The Handbook of Humanistic Psychology: Leading Edges in Theory, Research, and Practice

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Edited by: Kirk J. Schneider, James F. T. Bugental & J. Fraser Pierson

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  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
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  • Part I: Historical Overview

    Part II: Humanistic Theory

    Part III: Humanistic Methodology

    Part IV: Humanistic Applications to Practice

    Part V: Humanistic Applications to broader Settings

    Part VI: Epilogue: Humanistic Psychology in the New Millennium

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    Dedication

    This book is dedicated to our mentor and coeditor, James Bugental. Jim's landmark work, Challenges of Humanistic Psychology, inspired the present volume. His presence, patience, and clarity inspire our lives.

    KirkSchneiderJ. FraserPierson

    Foreword

    WE LIVE IN A TIME of enormous and pervasive change and challenge—a time of “raging chaos.” It is clear that our old ways of being and doing no longer work and that our old myths neither hold our allegiance nor hold promise for solving our problems. As Albert Einstein once observed, “No problem can be solved from the same consciousness that created it. We must learn to see the world anew.”

    It is fitting, therefore, that a new book on humanistic psychology usher in our new millennium. It feeds our hunger for a new vision and a new way of being.

    Humanistic psychology first came to my attention when my own pain and confusion shocked me out of my old beliefs and tested my sense of myself. I began a search for something to make sense of my life. That search led me to a series of workshops, during one memorable year, with Sidney Jourard, Abraham Maslow, James Bugental, James Fadiman, Rollo May, John Heider, and Carl Rogers. Those experiences saved my life, and they profoundly inform all of my social involvement and politics.

    Futurist Willis Harman has identified three profound revolutions that shattered our old ways of being: (a) when Galileo and Copernicus recognized that the earth revolves around the sun (and not vice versa), (b) when Darwin recognized the evolution of species, and (c) when Freud recognized the internal dimensions within us humans. In each case, worlds came apart, we found ourselves in raging chaos, and then there arose a new order.

    Today's “new Copernican revolution” amounts to a most profound shift in our view of our own selves, from a fundamentally negative view of human nature to a fundamentally positive one. In a break from the long traditions of original sin, where we needed to be tamed, we now sense ourselves alive with original grace, needing to be nurtured.

    This radical idea upends all that has been constructed on the old foundation. It amounts to a total revolution. It was hinted at by Jourard, who proposed that we become “transparent selves.” It gained credence with Bugental's observance of “the search for authenticity.” It was given voice by Rogers in his famous aphorism: “I've been doing psychology for more than 50 years, and I've come to believe that we human beings are innately inclined toward becoming life affirming, constructive, responsible, and trustworthy.” It was elaborated by May when he argued that the utterly free human will naturally be responsible. It was confirmed by Maslow when he identified our possible “democratic character structure” in which one's intellect, emotions, and body are liberated and altogether integrated into one's becoming a whole person.

    What do these eloquent formulations amount to? A new revolution. Whereas the first American Revolution established our right to self-determination, this next revolution demands self-actualization. Simply said, the humanistic view of the self must become the organizing vision and ethic of our times and of our lives.

    According to sociologist Paul Ray's book, The Cultural Creatives, fully one quarter of American adults already have enlisted themselves, however (un)consciously, in this revolution.

    Humanistic psychology offers us the most faithful, hopeful, and loving human path toward our own wholeness and for addressing the most pressing social issues of our times. The present volume introduces us to ourselves and to visions and practices for our lives. Such visions and practices lead to engagements in social action that are grounded in faith, abound with hope, and relate in love.

    There is almost nothing as powerful as an idea whose time has come, and this volume demonstrates that our time has come for humanistic psychology. May this book, comprised of the very latest in humanistic scholarship, serve to both enlighten and empower us. And may it lead us toward a fully realized human nature in our new millennium.

    JohnVasconcellosCalifornia state senator

    Preface

    SOME 40 YEARS AGO, when I was studying psychology at the University of Chicago, I remember coming across a short article by Abraham Maslow, and for the first time in my graduate career, I felt a sense of confirmation—yes, it was worth toiling through the confusing morass of professional literature if one could end up writing like that. Afterward, I read most of Maslow's writings as well as those of Rogers and other exponents of the “third way.” I took courses with Eugene Gendlin on Husserl, Heidegger, and Merleau-Ponty, and their thoughts became a part of my own thinking. At the same time, however, I also was exposed to the writings of Karl Popper and became persuaded that knowledge is best expressed by systematic propositions based on empirical evidence.

    This autobiographical detail is intended to inform the reader that I am coming to the task of writing this preface as a sympathetic but critical fellow traveler. Most of the chapters in this volume deal with vital issues that psychology should be concerned with but rarely is. Amedeo Giorgi (Chapter 5) is completely on target when he claims that psychology has surrendered its agenda to other paradigms—neurology, cognitive science, and evolutionary perspectives—and that it is time for us to reclaim it. Arthur Lyons (Chapter 46) is equally on target with his call for humanistic psychology to address issues of positive social change. The themes most often repeated in the chapters in this volume—that we are responsible moral agents; that the self is real; that play, love, and wonder are important components of experience; and that authenticity is worth striving for—should indeed be cornerstones of psychology.

    Clearly, the therapeutic applications of the humanistic perspective (which constitute the bulk of this volume) have been effective or else the whole enterprise would have foundered decades ago. But in terms of conceptual advances or the development of rigorous cumulative research findings, the yield has been far leaner. This makes me wonder whether the rejection of the hegemonic sway of the scientific methodology, which is perfectly understandable given the “dustbowl empiricism” in force when the founders were writing, has served humanistic psychology well in the long run. But as many of the contributors to this volume realize, method per se usually is more helpful than harmful. The challenge is to agree on a method that allows us to describe the phenomena of interest without trivializing them in the process.

    Granted, much of the scientistic psychology spawned during the past century was not worth the pulp on which it was printed. The issue is not whether one uses the latest statistical fads and a fancy research design but rather whether one is willing to describe experience clearly and precisely so that others can build on one's observations. This type of attention to detail (according to some, the very abode of God) sometimes is a challenge in these writings, where insight is more readily apparent than is evidence.

    Yet, the perspective on the human condition that humanistic psychology represents is too important to be ignored. If it is left out of the discourse of the social sciences, then we all will be the poorer for it. To join the parade and influence its direction and pace, one must show that one can follow the tune. In less metaphorical terms, sustained good work needs to be done.

    Good work that stands the test of time never is easy, and it might require some compromise with a paradigm that is alien to many—some variant of the systematic work that has become known as the scientific method. Narrative methods are fine—I use them myself—but can we build a coherent human science on them? If so, then how? What should the units of analysis be? What degree of rigor should we expect so as to avoid vagueness and self-deception? Questions of this type are asked in this volume, but they will have to continue to be asked, and answers to them will have to be agreed on.

    The humanistic approach is certain to survive either as a foundation for therapy and counseling or as an influence on other branches of psychology. The chapters assembled in this volume show the exuberant variety of applications of the humanistic perspective and the way in which these follow from previous insights into the nature of human beings—from those of Nietzsche, James, and Kierkegaard to those of Camus, Vigotsky, and Fellini.

    There is no question that, now more than ever, we will need the insights into psychology that the humanistic perspective can provide.

    At the start of this new millennium, our understanding of what it means to be human hangs in a precarious balance. Many of the conceptual pillars of what it means to be human—the self, consciousness, will, and freedom—are being rapidly deconstructed by the “hard” sciences, not to mention antiquated concepts such as “good” and “bad.” The accounts offered by neurology, behavioral genetics, and computer science are compelling, and they threaten to reduce our view of the person to a bundle of loosely connected mechanisms thrown together by the necessity of survival over long eons of time.

    On the other hand, there are signs that the spell of mechanistic approaches under which psychology has labored for so long is slowly breaking. Developmental psychology is relying on the notion of self-organization to explain individual growth over time. After being dealt an almost mortal blow during the 1970s, personology—the view that the individual possesses enduring traits and is not just responding to situational demands—is gaining new respectability. Some of the traits that are being investigated extensively—autonomy, love, spirituality, wisdom, humility, and forgiveness—depend on a paradigm that views people as purposive agents responsible to themselves and to the community.

    Positive psychology, a rallying cry raised by Martin Seligman during his American Psychological Association presidency during 1998–1999, is another departure from psychology as practiced for most of the past century. Instead of focusing primarily on behavioral deficits, positive psychology starts with the assumption that virtues such as courage, altruism, and perseverance are just as genuine and important as the pathological conditions that traditionally have held center stage. Careful experiments and epidemiological studies show that patients who have hope recover more quickly, that optimistic persons tend to be more realistic, and that positive affect helps to negotiate complex existential problems.

    The battle lines are being drawn. Will the contest end with an understanding of the person as nothing but a convenient placeholder for the intricate impulses programmed into the brain? Or, will we be able to provide a different picture, equally well based on evidence and reason, that will preserve a unique identity and power to the individual? Humanistic psychology has done much to clarify and anticipate the issues involved in this struggle. Directly or indirectly, it has provided some of the conceptual maps needed for its resolution. But the issue is far from settled. A great deal of good work—of systematic (and perseverant) thinking, observing, and recording—is needed if the humanistic perspective is to rival the reductionistic one in terms of influence. Let us hope that this collection of some of the best work will inspire others to engage in this enormously important task.

    MihalyCsikszentmihalyiClaremont Graduate University

    Introduction

    In the history of science is the message of humanism—that we must think in the limited but positive terms of fulfillment, that true faith is a belief in the inherent potential of humanity. The telos is the eternal quest, the cosmos coming to know itself. To believe less—or to believe more—is to live in the shallows of what it means to be human.

    W.Wachhorst (“Touching the Sky”, 1999)

    WHAT IS THE NEXT STEP for psychology, and who or what will lead us into the beckoning age? Will it be the wizardry of artificial intelligence with its computerized models for living? The marvels of neuroscience with its brain-behavior correlations? Evolutionary psychology with its sociobiology of natural selection? Positive psychology with its “measurements” of “the good life” (Seligman, 1998)? The dizzying analyses of postmodernism with their culturally relative truths and patchwork quilt of meanings?

    Although each of these paradigms is certain to have its place in the coming age, the reader is asked to envision an alternative scenario. What if psychology's next step were a holistic one, a rich mosaic consisting of each of the emerging trends but threaded throughout by the depth, breadth, and pathos of intimate human experience? What if artificial intelligence were complemented by poetic illumination, if neuroscience were supplemented by experiential inquiry, and if evolutionary psychology were matched by holistic reflection? What if positive psychology were linked with depth or philosophical investigation and if postmodernism were linked with personalism or transcendentalism?

    If this amalgamated vision hints of familiarity, it should. For 40 years, humanistic psychology has grappled with this vision, and during more recent years, that struggle has intensified. The reasons for this intensification are many, but psychology's relentless yen for compart-mentalizing—for fragmenting and subdividing knowledge—are surely at their core. In our haste to find mechanisms, abstractions, and formulas, are we neglecting the being to whom these modalities apply? Are we neglecting lives? Humanistic psychology poses the following overarching challenges to the study of conscious and nonconscious processes. (1) What does it mean to be fully experientially human? and (2) How does that understanding illuminate the fulfilled or vital life?

    Say what one will about the trials and limitations of humanistic psychology's past; it is now a seasoned and multifaceted approach. Precisely at a time when technical models for living are on the ascendancy, humanistic psychology offers a poignant counterweight to those models and, thereby, a context through which they may become humanized. Humanistic psychology is a concerted brew of existential, transpersonal, and constructivist theorizing1 and encompasses a breathtaking investigative range. Still, for all its variety, it converges on the profound and poignant wholeness of the human lot. Whereas there have been extremes within humanistic psychology (e.g., individualism, libertinism, spiritual and secular elitism), this volume reflects the leading edges and maturation of what we call experiential humanism. Experiential humanism embraces all modes of awareness and subawareness—individual, social, biological, and spiritual—but particularly as they resonate with lives. For example, neither aggregates nor abstractions are excluded from the experiential humanistic framework. But the question is, to whom and within what contexts do these formulations apply? And to the extent that they do not apply, how can we supplement them?

    The contributors to this volume have a great deal to say about the living and breathing contexts for psychological inquiry. They have a great deal to convey about the methods and means by which to study such contexts, and they have even more to say about the applications that ensue from such study.

    Before we expand on the aforementioned, however, let us briefly trace the lineage that led to its formation. (For a more formal exposition, see the chapter by Moss [Chapter 1] in this volume.) Contrary to popular belief, the roots of humanistic psychology are a diverse amalgam of secular, theistic, individualistic, and communalistic strands that, as suggested earlier, converge on two overarching themes: what it means to be fully experientially human and how that understanding illuminates the fulfilled or vital life.

    The birth pangs of humanism are typically traced to 5th-century BCE Greece, during the period of the great philosophers and dramatists such as Socrates, Plato, and Sophocles (Garraty & Gay, 1972; Grondin, 1995). Classical humanism, as it has come to be known, was a turning away from the god-centered preoccupation of antiquity to that which concerned the distinctly “human.” Following Socrates' famous dictum to “know thyself,” humanistic thinkers elucidated themes such as personal responsibility, choice, love, and fear. According to such humanists, no longer could questions of motivation, morality, or truth be reducible to supernatural dogmas; instead, they required the complex applications of reason and reflection.

    The second great flourishing of humanism occurred during the period of the Renaissance, approximately 400 to 600 years ago, when intellectuals such as Pico della Mirandola, DaVinci, and Erasmus rebelled against the strictures of the medieval Church and resurrected Greek humanism. The focus of these intellectuals was on human achievements or the studia humanitatis as opposed to the studia divinitatis (Grondin, 1995, p. 112). This curriculum emphasized “human artistry and culture in the original works of the Greek and Latin authors” (p. 112).

    The third wave of humanism emerged during the Enlightenment of the 17th and 18th centuries. Two major branches reflecting earlier humanistic rifts characterized this wave. Rationalists represented the first branch, and romanticists represented the second branch. Rationalist-humanists, exemplified by thinkers such as Bacon, Newton, and Locke, held that cognition is what distinguishes the human being. The path to the fulfilled life for rationalists was prediction, control, and efficiency (Jones, 1969). On the other hand, romanticist-humanists, illustrated by such luminaries as Blake, Goethe, and Kierkegaard, believed that the heart (or emotions) is the distinguishing characteristic of humanity. To live with heart—with passion, intuition, and imagination—is to live the vital life, according to romanticists (Schneider, 1998).

    The latest wave of humanism began at the turn of the 20th century. In psychology, such humanism emerged as a reaction to behaviorism and deterministic Freudianism. Early critics of these movements—William James (who, ironically, influenced behaviorism), Carl Jung, Otto Rank, Ludwig Binswanger, Medard Boss, and Henry Murray—protested the equation of human with animal or primate being.

    By the late 1950s, the American humanistic psychology movement drew on all of the former sources of humanism but developed its own brand as well (DeCarvalho, 1991). The answer to the question “What makes us fully and optimally human?” was as varied as the American humanistic psychology movement itself. Given this caveat, however, authors as diverse as Abraham Maslow, Rollo May, Gordon Allport, Carl Rogers, Michael Polanyi, and James Bugental all coalesced with regard to one intertwining concern—the centrality of the personal. To the degree that American, and to a large extent European, humanistic psychologists turned to the personal or profoundly intimate as the fount of their investigative wisdom, they echoed the Enlightenment romantics to define their tradition. This lineage, which in turn echoed the biblical and Gnostic lineages of “knowledge or science of the heart” (Martinez, 1998, p. 100; Moyers, 1997), has two main emphases: a holistic or mul-tilayered understanding of psychological phenomena and a valuing of tacit processes (affect, intuition, kinesthesia, and imagination) to both access and express that understanding (Schneider, 1998).

    Today, humanistic psychology supposedly has fallen out of favor. Many in academia consider it obsolete (e.g., Sass, 1988). The question as to what is distinctively human and fulfilling is considered misguided at best or oppressive at worst (Sampson, 1993). The postmodern (or, more strictly speaking, poststructural) ethos, for example, militates against questions about global humanity. In poststructural circles, humanity is a social construction and fulfillment is a relative value. The rise in multicultural consciousness raises similar questions about humanistic precepts. There are as many “humanisms” for some multicultural thinkers as there are races, ethnic identities, and languages. Who can stand above them all and identify global human qualities? For some transpersonal and religious thinkers, on the other hand, humanism is shortsighted, indulgent, and devitalized. According to these thinkers, humanism is excessively preoccupied with individuals, personal achievements, and material realities. As a result, some transpersonal and religious thinkers accuse humanists of lacking faith, vision, and morality. Finally, technological thinkers accuse humanism of being fuzzy and impractical. Standardizing or technological psychologists (e.g., Salzinger, 1999), for example, tend to see humanists as undisciplined dreamers who consistently overestimate the value of feelings, intuition, and imagination while downplaying the corresponding value of logic, rationality, and systematization.

    At the same time as humanistic psychology is being besieged, however, some segments of humanistic psychology are being absorbed and transformed. So-called relational theorists, for example, are drawing on humanistic concepts such as authenticity and the interpersonal field to reform conventional psychoanalytic theory (Portnoy, 1999; Stolorow, Atwood, & Brandchaft, 1994). Positive psychology is conveying key humanistic concepts to the mainstream (Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi, 2000).

    Yet, humanism (and humanistic psychology in particular) is a great deal more complex than the conceptions of its detractors or even those of its transformers. As the contributors to this volume make clear, contemporary humanistic psychology has come a long way since the days of fuzzy-minded or idiosyncratic scholarship (to whatever extent those actually predominated). Now, it is a rich tapestry of diverse and reflective voices that often complement, inform, and even inspire their ostensible detractors. In this volume, for example, we see meditations on the humanistic contributions to cutting-edge research, discussions of the humanistic origins of postmodern narrative psychology, examinations of the complementarity between personal myths and contemporary physics, reflections on the place of humanistic psychology in cross-cultural studies, and considerations of the role of personalism in an era of “managed” mental health. We also see leading-edge formulations of humanistic ecology, peace, and gender studies along with many other traditional areas of inquiry.

    The upshot of this elaboration is that contemporary humanistic psychology is an integrative psychology that addresses the most pressing issues of our times. What, then, does contemporary humanistic psychology offer that is distinctive, unique, or vital? In our view, contemporary humanistic psychology brings that which the earlier generation of humanistic psychologists also prized—the heart or personal dimension to which we earlier alluded. Unlike the previous generation, however, contemporary humanistic psychology has the benefit of incorporating a wealth of recent insight into its personalism, for example, a recognition of its significance for politics and culture as well as for individuals (see the chapters by O'Hara [Chapter 36] and Warmoth [Chapter 48] in this volume) and an increased openness to its spiritual implications (see the chapters by Elkins [Chapter 16], Krippner [Chapter 22], Pilisuk & Joy [Chapter 9], and Walsh [Chapter 45] in this volume). The poignancy of the tragic also is highlighted (see the chapters by Stern [Chapter 31], Heery [Chapter 34], Greening [Chapter 12], and Mendelowitz [Chapter 13] in this volume) along with traditional humanistic accents on hope. In short, the new personalism embraces experiences that matter—that have “resonance validity” (see the chapter on multiple-case depth research by Schneider [Chapter 23] in this volume), regardless of whether or not those experiences pertain to individuals or groups, persons or divinities.

    Yet, it is precisely such experiences, and such openness, that psychology lacks today—on all of its major fronts. Consequently, it has withered, fragmented, and compartmentalized (Bevan & Kessel, 1994; Wertz, 1995). On the other hand, consider what the personal dimension (the intimate and resonant) could bring to psychology's various compo-nents—to the statistical mind-set of methodology, the standardization mentality of psychotherapy, the group consciousness of multiculturalism, the nihilism of poststructuralism, and the esoterics of transpersonalism.

    Sixteen years ago, Carl Rogers issued a challenge: Can humanistic psychology, with all of its applied and philosophical richness, become a force in academia and science (Rogers, 1985)? We believe that it can, and we believe that this volume makes its appearance at a critical historical juncture. To the extent that psychology is fractured, rivalrous, and rife with tension, it is also abundant with possibility.

    This volume, then, is a window on that possibility; it is a window on a larger view of science. Will the reader welcome this window? Indeed, we the editors believe that the reader will yearn to peer through.

    One final note is in order. This volume represents a massive collective undertaking. It is the first time, to our knowledge, that the humanistic community has mobilized so comprehensively, and so devotedly, around its own distinctive vision.

    There was, however, another time when the humanistic community undertook such a concerted project, and Bugental's (1967) Challenges of Humanistic Psychology was its embodiment. We are greatly indebted to both the participants in and the spirit of that trailblazer, and we bear its stamp with pride.

    Note

    1. These represent three basic emphases of contemporary humanistic psychology. Although these emphases overlap and sometimes are used interchangeably with one another (as well as with their umbrella context, i.e., humanistic psychology), they are generally considered to be separate yet historically linked (see the chapters by Moss [Chapter 1], Taylor & Martin [Chapter 2], Arons & Richards [Chapter 11], Josselson & Lieblich [Chapter 21], Leitner & Epting [Chapter 33], O'Hara [Chapter 36], Waddlington [Chapter 37], Walsh [Chapter 45], and Warmoth [Chapter 48] in this volume). Existential psychology emphasizes freedom, experiential reflection, and responsibility; transpersonal psychology stresses spirituality, transcendence, and compassionate social action; and constructivist psychology accents culture, political consciousness, and personal meaning.

    Kirk J.Schneider, James F. T.Bugental, and J. FraserPierson
    References
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    Bugental, J. F. T. (Ed.). (1967).Challenges of humanistic psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    DeCarvalho, R. J.(1991).The founders of humanistic psychology. New York: Praeger.
    Garraty, J. A., & Gay, P. (Eds.). (1972).The Columbia history of the world. New York: Harper & Row.
    Grondin, J.(1995).Sources of hermeneutics. Albany: State University of New York Press.
    Jones, W. T.(1969).Kant to Wittgenstein and Sartre: A history of Western philosophy. New York: Harcourt, Brace, & World.
    Martinez, T. J.Anthropos and existence: Gnostic parallels in the early writings of Rollo May. Journal of Humanistic Psychology38(4)(1998).95–109. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00221678980384008
    Moyers, B.(1997, May).Baccalaureate address. Paper presented at Brown University, Providence, RI.
    Portnoy, D.Relatedness: Where humanistic and psychoanalytic psychotherapy converge. Journal of Humanistic Psychology39(1)(1999).19–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022167899391004
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    Acknowledgments

    THE BIRTHING OF A BOOK of this magnitude is essentially a labor of love from inspiration and conceptualization to actualization in the very tangible form that the reader holds in his or her hands. We are warmly appreciative of the authors who enthusiastically and generously contributed their current products in theory, research, and practice so that, collaboratively, we could offer a “handbook” of humanistic psychology. We also thank our forebears in philosophy and psychology, whose contributions to the movement of humanistic psychology are of such significance that their presence resonates to our generation and is expressed—sometimes between the lines— throughout the chapters of this volume. We especially acknowledge Søren Kierkegaard, Friedrich Nietzsche, William James, Martin Buber, Edmund Husserl, Otto Rank, Martin Heidegger, Paul Tillich, Jean-Paul Sartre, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Gordon Allport, Charlotte Bühler, Erich Fromm, Henry Murray, Gardner Murphy, George Kelly, Abraham Maslow, Frederick Perls, Anthony Sutich, Rollo May, Carl Rogers, Virginia Satir, R. D. Laing, Sidney Jourard, and Ernest Becker.

    We are indebted to our editors at Sage Publications, Jim Nageotte, Jim Brace-Thompson, and Sanford Robinson, who embraced our vision, encouraged us to expand it, and assisted us through every step of the publishing process. Thank you for such a congenial and fruitful relationship.

    It is with joy and deepest love that we thank our spouses and dearest friends, Jurate Elena Raulinaitis, Elizabeth Keber Bugental, and Jeff Hubbell, for the innumerable ways in which they have contributed to this grand adventure. Their loving presence is our greatest inspiration.

  • Closing Statements

    FOLLOWING are three intimate reflections on this volume. In keeping with the humanistic spirit, these reflections are personal yet shared, distinctive yet collectively appreciated. Although we hesitated somewhat about how best to close this volume, we ultimately allied with the personal—as we encourage you, the reader, to do as you engage our meditations.

    James F. T. Bugental

    What does it really mean to be alive? I listen to my friends-teachers-patients as they wrestle with the death that is in them and try to claim more of the life that is also within them. And, of course, I don't come up with The Answer. Yet slowly I come to realize how all of us—if we will but really look and listen—can sense the life pulsing within. (Bugental, 1976, p. 9)

    We are in the early stages of one of the major revolutions of the human experience. Once [the person] felt he was at the center of the universe. Then science demonstrated the earth to be far from the center even of our own galaxy, showed the sun to be the center of the solar system, and in countless other ways dispossessed [the person] of his sense of specialness in the cosmos. It was important to our maturity that this occur. But now the time has come for [the person] to point to a new direction to a process that has overcarried….

    What I argue for is not a [person]-centered universe but [rather] a [person]-centered [person] in the universe. Let us come home to our own place in our own lives and set about making our destiny our own. (Bugental, 1967, p. 348)

    Psychology emerged from the mother of disciplines, philosophy, anxious to join its earlier siblings and to demonstrate its maturity as an adult science. It has done so by avoiding subjectivity that was deemed to be weak and not capable of standing on its own. Instead, persons were treated as interchangeable, and statistics came to match the laboratory as carrying the cachet of truth.

    Much useful, interesting, and (to a limited extent) practical has been harvested from the objectified psychology. In this volume, we acknowledge these benefits and trust that they will continue to be attained. Concisely, this is not so much a competitive stance as a complementary one. However, it is a complementation that inevitably must, at times, identify itself by contrasts with the more popularly familiar conception of an impersonal and truly objectified psychology.

    Humanistic or personalistic psychology must venture into that long-feared and avoided realm of the subjective. It is our contention that our discipline of psychology is incomplete so long as the actual lived experience of being human is neglected.

    To be sure, the methods and values of much that is called psychology cannot be transferred intact to this new and challenging realm. Methods of inquiry, of data processing, and of generalizing all must be reex-amined and, in some cases, reinvented.

    It is evident that the prospect is a challenging one that will call for all our inventiveness and, importantly, our patience.

    The task of any intellectual discipline is to distinguish that which is momentary and superficial from that which is fundamental and abiding. Subjective psychology seems, at first view, to offer few candidates to meet those criteria. It is our belief, however, that such an evaluation is too hasty and takes too little account of how much already is established.

    The chief vehicle of inquiring into the personal has been clinical theory and practice. By the very nature of the effort to respond to persons in emotional distress, we have had to attend to the subjective. Out of the wealth of clinical observations, we already have developed an abundant literature and a varied and creative praxis.

    The authors of the chapters in this volume write from varied backgrounds but are united in their will to mine the afore-mentioned—to seek the fundamental and abiding—and to extend the range of our discipline.

    James F. T.BugentalJ.Fraser PiersonKirk J.Schneider
    References
    Bugental, J. F. T.(1967).Challenges of humanistic psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Bugental, J. F. T.(1976).The search for existential identity: Patient-therapist dialogues in humanistic psychotherapy. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    J. Fraser Pierson

    In the “Epilogue and Prologue” to Challenges of Humanistic Psychology, Bugental (1967) defined the original meaning of psychology as “knowledge about the soul” (p. 346). Today, psychology is likely to be defined as “the science of mind and behavior” (Mish, 1988, p. 951), with the accent on modifying behavior or “medicalizing” the mind. The quest for ever-increasing depth and breadth of understanding of the psyche—“the human soul, spirit, or mind” (Flexner & Hauck, 1987, p. 1650)— remains at the heart of our discipline but, I believe, is nowhere more eloquently celebrated in theory, research, and practice than among existential and humanistic psychologists. The contributors to the present leading-edge volume give ample evidence of this assertion, as did the founders during the 1960s.

    Humanistic psychology once again is at a significant turning point in its development as a uniquely identified perspective within psychology. As Kirk Schneider points out in his closing comments, there are numerous indicators that suggest a renaissance for humanistic psychology—a renewal of interest and activity within the humanistic community and an increased receptivity within the field of psychology. This volume is both a reflection of the vitality of such a potential renaissance and a spur to its flowering. Collectively, the authors of chapters in the volume articulate that which epitomizes humanistic psychology at this time in its history. It is a living perspective and, as such, unfolds in keeping with the global consciousness of our era. We have needed to reassess—to reconsider what we stand for in addition to what we protest. It is my hope that we reunite as a worldwide humanistic community—and discipline of psychology—joined by our investment in the study of “human being” and commitment to “human becoming.”1

    Investment in the study of human being and commitment to human becoming is expressed throughout this volume but is particularly apparent in the parts on Humanistic Applications to Practice (Part IV) and Humanistic Applications to Broader Settings (Part V). We now know that conceptualizations of the vital and fulfilled life first bloom within the context of relationship and culture. The universal culture that we share as members of the human species combines with the ecological, national, regional, and racial/ethnic cultures in which we are socialized. All play roles (see the chapter by Vontress & Epp [Chapter 29] in this volume).

    I believe that Maslow's (1967) call for “resacralization” (p. 284) is being heard. As he described it, when we are open to sacralization, we see each person we encounter in context and relationship, as unique and intrinsically precious, as woman with a capital W and man with a capital M. We do not forfeit the sacred, poetic, and eternal.

    Maslow's (1967) B-motivation, or the “being” values (p. 281; see also Maslow, 1978), guides humanistic psychology now as it did during the early years. A yen to foster the “growth” needs (i.e., meta-needs or actualizing needs) such as aliveness, richness, meaningfulness, playfulness, and lovingness (Goble, 1970, p. 50) radiates throughout the chapters in this volume. The quest is to know humankind “as is” and also to know humankind “under the auspices of eternity” (Spinoza, cited in Maslow, 1967, p. 284).

    Some 20 years ago, one aspect of being fully human was “to have concerns that extend beyond self and immediate family to the nation and all humankind” (Simpson, 1977, p. 76). Today, our concerns extend to all sentient creatures and life forms with which we share our planet. This contemporary addendum is not only altruistic but also anchored in our innermost needs to “discover” ourselves through our relations with others. Reflecting on her encounters with free-ranging dolphins, Frohoff (1998) articulated the significant personal dividend resulting from this ethic when she disclosed that “it is from being in the presence of another species that I have learned how to be more‘human’ ” (p. 79). A similar observation was made by Akerman (1995), who poignantly stated, “There are wonderful creatures that have roamed the earth much longer than we, creatures that not only are worthy of our respect but [also] could teach us about ourselves” (p. xi). More pointedly, Akerman reminded us that we need to take our turns “on morning watch” so that we may save our astoundingly biodiverse planet and ourselves. I am grateful to Pilisuk and Joy (Chapter 9 in this volume) for representing a humanistic perspective in this urgent worldwide human concern. As Campbell put it so cogently, “Today, the planet is the only proper‘in-group’ ” (cited in Osbon, 1991, p. 25).

    Since its coalescence as the “third force” nearly four decades ago, humanistic psychology has identified its central mission as “seek[ing] to bring psychology back to its source, to the psyche” (Matson, 1978, p. 23; see also the chapter by Giorgi [Chapter 5] in this volume). It is a mission of almost mythic proportions. Numerous publications, conferences, experiential workshops, and academic courses presently associated with humanistic psychology document our valiant efforts and successes in this direction.

    There is yet another way in which we honor and actualize our central mission, and I wish to close by highlighting it. This path draws on the wellspring of the subjective realm within each of us and embraces the feminine.2 We bring psychology back to its source by how we live our lives (see chapter by Kottler & Hazler [Chapter 28] in this volume), how we choose to be alive on the earth, and how we celebrate our existence (our own and as a species) as well as by our openness to the cosmos.

    It is with this awe and reverence that Walt Whitman celebrates existence and the profound mystery of the soul—the animating force in life. Whitman's words and imagery in “Grand Is the Seen” from Leaves of Grass resonate within me. They are timeless and convey a passionate sacred sense of soul (psyche) and a powerful way of being alive in the world:

    Grand is the seen, the light, to me—grand are the sky and stars,Grand is the earth, and grand arelasting time and space,And grand their laws, so multiform,puzzling, evolutionary;But grander far the unseen soul ofme, comprehending, endowing allthose,Lighting the light, the sky and stars,delving the earth, sailing the sea,(What were all those, indeed, withoutthee, unseen soul?Of what amount without thee?)More evolutionary, vast, puzzling, Omy soul! More multiform far—more lastingthou than they. (Whitman, n.d., p. 422)

    Whitman is remembered as a man who had “largeness of view” (Trowbridge, 1902/ 2000, p. 18). He sought to bring nature, “especially nature's living masterpiece” (humankind), into his poetry with unflinching realism yet imbued with optimism, love, it is this vision that we celebrate in this and faith (p. 18). Humanistic psycholo- volume. gists also have such “largeness of view,” and it is this vision that we celebrate in this volume.

    Notes

    1. I have adapted part of this phrase from Matson's (1978) statement, “Humanistic psychology is not just the study of‘human being’; it is a commitment to‘human becoming’ ” (p. 23).

    2. I am inspired by Williams's (1994) concept of “embracing the bear” as embracing the feminine. Her definition of the feminine includes “a reconnection to the self, a commitment to the wildness within” (p. 53).

    References
    Akerman, D.(1995).The rarest of the rare: Vanishing animals, timeless worlds. New York: Random House.
    Bugental, J. F. T.(1967).Challenges of humanistic psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Flexner, S. B., & Hauck, L. C.(Eds.). (1987).The Random House dictionary of the English language, unabridged (2nd ed.). New York: Random House.
    Frohoff, T. G.(1998).Beyond species. In L. Hogan, D. Metzger, & B. Peterson(Eds.), Intimate nature: The bond between woman and animals (pp. 78–84). New York: Fawcett.
    Goble, F. G.(1970).The third force. New York: Grossman.
    Maslow, A. H.(1967).Self-actualization and beyond. In J. F. T. Bugental(Ed.), Challenges of humanistic psychology (pp. 279–286). New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Maslow, A. H.(1978).Notes on being-psychology. In I. D. Walsh, G. A. Tate, & F. Richards(Eds.), Humanistic psychology: A source book (pp. 33–39). New York: Prometheus Books.
    Matson, F. W.(1978).Humanistic theory: The third revolution in psychology. In I. D. Welch, G. A. Tate, & F. Richards(Eds.), Humanistic psychology: A source book (pp. 23–32). New York: Prometheus Books.
    Mish, F. C.(Ed.). (1988).Webster's ninth new collegiate dictionary. Springfield, MA: Merriam Webster.
    Osbon, D. K.(Ed.). (1991).Reflections on the art of living: A Joseph Campbell companion. New York: HarperCollins.
    Simpson, E. L.(1977).Humanistic psychology: An attempt to define human nature. In D. D. Nevill(Ed.), Humanistic psychology: New frontiers (pp. 67–86). New York: Gardner.
    Trowbridge, J. T.(2000, February).Reminiscences of Walt Whitman. The Atlantic Monthly [Online]. Available: http://www.thealantic.com/unbound/poetry/whitman/walt.htm (Original work published 1902)
    Whitman, W.(n.d.).Leaves of grass. New York: Modern Library.
    Williams, T. T.(1994).An unspoken hunger: Stories from the field. New York: Random House.
    Kirk J. Schneider

    We stand at an incredible threshold in our discipline, and this volume is a direct reflection of that crossing point. The question is, will we coalesce—as many authors of chapters in this volume have done—to forge a generous science of humanity, or will we devolve into a competing anarchy of factions or, worse yet, a monolithic elite?

    The term humanism in psychology is anachronistic. As this volume suggests, and as many humanists insist, psychology and humanism should be synonymous, just as the “science of persons” should be synonymous with the “science of behavior.” Unfortunately, these respective standpoints are not yet interwoven—they are not even compatible in selected quarters—hence the necessity of this volume. Yet, the signs are accumulating that a humanistic revival is brewing, that the courtship with psychological reductionism (or, on the other hand, extreme psychological relativism) is beginning to wane, and that change is afoot. Countertrends notwithstanding, there is a decidedly humanistic flavor to a growing number of developments. Consider, for example, that the flagship journal of the American Psychological Association (APA), the American Psychologist, is featuring an increasing number of humanistic critiques (Bevan & Kessel, 1994; Brown, 1997; Goldfried & Wolfe, 1996; Martin & Sugarman, 2000, Packer, 1985; Prilleltensky, 1997; Schneider, 1998; Smith, 1994). Coupled with the increased attention to humanistic themes in mainstream journal articles, an impressive number of humanistic anthologies also have emerged on the scene. Among these are The Handbook of Experiential Psychotherapy (Greenberg, Watson, & Lietaer, 1998), Humanistic and Transpersonal Psychology (Moss, 1999), The Humanistic Movement (Wertz, 1994), Empathy Reconsidered (Bohart & Greenberg, 1997), The Handbook of Research and Practice in Humanistic Psychotherapies (Cain & Seeman, in press), and The Handbook of Action Research (Reason, in press).

    With its stress on the exalted, ennobling, and inspiring dimensions of human functioning, positive psychology is forging an unprecedented opportunity for bridge building among humanistic and traditional psychologists. This bridge building could bring powerful new investigative tools to neglected areas of psychological study— areas such as wisdom, creativity, peak performance, peace and ecological psychology, and holistic health (Resnick, Warmoth, & Serlin, 2000).

    In the area of psychotherapy practice and research, there has been a particular resurgence of humanistic influence. At the June 2000 meeting of the prestigious Society for Psychotherapy Research, the incoming president, Robert Elliott, introduced his amalgam of humanistic and traditional outcome research, “hermeneutic single-case efficacy design,” to a full and captivated audience (Elliott, 2000; see also the chapter by Elliott [Chapter 24] in this volume). There were also a number of well-attended presentations on qualitative research including those on qualitative outcome research, narrative research, adjudication models of research, and multiple-case research. For the past several years, I have had both the privilege and the challenge to act as the APA's Division 32 (Humanistic Psychology) liaison to the Template Implementation Work Group, the APA committee that oversees the development of guidelines for therapeutic practice (APA, 1995). Although I (and others) have had disagreements with this committee over the years, I am encouraged to report that, as of this writing, a significant revision has emerged from our respective dialogues and that this revision has a decidedly humanistic cast (APA, 2000). Moreover, at the APA's August 2000 meeting, its Council of Representatives unanimously approved of this revision, authorizing it as policy. These events, in my view, represent a landmark humanistic advance. Furthermore, they reflect a marked shift within APA policy-making channels, where science does not ipso facto mean experimentalism but can make room for the qualitative and personal as well. Among the highlights of the revision are a broadened view of the criteria that constitute positive therapeutic outcome, a deemphasis on randomized controlled trials as the “gold standard” by which all therapies should be assessed, an increased recognition of the value of alternative outcome methodologies such as quasi-experimental and even rigorous qualitative studies where appropriate, and an increased acknowledgment of the complexity of outcome research and the obligation of guideline makers to address that complexity.

    A humanistic transformation also appears to be auguring at the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). Under its reform-minded director, Stephen Hyman, the institute now is calling for more relevant, diverse, and in-depth therapy outcome studies. The shift from randomized controlled trials to that which the NIMH terms “effectiveness” research is a pivotal aspect of the aforementioned transition (Foxhall, 2000).

    Finally, the Old Saybrook 2 conference, concisely detailed by Warmoth in this volume (Chapter 48), was a timely reflection of the renewed humanistic ethos in psychology. Although there were concerns as well as self-critiques aired at that 4-day gathering, there was an overriding sense of vigor, urgency, and commitment evident in the work sessions.

    To sum, humanistic psychology, as Taylor put it so succinctly, is at a crossroads, but so is the profession that inspired it. The question is, will these fields find ways in which to cooperate, to transcend their parochialism, and to link their traditions, or will they continue to clash, to go their separate ways, and to further subject the profession to impoverishment and eventual co-optation? For humanistic psychology, this question rides on two essential tracks: the willingness to bolster its scholarly output and the willingness to further articulate its scientific perspective (particularly as it relates to social policy). For organized psychology, the question is one of integrity. Will organized psychology return to its original (humanistic) inquiries (what does it mean to be fully experientially human, and how does that understanding illuminate the vital or fulfilled life?), or will it be co-opted by current fashions (e.g., biologism, technicism, nihilism) and atrophy as a result?

    I hope that we have shown in this volume that a full and human psychology is an experiential psychology, a psychology that embraces all dimensions of human awareness and subawareness but particularly those that have meaning, impact, and significance for each given person. The challenge is to articulate that meaningful resonance— to weave out of it a rich and subtly nuanced theory, philosophy, or guideline—and to apply that understanding to a diverse and hungering populace. This is a populace that has been bombarded by cosmetic fixes but that yearns, I believe, for existential sustenance. Have we responded to that yearning in this volume? I emphatically believe that we have. Although “sustained good work” needs to continue, as Csikszentmihalyi noted in the Preface to the volume, we have shown that excellent work already has been done and deserves to be acknowledged. Furthermore, we have shown that humanistic psychology is a rich mlange in which joy and sorrow, the personal and interpersonal, and the finite and infinite all have their place and in which “self”-actualization (i.e., the actualization of intimate capacities) is a general ethic.

    Can the ideals of humanistic psychology be achieved? Is society ready for those ideals? I do not know. What I do know and share exuberantly with this volume is that they must be engaged.

    References
    American Psychological Association. (1995).Template for developing guidelines: Interventions for mental disorders and psychosocial aspects of physical disorders. Washington, DC: Author.
    American Psychological Association. (2000, March). Criteria for evaluating treatment guidelines [Draft]. Washington, DC: Author.
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    Cain, D. J., & Seeman, J.(Eds.). (in press). The handbook of research and practice in humanistic psychotherapies. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
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    Foxhall, K.(2000, July-August).Research for the real world. APA Monitor, pp. 28–36. (Washington, DC: American Psychological Association)
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    Reason, P.(Ed.). (in press). The handbook of action research: Participative inquiry and practice. London: Sage.
    Resnick, S.Warmoth, A.Serlin, I.The humanistic psychology and positive psychology connection: Implications for psychotherapy. Journal of Humanistic Psychology41(1)(2000).73–101. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022167801411006
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    Warmoth, A., Resnick, S., & Serlin, I.(2000). Contributions of humanistic psychology to positive psychology. Old Saybrook 2 [online]. Available: http://www.westga.edu/psydept/os2/current.html
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    Appendix

    Regionally Accredited Graduate Schools in Humanistic and Transpersonal Psychology

    The following is a limited sample of regionally accredited humanistic and transpersonal graduate programs in psychology. This list is intended to be a resource for the interested reader. It is neither evaluative nor exhaustive. For specific information regarding addresses, programs, and degrees, contact either the individual school or the State University of West Georgia.

    Western Region

    Antioch University, Marina Del Rey, CA

    Antioch University-Seattle, Seattle, WA

    California Institute of Integral Studies, San Francisco, CA

    Institute in Culture and Creation Spirituality, Oakland, CA

    Institute of Transpersonal Psychology, Palo Alto, CA

    John F. Kennedy University Graduate School for Holistic Studies, Orinda, CA

    John F. Kennedy University Graduate School of Professional Psychology, Orinda, CA

    Naropa Institute, Boulder, CO

    Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA

    Pepperdine University, Department of Psychology, Culver City, CA

    Rosebridge Graduate School of Integrative Psychology, Concord, CA

    Saybrook Graduate School and Research Center, San Francisco, CA

    Seattle University, Department of Psychology, Seattle, WA

    Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, CA

    Southwestern College, Department of Psychology, Santa Fe, NM

    Midwestern Region

    Center for Humanistic Studies, Detroit, MI

    Graduate School of America, Minneapolis, MN

    Union Institute Graduate School, Cincinnati, OH

    Walden University, Minneapolis, MN

    Southern Region

    State University of West Georgia, Carrollton, GA

    Northeast Region

    Duquesne University, Department of Psychology, Pittsburgh, PA

    Goddard College, Plainfield, VT

    Lesley College, Cambridge, MA

    Norwich University, Montpelier, VT

    Salve Regina University, Newport, RI

    SOURCE: All school listings are excerpted from Directory: Graduate Programs in Humanistic-Transpersonal Psychology in North America (5th ed., 1996), published and distributed by the Department of Psychology, State University of West Georgia, Carrollton, GA30118. Copyright ©1981 by Division 32 of the American Psychological Association. All rights reserved. To the best of the editors' knowledge, all schools listed were regionally accredited at the initial time of publication. For an update on this listing and on other humanistic-transpersonal psychology programs, contact the Department of Psychology at the State University of West Georgia.

    Author Index

    About the Editors

    Kirk J. Schneider is a psychologist in private practice in San Francisco, where he is a co-founder and current president of the Existential-Humanistic Institute. He serves on the editorial boards of the Psychotherapy Patient, the Journal of Humanistic Psychology, and the Review of Existential Psychology and Psychiatry. He is an adjunct faculty member at Saybrook Graduate School and Research Center (of which he is also an alumnus) and at the California Institute for Integral Studies. His books include The Paradoxical Self: Toward an Understanding of Our Contradictory Nature (2nd ed., 1999), Horror and the Holy: Wisdom-Teachings of the Monster Tale (1993), and The Psychology of Existence: An Integrative Clinical Perspective (co-authored with Rollo May, 1995). He has lectured and published widely and is wholeheartedly committed to restoring depth, romanticism, and awe to 21st century consciousness.

    James F. T. Bugental has been a major spokesperson for the humanistic perspective since its coalescence into an influential movement in the field of psychology more than 40 years ago. He is currently an emeritus and adjunct faculty member at Saybrook Graduate School and Research Center and an emeritus and clinical faculty member at Stanford Medical School. He continues to supervise, teach, and write about existential-humanistic psychology and psychotherapy. His major publications include Psychotherapy Isn't What You Think (1999), Intimate Journeys: Stories From Life-Changing Psychotherapy (1990), The Art of the Psychotherapist (1987), Psychotherapy and Process: The Fundamentals of an Existential-Humanistic Approach (1978), The Search for Existential Identity: Patient-Therapist Dialogues in Humanistic Psychotherapy (1976), The Search for Authenticity: An Existential-Analytic Approach to Psychotherapy (1965), and (as editor) Challenges of Humanistic Psychology (1967). He also has published more than 80 articles in professional and technical journals as well as 25 original chapters in books edited by others. Translations of his work can be found in French, Finnish, Spanish, German, Dutch, Russian, Italian, Chinese, and Japanese. He serves on the editorial review boards of the Journal of Humanistic Psychology, the Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, The Humanistic Psychologist, and the American Journal of Psychotherapy.

    J. Fraser Pierson is a licensed psychologist and Associate Professor of Psychology at Southern Oregon University (SOU), where she teaches a variety of undergraduate and graduate courses within the mental health counseling and human services tracks. She completed her doctoral work at the University of Georgia and an American Psychological Association-approved internship in the Student Services Center at Iowa State University. Prior to coming to SOU, she served as a counselor at the University of West Florida and the Clarion University of Pennsylvania counseling centers. The humanistic and existential perspectives have long inspired and informed her work as a psychotherapist, educator, and counselor-in-training supervisor. Her current scholarly interests include psychotherapist preparation and training, women's self and worldview transformations associated with participation in adventurous sports activities, and the personal meanings associated with experiences and encounters in the natural world. She is a naturalist and mariner by avocation.

    About the Contributors

    Christopher M. Aanstoos is Professor of Psychology and a member of the graduate faculty at the State University of West Georgia. He received his Ph.D. in phenomenological psychology from Duquesne University. After having previously taught at LaRoche College and Pennsylvania State University, he joined the humanistic psychology program at the State University of West Georgia in 1982. He is a fellow of the American Psychological Association and has served as president of its Division 32 (Humanistic Psychology). He is editor of that division's journal, The Humanistic Psychologist, and has edited two books: Studies in Humanistic Psychology and Exploring the Lived World. He has published more than 70 articles and chapters and has lectured widely.

    Mike Arons is Professor Emeritus at the State University of West Georgia. He completed his bachelor of arts degree with a major in psychology at Wayne State University in 1961; completed his doctorate in philosophy at the Sorbonne, Université de Paris, in 1965; and earned a postdoctorate master's degree in psychology at Brandeis University in 1967. Under Paul Ricoeur, he wrote his doctoral dissertation on the subject of creativity and its spur to the emerging cultural revolution, and he later served as a teaching assistant to Abraham Maslow. For a combined 24 years, he chaired and was instrumental in pioneering two humanistically oriented psychology programs: one on Prince Edward Island, Canada, and the other at the State University of West Georgia. He has served as president of Division 32 (Humanistic Psychology) of the American Psychological Association and as president of the Association for Humanistic Education, and he has twice served on the board of the Association for Humanistic Psychology. He is credited with more than 250 publications in areas including topics such as humanistic-transpersonal psychology, creativity and intuition, values and ethics, and a vision for a new vocation in psychology. He is a recipient of the Division 32 Charlotte Bühler and Abraham H. Maslow Awards.

    Arthur Bohart is Professor of Psychology at California State University, Dominguez Hills. He also is an adjunct professor and curriculum consultant at Saybrook Graduate School and Research Center. He received his doctoral degree in clinical psychology from the University of California, Los Angeles. He is coauthor of How Clients Make Therapy Work: The Process of Active Self-Healing (1999), co-editor of two other volumes, Empathy Reconsidered: New Directions in Psychotherapy (1997) and Constructive and Destructive Behavior (2000); and coauthor of a textbook, Foundations of Clinical and Counseling Psychology (1999). He fervently believes that therapy is a process of two intelligent beings meeting and creatively dialoging rather than that of a supposed expert (the therapist) changing the client with supposedly potent interventions, and he currently is fighting a rearguard battle to preserve this idea in an era of fascination with technology and purported “empirically supported treatments.”

    G. Kenneth Bradford is Adjunct Professor at both John F. Kennedy University and the California Institute of Integral Studies. He practices psychotherapy and consultation in the San Francisco Bay Area, working with individuals and couples. His teaching and therapy practice is guided by existential principles and contemplative Buddhist sensibilities. He is a licensed psychologist and obtained his Ph.D. in psychology (clinical concentration) from the Saybrook Institute.

    Scott D. Churchill is Chair of Psychology at the University of Dallas, where his professional focus is on the development of phe-nomenological and hermeneutic methodologies. He is a licensed psychologist who earned his doctorate in clinical phenomenological psychology at Duquesne University. He is an active member of Divisions 24 (Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology) and 32 (Humanistic Psychology) of the American Psychological Association. His recent publications include articles in the Journal of Phenomenological Psychology and the Encyclopedia of Psychology as well as a chapter in the edited Phenomenological Inquiry: Existential and Transpersonal Dimensions. He is editor-in-chief of Methods: A Journal for Human Science, serves on several editorial boards, and is a television film critic in his spare time.

    Eleanor Criswell is Professor of Psychology and former chair of the Psychology Department at Sonoma State University. She is the founding director of the Humanistic Psychology Institute (now Saybrook Graduate School and Research Center). She is editor of Somatics Magazine and director of the Novato Institute for Somatic Research and Training. She is a past president of the Association for Humanistic Psychology and Division 32 (Humanistic Psychology) of the American Psychological Association.

    Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi is the C. S. and D. J. Davidson Professor of Psychology in the Peter F. Drucker Graduate School of Management at Claremont Graduate University. He also is director of the Quality of Life Research Center. He is a former professor and chair of the Department of Psychology at the University of Chicago. He is the author of 15 books and more than 200 scholarly articles on creativity and optimal performance. Drawing on years of systematic research, he invented the concept of “flow” as a metaphorical description of the rare mental state associated with feelings of optimal satisfaction and fulfillment. His analysis of the internal and external conditions giving rise to flow show that it almost always is linked to circumstances of high challenge when personal skills are used to the utmost. He has been a visiting professor at the University of Waterloo in Ontario, the University of Illinois, the University of Milan, the University of Alberta, Escola Paulista de Medecina in São Paulo (Brazil), Duquesne University, the University of Maine, the University of Jyvakyla (Finland), and the British Psychological Society.

    O. Fred Donaldson is a play specialist internationally recognized for his pioneering use of play as an alternative to competition, abuse, and aggression. For more than 30 years, he has played with children and animals and has trained adults in the significance and use of play. He currently is a play consultant to numerous educational and health institutions in the United States and Sweden. He has written a Pulitzer Prize-nominated book, Playing by Heart, and has authored more than 35 articles and book chapters on play.

    David N. Elkins is a licensed psychologist and Professor of Psychology in the Graduate School of Education and Psychology at Pepperdine University. He is a past president of Division 32 (Humanistic Psychology) of the American Psychological Association. He is the author of Beyond Religion: A Personal Program for Building a Spiritual Life Outside the Walls of Traditional Religion (1998).

    Robert Elliott has taught at the University of Toledo since 1978, where he is Professor of Psychology and Director of the Doctoral Program in Clinical Psychology. He received his Ph.D. in clinical psychology from the University of California, Los Angeles, in 1978. He is director of the Center for the Study of Experiential Psychotherapy and president of the Society for Psychotherapy Research and served as coeditor of the journal Psychotherapy Research from 1994 to 1998. He is coauthor of Facilitating Emotional Change (with Leslie Greenberg and Laura Rice) and Research Methods for Clinical and Counseling Psychology (with Chris Barker and Nancy Pistrang).

    Lawrence R. Epp is Psychiatric Therapist in the School-Based Mental Health Program at the Johns Hopkins Hospital, one of the nation's most innovative mental health programs. He is the immediate past president of the Maryland Association for Multicultural Counseling and Development. He is an adjunct faculty member at the Johns Hopkins University and at Bowie State University.

    Franz R. Epting is Professor of Counseling Psychology in the Department of Psychology at the University of Florida and holds an adjunct appointment within the University Counseling Center. He studied with George Kelly while a graduate student at the Ohio State University. He has been a visiting professor at the University of London, University of Utrecht, and the Ohio State University. He was co-chair of the Fifth International Congress on Personal Construct Psychology and recently was awarded a Lifetime Achievement Award from the North American Personal Construct Theory Network. Active in both constructivist and humanistic psychology, he has published 4 books and more than 80 articles on counseling and personality psychology covering issues in death orientation, optimal functioning, constructivist assessment and psychotherapy, human science methodology, and (more recently) constructivist approaches to sexual orientation and gender. He is a fellow of the American Psychological Association and is most active in Division 32 (Humanistic Psychology), serving as chair of that division's Fellows Committee.

    David Feinstein is a clinical/community psychologist who brings mythological perspective to personal, organizational, and community change. He is coauthor of Personal Mythology: The Mythic Path and Rituals for Living and Dying. He has served on the faculties of the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and Antioch College.

    Constance T. Fischer is Professor of Psychology and Director of the Psychology Clinic at Duquesne University. She is a diplomate in clinical psychology and engages in a part-time private practice. She is on the editorial boards of The Humanistic Psychologist, the Journal of Humanistic Psychology, Methods: A Journal for Human Science, and Clinical Case Studies. She is currently president of Division 32 (Humanistic Psychology) of the American Psychological Association. Her current projects include editing a volume on qualitative research methods for psychology, preparing a second edition of Individualizing Psychological Assessment, and researching the experience of becoming angry through a human-science psychology perspective.

    Maurice Friedman is Professor Emeritus of Religious Studies, Philosophy, and Comparative Literature at San Diego State University and is Co-Director of the Institute of Dialogical Psychotherapy. Among his 23 published books are Martin Buber's Life and Work (3 vols.), The Healing Dialogue in Psychotherapy, Encounter on the Narrow Ridge: A Life of Martin Buber, and Dialogue and the Human Image: Beyond Humanistic Psychology.

    Amedeo Giorgi is Professor of Psychology at Saybrook Graduate School and Research Center. He also is a former acting dean of that school. He received his Ph.D. in experimental psychology from Fordham University in 1958. He is the author of Psychology as a Human Science and was the founder and first editor (25 years) of the Journal of Phenomenological Psychology. He has published more than 100 articles on various aspects of the relationship between the phenomenological approach and issues in systematic psychology. Based on the works of Edmund Husserl and Maurice Merleau-Ponty, he is developing a scientific framework for a psychology of human persons as well as a method for researching psychological experiences.

    Thomas Greening has been practicing existential-humanistic psychotherapy in the same office for more than four decades. He is on the faculty of Saybrook Graduate School and Research Center and is editor of the Journal of Humanistic Psychology. He sometimes reads and writes poems as part of his attempts to become more authentic.

    Richard J. Hazler is Professor of Counselor Education at Ohio University. He has years of experience as an instructor and a counselor in schools, prisons, the military, and private practice and as a former editor of the Journal of Humanistic Education and Development. He has authored or coauthored numerous humanistically oriented articles and books including The Therapeutic Environment: Core Conditions for Facilitating Therapy, Helping in the Hallways, What You Never Learned in Graduate School, The Emerging Professional Counselor, and Breaking the Cycle of Violence.

    Myrtle Heery is Associate Professor in the Graduate In-Depth Psychology Program at Sonoma State University, Director of the International Institute for Humanistic Studies, and a Teaching Associate with James F. T. Bugental. Some of her publications include an excerpt from her doctoral dissertation, Hearing Voices, A Non-Psychotic Approach (translated into five languages), Mourning the Death of a Loved One, A Cross-Cultural Approach, and Food for the Soul, A Psychotherapist's Journey Teaching in Russia. More recently she has coauthored Unearthing the Moment and Listening to the Listener (in press). She has lectured at Moscow State University and the State Pedagogical University in St. Petersburg, Russia. In addition to her private psychotherapy practice, she volunteers for hospice as a bereavement counselor and provides trainings in existential-humanistic psychotherapy in Russia, Europe, Mexico, Canada, and the United States.

    Adelbert H. Jenkins is Clinical Psychologist and Associate Professor of Psychology at New York University. His scholarly interests include the application of humanistic perspectives on psychological agency to the consideration of people of color in America. The second edition of his book, Psychology and African Americans: A Humanistic Approach, was published in 1995. He also has published on topics related to teleologic philosophical issues in clinical psychology and psychoanalytic theory.

    Ruthellen Josselson is on the faculty of the Fielding Institute and is Professor of Psychology at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem. She received her Ph.D. in clinical psychology from the University of Michigan. She is a recipient of the Henry A. Murray Award from the American Psychological Association and of a Fulbright Fellowship. She also is a practicing psychotherapist. She is the author of Revising Herself: The Story of Women's Identity From College to Midlife and The Space Between Us: Exploring the Dimensions of Human Relationships, and she is coeditor of the annual, The Narrative Study of Lives. Most recently, she coauthored Best Friends: The Pleasures and Perils of Girls' and Women's Friendships.

    Melanie Joy is a doctoral student in psychology at Saybrook Graduate School and Research Center, with a concentration in ecological psychology. She has been an activist for animal rights and environmental ethics for more than a decade. She also holds a master's degree from the Harvard Graduate School of Education and conducts classes and workshops on vegetarianism in Boston.

    Jeffrey A. Kottler is Chair of the Counseling Department at California State University, Fullerton. He is the author of over 40 books in psychology, counseling, and related fields including On Being a Therapist, The Imperfect Therapist, Compassionate Therapy: Working With Difficult Clients, Growing a Therapist, Travel That Can Change Your Life, Language of Tears, Learning Group Leadership: An Experiential Approach, Nuts and Bolts of Helping, and Doing Good: Passion and Commitment for Helping Others.

    Stanley Krippner is Professor of Psychology at Saybrook Graduate School and Research Center. He has served as president of the Association for the Study of Dreams, the Association for Humanistic Psychology, the Parapsychological Association, and two divisions of the American Psychological Association. He is the coauthor of several books including Personal Mythology, The Mythic Path, Spiritual Dimensions of Healing, and Dream Telepathy. He is the editor of Dreamtime and Dreamwork and eight volumes of Advances in Parapsychological Research, and he is coeditor of Broken Images, Broken Selves: Dissociative Narratives in Clinical Practice and Varieties of Anomalous Experience: Examining the Scientific Evidence.

    Larry M. Leitner is Professor of Psychology at Miami University (Ohio). He has published more than 50 books, chapters, and articles dealing with various topics relevant to humanistic psychology. He is on the editorial boards of the Journal of Constructivist Psychology and The Psychotherapy Patient. He is a fellow of the American Psychological Association (APA) and president-elect of Division 32 (Humanistic Psychology) of the APA.

    Amia Lieblich is Professor of Psychology at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem, where she also received her Ph.D. in 1969. She has been a visiting professor at several universities in the United States including the University of California, Los Angeles; the University of California, Berkeley; and the University of Michigan. Her major interests are in the areas of cultural psychology (specifically the impact of the social-political reality in Israel on the lives of men and women in that country), the psychology of gender, and life stories. During recent years, she has done most of her research using narrative approaches. Among her early English publications are Tin Soldiers on Jerusalem Beach and Kibbutz Makom. More recent publications include Seasons of Captivity, Conversations With Dvora, and Narrative Research: Reading, Analysis, and Interpretation. Together with Ruthellen Josselson, she is the editor of six volumes of The Narrative Study of Lives, published by Sage.

    Arthur Lyons is Professor of Psychology at Moravian College in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, and an evaluation and research consultant with the Davison Group, a humanistically oriented consulting firm. He conducts workshops on diversity, conflict resolution, prejudice reduction, and team building. His applied research topics have included educational reform, benchmarking projects for school districts, high-risk freshman advising programs, youth sports, and work redesign projects in various industrial settings. He also serves as treasurer and membership co-chair for Division 32 (Humanistic Psychology) of the American Psychological Association.

    Michael J. Mahoney is Professor of Psychology at the University of North Texas. He also is a distinguished adjunct faculty member at Saybrook Graduate School and Research Center. He is the author of the book Human Change Processes and currently serves as editor of the journal Constructivism in the Human Sciences.

    Sean Mahoney is a poet, playwright, and musician residing in Blacksburg, Virginia. His work reflects an exploration of the intricacies of subjective experience and the trappings of existential being. He currently is examining the growing relationships among self psychology, consciousness studies, and the realm of artistic expression.

    Alvin Mahrer is Professor Emeritus in the School of Psychology at the University of Ottawa. He is the author of 12 books and more than 200 publications. He is a former president of Division 32 (Humanistic Psychology) of the American Psychological Association (APA) and is a recipient of the Distinguished Psychologist Award of the APA's Division 29 (Psychotherapy). He probably is best known for his experiential theory of psychology, his experiential psychotherapy and self-transformation, his discovery-oriented research paradigm, and his application of philosophy of science to the field of psychotherapy.

    Frederick Martin is a doctoral student at Saybrook Graduate School and Research Center and works with acute psychiatric patients as an intake specialist in a private hospital in Freemont, California. He has a master's degree in public administration. He also is a full-time clinician in the psychiatric emergency room for Alameda County and is a licensed psychiatric technician and hospital administrator. His current interests embrace humanistic psychology's history, meaning, and contemporary significance.

    Edward Mendelowitz earned his Ph.D. at the California School of Professional Psychology, where he worked closely with Rollo May. He has presented papers at recent American Psychological Association conferences on individuation and Oedipus, film and postmodernism, ethics and Eastern thought, and the roots of depth psychology. He presently serves on the faculty of the annual film and psychology series sponsored by the Boston Institute of Psychotherapy. His writing gets to the heart of the humanistic-existential-aesthetical bases of our field in its evocation of imagination, transience, possibility, and awe.

    Alfonso Montuori is Associate Professor at the California Institute of Integral Studies and a consultant with Lisardco, a leading San Francisco Bay Area executive development firm. He conducts research in the area of creativity and innovation, systems and complexity theories, planetary culture, organizational theory, strategy and strategic thinking, and cultural epistemology. Formally a professional musician with several recordings to his credit and an interpreter for Scotland Yard in London, he has taught at the Saybrook Institute, the College of Notre Dame, and the South-Central University of Technology in Changsha (People's Republic of China). He has published several books including Evolutionary Competence (1989), From Power to Partnership (with Isabella Conti, 1993), and Creators on Creating (with F. A. Barron, 1997) and numerous articles in publications including the Academy of Management Review, the Journal of Management Education, and the Journal of Humanistic Psychology. He has consulted with many international corporations in regard to partnership, creativity and innovation, and systems thinking. He is book series editor of Advances in Systems Theory, Complexity, and the Human Sciences, associate editor of World Futures: The Journal of General Evolution, a member of the editorial boards of Pluriverso (Italy) and Elites (Italy), and a reviewer for Human Relations and the Journal of Organizational Change Management.

    Loren Mosher is Director of Soteria Associates, a San Diego-based human service systems consulting firm, and Clinical Professor of Psychiatry in the School of Medicine at the University of California at San Diego. He received his M.D. and psychiatric training at Harvard University. He served as chief of the Center for Studies of Schizophrenia at the National Institute of Mental Health from 1968 to 1980. He designed and directed the Soteria Project (1970 to 1983), from which data still are being analyzed. His 1994 book (with Lorenzo Burti), Community Mental Health, provides practical guidelines for the development of user-centered, recovery-oriented, community mental health systems.

    Donald Moss is a partner in West Michigan Behavioral Health Services. He serves as adjunct faculty for the Behavioral Medicine Research and Training Foundation in Suquamish, Washington, and mental health director for the humanitarian Trelawny Outreach Project in Western Jamaica. He is president-elect of the Association for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, editor of the Biofeedback Newsmagazine, consulting editor for the Journal of Neurotherapy, and a past consulting editor for the Journal of Phenomenological Psychology. His third book, Humanistic and Transpersonal Psychology, was published in 1998. He is co-editor of the Handbook of Mind-Body Medicine for Primary Care (Sage, in press).

    Clark Moustakas is the former president of the Center for Humanistic Studies in Detroit, Michigan, and is Senior Consultant and Core Faculty Member in Psychology at the Union Institute in Cincinnati, Ohio. He is the author of several books including Existential Psychotherapy and the Interpretation of Dreams; Phenomenological Research Methods; Heuristic Research; Psychotherapy With Children; Loneliness and Love; Being-In, Being-For, Being-With; and Loneliness.

    Maureen O'Hara is President of Saybrook Graduate School and Research Center. She regularly presents papers on leading-edge issues in relational psychology, client-centered therapy, gender relations, organizational psychology, and the future of consciousness. She has given plenary addresses to the World Future Society, the National League of Nurses, the Association for Humanistic Psychology, the Association for Constructivist Psychology, and the International Gestalt Therapy Association. In July 1999, she was a plenary speaker at the World Psychotherapy Conference in Vienna, Austria. Her published works appear in popular and academic books and journals. She is the founding fellow of the Meridian International Institute on Governance, Leadership, Learning, and the Future, a San Francisco-based futures think tank that consults with leaders in business, government, social service agencies, and the media.

    Marc Pilisuk is a clinical and social psychologist. He teaches at Saybrook Graduate School and Research Center and is a professor emeritus of community psychology in the Department of Human and Community Development at the University of California, Davis. He was a founder of the first teach-in; is a past president of the Society for the Study of Peace, Conflict, and Violence; and is a steering committee member of Psychologists for Social Responsibility. He is the author of six books and more than 120 articles and reviews on topics such as social support networks and health, care-giving, community mental health, conflict resolution, military-industrial power, social action, globalization, torture, poverty, and perceptions of a contaminated world. His most recent book (with Susan Parks), The Healing Web: Social Networks and Human Survival, deals with the nature of human interdependence. He shares his nonwork time as a caregiver and an activist.

    Donald E. Polkinghorne is Professor in the Division of Counseling Psychology at the University of Southern California, where he holds the Attallah Chair in Humanistic Psychology. He is a fellow in Division 12 (Counseling Psychology) of the American Psychological Association (APA) and a fellow and past president of the APA's Division 24 (Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology). His educational background includes an undergraduate degree in religious studies from Washington University (St. Louis) and graduate degrees from Yale University, Hartford Seminary Foundation, and the Union Graduate Institute. His scholarly publications have focused on the epistemological foundations of qualitative research and the implications of Continental philosophy for psychological theory and research. His publications include three books: An Existential-Phenomenological Approach to Education, Methodology for the Human Sciences, and Narrative Knowing and the Human Sciences. In addition to his scholarly work, he is a licensed psychotherapist and serves as an oral examiner for the California Psychology Licensing Board.

    Gayle Privette is Professor of Psychology at the University of West Florida (since 1967), where she teaches theories of individual and group counseling and humanistic psychology, supervises clinical work, does research, and maintains a part-time practice in psychotherapy. She has published numerous articles on peak experience, peak performance, and flow in various publications including the Journal of Humanistic Psychology, the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, the Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, and Perceptual and Motor Skills.

    Ronald Purser is Associate Professor of Management in the College of Business at San Francisco State University. He also is an adjunct faculty member at Benedictine University and Saybrook Graduate School and Research Center. He formally was graduate program director of the Center for Organization Development at Loyola University of Chicago. He earned his doctoral degree in organizational behavior from the Weatherhead School of Management at Case Western Reserve University in 1990. He currently is chairperson for the Organization Development and Change division of the National Academy of Management. He is known for his research on workplace participation, social creativity, knowledge work, and environmental management. He is coauthor or coeditor of three books: The Self-Managing Organization: How Leading Companies Are Transferring the Work of Teams for Real Impact (with Steve Cabana, 1998), The Search Conference: A Powerful Method for Planning Organizational Change and Community Action (with Merrelyn Emery, 1996), and Social Creativity (with Alfonso Montuori, Vols. 1–2, 1999).

    Ruth Richards is Professor of Psychology at Saybrook Graduate School and Research Center. She also is chair of Concentration in Consciousness and Spirituality. She also is an associate clinical professor in the Department of Psychiatry at the University of California, San Francisco; a research affiliate at McLean Hospital; and a lecturer in psychiatry at Harvard Medical School. She co-edited the book, Eminent Creativity, Everyday Creativity, and Health (1997) and was an executive adviser and contributor to the Encyclopedia of Creativity (1999). She is on the editorial boards of the Journal of Humanistic Psychology and the Creativity Research Journal. She draws, writes, and occasionally sings. However, she has learned the most about creativity from her 10-year-old daughter, Lauren.

    John Rowan is the author of a number of books including The Reality Game: A Guide to Humanistic Counselling and Psychotherapy, Ordinary Ecstasy: The Dialectics of Humanistic Psychology, Subpersonalities: The People Inside Us, The Transpersonal in Psychotherapy and Counselling, and Healing the Male Psyche: Therapy as Initiation. He co-edited (with Mick Cooper) The Plural Self: Multiplicity in Everyday Life (Sage, 1999). He is on the editorial boards of Self & Society, the Journal of Humanistic Psychology, the Counselling Psychology Review, and the Transpersonal Psychology Review. He is a founding member of the Association of Humanistic Psychology Practitioners. He is a past member of the governing board of the U.K. Council for Psychotherapy, representing the Humanistic and Integrative Section. He teaches, supervises, and leads groups at the Minster Centre in London.

    Ilene Serlin is Professor of Psychology at Saybrook Graduate School and Research Center. She also is in private practice in San Francisco and Marin County. She is council representative and past president of Division 32 (Humanistic Psychology) of the American Psychological Association. She trained with Laura Perls and was on the faculty of the New York Gestalt Institute. She is on the editorial boards of the Journal of Humanistic Psychology and the American Journal of Dance Therapy. She has published numerous articles and chapters in existential-humanistic psychology, particularly in the areas of the psychology of women and psychology and the arts.

    Jeffrey G. Sharp is a clinical psychologist in private practice in Oakland, California. He also is an adjunct faculty member at Saybrook Graduate School and Research Center and California State University, Hayward. His practice, which includes work with individuals, couples, and families, is informed by humanistic, existential, and systemic principles. He teaches courses on family developmental processes and the art and science of psychotherapy. He is impressed by the crucial role of mentoring in the development of soulful psychotherapists.

    Ernesto Spinelli is Academic Dean of the School of Psychotherapy and Counselling at Regent's College in London. His research and writing interests focus principally on the impact on and challenges to psychology and psychotherapy by existential-phenomenological theory and practice. His most recent text is Tales of Un-Knowing: Therapeutic Encounters From an Existential Perspective (1997). He is a past chair of the Society for Existential Analysis.

    Molly Merrill Sterling is in private practice as co-owner of the James F. T. Bugental Psychology Corporation. She teaches existential-humanistic psychology and psychotherapy at the Community Institute for Psychotherapy and in the intensive workshops developed by James F. T. Bugental titled “Art of the Psychotherapist.” Her earlier background is in Asian art and mythology.

    E. Mark Stern, a diplomate in Clinical Psychology, is a Fellow of the American Psychological Association and the American Psychological Society. He is a clinical psychologist interested in the intersection of psychological inquiry and practice and religious experience. His edited collections, books, and essays have emphasized the experiential as a means of personal and scientific investigation. He is editor of The Psychotherapy Patient series and is senior editor of the Haworth Press. He is a founding editor of the Journal of Pastoral Counseling and editor emeritus of Voices: The Art and Sciences of Psychotherapy. He was the recipient of the first Carl Rogers Award given by Division 32 (Humanistic Psychology) of the American Psychological Association. He has maintained a practice in clinical psychology and psychotherapy for the past 45 years in New York City and in Clinton Corners in upstate New York.

    Thomas Szasz is Professor of Psychiatry Emeritus at the State University of New York Upstate Medical University. He is the author of 25 books including the classic, The Myth of Mental Illness (1961), and most recently, Fatal Freedom: The Ethics and Politics of Suicide (1999). A forthcoming book is Pharmacracy: Medicine and Politics in America. He is widely recognized as the world's foremost critic of psychiatric coercions and excuses. He has received many awards for his defense of individual liberty and responsibility threatened by, in his view, the modern form of totalitarianism masquerading as therapy. A frequent and popular lecturer, he has addressed professional and lay groups and has appeared on radio and television in all of the Americas (North, Central, and South) as well as in Australia, Europe, Japan, and South Africa. His books have been translated into every major language.

    Eugene I. Taylor holds an M.A. in general/experimental psychology and Asian studies and a Ph.D. in the history and philosophy of psychology. He is the author of several scholarly studies on William James. His most recent work is Shadow Culture: Psychology and Spirituality in America (1999), a historical study of the American visionary tradition. He currently holds an academic appointment at Harvard Medical School as lecturer on psychiatry and is a senior psychologist in the Psychiatry Service at Massachusetts General Hospital. He also is a core faculty member at Saybrook Graduate School and Research Center, where he teaches the history of humanistic and transpersonal psychology.

    Hobart F. Thomas is Professor of Psychology Emeritus at Sonoma State University. He is a former chair of the Department of Psychology and Provost of the School of Expressive Arts at that same institution. Trained as a clinical psychologist, he has for many years maintained an active interest in bridging the gap between psychotherapy and academic education and in ways of fostering creativity. He resides in Santa Rosa, California, and as a sideline still plays jazz piano professionally.

    John Vasconcellos is a California state senator who has been serving the Silicon Valley for more than 30 years. A longtime supporter of humanistic psychology and humanistic causes, he has been called the “conscience of the legislature.” He currently is chair of the Committee on Education, the Committee on Public Safety, the Select Committee on Economic Development, and the Subcommittee on Aging and Long-Term Care. He also co-chairs the Joint Committee on Preparing California for the 21st Century. He is the founder of the California Task Force to Promote Self-Esteem and Personal and Social Responsibility and is the author of A Liberating Vision: Politics for Growing Humans (1979) and Ending Politics as We Know It: Toward a 21st-Century Politics of Healing and Hope (1999).

    Clemmont E. Vontress is Professor Emeritus of Counseling at George Washington University (Washington, D.C.). He was awarded the Life Contribution Award by the American Counseling Association in 1997 and was named Counselor-Educator of the Year by the American Mental Health Counselors Association in 1993. He received his Ph.D. in counseling psychology from Indiana University in 1965. He is a licensed psychologist in the District of Columbia. He is recognized as a pioneer in the field of cross-cultural counseling and has published prolifically in this area. His publications include the books Counseling Negroes and Cross-Cultural Counseling: A Case Book and the video Healing and Persuasion: An Interview With Jerome Frank, Ph.D., M.D.

    Will Wadlington is Associate Director of the Center for Counseling and Psychological Services at Pennsylvania State University. He also is in private practice in State College, Pennsylvania. A visual artist and former art professor, he is interested in creativity and contemporary art. His dissertation was on Otto Rank, an early precursor of existential-humanistic psychology who had broad cultural interests and wrote extensively about the artist type.

    Roger Walsh is Professor of Psychiatry, Philosophy, and Anthropology at the University of California, Irvine. He graduated from the University of Queensland with degrees in psychology, physiology, neuroscience, and medicine and then passed licensing examinations in psychology, medicine, and psychiatry. Initially, he was a hardcore materialist and reductionistic neuroscientist. His life changed dramatically when, as part of his psychiatry training, he went into therapy with James F. T. Bugental, who introduced him to the inner universe that proved to be as vast, awesome, and mysterious as the outer universe. His interests and research now focus on topics such as meditation, spirituality, and transpersonal psychology. His publications include Paths Beyond Ego: The Transpersonal Vision and Essential Spirituality: The Seven Central Practices to Awaken Heart and Mind.

    Arthur Warmoth is Professor of Psychology at Sonoma State University. He currently is chair of the Consortium for Diversified Psychology Programs, the national organization of graduate programs in humanistic, existential, and transpersonal psychologies. He has been a member of the executive board of Division 32 (Humanistic Psychology) of the American Psychological Association and is a past president of the Association for Humanistic Psychology. He received the Distinguished Service Award from the Saybrook Institute in 1994. In that same year, he and the Sonoma State psychology department received the Charlotte and Karl Bühler Award for pioneering work in graduate education in humanistic psychology from Division 32. He has been involved in humanistic psychology since 1959, when he went to Brandeis University to study with Abraham Maslow.

    Jeanne C. Watson is Assistant Professor in the Department of Adult Education, Community Development, and Counselling Psychology, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto. She is co-author (with Eileen Kennedy-Moore) of Expressing Emotion: Myths, Realities, and Therapeutic Strategies and co-editor (with Leslie S. Greenberg and Germain Lietaer) of the Handbook of Experiential Psychotherapy. She has written numerous articles on therapy process and outcome. She also has a part-time private practice in Toronto.

    John Welwood is a psychotherapist, teacher, and author. He received his Ph.D. in clinical psychology from the University of Chicago, where he also studied and taught existential and Buddhist psychology. He currently trains psychotherapists in “psychotherapy in a spiritual context.” He has published more than 50 articles on relationship, psychotherapy, consciousness, and personal change as well as 7 books including Journey of the Heart: The Path of Conscious Love, Love and Awakening: Discovering the Sacred Path of Intimate Relationships, Awakening the Heart: East/West Approaches to Psychotherapy and the Healing Relationship, and Ordinary Magic: Everyday Life as Spiritual Path. His latest book is Toward a Psychology of Awakening: Buddhism, Psychotherapy, and the Path of Personal and Spiritual Transformation.

    Frederick J. Wertz is Professor of Psychology at Fordham University. He received his Ph.D. in phenomenological psychology from Duquesne University in 1982. He is editor of the Journal of Phenomenological Psychology and also edited The Humanistic Movement: Recovering the Person in Psychology and Advances in Qualitative Research in Psychology: Themes and Variation. He is a past president of Division 24 (Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology) and of Division 32 (Humanistic Psychology) of the American Psychological Association. His writing has focused on perception, psychopathology, criminal victimization, phenomenological research methodology, psychoanalysis, cognitive psychology, and the philosophical foundations of psychology.


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