As with any other kind of interest association, employer organizations are burdened with the problem of collective action (Olson, 1965). The primary goal of interest associations is to provide collective goods the benefits of which nobody interested in these goods can be excluded from. Hence, there is a strong incentive for rational, self-interested actors to take a free ride (not to contribute), with the consequence that associational action may be suboptimal in terms of effectiveness or may even fail. This line of reasoning presupposes that the members of the interest group share a basic interest in the common good, although they may vary in the degree of their interest. This assumption does not fully match the situation of employers, since their interest ...