The SAGE Handbook of Industrial Relations
- Publisher: SAGE Publications Ltd |
- Publication Year: 2008 |
- Online Publication Date: October 01, 2010 |
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781849200431 |
- Print ISBN: 9781412911542 |
- Online ISBN: 9781849200431 |
- Print Purchase Options
- Subject: Industrial Sociology, Economical & Industrial Democracy, Employee, Industrial & Labor Relations
The SAGE Handbook of Industrial Relations provides a systematic, comprehensive survey of the field. The result is a work of unprecedented scope and unparalleled ambition. It offers a compete guide to the central debates, new developments, and emerging themes in the field. It will quickly be recognized as the indispensable reference for teachers, students and researchers. It is relevant to economists, lawyers, sociologists, business and management researchers, and Industrial Relations specialists.
- Front Matter
- Subject Index
Part 1: Perspectives and Approaches
- Chapter 2: The History of Industrial Relations as a Field of Study
- Chapter 3: Industrial Relations and the Social Sciences
- Chapter 4: System and Change in Industrial Relations Analysis
- Chapter 5: Values, Ideologies, and Frames of Reference in Industrial Relations
- Chapter 6: The Influence of Product Markets on Industrial Relations
- Chapter 7: Varieties of Capitalism and Industrial Relations
- Chapter 8: New Forms of Work and the High Performance Paradigm
- Chapter 9: Changing Traditions in Industrial Relations Research
Part 2: The Actors in Industrial Relations
- Chapter 10: Trade Union Morphology
- Chapter 11: Trade Union Strategy
- Chapter 12: Employer Organizations
- Chapter 13: Management Strategy and Industrial Relations
- Chapter 14: The State in Industrial Relations
- Chapter 15: The Legal Framework of Employment Relations
- Chapter 16: The State as Employer
- Chapter 17: International Actors and International Regulation
- Chapter 18: Works Councils
- Chapter 19: The Evolution of Stakeholder Regimes: Beyond Neo-Corporatism
Part 3: Industrial Relations Processes
- Chapter 20: Union Formation
- Chapter 21: The Changing Structure of Collective Bargaining
- Chapter 22: The High Performance Work Systems Literature in Industrial Relations
- Chapter 23: Employee Involvement and Direct Participation
- Chapter 24: Resolving Conflict
Part 4: Industrial Relations Outcomes
- Chapter 25: Contingent Work Arrangements
- Chapter 26: The Theory and Practice of Pay Setting
- Chapter 27: Working Time and Work-Life Balance
- Chapter 28: Worker Well-Being
- Chapter 29: Industrial Relations Climate
- Chapter 30: Equality at Work
- Chapter 31: Conflict at Work
- Chapter 32: Skill Formation
- Chapter 33: Industrial Relations and Business Performance
- Chapter 34: Labor Market Institutions Around the World
Introduction and Editorial Arrangement © Paul Blyton, Nicolas Bacon, Jack Fiorito and Edmund Heery 2008
Chapters 134 © SAGE Publications Ltd 2008
First published 2008
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List of Figures[Page viii]
- 5.1 Defining ideology and frame of reference 93
- 11.1 The context of trade union strategy 211
- 11.2 Phases of industry evolution 213
- 11.3 Four patterns of trade union strategic choice in neo-liberal environments 216
- 11.4 Willman's ‘Union Portfolio’ 217
- 16.1 IR systems framework of the state as employer 306
- 29.1 The industrial relations climate model and summary of relevant factors 554
- 29.2 Simplified model of organizational performance 561
- 31.1 US-strike days per 1,000 workers, 1948–2006 599
- 31.2 Canada-strike incidence and duration, 1946–2005 599
List of Figures[Page ix]
List of Tables
- 1.1 Levels of industrial relations analysis 7
- 4.1 Models of change underpinning theories of union revitalization 79
- 5.1 Four theories of the employment relationship 102
- 7.1 Union density (%) and density change in 20 OECD countries 1980–2000 138
- 7.2 Bargaining coordination index and rankings in 15 OECD countries 1973–77 and 1993–97 138
- 7.3 Collective bargaining coverage (%) in 20 OECD countries 1980–2000 139
- 7.4 Employment protection legislation in 19 OECD countries, late 1980s-2003 140
- 7.5 Gross earnings inequality (90:10 ratios) for full time employees in 19 OECD countries 1980–1984 to 1995–1999 140
- 7.6 Industrial conflict in selected OECD countries 1985–2003 (days lost per 1000 workers) 141
- 7.7 Standardized unemployment rates (%) in selected OECD countries 1985–2003 142
- 8.1 Classification device for studies linking HR practice and organizational performance 154
- 9.1 Nature of papers published in main IR journals 180
- 9.2 Type of data and methods of analysis used 181
- 9.3 Industrial relations research methods 182
- 12.1 The largest employer peak organization: Basic data (1994–96) 228
- 12.2 The system of employer organization (1991–98) 234
- 13.1 Management style industrial relations typologies 244
- 13.2 Employment relations choices 246
- 16.1 Dimensions of governance 308
- 16.2 General government final consumption expenditure (percent of GDP) 311
- 16.3 Core government functions of selected OECD member countries 312
- 16.4 Public employment 313
- 16.5 Country breakdown of amounts raised by privatization (Billions of $US) 314
- 16.6 Privatization initiatives in selected countries 315
- 16.7 Union density, private and public sector (percent of unionized workers) 317
- 16.8 Characteristics of career-based, department-based, and position-based civil systems 318
- 20.1 Major studies and data sets employed in voting propensity analyses 378
- 21.1 Bargaining structures in OECD countries, 1970–2000 414
- 21.2 Bargaining coordination in OECD countries, 1970–2000 414
- 26.1 Gross hourly earnings in the UK, Autumn 2005 493
- 28.1 Perspectives on the outcomes of contemporary employment relations 532
- 29.1 A summary of the six longitudinal case studies 559 33.1 Summary of meta-analyses of union effects 627 [Page x]
- 34.1 Measures of the variation of labor institutions across advanced countries 642
- 34.2 Mean values of ranks of Anglo-American and other advanced economies labor institutions (low value=market oriented) and t-tests of their statistical significance 644
- 34.3 90/10 Wage differentials and Gini coefficients for advanced countries, circa 2000 651
Notes on Contributors[Page xi]
Peter Ackers is Professor of Industrial Relations and Labour History at Loughborough University Business School. During 2005–06 he was Leverhulme Visiting Fellow at the Indian Institute of Management, Calcutta. His current research is on British Industrial Relations History, including a biographical study of Professor Hugh Clegg, and Indian Industrial Relations. He has edited Understanding Work and Employment: Industrial Relations in Transition (Oxford University Press 2003) with Adrian Wilkinson and The New Workplace and Trade Unionism (Routledge 1996) with Chris Smith and Paul Smith.
Nicolas Bacon is Professor of Human Resource Management at Nottingham University Business School, UK. His current research on trade unions includes partnership agreements, negotiations to change working practices and union learning representatives; the employment effects of buyouts and shareholder value management; and employment practices in small and medium-sized enterprises. He is currently editor of the Industrial Relations Journal.
Devasheesh Bhave is a PhD candidate in the Human Resources and Industrial Relations department at the Carlson School of Management, University of Minnesota. His research interests include the areas of electronic performance monitoring, relational demography, and employment relationships.
Paul Blyton is Professor of Industrial Relations and Industrial Sociology at Cardiff University, UK. His research interests include employees’ experience of work restructuring, working time developments, and work-life balance concerns. His recent publications include The Realities of Work with Mike Noon (Palgrave Macmillan) and Key Concepts in Work with Jean Jenkins (Sage).
Peter Boxall is Professor of Human Resource Management at the University of Auckland. His research is concerned with both management and employee strategies in contemporary workplaces and their respective outcomes. He is co-editor (with John Purcell and Patrick Wright) of the Oxford University Press Handbook of Human Resource Management and co-editor (with Richard Freeman and Peter Haynes) of What Workers Say: Employee Voice in the Anglo-American Workplace (Cornell University Press).
William Brown is Professor of Industrial Relations in the Economics Faculty at Cambridge University and Master of Darwin College. He was previously Director of the Industrial Relations Research Unit at Warwick University. An active arbitrator, he was a member of the council of the UK's Advisory, Conciliation and Arbitration Service (ACAS), and was a founder member of the Low Pay Commission which established, and maintains, the UK national minimum wage. [Page xii]His research interests include collective bargaining, pay systems, trade unions, and the effects of legal intervention in the labor market.
Alex Bryson is a Research Director at the Policy Studies Institute. He has been at the institute since 1991, during which time his research has focused on the evaluation of welfare-to-work programs and industrial relations. Recently he has been applying techniques common in the evaluation literature to problems in industrial relations. He is an editor of the British Journal of Industrial Relations and the Manpower Research Fellow at the Centre for Economic Performance.
John W. Budd is a Professor in the Industrial Relations Center at the University of Minnesota's Carlson School of Management. He is the author of Employment with a Human Face: Balancing Efficiency, Equity, and Voice (Cornell University Press), Labor Relations: Striking a Balance (McGraw-Hill/Irwin), and a co-editor of The Ethics of Human Resources and Industrial Relations (Labor and Employment Relations Association). His current research interests include industrial relations theory, employment-related public policies, and conceptualizations of work.
Ali Dastmalchian is Professor of Organizational Analysis and Dean, Faculty of Business, University of Victoria, Canada. His recent research interests include organizational change, organizational design in health care, and healthy organizations. His recent publications include Work-Life Integration with Paul Blyton, Ken Reed, and Betsy Blunsdon (Palgrave Macmillan). His work has appeared in journals such as the British Journal of Industrial Relations, Industrial and Labor Relations Review and Human Relations.
Simon Deakin is Professor of Law at the University of Cambridge. He specializes in the economics and sociology of law, focusing on labor, company and private law. His books include The Law of the Labour Market (2005, with Frank Wilkinson). He is a member of the editorial boards of the British Journal of Industrial Relations, the Industrial Law Journal, and the Cambridge Journal of Economics.
John T. Delaney is Professor of Management and Dean of the Joseph M. Katz Graduate School of Business and College of Business Administration at the University of Pittsburgh. His research focuses on dispute resolution, high performance work practices, and labor relations. His recent publications include Organized Labor's Political Scorecard (with Marick Masters), Ethical Challenges in Labor Relations, and Change to Win: Can Structural Change Revitalize the American Labor Movement (with Jack Fiorito and Paul Jarley).
Jack Fiorito is J. Frank Dame Professor of Management at Florida State University and Principal Research Fellow at the University of Hertfordshire. His research interests include worker attitudes toward unions and employers, and how unions function as organizations. His recent publications include ‘The State of the Unions in the United States’, Journal of Labor Research (2007), and ‘Change to Win: Can Structural Reform Revitalize the American Labor Movement?’ Advances in Industrial and Labor Relations (2007).
Robert J. Flanagan is the Konosuke Matsushita Professor of International Labor Economics and Policy Analysis at the Graduate School of Business, Stanford University. His current research interests include the relationship between globalization, working conditions, and labor rights around the world and the economics of symphony orchestras. His most recent book is Globalization and Labor Conditions (Oxford University Press, 2006).[Page xiii]
John Forth is a Research Fellow at the National Institute of Economic and Social Research. He works on a range of labor market issues including employment relations, equality, and skills. He is co-author of Inside the Workplace and All Change at Work?, both arising from his involvement in the Workplace Employment Relations Survey series. Other recent publications have focused on topics such as pay determination, ‘high involvement management’, and productivity, with a particular emphasis on the role of trade unions.
Richard B. Freeman is Professor of Economics at Harvard University, Labor Studies Program Director at NBER, and Professorial Research Fellow at the Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics. His research interests include the growth and decline of unions; self-organizing non-unions in the labor market; restructuring European welfare states; international labor standards; Chinese labor markets; crime; employee involvement programs; globalization; income distribution and equity in the marketplace; immigration and trade; and the job market for scientists and engineers. His recent publications include What Workers Want (Cornell 2nd edition), Can Labor Standards Improve Under Globalization? (IIE), and America Works: The Exceptional Labor Market (Sage).
Carola M. Frege is a Reader in Employment Relations at the London School of Economics and Political Science. She is the author of Employment Research and State Traditions (Oxford University Press 2007) and co-editor of Varieties of Unionism (OUP, 2004). She has published widely in academic journals and edited collections on comparative employment relations and is the editor of the British Journal of Industrial Relations.
Ann C. Frost is Associate Professor at the Richard Ivey School of Business, University of Western Ontario. Her main research focus has been in the area of workplace restructuring and high performance forms of work organization. Articles from this research have appeared in Advances in Industrial and Labor Relations, the British Journal of Industrial Relations, and the Industrial and Labor Relations Review. Her current research interests include models of labor-management co-operation, restructuring in the health care sector, the impact of recent changes in work organization on the careers of low wage workers, and employment practices in Canadian call centers.
Gregor Gall is Professor of Industrial Relations and Director of the Centre for Research in Employment Studies at the University of Hertfordshire, UK. His research interests revolve around trade unionism and worker mobilization. His recent books include Sex Worker Union Organizing: An International Study (Palgrave Macmillan) and The Political Economy of Scotland: Red Scotland? Radical Scotland? (University of Wales Press). Also, he is the editor of two volumes on union recognition (with Routledge) and a forthcoming one (with Palgrave Macmillan).
Daniel G. Gallagher is the CSX Corporation Professor of Management at James Madison University in Harrisonburg, Virginia. His current research interests include a variety of topics related to the study of independent contracting and other forms of work outside of the traditional employer-employee relationship. He also has an ongoing interest in the study of union member attitudes and behaviors. He is currently an Associate Editor of Human Relations, and serves on the editorial boards of Industrial Relations and the Journal of Management.
Ray Gibney is an Assistant Professor of Management at the Pennsylvania State University at Harrisburg. His primary research interests are positive and negative employee-collective social [Page xiv]exchange relationships. In addition, Ray is interested in labor unions in the political process and employee self-service technology in organizations.
John Godard is Professor at the Faculty of Management, the University of Manitoba. His work focuses on state policies and labor law, on comparative institutional environments, and on the implications of work and human resource practices for workers and their unions. It has been published in a number of edited books and in numerous academic journals, appearing most frequently in the Industrial and Labor Relations Review and the British Journal of Industrial Relations. He is a former editor of the British Journal of Industrial Relations, and serves on the boards of a number of scholarly journals.
Irena Grugulis is Professor of Employment Studies and head of the HR/OB teaching group at Bradford University School of Management. Her research interests cover most areas of skill, particularly the impact that national and organizational systems have on the people who experience them. Her latest book, published by Palgrave Macmillan in 2007 is Skills, Training and Human Resource Development: A Critical Text. Her current projects include research into employment in the film and TV industry and retail work in Britain. She is an associate fellow of SKOPE and edits the Debates and Controversies section of Work, Employment and Society.
David Guest is Professor of Organizational Psychology and Human Resource Management at King's College, London. His current research interests are the relationship between human resource management, organizational performance, and employee well-being in the public and private sectors; the individualization of employment relations and the role of the psychological contract; flexibility and employment contracts; partnership at work; and the future of the career.
Rebecca Gumbrell-McCormick is Lecturer in Management at Birkbeck, University of London, UK. She is a former international trade union official and official of the ILO. Her main research areas are international and European industrial relations and equal opportunities. Her most recent publications include ‘Embedded Collectivism? Workplace Representation in France and Germany’, in Industrial Relations Journal, 37(5), September 2006 (with Richard Hyman) and ‘The ICFTU and the World Economy: A Historical Perspective’, in R Munck (2003) (ed.) Labour and Globalisation: Results and Prospects (Liverpool University Press).
Kerstin Hamann is Professor of Political Science at the University of Central Florida in Orlando, US. Her research focuses on comparative political economy and industrial relations in Western Europe, and on Spanish politics and labor unions. Her work has been published in journals such as the British Journal of Industrial Relations, the European Journal of Industrial Relations, Comparative Political Studies, and Industrial and Labor Relations Review. Her current collaborative research with John Kelly analyzes the political dynamics of the origins of social pacts in Western Europe.
Robert Hebdon is the Chair of the Faculty Program in Industrial Relations and Associate Professor in the Desautels Faculty of Management of McGill University. His research interests include public sector restructuring and workplace conflict. His recent publications include articles on strike duration with Mike Campoletti and Doug Hyatt (Industrial and Labor Relations Review), workplace conflict (Advances in Industrial Relations), and comparative local government restructuring with Patrice Jalette (Environment and Planning C).[Page xv]
Edmund Heery is Professor of Employment Relations and Joint Director (with Peter Fairbrother) of the Centre for Global Labor Research at Cardiff University. His primary research interest in recent years has been union strategies of revitalization, which has included study of union organizing, union representation of contingent workers, and union bargaining over equality and work-life balance. His current research is a study of worker representation through ‘civil society organizations’; charities, advocacy, and campaigning organizations. His recent publications include The Future of Worker Representation (edited with Geraldine Healy, Phil Taylor, and William Brown), Palgrave MacMillan, 2004.
Charles Heckscher is a Professor at Rutgers University and Director of the Center for Workplace Transformation. His research focuses on organization change and the changing nature of employee representation. His books include The New Unionism, White-Collar Blues, and The Collaborative Enterprise.
Richard Hyman is Professor of Industrial Relations at the London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE) and is founding editor of the European Journal of Industrial Relations. He has written extensively on the themes of industrial relations, collective bargaining, trade unionism, industrial conflict, and labor market policy, and is author of many books, including Strikes and Industrial Relations: A Marxist Introduction. He co-edited the 17-country text Changing Industrial Relations in Europe (Blackwell, 1998). His comparative study Understanding European Trade Unionism: Between Market, Class and Society was published by Sage in 2001.
Paul Jarley is Professor of Management and Dean of the College of Business at the University of Nevada Las Vegas. His research interests focus on trade union structures and strategies, interest arbitration, and social capital at work. His recent publications include Unions as Social Capital, Justice and Union Participation (with Nancy Brown Johnson), and Change to Win: Can Structural Change Revitalize the American Labor Movement? (with Jack Fiorito and John T. Delaney).
Jean Jenkins is Lecturer in HRM at Cardiff University. Her research interests center on employment relations in the manufacturing sector, particularly in the clothing sector, and employees’ experiences in the increasingly internationalized market for labor. Her recent publications include Key Concepts in Work (with Paul Blyton), Sage 2007.
John Kelly is Professor of Industrial Relations in the School of Management Birkbeck College, University of London. His main areas of research are comparative labor relations, labor unions, and industrial relations theory and recent publications include Varieties of Unionism (OUP, 2004, co-editor), Union Organization and Activity (Routledge 2004, co-editor), and Rethinking Industrial Relations (Routledge, 1998).
Russell D. Lansbury is Professor of Work and Organizational Studies and Associate Dean (Research) in the Faculty of Economics and Business at the University of Sydney. He is the current President of the International Industrial Relations Association. His major research contributions have been in the fields of international and comparative studies of employment relations and management.
David Lewin is the Neil Jacoby Professor of Management, Human Resources and Organizational Behavior in the UCLA Anderson School of Management. His research interests include workplace/organizational conflict, human resource management and business performance, pay [Page xvi]and rewards, and new challenges to old wage and hour law. His recent publications include Contemporary Issues in Employment Relations (2006) and Advances in Industrial and Labor Relations, Volume 15 (2007).
Marick F. Masters is a Professor of Business Administration and of Public and International Affairs at the University of Pittsburgh, where he directs the Center on Conflict Resolution and Negotiation. He has written more than 100 articles and several books. His current interests lie in negotiations, conflict resolution, the role of interest groups in politics, and the management of political campaigns. He is a senior partner with AIM Consultants, a management consulting firm, with offices in New London, CT and Pittsburgh, PA.
Wanjiru Njoya is Lecturer in Law at Oxford University, and a Fellow of Wadham College Oxford. Her publications include Property in Work: The Employment Relationship in the Anglo-American Firm (Aldershot, Ashgate Publishing, 2007). She specializes in labor law and corporate governance, and her research has appeared in the British Journal of Industrial Relations, the Industrial Law Journal, and the Law Quarterly Review.
Barbara Pocock is Director of the Centre for Work + Life at the University of South Australia. She has worked in a range of industries. Her past research includes analysis of trade unions, gender politics at work, the regulation of industrial relations systems, and effects on inequality. At present she is studying the changing nature of work and its intersections with changing household and social life, with Australia as her primary focus. Her latest books are The Work/Life Collision (2003) and The Labour Market Ate My Babies (2006), both published by Federation Press.
Stephen Procter is Alcan Professor of Management and Director of Research at Newcastle University Business School. His chief area of research interest is new patterns of work in the public sector, particularly teamworking and workplace flexibility. He is currently involved in projects looking at new working patterns in the mental health services workforce, multi-agency working in public services, and the management of public sector mergers. He is co-founder and co-organizer of the International Workshop on Teamworking, Chair of the Editorial Advisory Board of Personnel Review, and, in 2007–08, Chair of the British Academy of Management Special Interest Group on HRM.
Iryna Shevchuk is a PhD candidate at the University of Pittsburgh. Her research interests include the employer-employee relationship, employee turnover, and quantitative research methods and design.
George Strauss is Professor Emeritus at the Haas School of Management at the University of California, Berkeley. He is also a member of the Institute for Research on Labor and Employment (previously the Institute for Industrial Relations), also at UCB. He is the co-author (with Keith Whitfield) of Researching the World of Work: Strategies and Methods of Studying Industrial Relations (ILR Press).
Franz Traxler is Professor of Industrial Sociology at the University of Vienna. His research focuses on comparative industrial relations and organized interests. Book publications include National Labour Relations in Internationalized Markets (with S. Blaschke and B. Kittel) (Oxford University Press 2001), and Handbook of Business Interest Associations, Firm Size and Governance (with G. Huemer) (Routledge 2007).[Page xvii]
Nick Wailes is a Senior Lecturer in Work and Organizational Studies at the University of Sydney, Australia. He teaches comparative industrial relations and strategic management. His two main areas of research are the impact of globalization on national relations systems and the study of organizational change associated with information and communications technology.
Keith Whitfield is Professor of Human Resource Management and Economics at Cardiff University, UK. His research focuses on the impact of human resource policies and practices on employee and organizational outcomes. He was recently a member of the steering group for the Fifth British Workplace Employment Relations Survey, and is currently the principal investigator for a project examining a quarter century of change in British Employment Relations.
Adrian Wilkinson is Professor of Employment Relations at Griffith University, Australia. His research interests include employee participation, high performance workplaces, and industrial relations and human resource management theory. Recent publications include Human Resource Management at Work (CIPD) with Mick Marchington and Understanding Work and Employment (OUP) with Peter Ackers.
Tom Zagenczyk is an Assistant Professor of Management at Clemson University. His research interests include the employer-employee relationship, social influence processes in organizations, developmental relationships, and the relationship between IT and employee attitudes.
The purpose of this Handbook is to provide readers with an overview of current knowledge from Industrial Relations scholarship, and consider what issues and questions still need to be addressed. The scope of the different contributions is testament to a subject area that has broadened its perspective far beyond what many in the past considered the central areas of Industrial Relations interest: trade unions, collective bargaining, and strikes. It is now widely recognized that the different aspects of the employment relationship are what define the field of industrial relations: the various elements that comprise the employment relationship; the bases and assumptions on which employment relationships are formed and modified; the significance of different institutional arrangements within which those employment relationships are situated; and the relevance of broader economic, social, and technological developments that fundamentally affect contemporary society. Questions and concerns that first gave rise to industrial relations enquiry have not disappeared, but have been augmented by the recognition of a much broader set of issues and developments impacting on people's experience of work.
The international group of contributors brought together here are the leading experts of their fields and this provides them both with a solid base from which to review what is known about their area of study, but also what we as yet do not sufficiently know: what questions we have failed to answer satisfactorily to date, and what issues still clamor for attention.
It is a highly appropriate time to produce such a collection. With profound changes occurring within industrial relations practice over the past two decades-not least, changes in trade union presence, the coverage of union-management relations, and the state's role within the employment relationship-coupled with fundamental developments in national and international product and labor markets, it is apposite to take stock of what these developments signify for the field of industrial relations and what new questions and challenges they pose.
In bringing this collection to fruition, we wish to acknowledge the help we have had from various different quarters. First, our thanks to all the contributors who not only agreed to fit this task into their already busy schedules, but to respond willingly to comments on drafts that helped create a more cohesive and comprehensive collection that otherwise wouldn't have been the case. Second, thanks to the administrative efforts of Sue O'Brien and Penny Smith at Cardiff University who endeavored to keep a hold on where everything was, as drafts moved back and forth. Third, our thanks to the team at Sage-Chris Rojek, Mila Steele, and Kay Bridger-for putting the idea of the Handbook to us in the first place, for being patient as the delays that are probably inevitable in a large project of this kind duly occurred, and for allowing us the opportunity to work with such a thought-provoking group of academics.