professor at the University of Minnesota. His 60-year career included being teacher, researcher, administrator, counselor, and consultant. He published more than 150 books, monographs, articles, and book chapters on various components of international education. His most recent publication was published by the University of Minnesota (2011) under the title “Reflections on the Past, Present and Future of Internationalizing Higher Education. Discovering Opportunities to Meet the Challenges.” He is three-time holder of senior Fulbright grants in the Philippines, Japan, and Czechoslovakia. Among offices he held was president of NAFSA, International Society for Educational, Cultural and Scientific Interchanges (ISECSI), and the Fulbright Association of Minnesota. He holds a doctorate from the Charles University, Faculty of Law, and from the University of Minnesota in political science and international relations. For 10 years, he was honorary consul of the Czech Republic in Minnesota, Iowa, and North and South Dakotas.

    Among honors he received is the Marita Houlihan Award for Excellence in International Education; Presidential Silver Medal from President Vaclav Havel; Jan Masaryk Silver Memorial Medal; Distinguished Global Engagement Award from the University of Minnesota and, most recently, the NAFSA/TLS Award for Innovative Research and Scholarship in Internationalization. The University of Minnesota established an annual lecture series on internationalization in his name.

    Chapter Authors: Clifford Adelman

    Clifford Adelman taught at Roosevelt University, CCNY, and Yale, and served five years as Associate Dean and Assistant Academic Vice-President at the William Paterson College of New Jersey before coming to the U.S. Department of Education in 1979. Managed higher education issues for A Nation at Risk (1983) and conducted the research on which its high school curriculum recommendations were based. Designed, managed, and served as amanuensis for the higher education follow-up, the Involvement in Learning report (1984), which has been cited as responsible for kick-starting the assessment movement in higher education. Conducted studies of assessment in the late 1980s, then took on the task of editing and analyzing the major national longitudinal studies data bases. Wrote eight monographs in the course of this effort, including Women at Thirtysomething: Paradoxes of Attainment (1991); Women and Men of the Engineering Path (1998); Answers in the Tool Box: Academic Intensity, Attendance Patterns, and Bachelor's Degree Attainment (1999), and Moving Into Town—an Moving On: the Community College in the Lives of Traditional-age Students (2005). The Toolbox Revisited: Paths to Degree Completion from High School Through College (2006) is the last of Cliff's studies for the Department.

    Philip Altbach

    Philip G. Altbach is J. Donald Monan, S.J., University Professor and director of the Center for International Higher Education in the Lynch School of Education at Boston College. He was the 2004–2006 distinguished scholar leader for the New Century Scholars initiative of the Fulbright program, and in 2010, he was an Erudite Scholar of the Government of Kerala in India. He has been a senior associate of the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching and has taught at the State University of New York at Buffalo; the University of Wisconsin, Madison; and Harvard University. He has had awards from the German Academic Exchange Service, the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, and others.

    Melissa Banks

    Melissa Banks has more than 20 years’ experience encompassing a variety of roles across multiple education sectors and service providers, giving her firsthand experience and skills concerning many aspects of international education in Australia. She has held senior positions in three Australian universities, including her current role as director of Swinburne International at Swinburne University of Technology. She also led major research projects in her capacity as head of research at IDP Education Pty Ltd. And has contributed papers, presentations and chapters to various national and international forums and publications throughout her working life. Topics include global student mobility, outcomes and impacts of international education in Australia, retention and transition practices in Australian universities, and Australian transnational tertiary education.

    Brett Berquist

    Brett Berquist is executive director of study abroad at Michigan State University, the largest study abroad program among U.S. public universities, with more than 270 programs on all seven continents. Previously, he served as executive director of international programs at Western Michigan University, where a range of transnational programs was at the heart of internationalization strategy. He has served on internationalization task forces in four universities and has more than 20 years’ experience in international education in the United States, United Kingdom, France, and Korea. He chaired modern language departments and led international programming in institutions in France, which finally granted him dual citizenship, during the development of the Erasmus program and the beginning of the Bologna Process. He holds degrees in French, music, and linguistics.

    Rajika Bhandari

    Rajika Bhandari is deputy vice president, research and evaluation, at the Institute of International Education (IIE) in New York where she provides strategic oversight of the institute's research and evaluation activities and leads two major research projects—Open Doors and Project Atlas—that measure international higher education mobility at the domestic U.S. and international levels. She is a frequent speaker and author on the topic of mobility and is the author of four books on global student mobility. Previously, she was a senior researcher at MPR Associates, where she conducted research for state departments of education, the National Center for Education Statistics, and foundations. She also served as the assistant director for evaluation at the Mathematics and Science Education Network at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. She holds a doctoral degree in psychology from North Carolina State University and a BA (Honors) in psychology from the University of Delhi, India.

    Elizabeth Brewer

    Elizabeth Brewer has worked in international education for most of her professional life. Currently director of international education at Beloit College, a small, liberal arts institution in Wisconsin, she has also held positions at the New School for Social Research, Boston University, and the University of Massachusetts at Amherst. With a PhD in German literature, she gained experience in rural community development as a mid-career Peace Corps volunteer in the Slovak Republic. She has brought her experience at educational institutions and in Slovakia to bear in her current position, where she has focused on helping students approach study abroad with intentionality, providing meaningful opportunities for faculty development, and using partnerships to advance campus internationalization. Coeditor of Integrating Study Abroad into the Curriculum: Theory and Practice Across the Disciplines (2010), she has written and edited other publications on international education as well as community development topics.

    Peter Burgess

    Peter Burgess is executive director, EdBiz Pty Ltd., an Australian management education consultancy. He has held senior academic and administrative positions in two Australian universities. He was honorary chair of the Australian Higher Education Transnational Education Forum and is currently an honorary auditor with the Australian Government's Tertiary Education Quality and Standards Agency.

    He is chair of Academic Board with a private higher education college in Western Australia, and his research interests focus on change management and cross-border education. He has designed, implemented, and led higher education aid and trade projects in China, Thailand, Nepal, Bangladesh, and India and directed cross-border undergraduate and postgraduate programs in Singapore, Malaysia, Hong Kong, and Vietnam. He has also worked with universities and colleges in New Zealand, Canada, and Mexico on internationalization projects and taught on prestigious MBA programs in both Australia and the United Kingdom.

    Stephen Connelly

    Stephen Connelly was appointed deputy vice chancellor, international and development, and vice president at RMIT University in February 2010. Prior to that, he spent 5 years at Swinburne University of Technology as pro vice chancellor (international) and later deputy vice chancellor (development and engagement). He spent 7 years at La Trobe University as director of international marketing and then director of the International Programs Office. He was chair of the Victorian International Directors Committee from 2000 to 2002 and foundation chair of the Australian Universities International Directors Forum from 2002 to 2004. He is currently president of the International Education Association Australia (IEAA). A graduate of Monash and Melbourne Universities, he has lived and worked overseas in Germany and Malaysia and has more than 20 years’ experience in international education.

    Jane Edwards

    Jane Edwards is dean of international and professional experience at Yale University, which she joined in 2006 what was then the new position of associate dean for international affairs. Previously, she served as director of international studies at Harvard University, following 10 years in a similar position at Wesleyan University. She is coauthor with Humphrey Tonkin of The World in the Curriculum and is a member of the editorial board of the Journal of Studies in International Education and of the boards of World Learning and the Fund for Education Abroad. She publishes and presents on a range of topics in international education and has taught throughout her career. She received a PhD from the University of Pennsylvania and her BA and MA from

    Everett Egginton

    Everett Egginton is a professor in the Department of Curriculum and Instruction in the College of Education and former dean of international and border programs at New Mexico State University. Throughout his career, he has worked in Latin America in many capacities, including the Peace Corps (Venezuela), Ford Foundation Fellowship (Peru), and Fulbright Dissertation Fellowship (Colombia); he consulted with USAID (Colombia, El Salvador), ministries of education throughout Central America, and the World Bank (El Salvador); and he was a Senior Fulbright Research and Teaching Fellow (El Salvador, 2000) and Fulbright Lecturer (Colombia, 2010). He is widely published in the areas of Latin American education and bibliography and internationalization in higher education. He currently is a member of the Board of Advisors of the American Council of Education's Internationalization Collaborative and the Board of Directors of the International Student Exchange Program. Since 2009, he has been an active member of LASPAU's Board of Trustees.

    Eva Egron-Polak

    Eva Egron-Polak served almost 20 years in senior positions at the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada (AUCC) prior to becoming Secretary General of the International Association of Universities in 2002. IAU, an independent global association of universities and associations of higher education institutions, based at UNESCO in Paris tackles many of the most pressing policy issues in higher education. Under her leadership, IAU launched regular global surveys on internationalization, created a grants program for professional development and North-South and South-South collaboration called LEADHER, developed an advisory service to review and assess institutional internationalistrategies (ISAS) and adopted a policy statement on equitable access and success in higher education. Most recently, she has coordinated the effort that led to the IAU document ‘Affirming Academic Values in Internationalization of Higher Education: A Call for Action’ and the drafting of Guidelines for institutional codes of ethics. She is a member of many committees at UNESCO, the European Commission, the OECD and others. She is the co-author of Internationalization of Higher Education: Global Trends, Regional Perspectives, a report published in 2010, and has written and presented many papers on various higher ed topics.

    Raul Favela

    Raul Favela, MD, performed his undergraduate studies at the Autonomous University of Chihuahua where he obtained a medical doctor degree. He had his post graduate degree in the National Autonomous University of Mexico as a Plastic and reconstructive Surgeon. He has held several positions at the Autonomous University of Chihuahua as Director of International Services, Director of the Confucius Institute, Co-Director in research projects in collaboration with universities in United States through the USAID Agency. He is Honorary Director of non-governmental organizations and has been honored by the University of Texas at EL Paso as “Associate Professor of the Year 2009.” He is currently in the area of research and post graduate studies in the Medical School in teaching and community outreach programs in the University of Chihuahua. He is actively involved in several research projects in the educational area.

    Madeleine F. Green

    Madeleine F. Green is a higher education consultant and senior fellow at the International Association of Universities (IAU) and NAFSA: the Association of International Educators. Until 2010, she served as vice president, international initiatives, American Council on Education (ACE). The Association of International Education Administrators awarded her its 2010 Charles Klasek Award for outstanding service to the field of international education administration. She served as interim president of Mount Vernon College (DC) from 1990–1991 and as a member of the board of trustees of Wilson College (PA) from 1988 to 1993 and of Sweet Briar College (VA) from 1994 to 2002; she is currently a board member at Juniata College (PA). She has served on the boards of the Forum on Education Abroad and the International Association of Universities. She is the author of numerous publications on higher education, leadership, and internationalization.

    Lesleyanne Hawthorne

    Lesleyanne Hawthorne is associate dean international at the University of Melbourne. Her research concerns high-skilled migration, international student mobility, and foreign credential recognition. Most recently, she has completed commissioned studies for the Australian, Canadian, and New Zealand governments; UNESCO; the Global Forum of Federations; the U.S. Migration Policy Institute; and the Pacific Economic Cooperation Council (APEC). This has included a cycle of comparative studies on international student migration trends. In 2005–2006, she was appointed to an Expert Panel of Three by Australia's Federal Cabinet to complete the most extensive evaluation of Australia's skilled migration program since 1988. The panel's recommendations from 2007 to 2010 governed the selection of up to 108, 000 skilled migrants in Australia per year. She was previously the research manager of Australia's Bureau of Immigration, Multicultural, and Population Research.

    John Hudzik

    John K. Hudzik is professor at Michigan State University. He is past president of the Association of International Education Administrators and also past president and chair of the Board of Directors of NAFSA: Association of International Educators. He is currently NAFSA senior scholar for internationalization. From 1995 to 2010, he was dean of international studies and programs at Michigan State University and then vice president for global engagement and strategic projects. He was acting university provost and vice president for academic affairs at MSU in 2005. He has served on numerous international policy and advisory boards and is a frequently invited speaker at conferences on higher education internationalization. He is recipient of several national awards for his scholarly work in judicial systems and in international education, including the AIEA Charles Klasek Award for outstanding service to international education.

    Chuo-Chun Hsieh

    Chuo-Chun Hsieh is a PhD candidate at the International Centre for Higher Education Management (ICHEM), School of Management at the University of Bath, United Kingdom, working on a comparative policy policy study on quality assurance in higher education. Prior to the move to England, she enrolled the Graduate Institution of Education at National Chung Chen University in Taiwan. Her work has been published in several research journals covered in the Taiwan Social Science Citation Index (TSSCI). Most of her research concerns educational policy, with an especial interest in theories of policy process in the global context.

    Jeroen Huisman

    Jeroen Huisman is director of the International Centre for Higher Education Management (ICHEM). His research interests are the impacts of the change from government to governance in higher education, the dynamics of organizational change, inertia and diversity in higher education, institutional management and governance, and internationalization and Europeanization; he has published widely on these topics. He is editor of Higher Education Policy and editorial board member of Tertiary Education and Management (TEAM), Journal of Studies in International Education, European Journal of Higher Education, and Educational Researcher (U.S.).

    Fiona Hunter

    Fiona Hunter is International Director at the Università Carlo Cattaneo, Castellanza, Italy and Past President of the European Association for International Education (EAIE) where she is now co-chair and founding member of the Special Interest Group, Researchers in International Education (RIE). She has been involved in professional development and consultancy on internationalisation of higher education for many years for a broad range of universities, international associations and organisations. She is a member of the Editorial Board of the Journal of Studies in International Education (JSIE) and of the Scientific Committee of the Centre for Higher Education Inter nationalisation (CHEI) at the Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Milan, Italy. She serves on the Board of Directors at Educational Credential Evaluators, Inc. (ECE) in the United States and acts as senior expert for the European Centre for Strategic Management of Universities (ESMU) in Brussels, Belgium. In the spirit of lifelong learning she completed her Doctorate of Business Administration (DBA) in Higher Education Management in 2009 at the University of Bath in the U.K.

    Elspeth Jones

    Elspeth Jones is emerita professor of the Internationalization of Higher Education and a consultant on global education. As International Dean at Leeds Metropolitan University she led the comprehensive internationalization strategy and was responsible for international student recruitment, curriculum internationalization, and staff development for internationalization. In 2009, she founded the Centre for Academic Practice and Research in Internationalization (CAPRI). She has published widely on comprehensive and values-driven internationalization, including the edited collections Internationa lisation and the Student Voice (2010) and Internationalizing Higher Education (2007) (with Sally Brown). Her principal fields of research include transformational learning through international and intercultural experiences, the link between curriculum internationalization and multiculturalism, and the role of internationalization in enhancing student employability. With a background in applied linguistics and TEFL, she has more than 30 years’ experience in international education and worked for the British Council in Japan and Singapore for 7 years.

    Jane Knight

    Jane Knight, University of Toronto, focuses her research and professional interests on the international dimension of higher education at the institutional, national, regional, and international levels. Her work in more than 65 countries with universities, governments, UN agencies, and foundations helps to bring a comparative, development, and international perspective to her research, teaching, and policy work. She is the author of numerous articles and publications on internationalization concepts and strategies, quality assurance, institutional management, trade, and cross-border education. Her recent research on education hubs will result in a new book in 2012. Currently, she is leading a comparative study on regionalization of higher education. She is an adjunct professor at Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto and sits on the advisory boards of many international organizations and journals. She was a Fulbright New Century scholar 2007–2008 and received an honorary LLD from Exeter University in 2010.

    Peter H. Koehn

    Peter H. Koehn is professor of political science, the University of Montana's Distinguished Scholar for 2005, a Fulbright New Century scholar, recipient of the 2011 Michael P. Malone award for international leadership, and the 2012 George M. Dennison Presidential Faculty Award for Distinguished Accomplishment. He served as the University of Montana's founding director of international programs and senior international officer from 1987 to 1996. He currently directs the University's International Development Studies program. His teaching portfolio includes courses in development administration, rural and global health (MPH program), sustainable climate policies, comparative government, politics of global migration, issues in global public health (freshman global leadership seminar), management skills, and African politics. Over the course of his career, he has taught and conducted research in Ethiopia, Nigeria, Eritrea, Namibia, China, Hong Kong, and Finland. He was coauthor with James N. Rosenau of Transnational Competence: Empowering Professional Curricula for Horizon-Rising Challenges (2010). A full CV and list of publications can be found at

    Betty Leask

    Betty Leask is an associate professor in internationalization of the curriculum at the University of South Australia, an Australian national teaching fellow, coeditor of the Journal of Studies in International Education, visiting professor at the Centre for Academic Practice and Research in Internationalization (CAPRI) at Leeds Metropolitan University in the United Kingdom, a member of the International Education Association of Australia (IEAA) Board, and convener of their Internationalization of the Curriculum Special Interest Group and their Research Committee. The focus of her work is on linking policy and practice in the area of internationalization in higher education and the internationalization of teaching and learning in the formal and informal curriculum. She has undertaken various roles in schools and universities, including director of the Australian Centre for Education in Hungary, dean of teaching and learning in the Division of Business, and coordinator of international staff and student services at UniSA. Her background is in education and applied linguistics.

    Jack Lee

    Jack Lee worked as a program manager and instructor at the Centre for Intercultural Communication, University of British Columbia (UBC), from 2001 to 2009. During this period, he designed, managed, and facilitated intercultural training programs and workshops for both local and international educators, students, and business executives. While pursuing a master's degree in adult education at UBC, Jack spent a year at the University of Oslo, Norway, as an exchange student to study comparative education. He is currently a doctoral candidate at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education of the University of Toronto and an active member of its Comparative, International, and Development Education Centre. His research interests include the internationalization of higher education, regionalization, and comparative education research methodology. His dissertation examines the development of education hubs in East and Southeast Asia from the perspective of international relations.

    Mitch Leventhal

    Mitch Leventhal is vice chancellor for global affairs at the State University of New York, the world's largest comprehensive university system, with 64 campuses and nearly one half million students. Leventhal is a cofounder and served as the first president of the American International Recruitment Council, an officially registered standard development organization, which has adapted U.S. higher education accreditation to a certification process for international student recruitment agencies. An advocate for standards, ethical practice, and corporate social responsibility across all dimensions of the higher education enterprise, he was appointed senior adviser for academic affairs to the United Nations Global Compact in 2010. He received his doctorate in the international political economy of higher education from the University of Chicago in 1995. He resides in New York City.

    Roger Ludeman

    Roger Ludeman spent his career serving students at all levels of U.S. education. Following 8 years of public school teaching and counseling, he entered student affairs work as a dean in universities in Pennsylvania and the Midwest. The last years of his career saw him going global with his writing, research, and efforts focused on identifying and connecting a student affairs and services field in 50-plus countries. In 2009, he collaborated with UNESCO, publishing the book, Student Affairs and Services in Higher Education: Global Foundations, Issues, and Best Practices. He received three Fulbright grants (Germany, Japan, and South Africa). Throughout the decade of the 1990s and into the 21st century, he has worked to reduce the divide between international educators and student affairs professionals so that work with international students and those who study across borders can be more effective in terms of learning outcomes, health, and safety.

    Simon Marginson

    Simon Marginson is a professor of higher education at the University of Melbourne, Australia, where he works in the Centre for the Study of Higher Education. His research is focused on higher education, international students, and globalization. He is one of the coordinating editors of the journal, Higher Education. Recent books include International Student Security (2010) with Chris Nyland, Erlenawati Sawir, and Helen Forbes Mewett; Ideas for Intercultural Education (2011) with Erlenawati Sawir; and the coedited collections Higher Education in the Asia-Pacific (2011) and Handbook of Higher Education and Globalization (2011).

    Francisco Marmolejo

    Francisco Marmolejo is executive director of the Consortium for North American Higher Education Collaboration (CONAHEC), a network of more than 170 higher education institutions and organizations primarily from Canada, the U.S. and Mexico, headquartered at the University of Arizona, where he also serves as assistant vice president for global initiatives. Previously, he was an American Council on Education fellow at the University of Massachusetts, and vice president for academic affairs at the University of the Americas in Mexico. He is a frequent contributor to international higher educonferences, and a blogger on international education topics for the Chronicle of Higher Education. He has served on the Board of NAFSA and AMPEI, and currently he serves on the Board of the Compostela Group of Universities and World Education Services. He consults for the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and the World Bank on educational policy.

    Gilbert Merkx

    Gilbert W. Merkx was born in Maracaibo, Venezuela. He received his BA from Harvard University and his MA and PhD from Yale University. He was a Fulbright scholar in Perú and a visiting scholar in Buenos Aires and Stockholm. He has taught on the faculties of Yale, Göteborgs Universität (Sweden), and the University of New Mexico. He currently is director of international and area studies at Duke University, director of the Duke Center for International Studies, director of the Duke Islamic Studies Center, and professor of the practice of sociology. He is a past president of the Association of International Education Administrators and a former chairman of the Group of Advisors of the National Security Education Program. He serves as co-chairman of the Council of Title VI National Resource Center Directors and sits on the boards of Venice International University and the Scholars at Risk Network.

    Riall Nolan

    Riall Nolan is professor of anthropology at Purdue University, where he was associate provost and dean of international programs from 2003 to 2009. He received his doctorate in social anthropology from Sussex University and lived overseas for nearly 20 years in north and west Africa, Asia, and the southwest Pacific, working in higher education and international development. Prior to coming to Purdue, he managed international programs at the University of Pittsburgh, Golden Gate University, and the University of Cincinnati. He has also held administrative and teaching positions at the School for International Training, Georgia State University, and the University of Papua New Guinea. He writes and consults frequently on issues of international development, international education, cross-cultural adaptation, and applied anthropology.

    Milton Obamba

    Milton Obamba is currently research associate at the John and Elnora Ferguson Centre for African Studies at the University of Bradford. He is also visiting fellow at the Centre for Higher Education Policy Research at the Leeds Metropolitan University in Britain, where he was Carnegie Centenary scholar until he received his PhD in higher education policy in 2011. Obamba studied at Moi University in Kenya before earning his MPhil in 2005 from the Norsk Laerekademiet in Bergen, Norway. He has served as visiting fellow at Nordic Africa Institute in the University of Uppsala and at the African Studies Centre at University of Leiden, Netherlands. His current research interests and publications focus on the interdisciplinary domains of higher education including comparative policy analysis, governance, internationalization, development education, and transnational academic partnerships. His most recent publications have appeared in Higher Education Policy and Journal of Higher Education in Africa.

    Christa Olson

    Christa Olson recently joined Drake University as the new vice provost for international programs. Prior to Drake, she served as the associate director for international initiatives at the American Council of Education (ACE). She worked with the senior vice president of programs and services on ACE's initiatives to engage member institutions in internationalization and global engagement. She directed campus networks, managed multi-institutional projects and coauthored publications capturing good practices. Her publications include At Home in the World: Bridging the Gap Between Internationalization and Multicultural Education and Internationalizing the Campus: A user's guide (with Madeleine Green). She earned a BA from Washington State University and a PhD in French from Stanford University and served as a professor of French and Intercultural Studies at New Jersey City University. A North American studies Fulbright alumnus, she conducted the trilingual research project, Making the Link: An Exploration of the Impact of North American Educational Partnerships.

    James Peacock

    James Peacock is Kenan Professor of Anthropology at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC-CH). He received a BA from Duke and PhD from Harvard. He is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He was president of the American Anthropological Association. His field research is primarily in Indonesia and Appalachia. Publications include The Anthropological Lens (rev. ed., 2001, Chinese edition, 2009) and two books published in 2007: Grounded Globalism: How the U.S. South Embraces the World and Identity Matters: Ethnic and Sectarian Conflict. Current duties include director, Carolina Seminars and co-director, DukeUNC Rotary Center on Peace and Conflict. He previously held the administrative position of director of the University Center for International Studies at UNC-CH, in which he oversaw campus internationalization.

    Liz Reisberg

    Liz Reisberg is a an independent consultant in higher education working with ministries of education, donor agencies, and universities on strategies for improving higher education. Previously she was a research associate at the Center for International Higher Education at Boston College, where she coordinated several grant-funded projects, engaged in research, and contributed to center publications. Her research areas include quality assurance, internationalization, and the challenges of providing equitable access to higher education. Most of her work has focused on Latin America. She has also worked in international admissions at several Boston-area universities. She was the founder and former executive director of the MBA Tour, a company that organizes professional recruitment tours throughout the world for business schools.

    Gary Rhodes

    Gary Rhodes is director of the Center for Global Education at the Graduate School of Education and Information Studies at the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA). Through his leadership, the center has served as a national resource, supporting student mobility in higher education since 1998, with print and online resources supporting faculty, staff, and students. He received his PhD and MS in Education and MA in International Relations from the University of Southern California (USC) and his BA from the University of California at Santa Barbara. He has published articles, been cited, and presents widely at conferences across the United States and around the world. He has taught courses at the graduate level at USC and UCLA on administration of international programs in higher education. He has written and presented widely on issues of university internationalization, using online resources for international learning, and safety, risk, crisis management, legal issues and study abroad. He has received Fulbright grants to India and South Africa.

    Laura Rumbley

    Laura E. Rumbley is associate director of the Boston College Center for International Higher Education (CIHE). She is also the website content editor for the IREG Observatory on Academic Ranking and Excellence. Laura was previously deputy director of the Academic Cooperation Association (ACA), based in Brussels. In addition to experience as a university administrator in international programming, she has authored and coauthored a number of publications on topics including academic salaries in comparative perspective, European student mobility, curricular issues in U.S. study abroad, and internationalization in Spanish higher education. Most notably, she coauthored (with Philip G. Altbach and Liz Reisberg) the foundational document for the 2009 UNESCO World Conference on Higher Education, Trends in Global Higher Education: Tracking an Academic Revolution. A former U.S. Foreign Service officer, she currently serves on the editorial board for the Journal of Studies in International Education and is active in the European Association for International Education.

    Farshid Shams

    Farshid Shams is a PhD candidate at the International Centre for Higher Education Management (ICHEM), School of Management, University of Bath, United Kingdom. He received his MBA from Thames Valley University of London. For a number of years, he worked in the capacity of full-time lecturer and taught various business administration courses. Farshid's research interests include organizational studies of transnational enterprises, market mechanisms in non-profit sectors, organizations’ reputational arms race and globalization of higher education institutions.

    Michael Stohl

    Michael Stohl is professor of communication at the University of California, Santa Barbara. Previously, he was dean of international programs and professor of political science at Purdue University in West Lafayette, Indiana. From 1987 to 1992, he was director of programs for study abroad at Purdue University. He has served on the boards of numerous international education associations including as chair of CIEE's Academic Consortium Board from 1995 to 2000 and as chair of the Board from 2004 to 2010. In addition to his publications on international education, he is the author or coauthor of more than 100 scholarly journal articles and book chapters and the author, editor, or coeditor of 15 books on political violence, terrorism, human rights, and corporate social responsibility. His most recent publications include Fragile States: Violence and the Failure of Intervention (coauthor, 2011) and Crime and Terrorism (coauthor, 2010).

    Susan Buck Sutton

    Susan Buck Sutton is senior advisor for internationalization, Bryn Mawr College, having recently retired from Indiana University–Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI), where she was associate vice chancellor for international affairs and chancellor's professor of anthropology. While at IUPUI, she focused campus internationalization around a philosophy of international dialogue and collaboration that garnered the Heiskell Award from the Institute of International Education and the Senator Paul Simon Award from NAFSA. She has published five books and more than 50 articles on international partnerships, international service-learning, and the anthropology of modern Greece. She was 2011 president of the Association of International Educators and serves on boards or advisory councils for the American Council on Education, Institute for International Education, NAFSA, and the Gennadius Library in Athens.

    Hanneke Teekens

    Hanneke Teekens is member of the board of directors of NUFFIC (the Netherlands organization for international cooperation in higher education). Before joining Nuffic, she worked at the Hogeschool and University of Amsterdam and the University of Twente. She held positions as a teacher and researcher, manager, and consultant and worked in many parts of the world. Previously, she was director of the Socrates National Agency and director, national structure, for Erasmus Mundus in the Netherlands. She has published on various aspects of international education. Her latest contributions have focused in particular on internationalization at home. She is a frequent speaker at conferences and seminars. She studied education and history and did her graduate studies at the University of Leiden. She was an American Field Service exchange student to the United States.

    Martin Tillman

    Martin Tillman is president of Global Career Compass, an international consulting practice focused on global workforce trends and the impact of education abroad on student career development. He was formerly associate director, career services, at The Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies. He has managed intercultural education and development projects in the Alaskan arctic, India, Japan, Colombia, Russia, and Central Asia. He received a Fulbright International Education Administrator grant to Japan. He is a regular contributor of book reviews and essays to NAFSA's International Educator magazine and conference speaker on issues of global workforce development, education abroad and its impact on career development, and intercultural competence. He also is author of the AIFS Student Guide to Study Abroadand Career Development, editor of The Impact of Education Abroad on Career Development and Study Abroad: A 21st Century Perspective, and The Right Tool for the Job.

    Joseph D. Tullbane

    Joseph D. Tullbane is the associate dean for international education and outreach at St. Norbert College, supervising all international curricular and co-curricular aspects of the college. He also serves as director, Center for International Education, supervising Study Abroad, International Student Services, ESL Institute, Language Services & Outreach, and International Programming. He holds a PhD in Russian area studies (Georgetown University), as well as two degrees in architecture (Rice University) and an MA in international relations (The American University). Prior to his current position, he served as a consultant on Russian political/military affairs to the Department of the Army. He also serves as a member of the Executive Board of the Association of International Education Administrators.

    David Urias

    David Urias is the new executive director of educational programming for the nonprofit, Reach For Tomorrow. He has an extensive educational background in international education, policy studies, and program evaluation. He was the founding director of both the master's program in global and international education at Drexel University's School of Education and of the Evaluation Research Network. He earned his doctorate in international educational policy studies and program evaluation from the Curry School of Education, University of Virginia. His professional mission is to use his expertise in international education and program evaluation to make interdisciplinary collaborations to create, disseminate, and apply knowledge to improve education; education that is broadly defined. This mission provides cohesion to and increases the efficacy of his work. In addition, his research agenda and interests reflect sensitivity to the need for innovative yet pragmatic solutions to real problems, and he places emphasis on the practical implications of his work.

    Adinda van Gaalen

    Adinda van Gaalen holds a master's degree in Culture organization and management from the VU University in Amsterdam. She previously studied international tourism management and consultancy at NHTV Breda and carried out her internship at the Research Department of the Ministry of Tourism in Mexico. She started her career in the field of internationalization as head of the international office of the HES School of Business in Amsterdam. She worked for several years as a policy adviser and also taught intercul-tural awareness at the Hogeschool van Amsterdam. She now works as a senior policy officer at Nuffic, the Netherlands organization for international cooperation in higher education. Her fields of interest include internationalization policy, strategy, and quality assurance. She is involved in carrying out studies and is project manager of the Mapping Internationalization (MINT) project. She also works as a trainer in short courses and workshops on internationalization topics.

    Stephen Wilkins

    Stephen Wilkins has 15 years’ experience as a lecturer in further and higher education and was formerly director of professional management programmes at Dubai University College, United Arab Emirates. He has authored/co-authored many articles on international higher education and was winner of the EAIE Tony Adams Award for Excellence in Research 2011. He is currently a PhD candidate at the International Centre for Higher Education Management (ICHEM), University of Bath, United Kingdom.

    BOX Authors

    Shingo Ashizawa is a professor in the Division of International Cooperation at Meiji University in Japan and author/research of several evaluation studies.

    Jos Beelen is a researcher and consultant on internationalization, Centre for Applied Research on Economics and Management (CAREM), Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences, The Netherlands.

    Tim Birtwistle is a professor emeritus of Law and Policy of Higher Education and Jean Monnet Chair at Leeds Law School in the United Kingdom.

    Chrissie Boughey is professor and Dean of Teaching & Learning at Rhodes University in Grahamstown, South Africa.

    Lisa Childress is an independent higher education researcher and consultant at LKC Consulting.

    Rahul Choudaha is Director of Development and Innovation at World Education Services, New York.

    Gianni D'Amato, PhD in Political Sciences, is Director of the Swiss Forum for Migration and Population Studies and professor of Migration and Citizenship Studies at the University of Neuchâtel, Switzerland.

    Frederik de Decker is a quality expert and senior education advisor at Ghent University Association.

    Debbie Donohue is the Interim Executive Director of the Division of Professional Practice at the Georgia Institute of Technology.

    Michael Emery is Director of Human Resources Management at the International Organization for Migration in Geneva, Switzerland

    Irina Ferencz is policy officer at the Academic Cooperation Association (ACA) in Brussels.

    Mark Freeman, Project Team, Faculty of Business and Economics, University of Sydney, Australia.

    Jocelyne Gacel-Avilà is professor of the internationalization process at the University of Guadalajara, Mexico.

    Brenda García Portillo is Coordinator of Internationalization Projects at Universidad de Monterrey, Mexico.

    Susan Gillespie is Director of the Institute for Inter national Liberal Education and Vice President for Global Initiatives at Bard College, U.S.

    Joel Glassman is Associate Provost for Academic Affairs and Director, Center for International Studies at the University of Missouri-St. Louis.

    Mark O. Hatfield (deceased) served two terms as Governor of Oregon before election to the United States Senate, where he served for thirty years.

    Futao Huang is professor at the Research Institute for Higher education of Hiroshima University in Japan.

    James Otieno Jowi is coordinator of the African Network for Internationalization of Education (ANIE) based at Moi University in Eldoret, Kenya.

    Nico Jooste is the senior international officer and director of the Office for International Education at the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, South Africa.

    Simon Kho, KPMG (former) Director, National Student Programs & Global Initiatives, Chicago, Illinois.

    Yuto Kitamura is an associate professor at Sophia University in Japan.

    Alexander Koff, Esq. is a partner and Chair of the Global Practice at the law firm of Whiteford, Taylor, and Preston LLP in Baltimore, Maryland.

    Sabine Krajewski is a lecturer in International Communication in the Department of Media, Music, Communication and Cultural Studies at Macquarie University, Australia.

    Judy B. Krutky is professor of Political Science and International Studies and Director for Intercultural Education at Baldwin Wallace College in Ohio.

    Steve J. Kulich is Executive Director of the SISU Intercultural Institute (SII) of Shanghai International Studies University (SISU), Chief Editor of the Intercultural Research series (published by Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press), and Fellow and Board Member of the International Academy of Intercultural Research.

    Gil Latz is professor of Geography and Associate Vice Chancellor for International Affairs, Indiana University–Purdue University Indianapolis; and Associate Vice President for International Affairs for Indiana University Bloomington.

    Sonia Pereira Laus is a researcher on the internationalization of higher education process and international academic cooperation in Brazil.

    Sonny Lim serves as Director of Public Affairs for Yale-NUS College, a unique partnership between Yale University and the National University of Singapore.

    Alma Maldonado-Maldonado is a researcher in the Educational Research Department of CINVESTAV - Center for Advanced Research (Mexico).

    Edilio Mazzoleni is Head of Operations, International Office at the Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore (UCSC), Italy.

    Ada Yanni Meng is a graduate research assistant of the SII and MA Candidate in the Shanghai International Studies University Intercultural Communication program.

    Soraya Mohideen is Infosys Program Manager, Global Academic Relations in Bangalore, India.

    Michael D. Monahan (Macalester), at the time of writing Director of the International Center at Macalester College, MN, USA; now President of BCA Study Abroad, USA.

    Michael J. Mooney Special Adviser to the President, Waseda University, Japan.

    Georges H. Nahas is Vice President of the University of Balamand in Lebanon.

    Phyllis Bo-yuen Ngai teaches in the Department of Communication Studies at The University of Montana-Missoula.

    Andy Nicol is Director of Business Development, Asia for Hobsons Asia Pacific in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Masami Nishishiba is an assistant professor in the Division of Public Administration at the Mark O. Hatfield School of Government, Portland State University and is currently serving as the Associate Director of the Center for Public Service at the Hatfield School of Government.

    Olatunde J.B. Ojo is professor emeritus of political and administrative studies, past Dean of Social Sciences, and founding Director of the Emerald Energy Centre for Petroleum Economics, Policy, and Strategic Studies, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

    Hiroshi Ota is professor and Director of the Center for Global Education at Hitotsubashi University in Tokyo, Japan.

    Matthias Otten, prof. Dr./Faculty of Applied Social Sciences, Institute for Intercultural Education and Development, Cologne University of Applied Sciences, Germany.

    Prem Ramburuth, Australian School of Business, Project Team, University of New South Wales, Australia.

    Simon Ridings, Project Team, Faculty of Business, Queensland University of Technology, Australia.

    Kay Salehi, Academic Development Advisor, Swinburne Professional Learning, Swinburne University of Technology, Australia.

    Chika Sehoole, associate professor, Faculty of Education, University of Pretoria, South Africa.

    Jeffrey Shultz is an educational anthropologist who received an SB in mathematics from MIT, as well as a masters and doctorate in education from Harvard University and currently serves as Professor of Education and Assistant Provost for Special Projects at Arcadia University.

    Lyn Simpson, Project Team, Faculty of Business, Queensland University of Technology, Australia

    James Skelly is visiting professor of Peace Studies and Resident Director for BCA Study Abroad at the Magee campus of the University of Ulster in Derry-Londonderry, Northern Ireland.

    Erkki Sutinen is professor of Computer Science and the leader of edTechΔ research group at the University of Eastern Finland; he currently is based in Maputo, Mozambique, leading the STIFIMO program on Science, Technology, and Innovation.

    Chris Sykes, Project Team, Faculty of Business and Economics, University of Sydney, Australia

    Mohammad Thoyibi is on the Faculty of Muhammadiyah University at Surakarata, Indonesia.

    Lesley Treleaven, Project Team, Faculty of Business and Economics, University of Sydney, Australia.

    Sherie Valderrama, Sodexo Senior Director, Talent Acquisition Group, Corporate Human Resources, Gaithersburg, Maryland.

    Els van der Werf is the Senior Policy Advisor on International Relations for Hanze University of Applied Sciences, Groningen, The Netherlands.

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