The SAGE Handbook of Geomorphology


Edited by: Kenneth J. Gregory & Andrew S. Goudie

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  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
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  • Part 1: Foundation and Relevance

    Part 2: Techniques and Approaches

    Part 3: Process and Environments

    Part 4: Environmental Change

    Part 5: Conclusion

  • Copyright

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    This Handbook, initiated by members of the International Association of Geomorphologists (IAG), has evolved considerably in content during the preparation of the chapters. Basil Gomez assisted by André Roy and Vic Baker contributed to the establishment of the basis for the volume during the early stages. I was brought in at a later stage and have been most grateful to Andrew Goudie for the many excellent ways in which he has provided help and support to get the Handbook to its final conclusion. Thanks are also expressed to the publishers especially Robert Rojek for the initial discussions and to Sarah-Jayne Boyd who has fended my many queries.

    We are extremely grateful to all the contributors not only for preparing their chapters, but for contributing royalties to the IAG, and for their patience in awaiting the culmination of such an extensive project.

    Kenneth J.Gregory

    List of Contributors

    Victor R. Baker is Regents' Professor of Hydrology and Water Resources, Geosciences and Planetary Sciences, University of Arizona. His 350 research papers and chapters concern palaeohydrology, planetary geomorphology and history/philosophy. His 16 books include Catastrophic Flooding (1981), The Channels of Mars (1982), Flood Geomorphology (1988, co-edited), Ancient Floods, Modern Hazards (2002, co-edited) and Megaflooding on Earth and Mars (2009, co-edited). He was the 1998 President of the Geological Society of America (GSA) and his honours include GSA Distinguished Scientist and Distinguished Career Awards, Foreign Membership in the Polish Academy of Sciences, Honorary Fellowship in the European Union of Geosciences and the David Linton Award of the BSG.

    Paul Bierman is a geomorphologist with wide-ranging interests including environmental geology, hydrology, isotope geochemistry, glacial geology, surface process and rates of weathering and denudation. He works at the interface between active research, education and science literacy at all levels. He received his degrees from Williams College and the University of Washington. He directs UVM's Cosmogenic Nuclide Extraction Lab – one of only a handful of laboratories in the country dedicated to the preparation of samples for analysis of 10-Be and 26-Al from pure quartz ( He is the recipient (1996) of the Donath Medal as the most promising young geologist in the country. He was also the recipient of NSF's highest award, the Director's Award for Distinguished Teaching Scholars, in 2005.

    Paul Bishop has been Professor of Physical Geography in the University of Glasgow since 1998. His undergraduate degree is from the School of Earth Sciences at Macquarie University in Sydney, as are his PhD and recently awarded DSc. His research focuses principally on long-term landscape evolution, with a key interest being the ways in which tectonics and surface processes interact, as mediated by bedrock rivers. Low-temperature thermochronology and cosmogenic nuclide analysis are key techniques for that research, which has always been undertaken with teams of post-doctoral researchers and PhD students.

    Derek Booth is Affiliate Professor in the departments of Earth and Space Sciences and Civil and Environmental Engineering at the University of Washington, where he was previously a research professor until 2006. He has studied geomorphology, hydrology and watershed management for the past 30 years with the US Geological Survey, with the Basin Planning Program for King County (Washington), in academia and now in private practice. He is presently the president and senior geologist at Stillwater Sciences, an environmental consulting firm active in stream and watershed analysis in California, Oregon and Washington; and the senior editor of Quaternary Research. His interests are river dynamics and deposits, urban watershed management and stormwater, landscape processes and geologic hazards. His work emphasizes field-based collection and analysis of basic physical data crucial to understanding landscape conditions and watershed processes and their likely responses to human disturbance.

    Tony G. Brown was originally appointed as a lecturer in Soils at the University of Leicester having completed a PhD on Holocene fluvial geomorphology and palaeoecology at the University of Southampton. Since the 1980s his research has focussed on Quaternary and particularly Holocene fluvial geomorphology floodplain environments with a particular interest in geochronology and human environmental impact. In 1991, and after moving to the University of Exeter in 1993, he directed the Quaternary Palaeoenvironments Research Group. In 2009, he took up his present post as Director of the Palaeoenvironment Laboratory at the University of Southampton (PLUS). He has published over 150 refereed research articles, edited five books and is author of the standard research monograph Alluvial Geoarchaeology CUP (1997) and a recent review of floodplain geoarchaeology (Aggregate-related Archaeology: Past, Present and Future. Oxbow) commissioned by English Heritage. Over the last 20 years he has received research project funding from NERC, English Heritage, AHRC, Leverhulme, HLF and industry.

    Joanna Bullard is a Reader in Aeolian Geomorphology at Loughborough University. She completed her undergraduate degree at the University of Edinburgh and her PhD at the Sheffield Centre for International Drylands Research, Sheffield University, investigating the geomorphological variability of linear sand dunes in the southwest Kalahari, southern Africa. Her current research focuses on aeolian processes and landforms and includes determining geomorphological controls on dust emissions from the Simpson-Strzelecki Desert, Australia and the development of dunefields in the Atacama Desert, South America. Her research has taken her to environments ranging from the forests of Central America to the proglacial sandur plains of Iceland and Greenland. A particular interest is in the interaction between different geomorphological process systems and she is currently exploring the interaction between glacifluvial and aeolian processes in West Greenland. She is the physical geography editor of the RGS-IBG Book Series and an associate editor for the journal Earth Surface Processes and Landforms.

    Michael Church is Emeritus Professor at the University of British Columbia, where he taught courses in environment and resources, hydrology, geomorphology, field studies and research methods for 38 years. His research interests focus on fluvial sediment transport and the interpretation of river channel changes. He has, throughout his career, also participated in practical work on water management in forestry, mining and fisheries, and has worked extensively on management issues on large rivers. He is a registered Professional Geoscientist in British Columbia.

    Nicholas J. Clifford is Professor of Physical Geography at King's College London and completed his undergraduate and postgraduate degrees at the University of Cambridge. He is a fluvial geomorphologist, with interests in numerical simulation of flows and habitats in rivers; in river restoration and management; and in the broader field of environmental time series analysis. He has held appointments at University College London and the University of Nottingham, and has published widely in the fields of geomorphology, physical geography and geographical philosophy and methods. He is co-editor of Sage's Key Concepts and Key Methods in Geography, and is Managing Editor of the journal Progress in Physical Geography.

    Peter Cowell is head of school in the School of Geosciences at the University of Sydney and Director of the University of Sydney Institute of Marine Science. His has undertaken more than 25 years research on coastal and continental-shelf sediment deposits. This work has included how these deposits were formed under the influence of long-term changes in sea level and other environmental factors. The results of these studies have been used to develop computer models that simulate the formation of known deposits over past centuries and millennia, and these models have been adapted to forecast future coastal impacts of climate change over coming decades and centuries based on geological calibration. The work has been widely published internationally, and has involved collaboration with leading coastal scientists in Australia, New Zealand, The Netherlands, the UK, Italy, the USA and Brazil, where the models have been trialed under a wide range of environmental conditions.

    Michael Crozier is Professor Emeritus at Victoria University of Wellington holding a personal Chair in Geomorphology from 1998. He is President of the International Association of Geomorphologists, past president of the New Zealand Geographical Society and former member of the New Zealand Conservation Authority. Academic awards include a Fulbright Scholarship to USA, Leverhulme fellowship to University of Bristol and a Distinguished Visiting Professorship at the University of Durham. He has held academic positions at the Universities of Otago, Alberta, Trent and Vienna. His research focus includes landslides, natural hazards, and human impact on natural systems.

    Mark Dickson is a coastal geomorphologist at the University of Auckland. He obtained a BSc from Massey University and a PhD from the University of Wollongong. He worked as a postdoctoral researcher at the University of Bristol and a FRST postdoctoral research fellow at the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NZ). His research is focused on eroding cliffed coastlines, employing both field methods and numerical modelling.

    Peter Downs was until recently a consulting fluvial geomorphologist with Stillwater Sciences in Berkeley, California before joining the University of Plymouth as a Senior Lecturer in Physical Geography. He was previously a Lecturer in Geography at the University of Nottingham after obtaining his BSc and PhD degrees at the universities of Leicester and Southampton respectively. His research interests include catchment- and reach-scale sediment budgets, the dynamics and sensitivity of river channels, applications of geomorphology to river basin management, and river restoration planning, design and evaluation. The research has occurred in widely varying fluvial environments in the UK, California, Mississippi and New Zealand, and has frequently been interdisciplinary, linking riverine dynamics to aquatic habitat provision, biological response, flood control, and river instability management. He has published widely including the co-authored text River Channel Management: Towards sustainable catchment hydrosystems (2004). He was awarded Chartered Geographer status in 2005, and currently sits on the editorial board of the Institution of Civil Engineers' Water Management journal.

    Tom Farr received BS and MS degrees from Caltech, and a PhD from the University of Washington, all in Geology. After a short time as an engineering geologist, he joined the Radar Sciences Group at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, where he has been since 1975. At JPL, he helped develop the first geologic applications of imaging radar using aircraft, satellites and the Space Shuttle. He has also been a science investigator on European and Japanese satellite programs and has assisted in the interpretation of radar images from Venus and from Saturn's moon Titan. His scientific research includes the use of remote sensing and digital topographic data for study of landscapes on Earth and other planets, including how they are formed and modified by climate and tectonic or volcanic activity.

    Derek Ford grew up in the limestone city of Bath, England, and began caving and climbing in the nearby Mendip Hills at age 12. He graduated BA Hons, DPhil in geography at Oxford University, taught in geography and geology at McMaster University, Ontario, Canada, and is now Emeritus Professor. His area of research interest has been karst, including hydrogeology, cave genesis, landforms, palaeokarst, clastic and precipitate deposits, dating and palaeoenvironmental studies of speleothems. He has undertaken field research or directed graduate research in Canada, USA, Caribbean and Latin America, and collaborative research throughout Europe and in China; 50 MSc and PhD students supervised to completion, 20 post-doctoral fellows and foreign visiting scientists; over 200 refereed journal papers or chapters, 12 books written or edited, many consulting reports (particularly for Parks Canada), one coffee table book, producer of one movie for the National Film Board of Canada. President, Canadian Association of Geographers International Spelelogical Union. Honours include FRS Canada, medals, career awards and honorary fellowships from 14 nations.

    Hugh French obtained his PhD degree from the University of Southampton, UK, in 1967. He taught at the University of Ottawa, Canada, in the departments of geography, geology and earth sciences and was dean of the Faculty of Science, president of the International Permafrost Association and founder and editor-in-chief of the international journal Permafrost and Periglacial Processes. He received the Roger Brown Award of the Canadian Geotechnical Society for ‘outstanding contributions to permafrost science and engineering’ in 1989 and the Canadian Association of Geographers Award ‘for scholarly distinction in geography’ in 1995. He is now Emeritus Professor, University of Ottawa. His undergraduate text, The Periglacial Environment, Third Edition, 2007, was first published in 1976 and subsequently revised in 1996; it has been the international standard for more than 30 years. He has conducted field research in most parts of northern Canada, the Canadian High Arctic islands, central and northern Alaska, Svalbard, northern Siberia, the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) Plateau, and Antarctica, and Pleistocene periglacial investigations in southern England, central Poland and the New Jersey Pine Barrens, eastern USA.

    Andrew Goudie was at the School of Geography, Oxford University, became fellow of Hertford College, and was appointed Professor of Geography and head of department. In October 2003, he became Master of St Cross College, Oxford. He has been an honorary secretary and vice Pesident of the Royal Geographical Society, executive secretary and chairman of the British Geomorphological Research Group, a member of the Council of the Institute of British Geographers, and president of the Geographical Association, and president of the International Association of Geomorphologists. In 1991, he was awarded the Founders' Medal of the Royal Geographical Society and the Mungo Park Medal by the Royal Scottish Geographical Society; in 2002 a medal from the Royal Academy of Belgium and a DSc by Oxford University. In 2007, he received the Geological Society of America's Farouk El-Baz Award for Desert Research. His research interests include the geomorphology of deserts, climatic change, environmental archaeology and the impact of humans on the environment. He has worked extensively in South Africa, Botswana, Swaziland and Namibia and in Oman, Jordan, Bahrain and the United Arab Emirates. He is the author or co-author of the following books Geomorphological Techniques (1981, 1990), Chemical Sediments and Geomorphology (1983), The Geomorphology of England and Wales (1990), Salt Weathering Hazards (1997), Aeolian Environments, Sediments and Landforms (1999), Great Warm Deserts of the World (2002), Encyclopedia of Geomorphology (2004), Desert Dust in the Global System (2006), The History of the Study of Landforms (volume 4) (2008), Geomorphological Hazards and Disaster Prevention (2010) and Landscapes and Geomorphology (2010).

    Kenneth J. Gregory was Warden of Goldsmiths College University of London and is now Emeritus Professor of the University of London and Visiting Professor of the University of Southampton. He obtained his BSc, PhD and DSc from the University of London. He was made CBE in 2007 for services to geography and higher education, is a fellow of University College London, a former secretary and chairman of the British Geomorphological Research Group, and currently president of the British Society for Geomorphology. His research interests are in river channel change and management, palaeohydrology and the development of physical geography. Recent publications include The Changing Nature of Physical Geography (2000), River Channel Management (with Peter Downs, 2004), and The Earths Land Surface (2010). He edited Palaeohydrology: Understanding Global Change with Gerardo Benito (2003), Physical Geography (2005) and was lead editor for Environmental Sciences: A Companion (2008). He has three Honorary degrees, awards received include the Founder's Medal of the Royal Geographical Society (1993), the Linton award of the BGRG (1999) and the Geographical medal of the Royal Scottish Geographical Society (2000).

    Richard Huggett is a Reader in physical geography in the University of Manchester. He obtained his BSc and PhD from University of London. His recent publications include Topography and the Environment (with Joanne E. Cheesman, 2002), Fundamentals of Biogeography (2nd edn, 2004), Physical Geography: A Human Perspective (with Sarah Lindley, Helen Gavin, and Kate Richardson, 2004), The Natural History of the Earth: Debating Long-term Change in the Geosphere and Biosphere (2006), Physical Geography: The Key Concepts (2010), and Fundamentals of Geomorphology (3rd edn, 2011).

    Vishwas Kale is a Professor in the department of geography, University of Pune, India. He obtained his MS in geography from the University of Pune and his PhD in archaeology at the Deccan College, Pune. His research interests include fluvial and flood geomorphology, palaeohydrology, Quaternary geomorphology and landscape evolution. He has published over 20 research papers in these topics. With Hervé Piégay, he peer-reviewed international journals and jointly authored a textbook on Introduction to Geomorphology. He is on the editorial board of the journal Geomorphology.

    G. Mathias (Matt) Kondolf is a fluvial geomorphologist and Professor of Environmental Planning at the University of California, Berkeley. He holds a PhD in geography and environmental engineering from the Johns Hopkins University, a MS in earth sciences from the University of California Santa Cruz and an AB in geology cum laude from Princeton University. He teaches courses in hydrology, river restoration, and environmental science. He conducts research on aspects of environmental river management, including sediment management in regulated rivers, geomorphic and ecological processes in river restoration, and resolving conflicts among restoration goals, and he frequently advises government and international agencies in the United States and abroad on these topics. With Hervé Piégay, he is co-editor of Tools in Fluvial Geomorphology (2003).

    Hélène Lamarre is a research assistant at the Canadian Research Chair in Fluvial Dynamics, University of Montreal. She obtained her PhD degree from the University of Montréal in 2006, her thesis investigating sediment transport, sedimentary structures and bed stability in step-pool channels. She contributed to the development of a new approach to track individual particles in order to quantify bed load transport in gravel-bed rivers. The method is based on the insertion of passive integrated transponders in clasts of different sizes and shapes. This cost-effective approach is now used by many geomorphologists in Québec and Europe to link sediment transport to channel hydraulics and morphology. Her current research interests focus on the interaction between flow velocity, bed stability and bed load transport in gravel-bed rivers with a wide range of slope and channel morphology. Her research has been in the south of Québec and in the French Alps, and recent work has been published in Geomorphology, Earth Surface Processes and Landforms and Journal of Sedimentary Research. Since 2002, she lectures to bachelor students on hydrologic processes that operate at or near Earth's surface.

    Stuart Lane is Professor of Physical Geography and Director of the Institute of Hazard, Risk and Resilience in Durham University. His research is concerned with the mathematical modelling and analysis of geomorphological and hydrological processes, including river flows, sediment and solute transport, river morphology, river habitat and flood risk. His work is unusual in that it has focused upon innovative collaborations across disciplines and he has worked with engineers, earth scientists, mathematicians, biologists and social scientists, amongst others. He has published over 170 papers, edited three research monographs and is currently Managing Editor of the journal Earth Surface Processes and Landforms. He has been awarded two best paper prizes, the Jan de Ploey award from the International Association of Geomorphologists, a Philip Leverhulme Prize for Earth and Environmental Science and an award from the Association of Rivers Trusts for contributions to science.

    Andreas Lang has been Chair of Physical Geography at the University of Liverpool since 2003 and Head of the Department of Geography since 2007. He obtained his PhD at the University of Heidelberg, Germany in 1995. Before taking on his current position he was employed as postdoctoral researcher at the Max-Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg (1995–98) and at the University of Bonn (1998–2001), and as Senior Lecturer at the University Leuven (Belgium, 2001–03). Currently he is the Chairman of the British Society for Geomorphology. His research interests are focused on longer-term landscape evolution – especially the changing sediment fluxes in river systems in response to climate change and human impact. He is also involved with developing and applying geochronological techniques and has been influential in introducing dosimetric dating in geomorphological research.

    Dénes Lóczy was research fellow at the Geographical Research Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences for 18 years until 1997, when he moved to the University of Pécs where he is Director of the Institute of Environmental Sciences. He studied Geography and English at Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, and habilitated at the University of Pécs. He published a handbook Land Evaluation (2002) and a two-volume university text-book Geomorphology (2005, 2008), both in Hungarian, co-edited collections of papers for Hungarian publishers, Gebrüder Borntraeger and Springer Verlag and wrote 120 academic papers, partly in Hungarian, partly in English. In 1992 he was Alexander von Humboldt scholarship holder in Darmstadt, Germany. Between 2001 and 2005 he was Secretary of the International Association of Geomorphologists. He is a member of the Editorial Boards of Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie (Stuttgart) and Studia Geomorphologica Carpatho-Balkanica (Kraków).

    Anne Mather is Reader in Earth Sciences in the School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences at the University of Plymouth. She completed her undergraduate degree at the University of Hull and her PhD at the University of Liverpool. Her current research focuses on long-term environmental change in tectonically active, dryland areas, involving the direct and indirect responses of alluvial and fluvial systems to regional tectonics and embracing landform and environmental landscape reconstruction on 103 to 106 year time scales and catchment/basin spatial scales. Her main geographical areas of research include Spain, Turkey, Morocco and Chile.

    John Menzies is currently Professor of Earth Sciences and Geography at Brock University. He received his BSc (Hons) degree in geography from the University of Aberdeen and his PhD from the University of Edinburgh. His research interests are in the mechanics of drumlin formation, in subglacial environments, in the rheology of subglacial sediments and in glacial micromorphology in Quaternary sediments and pre-Quaternary sedimentary rocks. He is the editor/author of Modern Glacial Environments, Past Glacial Environments and the revised student edition of Modern and Past Glacial Environments. He is on the editorial board of Sedimentary Geology.

    Cherith Moses is a senior lecturer in physical geography at the University of Sussex. She graduated with a BSc in geography and a PhD in geomorphology from Queen's University Belfast during which time she was also a research fellow at the Australian National University. Her research focuses on field and laboratory monitoring and measuring of rock weathering and surface change to further understanding of environmental and climatic impacts on landform development. She has a particular interest in limestone landscapes, interactions of weathering processes and weathering with erosion, and applies rock weathering research to the study of building stone decay and the development of rock coasts. She has conducted field research in Australia, Asia, Europe and North Africa.

    Nicholas A. Odoni is a researcher at the Institute of Hazard, Risk and Resilience in Durham University. His research is concerned with the development of innovative landscape models in both geomorphology and hydrology. He is also interested in more general problems in geomorphological modelling, in particular the application of experiment design and metamodelling techniques to clarify model emergent behaviour and uncertainty. His PhD research at the University of Southampton was concerned with models of long-term catchment evolution, and addressed the problem of exploring model equifinality in an exemplar landscape evolution model. His more recent work in Durham has been concerned with interactive modelling of diffuse interventions in river catchments to reduce flood risk.

    Takashi Oguchi is Vice-Director and Professor at the Centre for Spatial Information Science, The University of Tokyo, Japan. He received his PhD in Geography from The University of Tokyo, and broadened his experience at the University of Arizona, Colorado State University, and the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (UK). He has participated in research projects on fluvial/hillslope geomorphology, geomorphometry, geoarchaeology, water quality and spatial databases. He has been one of the three editors-in-chief of Geomorphology (Elsevier) since 2003, and on the editorial board of Catena (Elsevier), Geographical Research (Blackwell), Geography Compass (Blackwell) and Open Geology Journal (Bentham Science).

    Hervé Piégay is Research Director at the National Centre of Scientific Research, working at École Normale Supérieure of Lyon where he is a co-director of a research unit of 200 persons. He received his PhD at the University Paris IV – Sorbonne focusing on interactions between riparian vegetation and channel geomorphology. He has led research on the contemporary history of rivers and their catchments, underlining human controls on environmental changes, wood in rivers, floodplain and former channel sedimentation, geomorphology and society, with specific research on human perceptions of river environments. He is involved in integrated sciences and interacts with practitioners providing knowledge for river management, planning and restoration and methodological frameworks and tools using GIS and remote sensing. He is mainly involved in the Rhône basin but also on the Rhine, in Indonesia (Progo), Vietnam (Mekong), USA (Sacramento), and Italy (Magra). He has edited books including Tools in Fluvial Geomorphology (with M.G. Kondolf, 2003) and Gravel-bed Rivers 6: From Process Understanding toRiver Restoration (with H. Habersack and M. Rinaldi, 2007). He is associate editor of Geodinamica Acta (Lavoisier) and is on the editorial board of Geomorphology (Elsevier).

    Colin Pain recently retired from Geoscience Australia where he led the team that developed a system of regolith mapping used widely in Australia. He received BA and MA degrees in Geography at the University of Auckland and a PhD in Geomorphology at the Australian National University. He has worked on landforms and landscape evolution in Papua New Guinea, the Philippines and Arizona. His research interests include the relationships between regolith and landforms and the application of digital elevation models and satellite imagery to landform mapping and research. He is on the editorial board of the Journal of Maps. He is currently based in Dubai where he is team leader of the Soil Survey of the Northern Emirates, and holds an honorary position in the MED-Soil Research Group at the University of Sevilla.

    David Petley is the Wilson Professor of Hazard and Risk at Durham University. His research focuses upon landslide and rockfall mechanics, using a combination of state-of-the-art field monitoring techniques and bespoke laboratory testing. He is the director of the International Landslide Centre at Durham, with research interests in the UK, Europe, South and East Asia, and Australasia, and vice president of the Natural Hazards Division of the European Geosciences Union. He has written over 80 academic papers, and is co-author with Keith Smith of the leading textbook on natural hazards, Environmental Hazards – Assessing Risk and Reducing Disaster.

    Jonathan Phillips is Professor of Earth Surface Systems in the department of geography, University of Kentucky, and Chief Scientist for Copperhead Road Geosciences, LLC. His research interests are in fluvial and soil geomorphology, biogeomorphology and nonlinear dynamics of earth surface systems. After receiving a BA from Virginia Tech and an MA from East Carolina, he earned his PhD in Geography at Rutgers. He has held previous academic appointments at Arizona State, East Carolina and Texas A&M Universities. He has published extensively in the earth and environmental sciences.

    Jim Pizzuto is a fluvial geomorphologist in the department of geological sciences, University of Delaware who has published papers in the last 25 years on a variety of topics, including river bank erosion, the evolution of sediment pulses, floodplain evolution, the influence of land use and climate change on rivers, dam removal, and the transport and storage of sediment and contaminants in fluvial systems.

    Bruce L. Rhoads is Professor and head of the Department of Geography at the University of Illinois. His research programme consists of three distinct, but interrelated areas of interest: integrated watershed science in human-dominated environments, including stream channelization and naturalization; basic research on the dynamics of meandering rivers and river confluences; and the philosophical and methodological underpinnings of geomorphology and the relation of these to those of geography, geology and other sciences.

    Keith Richards is Professor of Geography at the University of Cambridge, and a fellow of Emmanuel College. He is a fluvial geomorphologist whose research interests focus on river channel forms and processes in a wide range of environments; hydrological processes and sediment production and transfer processes in river basins; and the modelling of fluvial and hydrological systems. He has had interests in river and floodplain restoration, inter-relationships between hydrological and ecological processes in floodplain environments, and glacial hydrology. He is a former secretary and chairman of the British Geomorphological Research Group, and a former vice president (research) of the Royal Geographical Society/Institute of British Geographers. He has published some 200 papers, is the author or co-author of Rivers: Form and Process in Alluvial Channels (1982; 2004 facsimile) and Arsenic Pollution: A Global Synthesis (2009); and editor or co-editor of Geomorphology and Soils (1985); Slope Stability: Geotechnical Engineering and Geomorphology (1987); River Channels: Environment and Process (1987); Landform Monitoring, Modelling and Analysis (1998); Glacier Hydrology and Hydrochemistry (1998); and themed issues of the Philosophical Transactions, Royal Society Series A (2004), Geomorphology (2007) and Geoforum (2007).

    David Robinson graduated with a BSc in geography and a PhD in geomorphology from Kings College, University of London, before moving to Sussex where he is currently Reader in Physical Geography. He has researched and published extensively on rock weathering in a variety of environments, particularly in Europe and North Africa, on experimental weathering, and on the measurement of rock-surface change. He has a particular interest in sandstone weathering and the evolution of sandstone landscapes. More recently he has become heavily involved with European colleagues in studies of the weathering and erosion of rock coasts in macro-tidal, temperate environments. He is currently the Honorary Treasurer and serves on the Executive Committee of the British Society for Geomorphology.

    André G. Roy is Professeur Titulaire at the Université de Montréal, where he also holds the Canada Research Chair in Fluvial Dynamics. He served as president of the Canadian Geomorphological Research Group, and of the Canadian Association of Geographers, and as Chair of the Grant Selection Committee of the Environmental Earth Sciences Committee of the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (Canada), and as Group Chair of the Earth Sciences Grant Selection Committees of NSERC. His research focuses on the study of flow turbulence and sediment transport in rivers and on the detailed quantification of fluvial processes. Recently he has worked on the response of rivers to environmental change. He has published more than 110 peer reviewed articles in a broad range of scientific journals in geomorphology, water resources and the earth sciences. He has received both national and international recognition for excellence in research and teaching, including the award for Scholarly Distinction from the Canadian Association of Geographers.

    Mike J. Smith is currently a Senior Lecturer in GIS at the School of Geography, Geology and the Environment at Kingston University. He received a BSc (Hons) degree in geography from the University of Wales, Aberystwyth, an M.Sc. degree in geography from the University of British Columbia and a PhD degree in palaeo-glaciology from the University of Sheffield. Mike principally lectures to bachelor and masters' programmes on the application of remote sensing in the geosciences. His research interests are based around the application of digital elevation models in geomorphology and specifically focused upon the visualisation and gemorphometric modelling of glacial landscapes. Recent interests also include field spectroscopy of loess. He is the founder and Editor of the Journal of Maps.

    László Sütõ, was a PhD student of the Earth Sciences Doctoral School at the University of Debrecen, and has undertaken research on anthropogenic geomorphology and landscape evaluation for 10 years until 2007. He has been research fellow at interdisciplinary environmental projects of the Environmental Management and Law Association between 1998 and 2001. At present he is Senior Lecturer at the Institute of Tourism and Geography at College of Nyíregyháza. He is co-author of the book Anthropogenic Geomorphology, published by Springer Verlag in 2010, author of 52 articles, partly in Hungarian, partly in English on anthropogenic geomorphology, landscape evaluation, tourism and education in geography. He is a member of the Hungarian Geological Society and the Hungarian Geographical Society.

    Graham Taylor has worked on regolith geology in Australia for the last 40 years, publishing more than 100 refereed papers in international journals and a book with Tony Eggleton. He has worked at ANU, HKU and the University of Canberra and continues in retirement to work on regolith, particularly bauxite.

    Michael Thomas is Professor Emeritus in Environmental Science at the University of Stirling, Scotland. He holds degrees from Reading and London Universities and began his career in tropical geomorphology as a lecturer at the University of Ibadan in Nigeria from 1960–64, later based at St. Andrews and then Stirling, Scotland. Research into tropical weathering and geomorphology later branched out to include studies of Quaternary sedimentation and climate change. His book, Geomorphology in the Tropics (1994) continues to be a standard reference. His research was recognised by election to FRSE in 1988 and the award of the Centenary Medal (2000) of the RSGS and the David Linton Award (2001) of the BSG. He was Joint Editor of Catena 1996–2006.

    Colin E. Thorn recently retired from the department of geography at the University of Illinois where he has spent thirty years as a geomorphologist, following brief spells at the Universities of Montana and Maryland in the same role. His research interests are focused upon periglacial and theoretical geomorphology. In the realm of periglacial geomorphology he has worked primarily in alpine contexts including the USA, Canada, Norway, Sweden and Finland. He has also worked briefly in a number of other periglacial contexts. His research on theoretical matters is centred primarily on the conceptual underpinnings of primary geomorphological principles.

    Heather Viles is Professor of Biogeomorphology and Heritage Conservation at the University of Oxford. She grew up in Essex and studied at the Universities of Cambridge and Oxford before post-doctoral research at University College London on acid rain impacts on English cathedrals. Her research focuses on weathering of rocks in extreme environments (including on Mars) and the deterioration and conservation of building stones, with particular emphasis on the role of organisms. She is currently Vice-President (expeditions and fieldwork) of the Royal Geographical Society with IBG. Her most recent book, with Andrew Goudie, is Landscape and Geomorphology (2010).

    Jeff Warburton is Reader in Geomorphology at Durham University. He completed his undergraduate studies at the University of Wales Aberystwyth before moving to the University of Colorado to carry out Masters Research. His PhD on glacio-fluvial sediment transfer was awarded by Southampton University prior to postdoctoral research in Natural Resource Engineering at Lincoln University in New Zealand. His research is concerned primarily with understanding the geomorphology and sediment transfer processes operating in upland and mountain catchments. Particular emphasis is placed on upland peat erosion, peat mass movements, debris flows/shallow landslides, glacio-fluvial sediment transfer and the geomorphology of mountain streams. This work is underpinned by intensive field monitoring programmes and geomorphological laboratory experiments. He also has a long-term interest in geocryology and the development of frost-sorted patterned ground.

    Thad Wasklewicz is Associate Professor in the Department of Geography, East Carolina University. He received a PhD in geography from Arizona State University. His research interests include debris flow process-form interactions in alpine and arid settings of the western United States and Japan. The research has also expanded to encompass debris flow development after wildfires. Much of this work involves analyses of high-resolution digital terrain models developed from terrestrial laser scanning techniques.

    Martin Williams is Emeritus Professor in Geographical and Environmental Studies, University of Adelaide, Australia. He holds a PhD degree from the Australian National University and a Doctor of Science (ScD) degree from the University of Cambridge. He has conducted extensive fieldwork in Africa, Australia, India and China, and is author of over 200 research papers on landscape evolution, climatic change and prehistoric environments in those regions. His two most recent books are Quaternary Environments (2nd ed., 1998) and Interactions of Desertification and Climate (1996).

    Paul Williams was born in Bristol, England, and began caving in the nearby Mendip Hills as a schoolboy. He graduated BA Hons from Durham University and PhD and ScD from Cambridge University. He is a senior fellow of the International Association of Geomorphologists. He taught from 1964 at the University of Dublin (Trinity College) and later was a research fellow at the Australian National University, Canberra. He has been Professor at the University of Auckland (School of Environment) since 1972, where he supervised numerous PhD and Masters students. He has published on land use hydrology, coastal geomorphology and the Quaternary, although his chief area of research interest is karst, including landform evolution, hydrogeology, palaeoenvironmental studies of speleothems, and applied work. He has undertaken field research in New Zealand, Australia, Papua New Guinea, Niue, Ireland, France, USA, Vietnam, Russia and China. He is a member of the editorial boards of Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie and Progress in Physical Geography and a former member of the board of Earth Surface Processes and Landforms. He is a member of the World Commission on Protected Areas of IUCN and a member of their Caves and Karst Task Force. He has served on the executive of the International Association of Geomorphologists and is currently a member of the executive (Bureau) of the International Speleological Union.

    Colin Woodroffe is a coastal geomorphologist in the School of Earth and Environmental Sciences at the University of Wollongong. He has a PhD and ScD from the University of Cambridge, and was a lead author on the coastal chapter in the 2007 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment report. He has studied the stratigraphy and development of coasts in Australia and New Zealand, as well as islands in the West Indies, and Indian and Pacific Oceans. He has written a comprehensive book on Coasts, form, process and evolution, and recently co-authored a book on The Coast of Australia.

    List of Figures

    • 3.1 A digital terrain model of a small Australian catchment, with an ‘overlay’ of information on upslope contributing area classes (in hectares), which relate to the likelihood of soil saturation (after Moore et al., 1988) 41
    • 3.2 The intensity domains, defined by mean annual rainfall and temperature, of certain earth surface processes (after Peltier, 1950) 43
    • 3.3 (a) A typical ridge-and-valley Appalachian landscape (ridges aligned SW-NE, left-to-right), illustrating a ‘three-cycle’ development in which A represents the first-stage lowland, dissected to form B and then the present landscape C, with remnants of the A and B surfaces on summits (after King and Schumm, 1980). (b) Johnson's (1931) diagram illustrating the relationship between the supposed Jurassic Fall-Zone peneplain (note his spelling) and the Mio-Pliocene Schooley surface in northern New Jersey; the former is hypothesized to have been buried by Cretaceous marine sediments, the latter to have been formed after superimposition of the drainage system from this cover (M is the Musconetcong River and its tributaries, W and P the Watchung and Palisades trap ridges, and x the intersection of the two surfaces) 46
    • 3.4 (a) The existence of thick saprolite beneath a late Miocene upland surface in Maryland; and (b) adjustment of the river system to rock character, including gneiss outcrops such as the Woodstock Dome, and the orientation of joints and foliation (after Costa and Cleaves, 1984) 47
    • 3.5 Cyclic (a), graded (b) and steady (c) timescales in the variation of river gradient 48
    • 3.6 (a) A sequence in which base level lowering triggers stream incision (shown by a continuous line), which extends headwards until eroding tributaries cause valley filling downstream (pecked lines) (after Schumm and Hadley, 1957). (b) The damped oscillatory sediment yield response to base level lowering of a laboratory basin, and (c) the consequences for the formation of a series of inset alluvial fills and terraces in the main valley (after Schumm, 1977) 49
    • 3.7 The feedback between form and process that results in continual evolution of channel form (based on Ashworth and Ferguson, 1986; and Richards, 1988) 54
    • 4.1 Bases for models 60
    • 5.1 Using reconnaissance survey and rapid assessment protocols and to characterize sites in the Yazoo River catchment, Mississippi, according to their stages in river bed and bank erosion (see legend) following the passage of multiple knickpoints (adapted from Simon et al., 2007b) 85
    • 5.2 Interpretation of LiDAR/aerial imagery to identify multiple ages of landslides above La Conchita, California, including a prehistoric landslide that lay unrecognized during the development of the community of La Conchita (from Gurrola et al., 2010) 86
    • 5.3 (a) Using terrain modelling to explore the sediment source and yield characteristics of a mountainous watershed in southern California. Overlays of geology, land cover and hillslope gradient are used to characterize coarse sediment production for analysing potential influences on salmonid habitat. While many habitat concerns focus on excess fine sediment production, in this watershed coarse sediment derived largely from sandstone sources (inset photograph) (b) provides both the overarching structure for fish habitat and natural barriers to fish passage and so is critical 88
    • 5.4 Sediment transport modelling used to predict the likely impact of the removal of Marmot Dam (Sandy River, Oregon) for the year following dam removal, under average, wet and dry year scenarios (exceedance probability of peak flow and annual runoff of 50 per cent, 10 per cent and 90 per cent, respectively). The 14-m high dam was removed in July 2007 and the cofferdam breached in October 2007. Plots show predictions from (a) the former reservoir area and (b) the depositional wedge immediately downstream of Marmot Dam. Data points are from post-project surveys undertaken 1 year later: 2008 had an annual runoff exceedance probability of approximately 29 per cent (adapted from Downs et al., 2009) 90
    • 5.5 (a) Restoration design for reconstructing an incised reach of the Merced River, California. The channel design was based on optimizing channel width, depth and bed sediment to ensure sediment transport continuity, provide suitable velocities of flow for salmonids, and acceptable flood inundation frequencies for re-establishing native floodplain vegetation. The design was based on bedload transport equations from Parker (1990), channel meander characteristics from Soar and Thorne (2001), and 2 years of baseline physical and biological monitoring data. (b) Inset photograph shows scour chains being installed adjacent to surface sediment tracers (bright bed sediments) 92
    • 6.1 Development in floor of flash-flood prone wadi floor, El Sheik El-Shazli, Red Sea Governate, Egypt, showing increased flood levels upstream resulting from construction in floodway. (From Gohar and Kondolf, 2007) 106
    • 6.2 Coarse sediment movement from eroding uplands to sea level, showing human alterations to sediment transport continuity 108
    • 6.3 From a physically based conceptual approach to the ‘anthroposystem.’ (a) The ‘anthroposystem’ as defined by Lévêque et al. (2000), a complex system where the ‘environmental’ components (physics, chemistry, biology) interact with the social and the technical components. Interactions are not only considered as human pressures on environment but also as technical developments and social reactions to the environment, its characters and evolution. Modified from Lévêque et al., 2000. (b) Example of the conceptual framework of natural and anthropic factors influencing the fluvial dynamics of the Drôme River, France (Pont et al., 2009). (c) Perception of the river by an individual strongly depends on his social environment and his own characters (e.g. feeling, knowledge, experience). (Adapted from Le Lay and Piegay, 2007) 112
    • 6.4 Magazine advertisement for Jeep Cherokee sport utility vehicles, featuring a sinuously bending highway that transitions into a meandering river. (From Kondolf (2009), used by permission of BBD&O, New York) 113
    • 7.1 Photograph and sketch of landscape to emphasize selectivity in geomorphological observation. The shaded principal feature in the sketch is a large earthflow, which does not stand out in the photograph. The distance across the photograph at railway level is approximately 1 km 123
    • 7.2 Distribution of erosion pin measurements along an eroding terrace edge of a gravel outwash deposit in Arctic Canada (Ekalugad Fjord, Baffin Island). The negative measurements imply a measurement system precision of ±0.1 m, the small number of more negative measurements indicating either outward leaning blocks or blunders 125
    • 7.3 The relation between grain ‘size’, as measured by passage through a square-meshsieve, and grain shape: inset, principal grain axes. (From Church, 2003) 126
    • 7.4 Characteristic scales for turbulent flow of water and for fluvial sediment yield in the landscape. Limit velocities are defined for diffusional processes and for gravitational wave propagation, while characteristic velocities are defined for various phenomena associated with fluvial systems. Trajectories for various virtual velocities are superimposed. Scales for channel processes are shaded 128
    • 7.5 Examples of bias in scientific observations: (a) An example of an observing system subject to errors of precision, of real residual variation, and of both local and constant bias. Mean bias is indicated by the displacement of the bivariate mean of the data from the 1:1 line; local bias arises from the varying offset between the best-fit relation and the 1:1 line (shaded); errors of precision are indicated by the displacement of the data from the line of best fit (lines subtended from data points). (b) Dating bias of the radiocarbon assay for the age of organic materials. Before about 2500 years before present, the radiocarbon-derived ages drift away from calendar ages at a rate of about 225 years/millennium, though the rate is not constant, in the direction of being too young. There are further variations for recent dates, not resolved in the diagram. ‘Present’ is conventionally interpreted to be ad 1950, the approximate date when the technique was developed. Adoption of a base year prevents published dates from becoming immediately obsolete 129
    • 7.6 Contextual characterization of exploratory and confirmatory experiments in geomorphology. (After a personal communication from J. Kane, 2006) 139
    • 8.1 Constraints of spatial and temporal resolutions of satellite sensors upon geomorphological research. (This figure has been redrafted from Millington and Townshend (1987), reflecting current sensors) 145
    • 8.2 DEM visualisation using (a) greyscaling and (b) relief shading (illumination angle 20°). (Reproduced from Ordnance Survey Ireland, Copyright Permit MP001904) 146
    • 8.3 DEM visualisation using (a) gradient and (b) curvature. (Reproduced from Ordnance Survey Ireland, Copyright Permit MP001904) 147
    • 8.4 DEM visualisation using (a) local contrast stretching and (b) residual relief separation. (Reproduced from Ordnance Survey Ireland, Copyright Permit MP001904) 148
    • 9.1 A simple conceptual geomorphological model from Lyell (1831: 170–1) 156
    • 9.2 A model typology, showing the different types of model used in geomorphology, presented as a hierarchical structure 158
    • 9.3 An experimental meandering channel: (a) bed topography in a laboratory meander bend; (b) distribution of relative shear stress in the meander bend in (a); region where tau ≤ 1.5 tau_bar is shaded, contour interval 0.5 with supplementary contour at 1.25; (c) distribution of relative sediment transport in the meander bend in (a); region with 2.0 × QsQs ≤ 2.5 × Qs is shaded; contour interval as in (b). (After Hooke (1975), reprinted with permission of the University of Chicago Press) 159
    • 9.4 Sedimentation patterns generated in a series of sandbox experiments, devised to demonstrate evolution of a fold-thrust belt and its associated sedimentation patterns under different conditions of sediment supply (from Storti and McClay, 1995, and also discussed generically in Beaumont et al., 2000). Initial conditions are the same throughout; no sand is added in the top panel experiment, whereas increased amounts are added in the lower three, the bottom panel showing the effects of the highest amount of added sand 160
    • 9.5 Model of the main factors affecting soil formation and erosion, presented as an influence diagram, indicating stronger and weaker factor influences (solid and hatched arrows respectively) (Selby, 1993, adapted from Morisawa, 1968). Note also how the model indicates feedback effects between model components 162
    • 9.6 The effect of spatial heterogeneity in the erosivity of sediment on the evolution of a modelled landscape, evidenced here by differences in the derived area–slope relationship and hypsometric curves. (After Moglen and Bras, 1995) 166
    • 10.1 Landforms at different scales and their interactions with exogenic and endogenic processes (after Huggett (2007a)) 175
    • 10.2 Types of geomorphic systems. (a) Valley-side slopes in Manitoba, Canada, depicted as a form system (adapted from Chorley and Kennedy (1971)). (b) Sediment stores and erosional processes in steepland drainage basins of the California coastal range, USA, depicted as a flow system (adapted from Lehre (1982)). (c) A hillslope as a process–form system 178
    • 10.3 Classic and evolutionary interpretations of Tertiary landscape evolution in southern England (adapted from Jones (1999)) 181
    • 10.4 Average slopes of continental surfaces as a function of elevation and absolute latitude. Open areas at higher elevations are elevation–latitude coordinates not presently represented by continental surfaces on the modern Earth. Diagonal lines are contours of a first-order trend surface through slope values. Slope is expressed as rise/run in m/km. The average slope over all continental surfaces is about 3 m/km. The heavy black and white line is the best-fit cosine of maximum elevation at each latitude (r2 = 0.49). The Tibetan Plateau is visible as the grouping of low-slope values around 5 km and 350 (after McElroy and Wilkinson (2005)) 187
    • 11.1 Grain history chronology with application ranges for grain dating techniques 193
    • 11.2 Location and sampling structure for the cosmogenic dating of flood deposits in the Altai Mountains, southern Siberia 196
    • 11.3 A preliminary chronology for the Exe terraces based upon OSL dating from Brown et al. (2010) with additional 14C dates from Fyfe et al. (2004) with an inset of OSL dates from the Five Fords reach of the river Culm. All OSL dates have a ±10% error term associated with them 204
    • 12.1 Energy available for remote sensing and atmospheric transmittance. Left curve shows solar radiance at Earth's surface. Note the peak in the visible part of the spectrum. Right curve shows emission spectrum of Earth, assuming it operates as a black body at about 37°C. Note that the scale for the emission curve is different and much lower than that for solar radiance. The white background of plot depicts wavelengths at which the atmosphere is relatively transparent. Note the deep absorptions at about 1400 and 1900 nm due to water vapor and the broad thermal infrared ‘window’ between about 8000 and 14,000 nm 211
    • 12.2 Geometry of side-looking radar. (a) Because radar uses time-delay to discriminate between objects, the radar-facing slope (AB) appears fore-shortened as opposed to slope BC. (b) The extreme case of foreshortening, layover, places the top of the mountain (B) in front of its base (A). Data from AB is lost. This situation is more common for radars with small look (incidence) angles and areas of high relief. (c) The opposite situation, typical for radars with large look angles, is shadowing on the far slope (BC). Data here is also lost. (From Ford et al., 1993) 216
    • 12.3 Radar response to roughness. (a) Smooth areas act like mirrors and scatter the radar beam away from the receiver. Rougher surfaces (at the scale of the wavelength) scatter more and more radiation randomly. (b) Radar backscatter (image brightness) as a function of incidence angle for different roughnesses. Smooth surfaces reflect directly back only for normal incidence while rough surfaces scatter relatively consistently through a wide range of angles. Note that, for very small angles, smooth surfaces may appear brighter than rough surfaces. (From Ford et al., 1993) 217
    • 12.4 Common digital topography systems 218
    • 12.5 Proposed future remote-sensing systems 221
    • 13.1 Change in the annual number of papers including ‘GIS’ in the title, abstract, or key words, published in four major international journals of geomorphology (Catena, Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, Geomorphology, and Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie), during 1989–2008 228
    • 13.2 Downstream variation in stream power and its components for the Hunter River, Australia, based on GIS and DEM analyses. In the upper figure stream power is based on the long profile smoothing method. In the lower figure stream power based on theoretical models and curve fitting are also shown. (Modified after Jain et al., 2006) 232
    • 13.3 Automated landform classification based on elementary landforms and their boundaries derived from a DEM, for Devínska Kobyla Mountain, Slovakia. (After Minár and Evans, 2008) 234
    • 13.4 Schematic representation of the landslide risk assessment procedure. (a) Basic data sets required, both of static, as well as dynamic (indicated with ‘time…’) nature, (b) Susceptibility and hazard modelling component, (c) Vulnerability assessment component, (d) Risk assessment component, (e) Total risk calculation in the form of a risk curve. (After Van Westen et al., 2008) 235
    • 13.5 Locational probability of a segment in the Lower Mississippi River, USA. (Modified after Wasklewicz et al., 2004) 237
    • 14.1 Examples of biogenically produced landforms at a wide range of scales: (top left) Part of the southern section of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia; (top right) small tufa barrage on a stream at Cwm Nash, South Wales, anchored with LWD; (middle left) a nebkha on Agate Beach, near Luderitz, southern Namibia; (middle right) termite mounds in the Kimberley area, north-west Australia; (bottom left) badger mounding in Wytham Wood, near Oxford (image courtesy of John Crouch); and (bottom right) depressions in sandstones at Golden Gate Highlands National Park, South Africa, inhabited and developed by the lichen Lecidea aff. Sarcogynoides248
    • 14.2 Conceptual diagrams showing the biogeomorphological consequences of disturbance: (a) on arid hillslopes (after Bull, 1991); (b) on weathering systems in deglaciating areas; and (c) on vegetated dunes in drylands 251
    • 15.1 The ‘human impact’ model (Lóczy, 2008). 1 = direct human impact on landform; 2 = human impact on geomorphic processes; 3 = human impact on conditions influencing Processes 262
    • 15.2 The ‘human agency’ model of heavily modified landscapes with the integration of biophysical and sociocultural processes. (Modified after Urban, 2002, with the author's permission) 265
    • 15.3 Sketch of impact of undermining on the ground surface. (Modified after Brady and Brown 1993: Rock Mechanics: For Underground Mining, 2nd edn. Springer Verlag, Fig. 15 – With kind permission of Springer Science and Business Media) 266
    • 15.4 Disturbance map of the Borsod Mining Area, North-Hungary. (Sütõ, 2007) 272
    • 16.1 Hypothetical landscape showing three major regolith/landscape regimes from left to right: in situ, erosional and depositional. The weathering front (the boundary between regolith and bedrock) is shown, as is the watertable (the boundary between saturated and unsaturated ground, as well as directions of water flow for infiltration and for groundwater 283
    • 16.2 Two idealized in situ weathering profiles. (a) Developed on a granitic bedrock and (b) formed on deformed clastic sedimentary rocks 284
    • 16.3 Some of the common terms used to describe the various weathering facies in an in situ regolith profile 285
    • 16.4 A typical regolith profile from the lower slopes of a regolith formed overand downslope from a granitic parent material 286
    • 16.5 Left: Profile of regolith in a valley regolith sequence. Note the stripped regolith below the alluvium and the paleosols in the alluvial sequence. Right: A crosssection through an alluvial valley fill showing the distribution of channel deposits and overbank deposits as well as soils that may get preserved as the sequence accumulates and the locus of deposition shifts across the valley. A to D refer to progressively fining alluvial cycles as the valley fills and regional gradients decrease resulting in finer-grained deposits overall 286
    • 16.6 Change in amount of immobile elements across the Mottled Zone–Bauxite boundary (dashed line) at the Jacaranda pit, Andoom near Weipa in far northern Queensland. (a) Al2O3, (b) TiO2, (c) Zr. (From Taylor and Eggleton, 2008) 288
    • 16.7 The evolution of the silcrete bounded Mirackina Palaeochannel in central Australia. (From McNally and Wilson, 1995) 289
    • 17.1 (a) Fire weathered boulder Lawn Hill N.P. Queensland, Australia. The fire has resulted in explosive exfoliation of the exterior of the boulder. (b) Granular disintegration of a weakened subsurface layer exposed by the loss of a crust by surface scaling, Sussex, UK. (c) Pseudo-rillenkarren on an upstanding mass of gritstone, Derbyshire, UK. (d) Weather pits developed in a polygonally cracked sandstone, High Atlas, Morocco. Note the loss of some of the cracked outer crust. (e) Alveolar weathering in a sandstone, Sussex, UK. (f) Spalled upper surface of a chalk shore platform as a result of frost action, Sussex, UK 301
    • 18.1 Leeder's trinity (Best, 1993). (Reproducted with the permission of Wiley Publishers) 311
    • 18.2 Definitions of terms for computing the relative magnitude of forces in open channel flows (Dingman, 1984) 313
    • 18.3 Classification of the flow above a boundary ((a) Dingman, 1984; (b) Nezu and Nakagawa, 1993). (Reproducted with the permission of Balkema Publishers) 315
    • 18.4 The structure of the turbulent boundary layer (Chow, 1959; Dingman, 1984) 316
    • 18.5 Velocity profile and boundary layer for turbulent flow. Thicknesses above the layers are not to scale (Robert, 2003). (Reproducted with the permission of Oxford University Press) 317
    • 18.6 Shields diagram. Relation between critical dimensionless shear stress and erosive Reynold number for turbulent flow. Solid line = water (Graf, 1971) and dotted line = air (Mantz, 1977). (Reproducted with the permission of American Society of Civil Engineers) 321
    • 19.1 Schematic model describing the linkages between mountain catchments and variations in fluvial form along the river profile (Mosley and Schumm, 2001) 328
    • 19.2 Overview of erosion, transport and deposition processes acting in the slope, channel and floodplain geomorphic domains (reproduced with permission from J. Lewin) 328
    • 19.3 Sediment budget model for the Rock Creek basin. Rectangles represent storage systems. Octagonals indicate transfer processes. Circles represent outputs. Solid lines represent the transfer of sediment and dotted lines represent the migration of solutes (Dietrich and Dunne, 1978) 334
    • 19.4 Hillslope sediment budget: flood-based upland sediment budget for a small catchment (6 km2) in northern England. Hillslope activity is partitioned into footpath and mine waste disturbance zones alongside more natural areas 335
    • 19.5 Catchment sediment budget: fine sediment budget of the upper Kaleya catchment, southern Zambia (Walling et al., 2001) 336
    • 19.6 Comparison of short-term and long-term erosion rates from glaciated and fluvial basins. (a) Short-term erosion rates calculated from measurements of sediment yield over timescales of 1–10 years. The median of each dataset is shown by black bars, the mean by white bars (Koppes and Montgomery, 2009). (b) Erosion rates measured in the same or adjacent fluvial basins in a range of orogens. Boxes represent errors in estimation (vertical) and timescale of measurement (horizontal) 339
    • 20.1 Schematic illustration of two of the key landscape evolution models (after Chorley et al., 1984), from a slope perspective. (a) The Davis model, which is essentially one of hillslope change, controlled by initial uplift and the creation of river valleys with very steep walls as a result of fluvial incision. (b) The Penck model, which is also characterized by slope angle reduction with time, albeit in a more complex manner 344
    • 20.2 Schematic illustration of the King (1951, 1953) model of landscape evolution (after Chorley et al., 1984), from a slope perspective. The landscape was considered to evolve primarily through the development of hillslopes, in this case though with parallel retreat 345
    • 20.3 A schematic illustration of the ways in which the evolution of slope systems can occur even when the global factor of safety is greater than unity. The local factor of safety can be less than one, which allows the growth of the potential shear surface. This has the effect of reducing the overall factor of safety, which in turn can allow further development of the shear surface. If conditions are right, and enough time, this can allow failure of the slope without external forcing. A proportion of slopes, especially in high mountain areas, appear to show this type of behavior 349
    • 20.4 The role of weathering in slope failures is often represented in this way. Weathering progressively reduces the resistance of the slope to shear stress. In addition, pore water pressure fluctuations allow the resistance to change with a higher frequency. Failure occurs when the two effects combine to allow the factor of safety to reach unity 350
    • 20.5 Simple friction-based movement laws suggest there should be a direct correlation between movement rate and pore pressure. However, field studies suggest that this relationship is more complex, with strong hysteresis in the relationship. However, the exact form of this hysteresis appears to vary between landslides 351
    • 20.6 Conceptual model of a block detaching from a vertical cliff. Failure occurs when the release surface is fully formed 353
    • 21.1 A classification of spatial and temporal scales in fluvial geomorphology 360
    • 21.2 Sinuous, meandering, braided and anastomosing river channel planforms 363
    • 21.3 Elements of a ‘reach-scale’ fluvial system, a mechanism for transporting and storing water and sediment along a channel or valley of specified length. Selected ‘morphological elements’ are listed in Table 21.2 364
    • 21.4 Longitudinal profiles of stream channels. (a) Classic ‘graded’ or equilibrium longitudinal profile for an alluvial river. (b) Equilbrium longitudinal profile interrupted by bedrock-controlled knickpoints. (c) Upstream migrating knickpoint developing from a spatially uniform instantaneous tectonic uplift. (d) Upstream migrating knickpoint developing from a drop in sea level 365
    • 21.5 Reconstruction of stream channel morphology in the mid-Atlantic Piedmont from stratigraphic data (Jacobson and Coleman, 1986; Pizzuto, 1987; Walter and Merritts, 2008) 368
    • 21.6 Selected models of fluvial channel evolution through time. (a) Response of river bed elevation to periodic forcing. After each forcing event, the stream bed tends to evolve towards a new temporary equilibrium. Before the new equilibrium elevation is reached, another forcing event occurs (after Bull, 1991). (b) Response and recovery of channel width following erosive stormflows in a humid temperate climate (Maryland, Md), a semi-arid climate (Montana), and an arid region where no recovery occurs (after Wolman and Gerson, 1978). (c) Episodic variations in depth of alluvial cover in a Pacific north-west stream channel related to passage of sediment pulses induced by storm events and periodic fires that destroy forest cover (after Benda and Dunne, 1997). (d) Spatial variations in Holocene sediment yield related to glaciation and episodic sediment storage and remobilization in British Columbia (Church and Slaymaker, 1989) 369
    • 22.1 Extent of global glaciation at approx. 18,000 years B.P. (Modified from Tarbuck and Lutgens, 2003) 380
    • 22.2 General model of drumlin plan and variability of internal composition 386
    • 22.3 End moraine complexes south of the Great Lakes in the Mid-West USA (Modified from Strahler, 1968) 387
    • 22.4 Model of marginal glacial deposition systems 388
    • 23.1 Schematic diagram illustrating the concept of the periglacial zone in (a) high- latitude and (b) high-altitude (alpine) areas. (From French, 2007) 394
    • 23.2 Schematic graph that shows the mean annual temperature profile through the surface boundary layer in a periglacial region underlain by permafrost. It illustrates the surface and thermal offsets. (From Smith and Riseborough (2002); reproduced by permission of John Wiley and Sons Ltd.) 396
    • 23.3 Freezing and thawing conditions in various periglacial environments of the world. (a) Yakutsk (lat. 62°N; 108 m asl), Siberia, Russia; (b) Tuktoyaktuk (lat. 69°N; 10 m asl), Mackenzie Delta, NWT, Canada; (c) Green Harbour (lat. 78°N, 7 m asl), Spitsbergen; (d) Fenghuo Shan (lat. 34°N, 4800 m asl), Qinghai -Xizang (Tibet) Plateau, China; (e) Mont Blanc Station, El Misti (lat.16°S, 4760 m asl), Peru; (f) Summit Station, El Misti (lat.16°S, 5850 m asl), Peru; (g) Sonnblick (lat. 47°N, 3060 m asl), Austria; (h) Kerguelen Island (lat. 49°S, sea level), southern Indian ocean. (From French, 2007) 397
    • 23.4 Diagram illustrating the typical ground thermal regime of a permafrost area, Skovorodino, Siberia, 1928–1930 (From Muller, 1943) 400
    • 23.5 Schematic diagram summarizing the Quaternary stratigraphy of organic-rich loess-like silt deposits in central Alaska. (a) Valley cross section illustrating surficial materials and presence of ice wedges and ice-wedge casts. (b) Magneto-stratigraphy of the Gold Hill loess deposits, Fairbanks. (Modified from Péwé et al., 1997; Preece et al., 1999) 404
    • 23.6 Schematic diagram illustrating the disciplinary interacts and overlaps of periglacial geomorphology. (a) Relations between physical geography, geomorphology and periglacial geomorphology. (b) Relations between periglacial geomorphology, geocryology and their interactions with Quaternary science and other natural sciences. (c) Periglacial geomorphology and its overlap with the cryospheric earth sciences 405
    • 24.1 The recognition of instantaneous, event, engineering and geological space and timescales in coastal geomorphology (based on Cowell and Thom, 1984), and the identification of the broad domain in which some of the key morphodynamic models operate. Fluid dynamics applies only at the smallest and shortest timescales. Beach profile models such as SBEACH apply at event scales, whereas sand barrier models such as the Shoreline Translation Model (STM) are scaled up to longer timescales, as also are SCAPE (Walkden and Hall, 2005) and reef island models (Barry et al., 2007). Models for marine terraces, such as that generated by Anderson et al. (1999); and atoll formation, such as the subsidence theory of coral atoll evolution proposed by Darwin (1842), operate at geological timescales. Details of several of these models are discussed in the text 416
    • 24.2 A schematization of the cliff model SCAPE and an illustration of how a shore platform evolves from a vertical cliff, over time, using SCAPE (after Walkden and Hall, 2005, Walkden and Dickson, 2008). Stage 1 shows the distribution of potential retreat over a tidal cycle, stage 2 the integration of this erosion potential and stage 3 the pattern of recession, with each line representing a successive 200-year period, superimposed on a gradually rising sea level 419
    • 24.3 A schematic representation of a section of the coast of south-eastern Australia showing a sand barrier that partially occludes an estuary and the relationship of three morphodynamic models of different components of the coastal zone. The estuary model is based on the conceptualization by Roy (1984); it models the successive stages of estuary infill ((a) initial stages of infill of prior embayment, (b) fluvial delta begins to infill central basin, (c) infill nearly complete, residual cut-off embayments, (d) mature riverine system with river discharging to the coast and extensive alluvial plains). The characterization of sand barriers is based on Chapman et al. (1982), and describes the different type of barrier at locations along the coast ((a) prograded barrier, (b) stationary barrier with low foredune, (c) stationary barrier with high foredune, (c) receded barrier, (d) episodic transgressive barrier). The description of beach morphodynamics is based on Wright and Short (1984) recognizing the response of beach state to incident wave energy ((a) dissipative, (b) longshore bar and trough, (c) rhythmic bar and beach, (d) transverse bar and rip, (e) low-tide terrace, (f) reflective) 421
    • 24.4 The evolution of the concept of a morphological equilibrium on sandy shorefaces (based on Woodroffe, 2003). (a) the concept of an equilibrium profile as a concave-up shoreface, proposed by Cornaglia, producing a graded profile on the basis that wave energy increases towards the shore as waves become increasingly asymmetrical in comparison to gravitational forces which operate to move sediment offshore. A null point exists for any particular grain size where the two forces are equal, with that null point occurring further seaward for finer grains. Gravity also increases onshore if the profile is concave, and the balance between onshore and offshore movement was considered by Cornaglia to represent a stable equilibrium; (b) representation of an equilibrium profile in a simple rule, the Bruun rule, with parameters defined as in equation (24.3). As sea level rises, there is a translation of the equilibrium profile landwards; and (c) the formalization of these concepts into a simulation model, the Shoreline Translation Model (STM) in which the shoreface is parameterized and simulations can be run hindcasting Holocene paleoshoreline conditions that can be partially validated by morphostratigraphic studies, and providing a tool for forward modeling 423
    • 25.1 Global distribution of arid environments, active sand seas and major dust sources 432
    • 25.2 Wind speed (measured at 2 m) and saltation activity measured during a 1 hour sampling period (After Stout, 1998) 439
    • 25.3 Events in the formation of loess deposits. Hypothetical pathways to explain the formation of loess deposits associated with (a) cold environments and (b) hot environments (Wright, 2001) 442
    • 25.4 Free dune types differentiated using wind directional variability and sand supply. This figure, adapted from Wasson and Hyde (1983) by Livingstone and Warren (1996), to include network dunes, expands the domains of individual dunes beyond the original study 443
    • 25.5 Model of the impact of humid-arid phases on sediment production/availability and transport and the response of the aeolian dry system (Bullard and McTainsh, 2003, simplified from Kocurek, 1998) 445
    • 25.6 Links between four sediment storage areas for sand-sized material in arid environments (Bullard and Livingstone, 2002) 445
    • 26.1 Characteristic weathering profiles using an engineering-based classification (Zones I–VI) (Compiled by the author for Fookes (1997)) 452
    • 26.2 Characteristic granite domes (inselbergs, borhnhardts) illustrated from Zimbabwe. (a) Diagram to show association of duricrust cores, sheeted granite exposures and footslope colluvium. (b) Domes at Dombashawa, Zimbabwe 452
    • 26.3 The hillside and swamp soil system of the Mengong Brook catchment (L6 catena), Cameroun. WT: variation of the groundwater level. (From Braun et al., 2005) 454
    • 26.4 Association of duricrusts (ferricrete) with relief features. (a) accumulation of Fe2O3, on the terrace near Labé, Guinea; (b) Catena showing levels of crust formation on the terraces of the Milo River, Guinea. (After Maignein, 1966) 455
    • 26.5 Geomorphic system responses to global climate warming after the termination of the last glacial. Data from north-east Queensland, showing 64 per cent reduction in P at the glacial maximum leading to deposition of fans, which were dissected as P increased (c 14 ka). A series of slope failures took place, many during the humid period of the early Holocene. (From Thomas, 2008a, b) 457
    • 26.6 Plot of seasonality index (R) versus the ratio between peak discharge on record and mean discharge (Qmax/Qm). Solid triangles refer to monsoon-fed rivers 459
    • 26.7 Plot of density of population in flood prone area versus the average population in flood-affected area. Solid circles represent countries with high population density (>150/km2). (UNDP (2004)) 464
    • 27.1 The comprehensive karst system: a composite diagram illustrating the major phenomena encountered in active karst terrains (From Ford and Williams, 1989) 470
    • 27.2 Evolutionary types of karst (From Klimchouk and Ford, 2000) 473
    • 27.3 Upper: The coupling of the epikarst to the main aquifer in a finite element model of a karstified syncline. Lower: Variation of hydraulic head in a karstified syncline following recharge by concentrated infiltration through the epikarst (From Kiraly, 2002) 476
    • 27.4 Block diagrams illustrating selected time unit stages in the course of running a process–response model (KARST11) of karst landscape development. The sloping corrosion plain at T = 150 follows the hydraulic gradient (From Ahnert and Williams, 1997) 477
    • 27.540Ar/39Ar ages of alunite crystals from H2S caves of the Guadalupe Mountains, New Mexico, and reconstruction of the orogenic history (From Polyak et al., 1998) 479
    • 28.1 Charles Lyell's illustration of how successive volcanic lavas, flowing into and preserving progressively lower river beds containing sediments of progressively younger ages, provide clear evidence of the rate of landscape evolution and perhaps of the forms of the landscape as it evolves. (Lyell, 1833: Figure 61, p. 267) 490
    • 28.2 Diagram illustrating the development of relief in three of the principal schemes of long-term landscape evolution: (a) William Morris Davis; (b) Walther Penck; and (c) Lester King. Note that in (a) maximum relief marks the transition from the Youthful stage to the Mature, and that relief declines thereafter through the stages of Maturity and Old Age, culminating in the low-relief plain, the peneplain. King's scheme of landscape evolution in (c) is characterized by early river incision down to base level and valley widening by parallel retreat of slopes thereafter; relief stays essentially constant. The end stage, the pediplain, is reached when the last residual hills are consumed by parallel retreat of slopes and relief only starts to decrease once hillslopes on opposite sides of a remnant hill intersect at the hill crest, which then starts to lower in elevation (dotted lines beneath summit of right-hand hill). (Summerfield, 1991: Figure 18.1) 491
    • 28.3 King's illustration of the four morphological elements of all landscapes (King, 1962: Figure 53) 493
    • 28.4 Diagrammatic representations of Penck's models of hillslope and landscape development. (a) Slope morphology as a landscape under waxing development (Wx) and waning development (Wn). (b) Illustration of the way in which slope replacement operates, with steeper slopes replaced from below by lower-angled slopes. Resistant (stippled) lithologies are associated with steeper slopes within the overall scheme of slope replacement and declining slope angle. (Palmquist, 1975: Figure 2) 494
    • 28.5 (a) Flexural uplift of the onshore region of a passive continental margin as a result of continental shelf subsidence due to sediment loading (SI) and thermal subsidence (cooling; ST) of the continental margin after continental breakup. The isostatically driven subsidence of the shelf drives isostatic flexural uplift (UI) of the onshore (via the rotation ‘arm’, u) which may also experience rock uplift as a result of thermal effects (UT). An escarpment retreats (E) into the flexurally uplifted hinterland. Note how the mechanical strength of the lithosphere (the strength of the lithospheric ‘lever arm’) will determine the inland extent and amplitude of the flexural rock uplift (from Summerfield, 1991: Figure 4.20). Pazzaglia and Gardner (2000) have attributed the formation of the Fall Zone on the Atlantic continental margin of North America to erosion into a flexural bulge formed as in this diagram. (b) Calculated depression resulting from post-Middle Miocene sediment loading of the Amazon fan (offshore; contour interval 100 m) and onshore flexural uplift resulting (‘peripheral bulge’) from that loading (contour interval 10 m). (c) Projection of the peripheral bulge onto the drainage net of coastal Amazon highlighting the way in which small tributaries have their headwaters on that peripheral bulge. (Driscoll and Karner, 1994: Figures 3 and 4) 501
    • 28.6 (a) Development of steady-state topography in Bonnet and Crave's (2003) physical model of landscape development with rock uplift rate of 1.5 cm/h and under (top) high rainfall rate conditions (mean rainfall rate 166 ± 5 mm/h), and (bottom) low rainfall” (Bonnet and Crave, 2003: Figure 3). (b) Time sequence of development of steady-state topography in Bonnet and Crave's (2003) physical model of landscape development with rock uplift rate 1.5 cm/h and mean rainfall rate of 137 ±7 mm/h. The model evolves for ~200 min of model run, by which time the mean elevation of the model becomes constant. From that time, maximum elevation (the peaks in the model) asymptotically approach a constant value which they attain at ~350 min of model run. Attainment of constant mean elevation can be considered topographic steady-state. (Bonnet and Crave, 2003: Figure 1) 503
    • 28.7 Concentration of erosional unloading of the lithosphere in valleys and limited erosion of the adjacent peaks can lead to uplift of those peaks. Note that any surface erosion must lead to an overall decline in mean surface elevation of an area in isostatic equilibrium and free to respond isostatically to the erosional unloading. In the case illustrated here, the mechanical strength of the lithosphere means that localized unloading leads to more regional isostatic response and so the peaks may rise as the lithosphere floats up regionally by 80 per cent of the regional unloading, which in this case is concentrated in the valleys. (Burbank and Anderson, 2001: Figure 10.26) 505
    • 28.8 Upper panel shows a diagrammatic crustal section through the Himalayas with the Himalayan front with peak mountain heights on the middle right and the Tibetan plateau at centre and centre left. The overall elevation of the Tibetan plateau and its fronting Himalayan mountain range is due to the double crustal thickness resulting from the collision of the Indian-Australian plate from the right with the Asian plate from the left – the thicker crust floats higher due to isostasy. That ~5 km of rock uplift is indicated in the lower plot. The high monsoonal precipitation on the Himalayan mountain front denudes that mountain front at very high rates leading to the second isostatic response, namely, very high rates of rock uplift in response to that denudational unloading, as indicated by the upward flow of crust in the upper right of the top diagram. (Adapted from Fielding, 2000: Figure 10.11) 507
    • 28.9 Plots from a test for climatic control of erosion rates according to Riebe et al. (2001). (a) Compilation of published relationships between erosion rate and mean annual precipitation; (b-d) cosmogenic nuclide-based erosion rate data plotted against various parameters of climate (Riebe et al., 2001). In (d) the measured rate is given beside each data point which is plotted against that site's mean annual rainfall and temperature 508
    • 29.1 Marine isotope stratigraphy from the Late Cenozoic for the last 2.7 million years and the continental Vostok ice core record. The continental record is being extended and used to refine timing of the isotope stages using carbonate landbased records which can be more accurately dated by uranium-series methods such as speleothems. (Simplified from Gibbard and Van Kolfschoten, 2004) 517
    • 29.2 High-frequency climate change events in marine Quaternary sedimentary records (Heinrich events) and the GRIP Summit ice core (Dansgaard–Oeschger events). The lowermost plot demonstrates the sawtooth nature of ‘Bond cycles’. (Adapted from Bond et al., 1993) 518
    • 29.3 An example of how oxygen isotopes are affected by their environment for lacustrine carbonates (δ18Ocarb). If the carbonate is precipitated in isotopic equilibrium, the lacustrine carbonate depends entirely on temperature and the isotopic composition of the lake water (δ18Owater). Disequilibrium effects (‘vital effects’) in biogenic precipitates, caused by local changes in microenvironment or rate of precipitation can induce systematic or non-systematic offsets in the lacustrine carbonates. Thus factors such as time of year in which a particular type of authigenic or biogenic carbonate forms is important. In lakes with optimum hydrology (size and precipitation/evaporation regime) there is a simple relationship to δ18Oprecipitation but in others the water composition is strongly influenced by processes such as evaporation within the catchment and within the lake itself. δ18Oprecipitation is increasingly being shown to be an important indicator of climate change: it typically changes with mean annual temperature. (After Leng and Marshall, 2004) 522
    • 29.4 A comparison of (a) chironomid-inferred temperatures from Whitrig Bog, south-east Scotland and (b) the oxygen isotope record from the GRIP ice core during the Late Glacial. The reconstruction suggested that the thermal maximum occurred early in the last Interstadial with temperatures reaching about 12–13°C. Thereafter, there was a gradual downward trend to about 11°C, punctuated by four distinct cold oscillations of varying intensity. At the beginning of the Younger Dryas, summer temperatures fell to about 7.5°C but gradually increased to about 9°C before a rapid rise at the onset of the Holocene. The chironomid-inferred temperature curve agrees closely with the GRIP ice-core oxygen-isotope curve from Greenland. (After Brooks, 2006) 525
    • 29.5 Holocene fluvial chronology of Spain in relation to the North Atlantic drift-ice record (Bond et al., 2001) (From Thorndycraft and Benito (2006)) 527
    • 29.6 Selected hydrologic data records resolved to century scale for temperate Europe. Shaded areas indicate inferred high moisture availability. (a) Mean annual band thickness, speleothems, north-west Scotland; (b) mean standardized peatland surface wetness, northern Britain; (c) summed lake-level scores from sediment stratigraphy, French pre-Alps; (d) mass balance fluctuation (advance and retreat), Great Alettsch glacier, Switzerland. (Based on original data from Proctor et al., 2002, Magny, 2004; Charman et al., 2006, Holzhauser et al., 2005, summarized in Verschuren and Charman, 2008) 530
    • 30.1 Australia during the Last Glacial Maximum when sea level was 120 m lower and the desert dunes were active. Note the land bridges connecting mainland Australia to Papua New Guinea and to Tasmania. Arrows show direction of sand flow. Black dots represent crescent- shaped clay dunes or lunettes. 1, Simpson Desert; 2, Strzelecki Desert; 3, Tirari Desert 540
    • 30.2 Block diagram showing the five major alluvial formations investigated in the middle Son valley. (After Williams et al., 2006a) 542
    • 30.3 Distribution of volcanic ash from the 73 ka Toba super-eruption showing location of marine cores and sections sampled in India. Black dots represent Toba tephra occurrences on land and in marine cores. R is site of first Toba ash discovery at Son-Rehi confluence. B is marine core S0188–342KL in the Bay of Bengal; K is Khunteli; R is Rehi; H is Hirapur. Key to stratigraphic sections in India: a is coarse sand; b is medium/fine sand; c is silt loam/sandy loam/interstratified sand and loam; d is clay; e is Toba volcanic ash; f is massive carbonate; g is gravel; h is sampled pedogenic carbonate horizon. (After Williams et al., 2009) 543
    • 30.4 Depth profile of 87Sr/86Sr from coastal core S-21 in the Nile delta east of the Suez Canal, showing that the 4.2 ka drought coincided with the demise of the Old Kingdom in Egypt. (From Williams, 2009b, after Krom et al., 2002 and Stanley et al., 2003) 546
    • 31.1 Site of a tornado forest blowdown in the Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas, USA 561
    • 31.2 Conceptual diagram showing how potential amplifiers and filters intrinsic and extrinsic to geomorphic systems may enhance or reduce disturbance impacts 561
    List of Colour Plates
    • Map of New Orleans in 1895, showing urban development on the natural levees of Mississippi River main channel (e.g. French Quarter), and of former distributary channels, such as Metarie and Gentily ridges, both occupied by roads of the same name. (US Department of War, 1895) 587
    • Sediment budget for Central Valley of California, 1850 to present. (Adapted from Kondolf, 2001) 588
    • Three examples of regional landform maps of Australia, showing th same part of the eastern part of the continent. (a) extract from Lobeck (1951) showing the use of hachures. (b) extract from Löffler and Ruxton (1969), showing a polygon map derived from land system mapping. (c) extract from Pain et al. (in press) showing a polygon map compiled from the SRTM 30′ DEM (see Pain, 2008) 589
    • Landform map of the Po Delta, with partial legend. (From Bondesan et al., 1989; see also Castiglioni et al., 1999) 590
    • Principle of imaging spectroscopy. Each pixel in the 224 bands samples nearly continuously the VNIR spectrum of the terrain 591
    • Radar penetration of dry sediments: Nile River. The top image is a hand-held photograph from the Space Shuttle in November 1995 and shows the Nile River in Sudan. The river is brownish due to silt. The lower image is from SIR-C and is a color composite of L-band (25 cm wavelength) and C-band images. Note the old channel of the Nile shows up in the lower radar image, but not the hand-held image, where sand is seen to cover the area 591
    • Lidar DEM showing a forested fault scarp in the state of Washington. (a) Bare-earth lidar DEM showing prominent north–south lineations due to glaciation and east–west fault scarps. (b) Google Earth image of same area showing extensive forest cover; lidar penetrates between trees and senses the land surface. (Public-domain lidar data from Puget Sound Lidar Consortium; 592
    • (a) A schematic showing their interpretation of calcrete formation. (From Wright and Tucker, 1991.) (b) A nodular calcrete from Broken Hill, New South Wales, formed within the pedogenic zone of and alluvial/aeolian regolith. Here much of the carbonate is thought to be derived from dry lakes and lacustrine environments to the west of Broken Hill 593
    • (a) Model of ice sheet/valley glacier frontal terrestrial margin. (b) Model of ice sheet/valley glacier floating subaquatic margin 594
    • Glacial valley incision producing a U-shaped valley, the Korok River Valley, Torngat Mountains, Labrador, Canada. (Photograph courtesy John Gosse) 595
    • Erosional landscape system due to alpine glaciation. (Modified from Tarbuck and Lutgens, 2003) 596
    • (a) Tabular hills in Panchagani, India. Weathered lavas at this site are capped by a thick ferricrete duricrust. (b) Deeply decomposed granite-gneiss below convex hill in eastern Brazil, now dissected by canyon gullies (height ~ 50–100 m) 596

    List of Tables

    • 1.1 Some definitions of geomorphology 2
    • 1.2 Some key publications establishing the subject, emphasizing books with geomorphology in their title 5
    • 1.3 Examples of geomorphological societies 6
    • 1.4 Examples of journals publishing papers on geomorphology (developed from Gregory, 2010) 10
    • 1.5 Some branches of geomorphology (developed from Gregory, 2009 in Gregory et al., 2009) 12
    • 1.6 Discipline growth applied to geomorphology 15
    • 1.7 Nine grand challenges and four high-priority research initiatives for research on earth surface processes as proposed by NRC (2009) 17
    • 5.1 Example texts in ‘applied’ geomorphology 79
    • 5.2 Client groups for geomorphological services 82
    • 5.3 Geomorphological services in environmental management 84
    • 5.4 Core skills and techniques required by the early 21st century applied geomorphologist 94
    • 5.5 Prospects for geomorphology in environmental management: strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats 96
    • 6.1 Time scales of natural hazards and human perception 111
    • 7.1 Measurement scales 124
    • 9.1 Response of channel variables (e.g. slope s, grain size D, depth d and width w), to changes in water (Qw) or sediment (Qs) discharge (modified from Schumm, 1969) 161
    • 9.2 Model uncertainties (Modified from Lane, 2003) 168
    • 10.1 Geomorphic transport laws 183
    • 11.1 The half lives of short- to long-lived isotopes used in earth sciences 197
    • 12.1 Common visible–near infrared remote-sensing systems 212
    • 12.2 Common thermal–infrared remote-sensing systems 213
    • 12.3 Common radar remote-sensing systems 215
    • 14.1 Studies in biogeomorphology that focus on single organism/geomorphological interactions 252
    • 15.1 Grades of transition from natural to human-induced geomorphic processes with the disciplines which study them (Lóczy, 2008) 261
    • 15.2 A genetic classification of man-made landforms (Szabó, in Szabó et al., 2010) 264
    • 15.3 Approaches to describe human impact on rivers (Modified after Gregory, 2006) 268
    • 18.1 Fluid properties of water and air at 1 atm 312
    • 18.2 Solid load, solute load and denudation rate data (Summerfield and Hulton, 1994, and sources cited therein) 323
    • 19.1 Estimates of the major components of the global sediment budget and their modification by human activity (from Syvitski et al., 2005 and Walling, 2008) 337
    • 21.1 Categories of knowledge in fluvial geomorphology 360
    • 21.2 Morphological elements of rivers at different spatial scales 361
    • 21.3 Examples of research methods and their uses in fluvial geomorphology. Specific examples may be found in Kondolf and Piegay (2003) 361
    • 21.4 Idealized conditions and variables attributed to ‘graded’ stream reaches 366
    • 21.5 Summary of human activities that influence river channels 372
    • 21.6 Goals of river restoration projects and examples of common restoration activities (modified from Bernhardt et al., 2005) 373
    • 25.1 Classification and extent of arid environments 431
    • 25.2 Summary of major dune classification schemes (Bullard and Nash, 2000) 436
    • 25.3 Summary of the main characteristics of the most widely studied simple free dune types 437
    • 25.4 Comparison of the regional annual mean dust flux (Tg yr–1) from selected global dust models 441
    • 26.1 Channel morphological properties of some tropical rivers (mostly after Latrubesse, 2008) 460
    • 26.2 Major fringe and deltaic floodplains of tropics (modified after Tockner and Stanford, 2002) 461
    • 26.3 Delta type and area of some major tropical rivers 463
    • 26.4 Extreme flood events (recurrence interval >100 y) between 1985 and 2009 465
    • 29.1 Stratigraphic approaches applied to the Quaternary as discussed in this chapter 515
    • 29.2 Iron oxides commonly found in soils and their magnetic susceptibilities (from Maher, 1998) 515
    • 29.3 Approaches and techniques commonly used in interpreting the environments of Quaternary deposits as dealt with in this chapter 519
    • 29.4 Selection of biogenic carbonate materials for stable isotope analysis of lacustrine systems (based on Leng and Marshall 2004). Note that biogenic silica may be the only remaining source of biogenic material for isotope analysis in acid lakes. In this case diatoms and sponges have been used successfully for palaeoenvironmental reconstructions 523
    • 30.1 Evidence used to reconstruct environmental change (Williams et al., 1998) 537
    • 30.2 Late Cenozoic tectonic and climatic events (Sources cited in text) 538
    • 30.3 Evidence used to reconstruct the impact of the ~73 ka Toba eruption 544
    • 30.4 Environmental consequences of the ~73 ka Toba eruption 544
    • 30.5 Extent of soil degradation in susceptible drylands, grouped by continent, in millions of hectares. (UNEP, 1997) 547
    • 31.1 Qualitative assessment of disturbance parameters for selected geomorphic changes and disturbances 559
    • 33.1 Published examples of the geomorphological impacts of global warming on the land surface and surface processes 582
  • Colour Plates

    Plate 1 Map of New Orleans in 1895, showing urban development on the natural levees of Mississippi River main channel (e.g. French Quarter), and of former distributary channels, such as Metarie and Gentily ridges, both occupied by roads of the same name. (US Department of War, 1895)

    Plate 2 Sediment budget for Central Valley of California, 1850 to present. (Adapted from Kondolf, 2001)

    Plate 3 Three examples of regional landform maps of Australia, showing the same part of the eastern part of the continent. (a) extract from Lobeck (1951) showing the use of hachures. (b) extract from Löffler and Ruxton (1969), showing a polygon map derived from land system mapping. (c) extract from Pain et al. (in press) showing a polygon map compiled from the SRTM 30′ DEM (see Pain, 2008)

    Plate 4 Landform map of the Po Delta, with partial legend. (From Bondesan et al., 1989; see also Castiglioni et al., 1999)

    Plate 5 Principle of imaging spectroscopy. Each pixel in the 224 bands samples nearly continuously the VNIR spectrum of the terrain

    Plate 6 Radar penetration of dry sediments: Nile River. The top image is a hand-held photograph from the Space Shuttle in November 1995 and shows the Nile River in Sudan. The river is brownish due to silt. The lower image is from SIR-C and is a color composite of L-band (25 cm wavelength) and C-band images. Note the old channel of the Nile shows up in the lower radar image, but not the hand-held image, where sand is seen to cover the area

    Plate 7 Lidar DEM showing a forested fault scarp in the state of Washington. (a) Bare-earth lidar DEM showing prominent north–south lineations due to glaciation and east–west fault scarps. (b) Google Earth image of same area showing extensive forest cover; lidar penetrates between trees and senses the land surface. (Public-domain lidar data from Puget Sound Lidar Consortium;

    Plate 8 (a) A schematic showing their interpretation of calcrete formation. (From Wright and Tucker, 1991) (b) A nodular calcrete from Broken Hill, New South Wales, formed within the pedogenic zone of and alluvial/aeolian regolith. Here much of the carbonate is thought to be derived from dry lakes and lacustrine environments to the west of Broken Hill

    Plate 9 (a) Model of ice sheet/valley glacier frontal terrestrial margin. (b) Model of ice sheet/valley glacier floating subaquatic margin

    Plate 10 Glacial valley incision producing a U-shaped valley, the Korok River Valley, Torngat Mountains, Labrador, Canada. (Photograph courtesy John Gosse)

    Plate 11 Erosional landscape system due to alpine glaciation. (Modified from Tarbuck and Lutgens, 2003)

    Plate 12 (a) Tabular hills in Panchagani, India. Weathered lavas at this site are capped by a thick ferricrete duricrust. (b) Deeply decomposed granite-gneiss below convex hill in eastern Brazil, now dissected by canyon gullies (height ~ 50–100 m)

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