21st Century Geography: A Reference Handbook


Edited by: Joseph P. Stoltman

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  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
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  • Part I: Physical and Environmental Geography

    Part II: Human Geography

    Part III: Nature and Society

    Part IV: Regions and Regional Perspectives

    Part V: Geographic Information Science

    Part VI: Applied and Professional Geography

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    Reader's Guide


    Welcome to 21st Century Geography: A Reference Handbook. As a discipline, geography spans the centuries. As a dynamic discipline, geography is ushering in the 21st century with vitality and purpose. The chapters in this handbook are written by geographers and people engaged with geographic research and professional work. Each chapter is presented in a similar format. First, the authors present a look back into the early period of the research and writing for the chapter topic. Following the early focus, but building toward the future, the second discussion in each chapter focuses on the geographic topic at the beginning of the 21st century. That is followed by a look to the future with speculation and prediction regarding the further development of the discipline. Of the three parts of each chapter, it was the third that was generally the most challenging to write. Speculation about the future of the discipline runs the risk that if the projection is not correct and the discipline either does not develop in those ways or with those attributes in the future, then it is viewed as an inaccurate projection. On the other hand, if an author correctly anticipates the future of the discipline, then the chapter and author are well within the comfort zone of the discipline. It takes intellectual courage to conjecture about the future, but each chapter provides a thoughtful consideration for the role of geography in the future. This final part of each chapter demonstrates that an important aspect of geography is its attentiveness to the future.

    The professional detail about geography and its diversity that are produced through the content and methodologies within each topic are further evidence of the work of scholars and professionals. Each topic author demonstrates the role of geography through the lenses of the particular topic. The reader will be impressed by the breadth and depth of scholarship that is characteristic of the discipline of geography.

    Very Brief History of Geography

    It is common to hear people comment that geography is everywhere and part of nearly every activity we pursue, and they are correct. People interact with geography as they navigate from location to location and as they interact with the environment. Decision making very often requires information about places, thus incorporating geography. Location analysts for major corporations as well as individuals interested in renting or buying a place to live are reminded of the importance of “location, location, location.” A full range of people, from the very young to the very senior, make use of geography throughout their lives. In fact, it may be that people are so close to geography and geographical thinking that they do not recognize the many ways it functions as a habit of mind as they go about their daily lives or consider issues that help them understand the complexities of the world. This handbook is designed to introduce you to the proven, the contemporary, and the emerging ideas that underpin this long-standing yet dynamic discipline.

    Geography is a very old discipline, dating back to earliest civilizations. People often think of geographic study as evolving as a practical means to manage the environment. This was especially the case in the Mediterranean region of Europe, where the Greeks and the Romans made major changes in the natural environment to build and geographically expand their civilizations. Early people in many regions of the world used geography to migrate long distances over difficult terrain in search of food and water. Interactions between groups of early people resulted in the establishment of settlements that were optimal as pivotal points for trade networks. Exchanges of rare minerals (gold) and necessary commodities (salt) reflected a geography of production and consumption, trade and exchange, that grew to span the globe. Every early civilization developed the geographic knowledge to get from here to there, to record what was located between here and there, and described what they found when they arrived at a new place. The organization of Earth, its physical patterns of rivers and mountain passes, and the tempo of the seasons (warm, cold, wet, dry) became essential information to not only survive but also to thrive as a community. The use of geography was a common endeavor through the eyes and feet of all early peoples.

    Modern geography developed from the continued inquisitive nature of people and the necessity or desire to move from one location to another across land and water. While travel from place to place was desirable, it was also necessary. To develop a record of migration and trade, it was imperative for people to record on parchment or more durable surfaces of stone and clay the geographic information that confronted travelers as well as the spatial relationships that could be recorded in both distance on Earth and time. Thus, modern maps were designed out of necessity to preserve a record for use by subsequent travelers as well as to develop a cartographic library of the known world.

    Early modern geography, beginning in the Mediterranean Sea region, included masterful recording in diaries and on maps, reporting geographic information to governmental leaders and citizens and presenting information about Earth, its landmasses, coastlines, rivers, climates, people, and natural resources through maps and diagrams. Inscribed as part of the information presented on maps was the knowledge that one could get from here to there and back again if they knew geography. The discipline of geography thus emerged as having something for everyone. The discipline enabled geographers to measure the circumference of Earth, to anticipate the seasons, and to explain the relationships between Earth and Sun in great detail. The geographical knowledge that people developed of their local environment often meant the difference between success and failure as a community. Nearly every aspect of what occurred at a place was intertwined with the environment, and the environment was to be studied and analyzed to determine the advantages and risks for the human population.

    If we fast-forward to the 21st century, then geography is observed as a dynamic discipline with many roles in scholarship and society. It is an integrative science that examines the many ways that the physical system of Earth and the sociocultural system developed by people interact with one another. The changes in the tools and the methodologies of the discipline have clearly positioned geography in the space age at the global scale, the smartphone and global positioning system (GPS) stage at the personal scale, and as a leading academic driver and active participant in the digital revolution. Geographers continue to adjust their lenses on the world through the use of both traditional methodologies, such as mapping, and newly emerging technologies, such as global positioning, and the discipline has risen to the challenges and opportunities presented. Those challenges and opportunities for the 21st century are discussed of this chapters of this handbook.

    Organization of the Handbook

    In this handbook, geography's dynamic nature is represented in six section topics that comprise 70 chapters and 4 appendices. The section topics are based largely on those used in scholarly research and writing within the discipline. Broadly speaking, they include physical and environmental geography, human geography, nature and society relations, geographic information science (GIScience), regional studies, and applied geography. The section topics represent major overarching research topics in the discipline at the beginning of the 21st century. In a diverse field such as geography, large umbrella topics are a common means to organize the discipline for research foci, publications, field study, and applications of the theories and concepts of the discipline to the world outside of academia. People interested in the discipline and who explore the work that geographers do are often surprised that the discipline encompasses such a wide range of scholarship, public interest, and practical applications. The handbook presents geography within the following sections that are reflective of the discipline at the beginning of the 21st century.

    Part I. Physical and Environmental Geography (10 chapters)

    Geography includes the study, research, and explanation of Earth's system of physical processes and the ensuing environmental conditions that result from those processes. The discipline was very much a physical science in its early development, with considerable attention to careful observation and critical examination of the great landforms, climates, and environmental interactions between animals and other organisms on Earth. That interest has continued to be a major aspect of physical and environmental geography and is reflected in the initial chapters within this section.

    Part II. Human Geography (27 chapters)

    Human inhabitants on Earth are regularly engaged in organizing, reorganizing, and interacting with other groups. Included in human geography are social and cultural topics ranging from urban architecture to urban land use and population dynamics as indicators of past, present, and possible future human activities. Also included in human geography are studies of the attachments that people develop to particular places such as a hometown or other special place and the spatial patterns that form the daily web of activity for people. Human geography is a major focus within the discipline and delves into values and attitudes that affect the ways humans view themselves, others, and other objects and living organisms in geographic space. The most prominent subtopics within the human dimension of the discipline are categorized as economic, political, cultural, and historical geography. They represent the traditional core aspects of the discipline's human dimensions.

    At the beginning of the 20th century, for example, geographers studied the patterns of immigrants and their tendency to live in enclaves where common cultural traits were easily identifiable. At the beginning of the 21st century, geographers are studying social networking among different age and ethnic groups to determine the spatial patterns of connectivity within and among diverse groups in the population. Emerging from the different ways that geographers have studied humans in geographic space have been such interesting topics as the social construction of place as compared to the physical elements of a place. Human geography is a part of the discipline that engages numerous methods of research, ranging from interviews to geodigital surveys, to explore the theories and practices that explain the changing spatial patterns of humans and their activities.

    Part III. Nature and Society (12 chapters)

    The relationships between and among natural environments and human societies are prominent within geographic scholarship. Part III presents that focus through a series of topics that have both academic and public interest. Geographers pursue critical analysis of the relationships between the human and natural systems on Earth and have attended to the importance of environmental stewardship and sustainability within their work. They have studied the degree to which people are able to alter and, in turn, are influenced by the physical system and the increasing impacts of technology on the nature–society relationship. They search for critical thresholds for sustainable economic activity relative to the quality of the environment. Public policies and the responses to environmental hazards and global changes projections are a major interest within geography in the 1st decade of the 21st century. The chapters in Part III suggest the ways that geography is forging ahead to unravel the problems and present solutions to the often complex relationships between societies and their environments.

    Part IV. Regions and Regional Perspectives (9 chapters)

    Regions and regional perspectives are the ways that geographers organize the world to address complex issues at different scales of investigation. Some issues are studied very well at the global scale, while others require a good deal of attention at the scale of the continent, country, or local community. The chapters in Part IV provide a geographic analysis of the ways that organizations that cross traditional national boundaries operate and exert geographic influences. Within the discipline, many topics may be studied within a region, since the region provides the framework for the investigation. Geographers often study both human and physical geography topics within regions. The human environment relationships of people within regions, both large and small in area, have been the subject of geographic research and scholarship. Earlier baseline studies permit research and analyses of the changes that are occurring within and between regions with increased communications and transportation. International and transnational organizations function throughout the regions of the world and provide the need for an emerging regional geographic analysis of their activities, challenges, and successes. The European Union (EU) and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), just to name two, are forming new and dynamic regions based on global connections and internal cohesiveness. At the beginning of the 21st century, geographic research on regions has gained in significance as regional roles and territorial configurations emerge to meet the challenges of globalization.

    Part V. Geographic Information Science (7 chapters)

    Part V includes topics that have changed greatly or are new within the discipline of geography during the past 3 decades. Geographers were among the first to use aerial photography to analyze the surface of Earth and measure the extent of particular types of land cover and land use, which had direct applications to community and regional economic planning and the uses of natural resources in local and regional contexts. That orientation to view Earth from above for analytical and classification purposes positioned geography very well for the satellite observation methods that developed as part of the race to space. The move from photography to digital imaging of Earth's surface was a natural development for geography, and the discipline was one of the first to spring forward into the digital age. Geographic information systems (GIS), global positioning systems (GPS), and more recently personal navigation devices are part of one's everyday encounter with geography. Maps in digital form viewed on a computer, personal digital assistant (PDA), or high definition television often use overlays of different data sets to illustrate the spatial relationships between and among the patterns of information, such as forecasts of flood crests and land elevation along rivers.

    Analytical and critical studies of activities and changes on Earth using spatial display devices and geodigital databases are among the methodologies that professional geographers use in their work. Nearly every new development in geodigital data availability and processing brings new applications to the discipline of geography. The digital age is the hallmark of technology that enables geographers to access and visualize information in many ways. Geographic information science has advanced the ways that geographers research topics and report the results of their research. The digital age has had a very large impact on geography as a discipline. That impact is only the first response to what is possible, and a role for geography in the 21st century will be to continue with the development of applications of geodigital information and enable the frontiers of geography to leap forward.

    Part VI. Applied and Professional Geography (5 chapters)

    What are the ways that geography serves as a source of professional engagement in the workplace? In the 21st century, geographers use their knowledge and skill in a variety of professional positions and physical settings that range from the private sector and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to every level of local, state, and federal government. The discipline provides considerable preparation in critical thinking, problem solving, data management, and spatial representation and visualization. The methodologies, skills, and knowledge of geography are grounded in the social and geosciences and provide the basis for the professional and applied work geographers will complete in the future. All disciplines strive to be thought of as having long-term viability and contributing to society at large. Geography is dynamic and pervasive. All geographers are, in one way or another, applied geographers because they use their knowledge and skill from the discipline to address and enhance the public good, whether it is through education, government service, private enterprise, or the nonprofit sector. Spatial analysis, geographic information, critical thinking, and environmental stewardship represent the 21st century contributions to the applied nature of geography presented in Part VI of the handbook.


    Book projects result in large amounts of content and reference materials that do not make their way into the published narratives. There were four sets of materials that were in this category as the project developed, and they are included as appendices. Each of the four appendices enables the reader to further pursue resources, topics, and information about the discipline of geography. Limited in length, they represent what was deemed most important among the hundreds of bits and pieces of information that would be significant in the discipline during the next several decades of the 21st century.

    People Involved with the Handbook

    There were numerous people who became engaged in developing this handbook over a period of 3 years. The editorial board members were Janice Monk, University of Arizona, and Michael Solem, Association of American Geographers. Both provided necessary and timely advice throughout the project, and each contributed a chapter representing their specializations within the discipline. SAGE Acquisition Editor Jim Brace-Thompson was my initial contact regarding the handbook, and he continued to be a steady voice of encouragement as the chapter authors were recruited and the narratives were developed. The development editorial team at SAGE provided the initial reviews and suggestions for further discussions regarding the chapters. That team was led by Sanford Robinson, with whom I became quite a good e-mail correspondent. Carole Maurer and Nevair Kabakian did a considerable amount of work with references and in aligning figures with the narrative. Diana Axelsen worked closely on the development of the handbook and provided a huge assist in commenting on chapters and finalizing the table of contents. Diana took great interest in the chapter titles and the enhancement of their meanings for the reader. The persons who received the most numerous questions regarding the uploading of draft chapters were Laura Notton and Leticia Gutierrez, both being systems coordinators at SAGE. They were expert on the SAGE Tracking System (SRT) that was used to manage the flow of information on the project. During development of the handbook, Sheri Gilbert and Michele Thompson served as editorial assistants, doing those behind-the-scenes jobs that are essential to the overall progress. Once the manuscript moved to the copyediting and proofreading stage, it was with a new group of talented people. Belinda Thresher headed the production team, where the copyediting and proofreading were completed with the meticulous assistance of Patrice Sutton, Colleen Brennan, Renee Willers, Theresa Kay, and Sandy Zilka. I was greatly impressed and encouraged by the fine work and dedication to the project by the individuals who were on the production and editorial teams. To each of the above individuals, I extend my appreciation for their critical contributions in the completion of the handbook.

    I would also like to thank the authors who agreed to write chapters and appendices. It was their work as geographers that produced ideas, narratives, and experiences as manuscripts. The University Sabbatical Leave Committee at Western Michigan University judged the handbook as an important academic project and awarded me research leave during the 2010–2011 academic year, when most of the initial editorial work on chapter drafts occurred. Finally, steady encouragement at home was essential, and Gillian Stoltman, my wife, was my loving inspiration throughout the project.

    Joseph P.Stoltman

    About the Editor

    Joseph P. Stoltman is professor of geography and science education at Western Michigan University in Kalamazoo, Michigan. He serves as coeditor of the International Geographical Union Commission on Geography Education's journal titled International Research in Geographic and Environmental Education and is editor of the U.S.-based journal Research in Geographic Education. He has received several honors including the Distinguished Faculty Scholar Award from Western Michigan University; the George J. Miller Award for Distinguished Service from the National Council for Geographic Education; the Lifetime Achievement Award from the East Lakes Division of the Association of American Geographers; the President's Award from the Michigan Council for the Social Studies; Distinguished Teaching Honors from the Association of American Geographers; the James Park Thomson Medal for Distinguished Scholarship in Geography from the Royal Geographical Society of Queensland, Australia; honorary membership in La Academia de Ciencias Sociales de Mendoza, Republica Argentina; and the Gilbert Grosvenor Honors for Geographic Education from the Association of American Geographers, and he is a Fellow of the Grosvenor Center for Geographic Education. He has represented the International Council of Scientific Unions in the past on numerous assignments as a geographer and as a science educator. He has served as president of the Social Science Education Consortium, vice president for research and president of the National Council for Geographic Education (NCGE), and chair of the Commission on Geography Education of the International Geographical Union, having served the latter organization in different capacities for 39 years. He enjoys editing and, along with two coeditors, prepared and published a book for Wiley in 1971, and he coedited a volume for Springer in 2004. In the interim, he edited, authored, and refereed periodical submissions, research monographs, textbooks, and state, national, and international geography education documents for professional societies and organizations. Firmly believing that a professional geographer's influence should focus in part on the place and space where one resides, he has worked with local and state educational agencies on public policy issues and with teachers and their students. He enjoys teaching both within and outside the classroom and enjoys the opportunities to engage people in rescaling their habits of mind to self-education about both local geography and the world at large.

    About the Contributors

    John Agnew is distinguished professor of geography at University of California, Los Angeles. He specializes in political geography and international political economy with particular attention to the United States, Italy, and Greece. From 2008 to 2009, he was president of the Association of American Geographers. He is the author or coauthor of many books including, among the most recent, Globalization and Sovereignty (2009), Berlusconi's Italy (2008), and Hegemony: The New Shape of Global Power (2005).

    Derek H. Alderman is professor of geography at East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina. He earned his PhD in geography at the University of Georgia in 1998. Cultural geography is his specialization in the discipline. Of particular interest are the transitions that have occurred in cultural geography and the changes in the scale of research. Influenced by the traditional landscape traditions of the discipline as well as innovations in social and cultural theory, he has extended theory and research to examine the landscape as a site for people to reconstruct and struggle over cultural meaning and identity in different regional and historic contexts. His research examines the politics of place naming, race and memory, place representation in cyberspace, sport and music geographies, and the American South.

    J. Clark Archer is professor of geography in the School of Natural Resources at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Clark grew up in a family in which both parents held graduate degrees in geography. His father, Alford Archer, worked in the geography division of the U.S. Census Bureau; and his mother, Barbara Archer, taught geography in public schools. Clark earned a B.A. in political science (1964) and an M.A. in geography (1968) at Indiana University; and a Ph.D. in geography at the University of Iowa (1974). He has taught at the University of Texas, the University of Missouri-St. Louis, Dartmouth College, the University of Oklahoma, and, since 1985, at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Clark coauthored Section and Party (with P. Taylor, 1981), American Electoral Mosaics (with F. Shelley, 1986), Political Geography of the United States (with F. Shelley, F. Davidson and S. Brunn, 1996), Atlas of American Politics, 1960–2000 (with S. Lavin, K. Martis and F. Shelley, 2002) which was selected as a “Choice Outstanding Academic Title for 2003” by the Association of College and Research Libraries, Historical Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections, 1788–2004 (with S. Lavin, K. Martis and F. Shelley, 2006) which was selected as the “Best Single-Volume Reference in Humanities and Social Sciences for 2006” by the Association of American Publishers, and most recently Atlas of the Great Plains (with S. Lavin and F. Shelley, 2011).

    Kevin Archer received his PhD from the Johns Hopkins University. He is currently chair of the Department of Geography at the University of South Florida. His research interests concern the effects of globalization on cities and states as well as the Disneyesque production of nature in South Florida. His recent publications include the edited volumes Cultures of Globalization: Coherence, Hybridity, Contestation and Relocating Global Cities: From the Center to the Margins.

    Roger Balm holds a PhD in geography (Rutgers University, New Jersey, 1995) and currently directs the undergraduate program in the Department of Geography at Rutgers. His research focuses on expeditionary art and imagery of the 19th and early 20th centuries with area interests in Mexico, Central America, Andean South America, and the islands of the Mediterranean. He has been awarded fellowships from the American Geographical Society, the Community College Humanities Association, and the Fulbright Foundation.

    Karen S. Barton is a human–environmental geographer at the University of Northern Colorado. Her research interests include maritime geography, sustainable development, and environmental perception. She was recently awarded two Fulbright-Hays fellowships to conduct research and curriculum development in both Brazil and the Persian Gulf. Her current work focuses on the role of ranchers as environmental stewards in the Brazilian Pantanal (wetlands).

    Paul R. Baumann, professor emeritus at the State University of New York–Oneonta, did his graduate work at Indiana University and the University of Cincinnati. He has published three books and more than 50 peer-reviewed articles on remote sensing, geographic information systems, and the use of digital technology in geographic education. He was a National Science Foundation Fellow at the National Aeronautical and Space Administration/Earth Resources Laboratory, a recipient of the National Council for Geographic Education's Distinguished Teaching Achievement Award, president of the Association of American Geographers’ Middle States Division, chair of the National Council of Geographic Education's Remote Sensing Task Force, and a Strategic User of the Cornell Theory Center's Supercomputing Facility.

    Brian H. Bossak is an assistant professor of environmental health sciences in the Jiann-Ping Hsu College of Public Health at Georgia Southern University. Formerly a coastal hazards researcher for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and a geography professor, Dr. Bossak's research now focuses on the health-related impacts of global climate change and infectious disease modeling and prediction via geographic information systems (GIS)/remote sensing methodologies.

    Stanley D. Brunn is professor of geography at the University of Kentucky. He was awarded a PhD in geography in 1966 from Ohio State University. Professor Brunn is widely recognized for his research and writing in social and political geography, having authored scholarly books and journal articles over a period of many years. Additionally, he actively does research on the following topics: geographical futures, information and communication, electronic human geographies, humane geographies, world urbanization, and disciplinary history. Recognized for his regional expertise in Europe, North America, and Central Asia, his work as a professional geographer has taken him to those regions regularly for fieldwork and consultation with other geographers, participation in projects, and in advisory roles to governmental and nongovernmental organizations.

    Marcus L. Büker has been an assistant professor of meteorology in the Geography Department at Western Illinois University since 2009. He received his BS (meteorology, mathematics, economics; 1993), MS (1997) and PhD (atmospheric sciences; 2004), degrees at the University of Wisconsin–Madison. He also concurrently holds an honorary research fellowship at the University of Wisconsin. His research interests include numerical modeling, tornadogenesis, vortex interaction, and ozone transport. He has presented several papers at the Association of American Geographers annual meeting and the Meteorological Society's annual and severe local storms meetings. He has also recently coauthored a paper on hurricane track analysis and prediction, as well as another paper on ozone transport.

    Anna Carrabetta is a senior researcher at the University of Milano–Bicocca, Italy, Department of Sociology and Social Research, and scientific manager at the Mediterranean and Middle East Department of Promos (the Special Agency of the Milan Chamber of Commerce–CCIAA–for the development of international activities). She holds a PhD in human geography from the University of Pavia and Viterbo (IT) and an MA in cultural geography (research) from the Royal Holloway University of London (UK). Since 2006, her research interests have been addressing research methods and systemic analysis. She mainly has conducted research on land use and land cover change and on landscape and parks. From 2009, she has been involved in the activity of the Mediterranean and Middle East Department of CCIAA. Her most recent publications include reports on infrastructure, migration, entrepreneurship, and trade in the Mediterranean region.

    Thomas Chapman is an assistant professor of geography at Old Dominion University in Norfolk, Virginia. Dr. Chapman earned his PhD at Florida State University, his MA at The University of Toledo, and his BA at Michigan State University, all in geography. A native of Grand Rapids, Michigan, he currently lives with his two cairn terriers in Virginia. His research interests revolve around the spatial dimensions of citizenship and cultural politics, particularly how communities construct social geographies based on debates about economic and cultural justice issues and civil rights. His research publications include a diverse selection of writings on issues such as geographies of hate; civil rights law and the politics of place; electoral geographies of race, class, and sexuality; geographies of consumption and tourism; and public space. As a cultural theorist with many years of experience in the field of geographic information systems (GIS), Dr. Chapman is also interested in critical examinations of technological empowerment surrounding the use of GIS.

    Jongnam Choi is associate professor of meteorology in the Department of Geography at Western Illinois University. He received his doctorate in geography from the University of Georgia, Athens, with a focus in synoptic meteorology. He received his BA (1990) and MA (1992) from the Seoul National University, Korea. His research interests emerge at the intersection of climate change, sustainability, and human health.

    Charles O. Collins is a cultural geographer at the University of Northern Colorado with an abiding interest in the interplay between the contemporary landscape and popular culture. Inspired by Peirce Lewis's observation that the built landscape is our unwitting autobiography, he has thought about and investigated roadside memorials and outdoor privies, defended mailboxes, and explored just about anything else gracing the American roadside.

    Stephen F. Cunha is a professor of geography at Humboldt State University and director of the California Geographic Alliance. He previously spent 10 seasons as a park ranger in Yosemite and Alaska, and 4 years investigating the potential for a national park and biosphere reserve in the Tajik Pamir. A graduate of University of California, Berkeley, and University of California, Davis, he writes about environmental issues in mountain regions and the need for more geography education in American schools. In 2007, he received the California State University's highest award for sustained excellence in the Social and Behavioral Sciences and Public Service.

    Christopher Cusack is professor of geography at Keene State College in Keene, New Hampshire. He earned his MA and PhD from the University of Akron, Ohio. His teaching responsibilities include courses in urban geography and planning, methods of spatial analysis, and geographic information systems. He has previously published on issues of community planning, urban sustainability, and regional development. Cusack is past chair of the Regional Development and Planning Specialty Group of the Association of American Geographers and is a regional councilor of Gamma Theta Upsilon.

    Lisa M. DeChano-Cook is associate professor in the Department of Geography at Western Michigan University. Her research interests are in the areas of physical and environmental geography, focusing on natural hazards and hazard perceptions. She has published on the topics of natural hazards encountered in national parks, international natural disasters, and land use in Michigan. She has a secondary interest in environmental and geographical education and in sports geography.

    David G. Dickason is professor and director of the W. E. (William Erastus) Upjohn Center for the Study of Geographical Change at Western Michigan University. He completed his PhD degree at Indiana University. He has chaired the Department of Geography and the Asian Studies Program at Western Michigan University and directed the university's community college in Malaysia. He has taught many courses including population geography, quantitative methods, GIS, transportation geography, and geography of south and southeast Asia. He has received grants from many agencies including National Science Foundation, Ford Foundation, W. K. Kellogg Foundation, Fulbright-Hays, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and private benefactors. He worked at the Census of India with its population geographers and cartographers, processed unpublished data from India's 1971 census, and was affiliated with the Department of Geography, Panjab University (Chandigarh). There, he gave the Arthur Geddes Memorial Lecture at the 32nd Congress of the National Association of Geographers, India, with the theme “Globalization, Population and Regional Development” (November 2010).

    Jeffrey J. Dickey received an MS and a PhD in geography from Florida State University. He spent three and a half years providing research and technical support for water rights adjudication at the New Mexico Office of the State Engineer. In that capacity, he often met with small local water users to discuss their perception and history of water use. His research interests are water rights, water resources, and the interaction of human and environmental systems. He has presented on the technical aspects of water right adjudication, flood prediction in ungauged basins, and the perception of low flow in the Apalachicola River. He is currently an assistant professor and research data librarian at the University of New Mexico.

    Gary S. Elbow is affiliated with Texas Tech University in Lubbock (PhD, University of Pittsburgh). Dr. Elbow has conducted fieldwork and written about Latin American geography for more than 40 years. He was the recipient of two Fulbright Awards for study in Latin America—Costa Rica in 1983 and Ecuador in 1991 and 1993—and he has also conducted research and written extensively on Guatemala. His principal interests are in urban and cultural geography of Latin America. Dr. Elbow is author or coauthor of several textbooks for elementary, middle school, high school, and university students. He has published more than 40 articles and book chapters. In 2003, he received the Preston E. James Eminent Career Award from the Conference of Latin Americanist Geographers, and in 2009, he received the George J. Miller Award for Distinguished Service from the National Council for Geographic Education.

    Thomas P. Feeney is associate professor of geography at Shippensburg University in Shippensburg, Pennsylvania. He received his BA from the State University of New York at Oneonta, his MS from Western Kentucky, and his PhD from the University of Georgia. Teaching is an important part of his professional work, and he teaches a rotation of introductory geology, soils, hydrogeology, environmental geology, and a graduate-level physical geology course. His mentoring of graduate students entails studies that focus on natural water chemistry and aspects of karst geomorphology and hydrology. As an avid field geographer, his field research projects include categorizing and mapping sinkhole collapses as well as topographic depressions and associated vernal ponds on the colluvial fringe along the Blue Ridge.

    Kenneth E. Foote is a professor of geography at the University of Colorado at Boulder. Much of his work in cultural and historical geography focuses on landscape symbolism and the social and geographical dynamics of public memory and commemoration, especially the imprint of violence on landscape in the United States and Europe as reflected in his book Shadowed Ground: America's Landscapes of Violence and Tragedy (2003). He has served as president of both the National Council for Geographic Education and the Association of American Geographers.

    Erin H. Fouberg is associate professor of geography at Northern State University. Dr. Fouberg served as vice president of Publications and Products for the National Council for Geographic Education. Her research areas are sovereignty of American Indian tribes, voting behavior, and geography education. Dr. Fouberg coauthored Human Geography: People Place and Culture (Wiley & Sons) with Alexander B. Murphy and H. J. de Blij. She is currently writing Understanding World Regional Geography with William Moseley (Wiley & Sons).

    Rachel S. Franklin is associate director of the Spatial Structures in the Social Sciences (S4) program at Brown University and an assistant professor (research) in Population Studies. Prior to holding this position, she was senior lecturer at the University of Maryland School of Public Policy, deputy director at the Association of American Geographers, and a demographer in the Population Division of the U.S. Census Bureau. As a population geographer, she is primarily interested in explanations of fertility and mobility variations across space, with an emphasis on empirical applications. Methodologies used in her research typically include spatial regression modeling, regional analytical tools, and GIS. Recent work has addressed the internal migration of the young and educated within the United States, the use of migration data from the American Community Survey, and regional fertility adjustments in Italy. She is also particularly interested in understanding how local and regional population composition, in terms of race and ethnicity, impact student diversity at American colleges and universities.

    John D. Frye is an assistant professor in the Department of Geography and Geology at University of Wisconsin–Whitewater. He earned his MS degree in geography from Ball State University in 2004 and his PhD in geography from the University of Georgia in 2008. He specializes in physical geography with particular emphasis in the subfields of meteorology, climatology, hazards, and remote sensing. Within the fields of meteorology and climatology, his work focuses on synoptic and mesoscale meteorology, synoptic climatology, and weather analysis and forecasting of extreme weather events (e.g., severe thunderstorms and nonconvective high wind events). He is currently working on a project investigating the reliability of soil moisture estimates from satellite platforms and a second project examining the cause and impacts of nonconvective wind storms in the United States.

    Francis A. Galgano Jr. (PhD, geography, University of Maryland, 1998) is associate professor and chair of the Department of Geography and the Environment at Villanova University. He retired from the U.S. Army in 2007 as a lieutenant colonel after 27 years of service with experience in tank and cavalry units; his last assignment was at the U.S. Military Academy, where he was an academy professor and director of the Geography Program. Dr. Galgano is a physical geographer with expertise in coastal geomorphology, military geography, and environmental geography. He has published three military geography books and has written numerous papers on national security and military geography issues.

    Daniel G. Gavin is an assistant professor in the Department of Geography at the University of Oregon. Dr. Gavin received his PhD at the College of Forest Resources, University of Washington. He maintains an interest in the biogeographic responses to climate change and forest disturbance during the Holocene. He specializes in the biogeographic implications of changing fire regimes in western North America.

    Toby S. Gordon is a graduate of the University of Queensland in Brisbane, Australia. He majored in commerce and geography and assisted in writing the chapter on transnational corporations in Australasia and the Pacific while on a university summer research scholarship.

    Mark Graham is a research fellow at the Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford. His work focuses on the geographies of the Internet and uses of information and communication technologies within the contexts of economic development.

    Angela M. Gray is an assistant professor in the Department of Geography at the University of Wisconsin–Oshkosh. She earned a PhD in geography (2009) at the University of Kansas. Her primary research interests concern migration, refugees, gender, and resettlement in the political geography of southern Africa, with a particular focus on Zambia.

    William Gribb is currently the director of the Graduate Program in Planning within the Geography Department, University of Wyoming. After receiving his PhD from Michigan State University (1982), he has held faculty positions at Northern Illinois University, New Mexico State University, and the University of Wyoming. For the past 32 years, Dr. Gribb has worked with communities in Michigan, Illinois, New Mexico, Arizona, and Wyoming to build their capacity to manage their own future. His expertise is in land use and environmental and rural planning, and he believes in combining citizen participation, planning policies, and the use of geospatial technologies to create a planning decision support system so that local communities can analyze policies that will affect their future. He has been a longtime advocate of community development and has worked recently on downtown revitalization, American Indian environmental issues, agricultural land reinvestment, and greenbelt trail development. Dr. Gribb is part of a team that is addressing the current issues of energy development and community responses to these impacts in Wyoming and the Rocky Mountain west. Dr. Gribb has also worked with Wyoming teachers through a National Geographic Society grant for the past 20 years on integrating geography into the curriculum with other subjects and to create place-based curriculum materials. Using the local environment, teachers can make geographic concepts and techniques relevant and contemporary to their students.

    Mary Ruth Griffin originally began her academic career aspiring to be a journalist but while in college became intrigued by the natural sciences. As an undergraduate, she obtained a BS degree in liberal arts with a major in botany and a minor in education. Following that, for nearly 7 years, she served as a high school science teacher in the shadow of the Smokey Mountains in Tennessee. During that time, she completed a master's degree in secondary science education. As a high school science teacher, she was known for involving students in lab and outdoor research activities. She would volunteer to teach new courses and consequently developed a broad background in scientific subject matter, teaching courses in Earth science, physical science, biology and ecology. Eventually, she returned to the same university from which she obtained her earlier degrees to pursue a PhD in the College of Agriculture and Natural Resources’ interdepartmental program of plants, soils, and insects at the University of Tennessee at Knoxville. Her dissertation work was in the area of biological control usage in agricultural systems. Specifically, she examined the ability of an entomopathogenic fungus to endophytically colonize important agricultural plants and its efficacy to act as a dual-purpose biological control agent. On graduating, she accepted an appointment at the University of Charleston in West Virginia and taught numerous courses including microbiology, parasitology, anatomy and physiology, and scientific writing. She also continued her love of involving students in research-based activities. She has pursued her interests in the area of plant sciences. She has held the appointment of visiting assistant professor at Ohio University in the Department of Environmental and Plant Biology.

    Håvard Haarstad is a postdoctoral research fellow at the Department of Geography, University of Bergen, Norway. He has a PhD from the same department. His work has focused in particular on the political economy of foreign direct investment (FDI) and natural resource governance in Latin America.

    Lucius F. Hallett IV is an assistant professor of geography in the Department of Geography, Western Michigan University, where he specializes in the geography of travel and tourism. His PhD in geography is from the University of Kansas. In addition to being an avid traveler, he is also a qualified gourmet chef. One of his specialties is barbeque, but all ethnic and regional dishes are part of his geography-of-foods experience. His research deals with topics related to travel and tourism within Michigan, the United States, and globally.

    Janet I. Halpin completed her PhD in geography at the University of Ottawa, Canada, on land use transformation due to agriculture and forestry in northeastern Manitoba. She teaches at Chicago State University and is interested in the role of transportation networks and trade in the diffusion of alien invasive species and in the American journeys of French botanist and biogeographer André Michaux, who surveyed the trees and other plants of eastern North America during the period 1785 to 1796.

    John Harrington Jr. is professor of geography at Kansas State University. He earned all three of his degrees in geography, with the PhD from Michigan State University, the MA awarded by the University of Minnesota, and the BS from Michigan State University. The major topics of his scholarly research include human–environment interactions, rural and regional geography, physical geography, and geospatial analysis and application. His current research efforts involve examination of adaptation to the impacts of climate change, coupled human and natural systems analysis at National Science Foundation (NSF) long-term ecological research sites, and efforts to improve grade school geographic education in Kansas. Courses that he teaches regularly include environmental geography, human dimensions of global change, climatology, climate of the Great Plains, human impacts on the environment, and the history and philosophy of geography.

    Lisa M. Butler Harrington is a professor at Kansas State University, with a PhD in geography from the University of Oklahoma. Her master's and BS degrees are from Clemson and Colorado State universities, respectively, in park administration. She has research and teaching interests in rural geography, sustainability, natural resources, and environmental change. Regionally, her research has focused especially on the U.S. Pacific Northwest, as well as the Great Plains states. Harrington has served as secretary of the Association of American Geographers (AAG), councilor for the Great Plains/Rocky Mountain Division of the AAG, an officer in the Contemporary Agriculture and Rural Land Use/Rural Geography specialty group of the AAG, and a board member of the Applied Geography Conferences. She also has been active in the Quadrennial Rural Conferences of the United States, United Kingdom, and Canada since 1991. Harrington has taught at Western Washington, New Mexico State, Central Michigan, and Eastern Illinois universities, as well as Kansas State.

    Susan Gallagher Heffron is the senior project manager for Geography Education at the Association of American Geographers. She holds a PhD in curriculum and instruction from the University of Nebraska–Lincoln and focused her research on the uses of technology to teach geography. Heffron has worked on teacher professional development programs for Earth and global climate change science. Her professional activities have been directed to Earth system applications for the discipline of geography. She also serves as the project manager for Geography for Life: National Geography Standards (2nd ed.).

    N. C. Heywood is professor of geography, University of Wisconsin–Stevens Point. After childhood in the northeastern United States, international experience as a U.S. Navy navigator, and a cartography internship with the National Geographic Society, he completed his BA (State University of New York [SUNY]–Plattsburgh), MA (Georgia), and PhD (Colorado) degrees in geography. He joined the University of Wisconsin–Stevens Point in the Department of Geography and Geology in 1989, where he continues as a physical geographer specializing in environmental hazards, biogeography, field methods, and career development. He has received a personal Excellence in Teaching award from the University of Wisconsin–Stevens Point, and he shared a departmental Excellence in Teaching Award from the University of Wisconsin Board of Regents. Several of his research projects have assisted the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources Forestry Division and the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service. As a longtime field study advocate, Heywood firmly insists on the rule of wilderness: to take nothing but photographs and leave nothing but footprints. May a next generation of field researchers honor this rule but leave even fewer footprints. To measure or to even observe an object or place is to alter it. It is the duty of modern field professionals to leave intact those places that are all our progeny can ever know. The penultimate field success is when we walk out of a place with lasting notes and no one knows that we were ever even there.

    Molly O. Holmberg is the director of MollyMaps, Ltd, and received her PhD in geography from the University of Colorado, Boulder. Her research includes examining online maps of climate change impacts, and the use of maps in online journalism and in science communication. Molly also runs MollyMaps, a mapping company devoted to hand-drawn maps and artistic expressions of place.

    Jung Eun Hong is a PhD student in geography at the University of Colorado at Boulder. Her research interests are GIS education, web-based GIS applications, and user interface design for GIS applications.

    Dorothy Ives-Dewey, AICP, is an associate professor in the Geography and Planning Department at West Chester University in West Chester, Pennsylvania. Her academic background is in urban and regional planning with primary focus in land use planning and development regulation. She has published qualitative and quantitative research on the evolving nature of land use planning processes, development planning tools, and the fiscal impacts of development on local economies. She practiced professionally for 10 years as a land planning consultant in the Philadelphia region, representing private developers and local governments in land use conflicts.

    Reece Jones is an assistant professor of geography at the University of Hawai'i at Mānoa. Reece completed his PhD in geography at the University of Wisconsin at Madison in 2008. His research in political geography investigates the role boundaries play in the political organization of space. His work has been published in many journals including Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, Political Geography, Progress in Human Geography, and Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers. He is currently completing a book on border security projects in India, Israel, and the United States.

    Lisa Jordan is joint-assistant professor of geography and public health at Florida State University. Her research centers on the intersections of GIS and public health, with a focus on applications in disaster response and environmental justice.

    LaDona Knigge is an assistant professor in the Department of Geography and Planning at California State University, Chico. She received her PhD at the State University of New York in Buffalo in 2006 and her undergraduate degree in Geography and Sociology at the University of Wyoming in 1999. Her research interests are on community gardening, local and sustainable food systems, and community engagement.

    Matthew T. Koeppe received his PhD in geography in 2005 from the University of Kansas. He has since worked at National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Headquarters and the Association of American Geographers. He also serves as assistant professorial lecturer in geography at the George Washington University. His research focuses on the expansion of mechanized agriculture in the Brazilian Amazon and food production, consumption, and sustain-ability broadly.

    Ellen Percy Kraly, a William R. Kenan Jr. Professor, teaches in the Department of Geography at Colgate University, where she also serves as director of the Upstate Institute, an initiative to share university scholarly resources with the surrounding region. She received her postgraduate degrees from the Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health and Fordham University. Her research interests include U.S. immigration policy, refugee policy and resettlement, population and environmental change, community and public health, HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa, and the use of population data in public policy in the administration of Aboriginal affairs in colonial and early Federation Australia. She has conducted research for the UN Statistical Office, the U.S. Commission on Immigration Reform, and Medicins san Frontieres. She has served as a consultant to the U.S. Census Bureau. She serves on the Board of Directors of the Population Specialty Group of the Association of American Geographers. She is past president of the Board of Directors of the Mohawk Valley Resource Center in Utica, New York. Kraly is the Colgate representative to Imagining America, a consortium of universities and colleges that promotes public and engaged scholarship.

    Gil Latz is associate vice chancellor for International Affairs at Indiana University/Purdue University Indianapolis and associate vice president for International Affairs at Indiana University. He received his PhD in geography from the University of Chicago in 1986. His graduate research training included affiliation with the University of Tokyo, 1980 to 1984. Dr. Latz's published research focuses on regional development policy (agriculture and urban) in Asia, North America, and Europe, with a secondary interest in international trade and educational video development. He served as academic production consultant and cohost (with Susan Hardwick and Jim Binko) of Teaching World Regional and Human Geography: Standards–Content–Methods, the Annenberg/Corporation for Public Broadcasting Project/Cambridge Studios, 2003. His research has been funded by the Japan Foundation, the Japanese Ministry of Education, the National Science Foundation, the Annenberg/Corporation for Public Broadcasting Project, the U.S. Fulbright Commission, and the Rotary Foundation.

    Mathias Le Bossé was educated at Ecole normale supérieure in Paris and received his doctorat at the University of Paris and his PhD in geography at the University of Wisconsin–Madison in 2000. An assistant professor of geography at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania, his main teaching and research interests lie in cultural and political geography and the geography of Europe.

    David R. Legates is a professor in the College of Earth, Ocean, and Environment and an adjunct professor in the Statistics Program at the University of Delaware in Newark, Delaware. He received his BA in mathematics and geography (double major) in 1982, his MS in geography/climatology in 1985, and his PhD in climatology in 1988—all from the University of Delaware. He served on the faculty in the College of Geosciences at the University of Oklahoma for nine and a half years and in the Department of Geography and Anthropology at Louisiana State University for one and a half years before returning to the University of Delaware in 1999. He also is recognized as a Certified Consulting Meteorologist (CCM) by the American Meteorological Society and currently serves as the Delaware State climatologist. His research interests include hydro-climatology and surface water hydrology, precipitation and climate change, global and regional climatology, statistical/numerical methods, spatial analysis and spatial statistics, and digital/numerical cartography. He was the recipient of the 2002 Boeing Autometric Award in Image Analysis and Interpretation by the American Society of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing.

    Wei Li is an associate professor of Asian Pacific American Studies and Geography, Arizona State University. She received her PhD in geography at the University of Southern California. Her research focuses on immigration and integration, as well as financial dynamics and Asian American communities and businesses, especially in regard to Chinese Americans. Her highly acclaimed work has drawn attention from both academia and popular media. She has extensive training in using a mixed-method approach in her research as well as management skills in collaborative projects that involve multinational, multi-campus, and multidisciplinary teams. She was recently elected as chair of the Asian Advisory Committee (Race and Ethnic Advisory Committees—REAC) for the U.S. Census Bureau, while serving her third term as a member of REAC appointed by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce.

    Wen Lin is an assistant professor in the Department of Geography and Earth Science at the University of Wisconsin–La Crosse. Her research interests include critical GIS, implementation and usage of GIS in urban governance, and GIS applications in environmental studies.

    Ian MacLachlan (PhD, Toronto) is a professor of geography at the University of Lethbridge in Alberta and editor of The Canadian Geographer/Le Géographe canadien. An economic geographer with wide interests, he has focused his research on livestock and beef issues ranging from the impact of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and contemporary cattle production in Alberta to 19th century slaughterhouse reform in the United Kingdom. His book, Kill and Chill: Restructuring Canada's Beef Commodity Chain (2001), analyzes locational change in the geography of the Canadian meat packing industry. His current research is concerned with global patterns of meat consumption and livestock production and trade.

    Michael McDonnell is the government documents and maps librarian at Western Michigan University. He is also liaison between the library and the Geography Department at Western Michigan University. As map librarian, he manages one of the largest map depository units in the state of Michigan, cataloging and making accessible local, state, national, and international maps in both print and digital formats.

    Matthew S. Melancon has an MS and a BS (anthropology minor) in geography from Texas State University, where he is currently working on his PhD. His professional interests include climate change, fluvial processes in arid environments, and mountain biogeography.

    Michelle Metro-Roland is affiliate assistant professor of geography and the director of Faculty and Global Program Development for the Haenicke Institute for Global Education at Western Michigan University. She has an MA in history from University of California, Berkeley, and a PhD in geography from Indiana University. Her research is situated at the interstices of landscape and tourism. She has worked across geographic scales from small rural sites in the Midwest of the United States to the urban built environments of European capital cities, such as Skopje and Budapest. She is coeditor of the book Landscape, Tourism, and Meaning and is completing a monograph that deals with Peircean semiotics, landscape, and culture in the built environment, which will be published by Ashgate.

    Jerry T. Mitchell is the director of the Center of Excellence for Geographic Education and a faculty research associate with the Hazards and Vulnerability Research Institute, both at the University of South Carolina in Columbia, South Carolina. His primary research areas lie in cultural responses to disaster, environmental justice, geospatial technology, and geography education. He holds a BS in history and an MA in geography and environmental planning, both from Towson University; he earned his PhD in geography from the University of South Carolina. Dr. Mitchell is the editor of the Journal of Geography and has been conducting research on the effects of Hurricane Katrina in coastal Mississippi since 2005.

    Janice Monk is professor of geography and development and research social scientist emerita in the Southwest Institute for Research on Women at the University of Arizona. She is also a Senior Fellow of the Association of American Geographers, where she serves as coprincipal investigator of the project Enhancing Departments and Graduate Education in Geography. Her interests and publications address aspects of gender, diversity, the history of women in American geography, international research and teaching collaborations, and geography in higher education. She was president of the Association of American Geographers in 2001 and 2002 and is a recipient of the AAG Lifetime Achievement Award.

    Burrell E. Montz (PhD, University of Colorado, Boulder) is professor and chair of the geography department at East Carolina University. With more than 25 years of experience with research in natural hazards, Dr. Montz has published numerous articles, proceedings papers, and book chapters on hazards, resource management, and environmental analysis. Her current research centers on various hazard topics including the flow and use of warning system information, the effectiveness of structural and nonstructural mitigation measures, and understanding vulnerability to multiple hazards.

    Jon Moore is an assistant professor of geography at the University of Akron in Ohio. He earned his PhD in economic geography from the Ohio State University in 2003. His research examines economic development in old industrial cities. Most recently, he is engaged in the study of biomedical services and medical product research and development in the Greater Cleveland and Akron metropolitan areas.

    Robert W. Morrill, professor emeritus of geography, completed his PhD in geography at Clark University in 1973. He served as assistant professor through professor (10 years as head) at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 1973 to 2003. He is co-coordinator of the Virginia Geographic Alliance, from 1992 to the present. Dr. Morrill's research interests are in political geography and geography education. His research grants are from the National Science Foundation, the National Geographic Society, the Commonwealth of Virginia, and the Foundation for the Improvement of Post Secondary Education. He has led numerous study abroad programs and teacher summer institutes to Switzerland, Italy, Germany, The Netherlands, Canada, Ecuador, Brazil, and New Zealand. In 1986, he was a Fulbright Research Fellow, University of Turku, Finland, and lectured extensively in Finland and Sweden. Dr. Morrill was a primary author for Guidelines for Geographic Education (1984) and Geography for Life: National Standards in Geography (1994). His publications appear in the Journal of Geography, Journal of Geography in Higher Education, Social Education, and in numerous curriculum monographs, atlases, and national geography education reports. In 1989, he was president of National Council for Geographic Education (NCGE), and in 2007, he received the NCGE George Miller Award for his contributions to geography education.

    Garth Andrew Myers is a professor in the Departments of Geography and African/African American Studies at the University of Kansas. He earned a PhD in geography (1993) from University of California, Los Angeles. He has authored three books, coedited two others, and published more than 40 articles and book chapters on African development. His primary research emphasis lies with the political and cultural geography of urban development in eastern and southern Africa.

    Darrell Napton is a professor of geography at South Dakota State University. He received his PhD from the University of Minnesota. His interests in rural life stem from his early years in a farm family, where he observed the impacts of several innovations on agriculture, rural land use, and local communities in western Missouri. Professionally, he has explored the consequences of policies, markets, and technological change on U.S. land, land use, and the environment. For the past 10 years, Dr. Napton has collaborated with USGS Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Center on the National Land Cover Trends Project, where geographers use remotely sensed imagery to measure and interpret national and regional land changes. He teaches classes in land use change and its consequences.

    Tammy E. Parece is a doctoral student in the geospatial and environmental analysis PhD program, Department of Forest Resources and Environmental Conservation, College of Natural Resources and Environment, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Tammy has earned a master of science degree in geography from Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University and a graduate certificate in geographic information systems from Virginia Commonwealth University.

    James F. Petersen is a professor of geography at Texas State University in San Marcos. A physical geographer interested in geographic education, his PhD is from the University of Utah, with a BA and MA from California State University, Chico. He has authored and edited numerous books and scholarly articles, is a past president of the National Council for Geographic Education, and is active in professional organizations in Texas and internationally. He is a regular collaborator with European geographers.

    George F. Roberson is adjunct assistant professor in the Department of Geosciences at the University of Massachusetts–Amherst, (geosciences PhD, 2006, University of Massachusetts–Amherst) and publisher/founder of Collaborative Media International (Denver, Amherst, and Tangier). Expanding from direct experience, urbanism, interculturalism, and constructive alterity, Roberson's work employs place, feminist, and postcolonial theories. His major focus is in Tangier, Morocco, and the greater Mediterranean region. He is co-convener of the Tangier International Conferences, organized annually under the auspices of the Morocco-based nongovernmental organization (NGO), International Centre for Performance Studies (ICPS). He was the Fulbright Scholar for research to Morocco from 2007 to 2008.

    M. Beth Schlemper is an assistant professor in the Department of Geography and Planning at the University of Toledo in Ohio. She previously served as an Education Research Fellow and consultant for the Association of American Geographers for EDGE Phase 1 (2005–2009), and she is a co-principal investigator on EDGE Phase 2 (2009–2012). Her current research interests include a primary focus in graduate education in geography, particularly in the areas of professional development, departmental climate, and career preparation, and a secondary focus in historical geography.

    Fred M. Shelley is professor of geography at the University of Oklahoma. He received his PhD from the University of Iowa in 1981 and has taught at the University of Southern California, Florida State University, and Texas State University–San Marcos. His research interests include political and electoral geography, the world economy, and the historical and cultural geography of the United States. He has published several books and more than 100 refereed journal articles and book chapters on these and related subjects.

    J. Matthew Shumway, a professor, is head of the Department of Geography, Brigham Young University. He received his PhD from Indiana University in 1991. His research interests include migration and income change in the United States, spatial patterns of income inequality, international migration and religion, demographic change in the United States, and the rural mountain west.

    Diana Stuart Sinton is the director of Spatial Curriculum and Research at the University of Redlands (California), where she leads LENS (LEarNing Spatially), a campuswide initiative to integrate mapping and spatial perspectives into diverse academic disciplines. Her focus is the role for spatial literacy in higher education, a topic that she has written about in publications such as Understanding Place: GIS and Mapping Across the Curriculum (Environmental Systems Research Institute [ESRI] Press, 2007). At Redlands, she helped to design and launch a master of arts in education degree in spatial literacy curriculum and instruction in the School of Education, and she teaches its first course, Foundations of Spatial Thinking. She was a 2009–2010 Spatial Literacy in Teaching (SPLINT) Fellow at the University of Leicester (UK). Diana previously worked for the National Institute for Technology and Liberal Education (NITLE), where she developed mapping-based curriculum and taught workshops for faculty at many different universities. She has taught geography, GIS, and environmental studies courses at Alfred University and the University of Rhode Island. Diana holds a BA in comparative religions (Middlebury College) and MS and PhD degrees in geography (Oregon State University).

    Emily Skop is associate professor of geography and environmental studies at the University of Colorado at Colorado Springs. She received her doctorate from the Department of Geography at Arizona State University. Her primary research focuses on the intersection between migration and regional development, with particular attention to the ways in which public policy shapes racial and ethnic diversity within urban environments in the United States. Her explorations of the immigrant experience have generated substantial enthusiasm and recognition, and in ongoing research projects at multiple scales and in multiple places, she combines a variety of qualitative and quantitative techniques, including in-depth interviewing, focus group analysis, and intensive field research, along with spatial and statistical analysis of census data. She endeavors to work in collaborative, interdisciplinary settings and to present and publish her research both nationally and internationally.

    Janet S. Smith is associate professor of geography at Shippensburg University in Shippensburg, Pennsylvania. She received her BA from the University of Virginia in Charlottesville and both her MS and PhD from the University of Georgia. Teaching constitutes the core of her professional work, and she teaches undergraduate courses in cartography, GIS, world geography, the geography of Europe, and senior seminar as well as a graduate-level applied GIS course. Her work with graduate students has involved studies of the influence of map animation on learning, how to map and visualize campus crime, the importance of spatial thinking on learning, and the influence of environmental education on student perceptions of the environment. Her primary research focus has been on the relationship between maps and learning, specifically studies investigating spatial abilities of children, mental mapping, cartographic mismatch in textbook maps, the connections between teaching GIS and flow theory, and the different influences of two-dimensional and three-dimensional maps on learning. Jan served as vice president for Curriculum and Instruction for the National Council for Geographic Education and subsequently served as president in 2008. Currently, she is the coordinator for the Pennsylvania Alliance for Geographic Education and was recently recognized as the Pennsylvania Distinguished Geographer.

    Michael Solem is educational affairs director for the Association of American Geographers. Since 2003, Dr. Solem has served as principal investigator or co-principal investigator on more than $3.5 million in federally funded projects aimed at enhancing the teaching and learning of geography in postsecondary education. He currently directs the Enhancing Departments and Graduate Education (EDGE) in Geography project and the Center for Global Geography Education (CGGE) initiative, both funded by NSF. EDGE is a research and action project designed to improve the preparation of geography graduate students for academic and nonacademic professional careers. CGGE is an initiative supporting online international teaching and learning collaborations in undergraduate geography courses. Dr. Solem served as the external evaluator for Oregon State University's Graduate Ethics Education for Future Geospatial Technology Professionals project. He currently serves as the North American coordinator of the International Network for Learning and Teaching Geography in Higher Education (INLT), is associate director of the Grosvenor Center for Geographic Education at Texas State University–San Marcos, and leads the AAG's efforts with the Carnegie Academy for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning program. He has twice received the Journal of Geography in Higher Education's biennial award for promoting excellence in teaching and learning for his research on faculty development and graduate education in geography.

    Stephen Stadler is a professor of geography at Oklahoma State University and has been at OSU since 1980. His undergraduate and MS degrees are from Miami University (Oxford, Ohio). He received his PhD in physical geography from Indiana State University in 1979. His specialty is applied climatology. He has had research grants from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), NASA, and the U.S. Department of Energy and has published in a variety of journals in geography and the atmospheric sciences. He was the editor for Oklahoma entries in the Columbia Gazetteer of the World. He was a founder of and remains on the steering committee of the Oklahoma Mesonetwork, the first state-run weather-observing network in the United States. As a principal investigator in the Oklahoma Wind Power Assessment Initiative, he has helped to produce statewide maps of wind power density and prepare other electronic data layers for comparison. He has served as the president of the Oklahoma Renewable Energy Council and is the state geographer of Oklahoma.

    Alex Standish is associate professor of geography, Western Connecticut State University. His PhD is from the Department of Geography, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey. Standish is researching how global change is reconfiguring ideas about politics, culture, and education. His book, Global Perspectives in the Geography Curriculum: Reviewing the Moral Case for Geography (2008), was published by Routledge.

    Samuel Thompson is an associate professor in the Department of Geography at Western Illinois University. After earning a BA in geography and an MA in planning, he spent several years working with local governments before pursuing a doctoral degree from the University of Akron. His research interests include population analysis, regional studies, and rural–urban planning. His most recent population work focuses on the graying of American baby boomers.

    Graham A. Tobin (PhD, University of Strathclyde, U.K.) is a professor in the Department of Geography and associate vice president for academic affairs in the Office of the Provost at the University of South Florida. Dr. Tobin's research interests in natural hazards, water resources policy, and environmental contamination focus on sustainability concerns of human vulnerability, community resilience, social networks, and health conditions in hazardous environments. His current research is being conducted in communities around two active volcanoes in Ecuador and Mexico, and in hurricane-prone areas of the United States.

    Jeffrey S. Torguson is professor of geography at St. Cloud State University in Minnesota. He received his MA and PhD degrees, both in geography, from the University of Georgia. His teaching involves him in cartography, geographic information systems (GIS), and map design and presentation at both the undergraduate and graduate levels. He has served on several advisory boards pertaining to cartography and GIS within higher education systems, and he has held office with several related specialty groups within the Association of American Geographers. Professor Torguson is a coauthor of Cartography: Thematic Map Design, 6th edition, published by McGraw Hill.

    Dr. David A. Wadley lectures at the University of Queensland in Brisbane, Australia, in courses ranging through economic geography, city planning, and real estate studies. His main qualifications are from the Australian National University in Canberra, and he has consulted for the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and many public and private organizations in Australia. His research interests include economic, urban, ideological and geopolitical developments, demographics, and futurology.

    David M. Walker (PhD, University of Kentucky, 2008) is an assistant professor in the Department of Geology and Geography at Ohio Wesleyan University. Walker focuses on contemporary urban issues in Latin America, where he has done extensive research in Tijuana, Oaxaca, and Mexico City, but has become recently drawn toward investigating sociospatial urban changes and immigration in central Ohio. At Ohio Wesleyan University, he teaches Urban Geography every fall semester. The highlights of the course are when he and the students leave the classroom and put urban theories to practice across Ohio's cities.

    Barney Warf is a professor of geography at the University of Kansas. His research and teaching interests lie in the broad domain of human geography. Much of his research concerns economic geography, emphasizing services and telecommunications. His work straddles contemporary political economy and social theory on the one hand and traditional quantitative, empirical approaches on the other. He has studied, among other things, New York as a global city, telecommunications, offshore banking, international networks of finance and producer services, and the geographies of the Internet. He has also written on military spending, voting technologies, the U.S. electoral college, and religious diversity.

    George W. White completed his undergraduate degree with majors in geography and German studies at California State University, Hayward (now East Bay). He then obtained an MA and a PhD in geography at the University of Oregon. Afterward, he spent 15 years at Frostburg State University in Maryland, where he attained the rank of full professor and served for a time as department chair. In the fall of 2009, he moved to South Dakota State University, where he now serves as head of the Department of Geography. Political geography and Europe are two of his primary interests. He is the author of books such as Nation, State, and Territory: Vol. 1. Origins, Evolutions, and Developments (2004) and coauthor of Contemporary World Regional Geography and Essentials of World Regional Geography.

    Richard W. Wilkie is a professor in the Department of Geosciences at the University of Massachusetts–Amherst, (geography PhD, 1968, University of Washington). A number of overlapping research themes have dominated Wilkie's research, teaching, and writing in recent years, centering on perception and sense of place, spirit of place, and attachment to place, and on understanding migration and urbanization processes in Latin America—especially in Argentina, Mexico, Guatemala, and Ecuador. Other interests include visual geography (landscape and light), visualizing information (cognitive modeling), and historical geography—most notably Massachusetts and New England, the American West, and Mexico. Richard Wilkie's books include Latin American Population and Urbanization Analysis (1985) and The Historical Atlas of Massachusetts (1991).

    Tamim Younos, formerly research professor of water resources and former interim director of the Virginia Water Resources Research Center at Virginia Tech, is (since July 2010) the Executive Vice President and Research Director for Environmenal Sustainability Programs at the Cabell Brand Center for Global Poverty and Resource Sustainability Studies, a nonprofit organization. Dr. Younos's research interests include water conservation, decentralized water infrastructure and rainwater harvesting, urban storm water management, water–energy nexus, and mitigation of climate change impacts at the local level. Dr. Younos has been a principal investigator for more than 40 research/technical projects and has authored or coauthored more than 145 publications including two edited books. Dr. Younos has presented invited talks in China, Japan, Hungary, Poland, and Spain and conducted a study abroad program on sustainable management of water resource in the Dominican Republic.

    Linda R. Zellmer is government information and data services librarian at Western Illinois University, where she serves as the library's liaison to the Departments of Geography and Geology and the School of Agriculture. She has experience locating and using geospatial and attribute data and provides reference services related to government information and data to students, faculty, and staff in all subject areas.

    Robert C. Ziegenfus, professor of geography at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania, obtained his master's degree in geography from the Pennsylvania State University, specializing in cultural geography, and he received his PhD from Rutgers University, specializing in environmental and medical geography. After a short stint at the Environmental Protection Agency, Dr. Ziegenfus returned to his alma mater in 1982. He has taught cultural geography every semester since then, in addition to several environmental courses and research methods. Dr. Ziegenfus won the prestigious Wiesenberger Faculty Award for Excellence in Teaching in 2005. He has been a consultant to the Environmental Protection Agency, Helen Keller International, the Lehigh Valley Health Network, and a number of local municipalities. Dr. Ziegenfus has served on the Berks County Agricultural Land Preservation Board since its inception in 1989, and he has chaired the board for the last 15 years.

    Edmund J. Zolnik, PhD, is an assistant professor in the School of Public Policy at George Mason University. He received his doctorate in economic geography from the University of Connecticut in 2004. His research interests include community and regional development, safe and sustainable transportation, and multilevel modeling. Dr. Zolnik has worked with local governments in Connecticut and Virginia on public policies to cope with congestion and sprawl.

  • Appendices: Resources in Geography

    Appendix A: Notable Books and Reports on Geography

    Geography is a discipline that raises questions about the world and its many interlinking natural and cultural components. The study of geography entails collecting and interpreting considerable information about the world, analyzing the information, and either continuing to think and analyze or to publish the results. The practitioners of geography as a profession write books, publish articles in academic journals, and serve on important committees that issue reports for governmental agencies and non governmental organizations. Each of those types of publications moves the discipline of geography along its scholarly pathway, sometimes reviewing past developments and at other times projecting new visions of the discipline and revealing new discoveries about the world, the people who inhabit it, and the way the people and the natural environment interact. The term great books has been claimed for the historic writings of the great philosophers and thinkers of the past who put their thoughts into print. However, each discipline has its great books that focus on the development of thought about and within the particular discipline. Geography similarly has great books, even if considered as such only by the professionals who practice the discipline. The books included in this section, each with a brief description of their role within the discipline, are all significant publications both for the person initially coming to geography and for those who have been immersed in the discipline for their entire careers. There are many other books that could have been included. Those that follow were selected because they represent a gateway to the discipline for people thinking about or entering a discipline that they will follow well into the 21st century. While a full analysis of the significance of newly published books is not possible, these books are important for navigating the past and projecting future pathways for geography at the beginning of the second decade of the 21st century.

    Pathways for Geography: Pacesetting Books and Reports

    Understanding the Changing Planet: Strategic Directions for the Geographical Science. (2010). Committee on Strategic Directions for the Geographical Sciences in the Next Decade. Washington, DC: National Research Council of the National Academies.

    The issues that result from the natural environmental processes of Earth systems and the human impact on the environment give rise to significant questions for the 21st century. Many of those questions are geographic since they entail the study of the spatial aspects of people and the environment. The book identifies strategic directions and questions regarding the ways that the physical and human environments interact, the consequences, and the ways that negative effects of those interactions may be mitigated. The directions and questions are as follows:

    The directions and questions are in response to two trends at the beginning of the 21st century. The first is the application of newly developed geographical tools and methods for assessing and addressing the issues referenced by the questions. The second is the extent to which the spatial perspective that geography provides is critical to planning for improvements in the relationship between people and the environment, whether it is food security or protecting endangered species. Geography's role in the 21st century will be to address those issues and seek solutions to persistent problems utilizing technological skills as well as humanistic approaches to global well-being—both for nature and people.

    The issues that are reflected in the eleven questions posed in the book will continue to have major impacts on Earth system and its processes in the 21st century.

    Learning to Think Spatially. (2006). Geographical Sciences Committee. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

    Geography is often referred to as the spatial science due to the focus on patterns, densities, and distributions on the surface of Earth. While maps have traditionally been the main form for displaying the spatial attributes of geography, it was the emergence of digital information that elevated spatial thinking to the forefront. Geographers, geoscientists, psychogists, educators, engineers, architects—the list could go on to great length—are engaged in spatial thinking. Chemists are interested in the spatial dimensons of molecules and physicists with elements. Geographers are interested in the spatial dimensions of what is observable on Earth or those that are more problematic to observe, such as the attachment people have to a place. These attachments can be discovered through an interview or extracted from clues in a written narrative. The role of spatial thinking in geography and in life are a focus of Learning to Think Spatially.

    Spatial thinking can be observed as people engage with the environment around them on a regular basis. For example, deciding upon a route to follow in walking from one location to another, following the digital map on personal device, or considering and following the instructions from a vehicle navigaton system all require some degree of spatial thinking. Thinking spatially is a frequently used means to help people move through the daily encounters inside, outside, and in the thought processes that are employed in nearly all contexts.

    Spatial thinking relies on spatial knowledge, and people acquire that knowledge through life experiences and formal learning. Geography contributes spatial knowledge through interactions between people and the environment, both the human and physical environment. Being able to walk short disances in one's home in the dark or with one's eyes closed is an application of spatial knowledge. The disances, locations, and spatial relationships of objects were learned as spatial knowledge and encoded. That same knowledge was used as light and vision stimuli were removed. It is not likely that a person would have similar success in a new environment where spatial knowledge had not yet been learned.

    Three characteristics of spatial thinking that represent an acceptable level of literacy are as follows:

    • as a habit of mind one thinks and acts relative to spatial considerations;
    • a regular application of geospatial technologies; and
    • an application of spatial thinking to critical analysis and reasoning regarding personal and environmental conditions and decisions.

    The development of digital technologies and their applications within geography has increased the scope of opportunities for the development of spatial thinking abilities through education. While the focus of Learning to Think Spatially has numerous applications to learning and teaching, it provides a wealth of examples of the ways that geodigital technologies are both requiring a keener application of the thought processes as well as opportunities to stretch spatial thinking beyond the classroom to the enhancement of career and life in general.

    Rediscovering Geography: New Relevance for Science and Society. (1997). Rediscovering Geography Committee. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

    The title Rediscovering Geography describes the condition for the discipline of geography at the end of the 20th century. As a discipline, it traditionally has held a prominent position in both teaching and research in the United States and in other countries. The economic impact of globalization on the United States and the international political developments of the 1990s resulted in the rediscovery of geography. This was especially the case in the Southwest Asian oil-producing region and within Africa where political and economic issues required by policymakers a reliance on accurate and timely geographic information. The terms national well-being and national security were used frequently by political leaders, and geographic information was deeply embedded in both.

    Rediscovering Geography devotes considerable attention to three attributes of the discipline: (1) the geographic perspective, (2) the content of geography, and (3) the methodologies and techniques of geographic study. First, the geographic perspective is the way that Earth's surface is viewed through geographically trained eyes. It is referred to as that spatial perspective. The book argues the case that location is important and has an impact on nearly everything that occurs. The geographic perspective requires that Earth's components, both physical and human, in a crosscutting, integrated manner. While individual components are recognized, such as a river, the geographic perspective necessitates that the process of the flowing river be viewed in relationship to the land use, risk of flood, and sites suitable for crossing, to name just a few. It is the spatial perspective that provides geography with a unique disciplinary quality that is central to its philosophy and research. While other disciplines use a spatial perspective, it is mainly geography that claims it as a core concept of the discipline.

    Second, the content of geography for many people stops with place names and digital maps. Not so for geographers as represented by the content presented in the book. The content of geography ranges from the analysis of location of fast service outlets to the analysis of accessibility of emergency medical services for urban populations. The widely varied nature of the content that geography encapsulates is with the spatial contexts more than with a single event. Geography content includes the dynamic character and organization of both physical and human conditions and activities on Earth, and the ways in which the interactions between them result in distinct places and regions. Knowledge of those interactions is essential as societies respond to environmental changes; the inequalities that occur within populations from economic, social, and political opportunities; and the role of modern technology and education in sustainable development.

    Third, the book delves into the methodologies that geography has applied to researching environmental and social concerns. While the philosophy and perspective of the discipline have evolved gradually through stages, the technologies available for geographic information collection, storage, retrieval, mapping, and spatial analysis have taken huge leaps forward. The discipline has adapted to new technologies and uses 21st-century modes of spatial analysis, such as geographic information systems (GISs), and multidimensional graphic displays to both portray and model physical and social processes. Rediscovering Geography uses hindsight and foresight in preparation for Earth's 21st-century challenges.

    Key Ideas from the Discipline

    Key Texts in Human Geography. (2008). Hubbard, P., Kitchen, R., & Valentine, G. (Eds.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

    Geography is a dynamic discipline, and geographers continually revisit prior research and writing to establish linkages to the historical, philosophical, and theoretical aspects proposed during earlier times. Key Texts in Human Geography presents a detailed and analytical view of a select number of books within the discipline. While there is some natural flow to environmental and physical geography considerations, Key Texts is intentionally directed toward human geography.

    The intent of these chapter-length critical reflections on 26 books that have been published about geography and are generally viewed as key works is to reduce the main ideas and significant contributions of each book to a chapter-length discussion. While this was a major undertaking, it was a necessary gateway for a newly arrived scholar to the discipline of geography to obtain an overview and abstraction of key contributions of the books in chapter-length discussion. The chapters represent an advanced organizer for the reader, setting the tone and the content in order to assist in the decision whether or not to continue on to the full length book being discussed. It is intended that the discussion will serve as an invitation to delve into the full length book.

    The 26 books were selected for two major reasons. First, they were judged to have made a significant contribution to the development of human geography as a discipline. Second, they reflect the types of issues being studied and discussions that were being held at the times they were written. In short, it provides a critical glimpse of geography at various periods since 1953. The reader can delve into the developments in the discipline across the second half of the 20th and first few years of the 21st century.

    One of the benefits of Key Texts is the way that the books discussed continue to contribute to the development of geography as a discipline in the 21st century. Geography has three major attributes as a discipline: theory, content, and applications. Within the 26 chapters, there are amplifications and discussions of each of those as well as the linkages between them. For example, diffusion is a significant concept in geography, having had a major theoretical impact on the discipline in the early 1950s. The role of diffusion theory in subsequent developments in human geography can be identified in the significant texts that followed. The theoretical and conceptual significance of diffusion to the discipline is woven throughout and continues to have a major role in the 21st century.

    Disciplines are constantly under the watchful eye of the disciplinary practitioners as well as the practitioners of other disciplines. Disciplines and academics borrow ideas from one another, critically review the importance of emerging ideas and theories appearing in the literature, and devise interesting ways to both complement and ignore those disciplinary offerings that are judged important and others that are judged as questionable. Key Texts in Human Geography provides a broad view of geography with in-depth discussion of the times, scholars, and the role of human geography.

    Key Concepts in Geography. (2009). Clifford, N., Holloway, S., Rice, S., & Valentine, G. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

    Identifying the major concepts in a discipline is comparable to taking a complex computer system apart, classifying all its components, and then reassembling it with a specific record of which component goes in which order, its necessary function, and its importance to the other components. Disciplines evolve over long periods. There are periods where developments are rapid, and the discipline gains recognition for its dynamism. There are other periods where disciplines, and the people engaged in the discipline, have time to ponder the past, consider the present, and think about the future. As concepts develop and are refined, some fall by the wayside, and others emerge as champions for new movements in the discipline. For example, globalization is a concept that is regularly associated with geography in the 21st century. However, globalization is hardly new to the discipline, and to the extent that geography was associated with explorations, colonization, world trade, transportation, and the movement of populations, it has been a key concept in geography.

    The book identifies 10 concepts that represent the core of geography. They are space, place, time, scale, landscape, nature, systems, globalization, development, and risk. Immediately, it is apparent that the key concepts in geography are shared with other disciplines, such as history and biology. It is also necessary to recognize the deeper interpretation of the concepts. Take place, for example. It is usually considered to represent a location on Earth's surface. It may or may not be inhabited by people. In drilling down into the concept of place, it is necessary to consider the physical attributes of the place, such as elevation, precipitation, and soils, among others. When considering a place that is inhabited, it is necessary to examine the culture, land occupance, land use, and settlement patterns, among others. This deeper examination of each concept provides a better idea of the role the concept has as an academic and theoretical anchor in the discipline. It also enables the reviewer to follow the outreach of the geographic concept or at least the spatial attributes of the concept to other related disciplines.

    Interdiscipinary linkages for geography are an important discussion in the book. A relatively new arrival to the discipline may ponder the ways that geography may be distinguised from other disciplines, such as sociology, political science, and economics. The chapters in Key Concepts in Geography delimit the sometimes subtle differences in the ways that geography addresses its content. Geography is a spatial science and the key concepts in the discipline promote the use of spatial examination of Earth, its human and physical properties. One of the most spatial based concepts in the discipline is scale. Scale permeates the disciplinary topics of geogaphy and is the best example of a crosscutting concept that interacts with each of the other nine concepts.

    The presentation of key concepts is an informative and engaging look at geography and its core ideas and methodologies and provides ready access to the big ideas in the discipline.

    The Centennial Forum. (2010). Price, M. (Ed.). Annals, 100 (5).

    The 100th-year anniversary publication of the flagship scholarly journal for American Geographers includes four major essays that review the intellectual record of the Annals and the geographers who have authored landmark articles. While a journal issue, it has the impact of a book in its breadth and focus. The publication applies the main topics used by the discipline in 2010: environmental sciences; methods, models, and GIS; nature and society; and people, places, and regions. The authors of each section reflect on the Annals 100-year run of published articles relative to the topics. The intent is to review and discuss the development of the discipline through the articles and topics for the past century. Physical geography, human geography, nature–society, and methods are the dominant themes reviewed. The essays discuss select articles that have been published in the Annals, but do not present a specific review of the discipline. The essays are descriptive with attention to evaluating the various foci the discipline has expressed through the pages of the Annals. For example, the early years were marked by environmental determinism, possibilism, the quantitative revolution, and by the beginning of the 21st century, the attention was on systems as they are represented in geography and the ways that systems thinking have influenced geography.

    Physical geography has been and remains a major focus of the discipline over the past 100 years. The founders of the discipline in the United States were largely physical geographers. The large descriptive, geomorphological aspects of physical geography were based on Earth science and adhered to scientific principles. The citations in the article present a valuable reference to the landmark studies and articles that have been published in physical geography (Aspinall, 2010).

    Methodology has evolved over the past century and represents a dynamic aspect of the discipline. Mapping and graphs have been important elements of geograhy and represented new technologies at times in the past. Reference to new technologies in the 21st century nearly always refers to geodigital methods associated with GIS and developing ways to transform and visualize date in different and animated graphic formats. The methodologies that the geographers consider as essential to their academic toolkit are now also available to the general public online. Methodologies in popular demand can have important dividend to the discipline as more people are engaged in using geography for specific outcomes and information (Kwan, 2010).

    Human–environment relationships have been long-standing, and perhaps the most studied, topics in the discipline over the past century. The topic has represented the complementary nature of physical and human geography as content integraton. That necessity for interdisciplinary study to engage both the physical and human elements in explaining and prediciting patterns on Earth's surface makes it a powerful component of geographic science (Zimmerer, 2010).

    People, place, and region are three themes that have been present in the discipline for the past 100 years. Articles on these topics include considerable human geography. They range from analytical human descriptions of and attachment to places to the social constructon of places within and as a result of beliefs and values. Regional geography continues to have an important role in contemporary study since it examines the qualities that humans both extract from and estow upon Earth (Kobayashi, 2011).

    The references accompanying each of the articles represent important resources related to the topics in geography.


    Key Methods in Geography. (2010). Clifford, N., French, S., & Valentine, G. SAGE: London.

    Research Methods in Geography. (2010). Gomez, B., & Jones, J. P., III. (Eds.). New York: Wiley Blackwell.

    Research methods used by geographers are appropriate for studying a wide range of human and physical aspects of Earth. The nature of geography as a spatial science requires diversity not only in the types of knowledge pursued and in the questions asked, but also with the means through which information is collected and those questions are answered. Geography utilizes human behavoral methodologies when examinging the functions of cultural factors within a society and studies the erosive qualities of running water in environmental contexts. Each is reflected in the traditions of the discipline and recognized as germane methodologies to the discipline.

    Geographers use both quantitative and qualitative methodologies in their research. Quantitiative methologies apply numerical data, statistics, and modeling based on mathematical principles and occurrences to build and test theory. Qualitative methods rely on detecting the subjective informaton and attributes regarding a research topic. Those attributes may include values, attitudes, dispositions toward partricular actions, and emotions. They are detected in the research through interviews, questionnaire surveys of people, observing behaviors, and visual imaging, such as digitally recording.

    There are common processes that geographers follow in applying the methodologies to their research. These processes are common to other disciplines. The steps in most research methodologies begin with a thorough search of the literature that has been developed about the research topic. While doing the literature review, the types of data that have been collected by other studies, the ways the data have been collected, and the procedures that have been used to analyze them are revealed. The research literature holds a wealth of information about particular topics. However, there is perhaps a more important benefit to the person beginning research. The published research allows the person reading and studying it to identify pitfalls and shortcomings and to select appropriate ways to avoid decisions that might make the research less meaningful to others. The discipline uses a wide range of technology and instrumentation, from smart phones to satellite imaging, and the role of those and newly emerging technologies represent important decisions in planning the methodology for a study.

    The development of a research design that will accommodate the information and data collected, permit the hypotheses or theories for the research questions to be addressed, and manage the input of information, analysis, and output or conclusions from the study must be carefully planned. The collection and analysis of the quantitative or qualitative information, or in some studies a mixed methods design that uses both types of information, is the foundation for a successful geographical study.

    Research methodologies discussed in each of the volumes present a thorough overview and detailed analysis of the methods that apply to the discipline. The research agendas of studies ranging from undergraduate papers to theses dissertations will benefit from a thorough grounding in the methodologies discussed. The success of a study and its uses for future researchers are dependent upon assessing the appropriateness and clear application of the best methodologies.

    Surveys of Geography as a Discipline: Its History and Topics of Study

    Geography in the Twentieth Century. (1951). Taylor, G. (Ed.). New York: Philosophical Library.

    American Geography: Inventory and Prospect. (1954). James, P. E., & Jones, C. F. (Eds.). Syracuse, NY: Syracuse Univesity Press.

    Geography in America at the Dawn of the 21st Century. (2003). Gaile, G., & Willmott, C. J. (Eds.). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

    World Minds: Geographical Perspectives on 100 Problems. (2004). Janelle, D. G., Warf, B., & Hansen, K. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic.

    All Possible Worlds: A History of Geographical Ideas. (2005) Martin, G. New York: Oxford University Press.

    Geography: History and Concepts. (4th ed., 2010). Holt-Jensen, A. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

    Encyclopedia of Geography. (2010). Warf, B. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

    Geography is one of the oldest identifiable disciplines. The rich history of the development of the discipline has been well chronicled (Martin, 2005). The early centers of civilizations in the Mediterranean hosted geographic research and discovery that began with the recognition that geographic knowledge was essential and extended to the use of geography to imagine what other places, continents, and oceans existed. While the early developments of the discipline made gigantic leaps forward with planetary information, it was the 20th century that resulted in immense changes to the way that geography and its scholarship emerged.

    Two volumes present the status of geography at the midpoint of the 20th century (James & Jones, 1954; Taylor, 1951). Both were edited by eminent geographers who were recognzied for their advanced thinking and research in the discipline. Both volumes present concise but representative chapters discussing the topics that were characteristic of geography. The mid-20th-century perspective on the discipline in both volumes reflected the specializations that were the cutting edges of the discipline. Attention to the regional origins of geographic thought and the influences of the regional studies tradition in the 1951 volume were being replaced by systematic and topical geography specializations to a great extent by the time of the 1954 volume, including medical geography and the uses of aerial photography. The brief span of 4 years between the two volumes represented a substantial movement by the discipline to new areas of inquiry.

    The enormity of the changes in geography as a discipline in the 20th century is evident in the topics that geographers were researching and studying during the second half of the 20th century. Geogaphy in America presents topics ranging from the environmental dynamics that geography engages as an explanatory discipline to the questions of values and human rights that the discipline encounters in philosophical and humanistic approaches to Earth and its residents. The problems that geographers address and actively engage in research to solve, or at least contribute to feasible solutions, is reflective of the changing focus of the discipline in World Minds (Janelle et al., 2004). The early foundations of the discipline continue to surface in the 21st-century digital age, and there is adequate evidence to validate the idea that geography is a dynamic discipline that relishes its past, but is looking into the future (Holt-Jensen, 2010).

    As a topical collecton of geography publicatons, the books represent a broad overview of the discipline from its initial conceptual development to the first decade of the 21st century. Collectively, they include most of the history of the discipline and the key topics of study and academic concepts that represent the focus of both past and current geographic inquiry. The Encyclopedia of Geography provides a broad overview of geography through the elaborations on topics by experts in the field that reflect scholarship and research in the discipline.

    Global Change: The Geographic Perspective

    Man's Role in Changing the Face of the Earth. (1956). Thomas, W. L., Jr. (Ed.). Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

    The Earth as Transformed by Human Action: Global and Regional Changs in the Biosphere Over the Past 300 Years. (1990). Turner, B. L., II, Clark, W. C., Kates, R. W., Richards, J. F., Mathews, J. T., & Meyer, W. B. (Eds.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

    Geogaphies of Global Change: Remapping the World in the Late Twentieth Century. (1995). Johnston, R. J., Taylor, P. J., & Watts, M. J. (Eds.). Oxford, UK: Blackwell.

    The interest among geographers with global change has been reflected several times during the 20th century with the publication of books addressing the role of humans in altering the Earth. Man's Role in Changing the Face of the Earth represents a monumental reporting analysis of the ways that people had affected the planet by the mid-20th century (Thomas, 1956). Explorations and surveys that were a major part of field geography of the earlier part of the century were enhanced by new methodologies for collecting data. The observations of land use, clearing of land cover, the use of natural resources, and the day-to-day functioning of communities each left a mark on the landscape that reflected change. There were discussions and studies that addressed the ways that human activities on Earth would be limited, such as population change, increased use of natural resources, energy limitations, and the denuding of the landscape with new technologies and machines. Those very same questions are common to the discussion at the beginning of the 21st century, but the intensity of the population, resource usage, energy alternatives, and impacts of technology are greater by several magnitudes.

    The advances in collecting information, greater knowledge of past civilizations, and the compelling interest to chronicle the changes people were making to Earth persisted in the latter part of the 20th century (Turner, Clark, Kate, & Richards, 1990). Changes were being observed that were indeed global. Satellite sensing of the land use and land cover revealed huge swaths of Earth that had been altered significantly in a period of years rather than decades. While change had been documented for a considerable time leading up to the 1956 report (Thomas, 1956), the rate at which change was occurring caught the attention of geographers and other scientists. The Earth as Transformed by Human Action not only provides a renewed look at the human dimension of change on Earth but also introduces a new generation of geographers to the significant role that the discipline has in the observation, interpretation, analysis, and the reporting of those changes. Equally important is the necessity to present plausible mitigation strategies when the changes are determined to be detrimental to the environment, the human inhabitants, or both.

    The Geographies of Global Change (Johnston et al., 1995) incorporates the major changes in a much broader context. The prior books edited by William Thomas (1956) and Billy Turner et al. (1990) were focused largely on global environmental and cultural changes attributable to the diffusion of humans and their technologies for agriculture and urbanization. The Johnston et al. (1995) book was conceptualized during the period of considerable cultural and economic globalization during the final decade of the 20th century. The contextual time period for the content of the book reflects the geographic attention to economic, political, social, cultural, and environmental changes that were gaining momentum and that became the major issues for attention by geographers during the first decade of the 21st century.

    Joseph P.StoltmanWestern Michigan University
    References and Further Readings
    Aspinall, R.A century of physical geography research in the Annals. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, (2010). 100(5),1049–1059.
    Holt-Jensen, A.(2010). Geography: History and concepts (
    4th ed.
    ). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    James, P. E., & Jones, C. F. (Eds.). (1954). American geography: Inventory and prospect. Syracuse, NYSyracuse University Press.
    Janelle, D. G., Warf, B., & Hansen, K. (Eds.). (2004). World minds: Geographical perspectives on 100 problems. Dordrecht, The NetherlandsKluwer Academic.
    Johnston, R. J., Taylor, P. J., & Watts, M. J. (Eds.). (1995). Geogaphies of global change: Mapping the world in the late twentieth century. Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
    Kobayashi, A.People, place, and region: 100 years of human geography in the Annals. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, (2011). 100(5),1095–1106.
    Kwan, M.-P.A century of method-oriented research in the Annals. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, (2010). 100(5),1060–1075.
    Martin, G.(2005). All possible worlds: A history of geographical ideas. New YorkOxford University Press.
    Taylor, G. (Ed.). (1951). Geography in the twentieth century: A study of growth, fields, techniques, aims and trends. New YorkPhilosophical Library.
    Thomas, W. L., Jr. (Ed.). (1956). Man's role in changing the face of the earth. ChicagoUniversity of Chicago Press.
    Turner, B. L., II, Clark, W. C., Kates, R. W., Richards, J. F., Mathews, J. T., & Myere, W. B. (Eds.). (1990). The earth as transformed by human action: Global and regional changes in the biosphere over the past 300 years. Cambridge, UKCambridge University Press.
    Zimmerer, K. S.Retrospective on nature society geography: Tracing trajectories (1911–2010) and reflecting on translations. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, (2010). 100(5),1076–1094.

    Appendix B: Geographical Journals: A Sample with Annotations

    Scholarly Journals

    Science is an ongoing dialogue. Sometimes it is between colleagues and sometimes between competitors. Scholars conduct research and publish their findings. Readers will confirm, comment on, or contest that position. This, in turn, results in additional rounds of confirmation or criticism. Science is a never-ending process of discovery, discussion, and development.

    During the Age of Enlightenment, scientists communicated among themselves through letters. This process was slow and highly inefficient. One of the greatest inventions of the age was the scientific or scholarly journal. With its creation, an author could communicate with colleagues by publishing an article that was then disseminated to a number of readers. Journals greatly accelerated the spread and growth of knowledge.

    Scholarly journals are often called peer-reviewed or refereed. This refers to the prepublication review process that distinguishes an academic journal from other periodicals. When an author submits an article for publication, the editor of a refereed journal passes the article on to a number of select reviewers who are experts in the field. The reviewers, whose identities usually remain unknown to the author, provide the first feedback on the merits of the article. Their critical reviews allow the author to make changes and corrections to the article to gain approval and eventual publication. This is a key example of the dialogue between colleagues that is so much a part of the scientific process.

    A special kind of article that distinguishes a scholarly journal is what is known as a review article. A review article is an overview, in the form of a bibliographic essay, of the current state of the literature on a subject. When a scholar first approaches a subject, he or she does a literature review of existing publications on the subject to become familiar with the area of study. When this review is published, it allows other scholars to quickly bring themselves up-to-date as well.

    The New Environment of Scholarly Publishing

    Today there are many new ways for scholars to publish their work and many new ways for readers to find that work. Publishers of traditional journals are wrestling with the Internet's impact on conventional publishing, and some scholars are bypassing the established system entirely.

    Every periodical on this list is published electronically as well as in print. Most titles have all past issues available electronically. To quickly inform their readers of new content, many journals provide Really Simple Syndication (RSS) feeds to which users can subscribe.

    If one wishes to be informed of the contents of a number of journals of one's choosing, JournalTOCs (http://www.journaltocs.ac.uk) is a free service that contains the tables of contents of over 15,000 journals. One can register and set up alerts that will inform him or her when new issues are published.

    Traditional journals charge a subscription fee or charge for copies of individual articles. Currently there is a movement toward open access journals that do not charge readers for access but retain the peer-review process. A directory of these journals is available at the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) website: http://www.doaj.org. It has never been easier for a scholar to start a new journal and make it available on the web as an e-journal.

    Many research institutions (e.g., universities and their libraries) are creating institutional repositories (IRs) where researchers can store digital copies of their research for others to find. The contents of the IR are indexed by search engines and are viewable online. Scholars who put items in an IR must be sure that they hold the copyright to these items. Many traditional journal publishers are now allowing preprints of articles to be included in IRs and the text of published articles to be included after a set period of time.

    Geography Periodicals

    Geography is a discipline that may address individually or integrate the physical and social sciences attributes of Earth as spatial relationships between and among humans and the natural environment. There are many subdisciplines of geography. There are economic geographers; political geographers; urban, rural, and regional geographers; and physical geographers who study land forms, vegetation, animals, meteorology, and water resources.

    There are many topics that geographers are interested in pursuing, partly because the discipline is renowned for its role in synthesizing information in the quest for new knowledge. As a librarian helping geographers, I have worked with faculty interested in the apple industry in China and the economic impact of canoe tourism on communities located along river trails. Geography allows the researcher a wealth of possibilities limited only by interest and imagination.

    As in most other fields, Geography has seen a tremendous growth in the number of journals in the discipline. In 1935, Carolyn Ulrich listed 76 periodicals under the heading “Geography” in her Periodicals Directory (Ulrich, 1935). In the 2011 edition of the directory, 863 titles were listed (Geography, 2010).

    Because of this abundance, the following list of geography periodicals must be limited. Included are titles considered basic to any college library collection that supports a geography curriculum. Also included are important examples of journals for many of the subdisciplines of geography. Not included are journals in languages other than English and magazines with a regional emphasis, although some examples of the latter are included. All of the journals listed here contain peer-reviewed articles and are available as e-journals.

    Entries in the list contain the following:

    • The title of the journal.
    • The journal's international standard serial number (ISSN). The ISSN is a unique number assigned to the periodical.
    • The journal's URL.
    • The number of issues published each year.
    • The date of the first issue of the periodical.
    • Whether or not the journal includes book reviews.
    • The journal's impact factor. These impact factors are taken from the 2009 Journal Citation Reports: Social Sciences Edition, a Thomson Reuters product.
    • A brief description of the journal.
    Annals of the Association of American Geographers

    ISSN: 0004–5608

    URL: http://www.aag.org/cs/publications/annals

    Frequency: 5 issues per year

    Published Since: 1911

    Book Reviews: Yes

    2009 Journal Impact Factor: 2.568

    Published since 1911, the Annals of the Association of American Geographers is one of the leading geographical journals in the United States. The journal publishes major research articles in all areas of geography. In issues, one might also find essays and commentaries, review articles on topics of substance, and association addresses and memorials. Occasionally the journal contains map supplements.


    ISSN: 0066–4812

    URL: http://www.antipode-online.net/default.asp

    Frequency: 5 issues per year

    Published Since: 1969

    Book Reviews: Yes

    2009 Journal Impact Factor: 1.434

    The subtitle of Antipode is A Radical Journal of Geography. As this would imply, it is an example of a journal with a clear political agenda. Authors study the same subjects as other geographical journals but from a left-wing perspective. Some issues contain interventions that are essays on current issues, book reviews, and symposia on current subjects of interest.


    ISSN: 0004–0894

    URL: http://www.wiley.com/bw/journal.asp?ref=0004-0894

    Frequency: 4 issues per year

    Published Since: 1969

    Book Reviews: Yes

    2009 Journal Impact Factor: 1.528

    Area is a British journal that publishes articles in all geographic fields. Articles tend to be shorter, so there are usually more in each issue than might be found in other journals. The editorial board is interested in stimulating debate on topics, so there are frequently numerous articles on one subject in an issue. This desire to discuss a topic is also expressed in book review forums where more than one author will discuss a book, thus providing more than one perspective on the book. Authors are also urged to show how the subject of an article is linked to the world outside of the field of geography.

    The Canadian Geographer/Le Géographe canadien

    ISSN: 0008–3658

    URL: http://www.wiley.com/bw/journal.asp?ref=0008-3658&site=1

    Frequency: 4 issues per year

    Published Since: 1951

    Book Reviews: Yes

    2009 Journal Impact Factor: 0.78

    The Canadian Geographer is a good example of a journal with an emphasis on a particular region, continent, or country. There are a number of similar journals. While most of the articles published in The Canadian Geographer concentrate on Canadian issues, the subjects being studied, the methodology, and the findings all tend to have wider application. The journal frequently highlights the research of an emerging scholar. There are often sections set aside for special topics and always numerous book reviews. Special lectures and obituaries are published as well as commentaries and responses to earlier articles. All of these special features make The Canadian Geographer a valuable publication for a very specialized group of professionals while remaining relevant to a wider audience.


    ISSN: 0016–7185

    URL: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/344/description#description

    Frequency: 6 issues per year

    Published Since: 1970

    Book Reviews: Yes 2009

    Journal Impact Factor: 1.574

    Geoforum is an interdisciplinary journal that publishes articles on economic, social, political, and environmental subjects. Issues frequently contain a collection of papers on a theme in addition to other, unrelated research articles.

    The scope of the articles in the journal ranges from the local to the global. Review articles assess current research on topics within the purview of the journal.

    The Geographical Journal

    ISSN: 0016–7398

    URL: http://geographicaljournal.rgs.org

    Frequency: 4 issues per year

    Published Since: 1857

    Book Reviews: Yes

    2009 Journal Impact Factor: 1.226

    The Geographical Journal is an official publication of the Royal Geographical Society. Articles span the entire spectrum of geographical interests but tend to concentrate on current public policy issues. Issues contain numerous short book reviews. Sometimes there are special issues where a topic is studied in depth. Review articles also appear in the publication. As a publication of the Royal Geographical Society, The Geographical Journal also contains summary notes of its meetings and official messages.

    Geographical Review

    ISSN: 0016–7428

    URL: http://www.amergeog.org/gr/grhome.html

    Frequency: 4 issues per year

    Published Since: 1859

    Book Reviews: Yes

    2009 Journal Impact Factor: 0.455

    Geographical Review is a publication of the American Geographical Society. It consists of research articles as well as book and atlas reviews. Review articles are a regular feature of the journal and appear in a section called the “Geographical Record.” A section called “Geographical Field Notes” contains reports from researchers on the work they are currently engaged in. A major aim of the journal is to publish informative articles of interest to the nonspecialist as well as to professional geographers and students.

    The Professional Geographer

    ISSN: 0033–0124

    URL: http://www.aag.org/cs/publications/the_professional_geographer

    Frequency: 4 issues per year

    Published Since: 1949

    Book Reviews: Yes

    2009 Journal Impact Factor: 1.712

    The Association of American Geographers publishes The Professional Geographer. It contains articles on all areas of geography. The editors are especially interested in new approaches, methodologies, and viewpoints. Numerous substantial book reviews appear in each issue.

    Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers

    ISSN: 0020–2754

    URL: http://www.wiley.com/bw/journal.asp?ref=0020-2754

    Frequency: 4 times per year

    Published Since: 1935

    Book Reviews: No

    2009 Journal Impact Factor: 3.413

    The Institute of British Geographers is now part of the Royal Geographical Society. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers is a major journal in the field of geography. It publishes research articles in both human and physical geography. Special boundary crossing papers are interdisciplinary in scope.

    Human Geography
    Cultural Geographies: A Journal of Cultural Geographies

    ISSN: 1474–4740

    URL: http://cgj.sagepub.com

    Frequency: 4 issues per year

    Published Since: 1994

    Book Reviews: Yes

    2009 Journal Impact Factor: 1.143

    This is one of the most interesting journals on this list. When reviewing the table of contents of an issue, one will find some of the most esoteric and interesting articles covering the influence of the environment, nature, and the landscape on human culture. Authors come from many fields of study including the arts as well as the social sciences. Sometimes there are special themed issues. Each issue contains numerous book reviews.

    Economic Geography

    ISSN: 0013–0095

    URL: http://www.clarku.edu/ECONGEOGRAPHY

    Frequency: 4 issues per year

    Published Since: 1925

    Book Reviews: Yes

    2009 Journal Impact Factor: 3.452

    Economic Geography is published by Clark University. It is a leading journal in the field of economic geography. Issues include substantial articles on significant trends in the field of economic geography and numerous book reviews. Sometimes there will be collections of essays by a number of authors on a subject or a recent report. This is a very popular interdisciplinary journal due in part to recent economic conditions and changes in the global economy.

    Environment and Planning A: International Journal of Urban and Regional Research

    ISSN: 0308–518X

    URL: http://www.envplan.com/A.html

    Frequency: 12 issues per year

    Published Since: 1969

    Book Reviews: Yes

    2009 Journal Impact Factor: 1.763

    Environment and Planning A is interested in urban and regional planning and environmental studies. The problems of cities and regions are addressed in each issue. It is an interdisciplinary journal in that is it concerned with political science, economics, environmental science, and engineering as well as geography. Every issue has a “Commentary” section where contributors editorialize on issues of the day.

    Environment and Planning D: Society and Space

    ISSN: 0263–7758

    URL: http://www.envplan.com/D.html

    Frequency: 6 issues per year

    Published Since: 1983

    Book Reviews: Yes

    2009 Journal Impact Factor: 1.784

    Environment and Planning D is an interdisciplinary magazine. Its contents will touch on any social science. The journal is interested in the relationship between the social and the spatial. It regularly contains guest editorials and there are frequently special theme sections. Book reviews and review essays appear in almost every issue.

    Journal of Economic Geography

    ISSN: 1468–2702

    URL: http://joeg.oxfordjournals.org

    Frequency: 6 issues per year

    Published Since: 2000

    Book Reviews: Yes

    2009 Journal Impact Factor: 3.937

    The journal is interested in the interaction between geography and economics. Subjects covered include business conditions, the effects of economic policies, and the geographic aspects of economic situations. Articles are usually substantial. There are sometimes theme issues, and there are always book reviews.

    Journal of Historical Geography

    ISSN: 0305–7488

    URL: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/622880/description

    Frequency: 4 issues per year

    Published Since: 1975

    Book Reviews: Yes

    2009 Journal Impact Factor: 1.119

    The Journal of Historical Geography looks at historical events through the eyes of geographers. This is a true interdisciplinary journal. Economic, social, and environmental history are studied in large research and review articles. Each issue contains numerous book reviews.

    Journal of Transport Geography

    ISSN: 0966–6923

    URL: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/30448/description#description

    Frequency: 6 issues per year

    Published Since: 1993

    Book Reviews: Yes

    2009 Journal Impact Factor: 1.421

    The Journal of Transport Geography is an example of a specialized journal that concentrates on one very important subdiscipline of geography. Transport and traffic studies are a large part of the study of the urban environment. Travel and tourism would not exist without the transportation infrastructure. Short research papers and book reviews appear in each issue. Sometimes there is a section of an issue dedicated to a single theme.

    Landscape and Urban Planning

    ISSN: 0169–2046

    URL: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/503347/description#description

    Frequency: 4 issues per year

    Published Since: 1974

    Book Reviews: Yes

    2009 Journal Impact Factor: 2.17

    Landscape and Urban Planning is interested in land use planning and design. It is interested in how humans use land and the social and environmental costs of altering the landscape. Urban planning is a subdiscipline of geography. It is also an area where many geographers find employment. Issues of this journal consist of short research articles and some review articles. Book reviews occur infrequently.

    Political Geography

    ISSN: 0962–6298

    URL: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/30465/description#description

    Frequency: 8 times per year

    Published Since: 1982

    Book Reviews: Yes

    2009 Journal Impact Factor: 2.267

    Political Geography is an interdisciplinary journal that is a good example of the range of geographical studies. Articles analyze government policies, electoral results, territorial conflicts, and other geopolitical issues. The magazine consists of research articles and book reviews. There is usually an editorial on a current issue.

    Progress in Human Geography

    ISSN: 0309–1325

    URL: http://phg.sagepub.com

    Frequency: 6 issues per year

    Published Since: 1969

    Book Reviews: Yes

    2009 Journal Impact Factor: 3.59

    Progress in Human Geography publishes review articles on all aspects of human geography. The magazine's “Forum” section brings together a panel of authors to discuss a topic of current interest. The magazine also contains book reviews. Another publication, Progress in Physical Geography, covers the other major subdiscipline of geography in a similar manner.

    Regional Studies

    ISSN: 0034–3404

    URL: http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/titles/00343404.asp

    Frequency: 10 issues per year

    Published Since: 1967

    Book Reviews: Yes

    2009 Journal Impact Factor: 1.462

    Regional Studies is a publication of the Regional Studies Association in Great Britain. It publishes original research articles on regional development and analytical articles on policy issues. Emphasis is in the area of subnational regional studies. Special issues, review articles, book reviews, and policy debates provide for dialogue on important topics.

    Urban Geography

    ISSN: 0272–3638

    URL: http://www.bellpub.com/ug

    Frequency: 8 times per year

    Published Since: 1980

    Book Reviews: Yes

    2009 Journal Impact Factor: 1.127

    The study of the urban condition is another subdiscipline of geography. Urban Geography publishes articles on housing, economic conditions, urban policy, and ethnicity. It is an interdisciplinary magazine. In addition to research articles, it published book reviews and articles that discuss the legal issues related to a topic.

    Physical Geography
    Global Environmental Change: Human and Policy Dimensions

    ISSN: 0959–3780

    URL: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/30425/description#description

    Frequency: 4 times per year

    Published Since: 1990

    Book Reviews: Yes

    2009 Journal Impact Factor: 3.34

    Global Environmental Change is one of the newer journals on this list reflecting the emergence of a new subfield that is very interdisciplinary but has a strong spatial component. It publishes original research articles and some review articles. Sometimes a section of an issue will be dedicated to a special topic. There are numerous journals in environmental studies and biology that examine these subjects geographically.

    Physical Geography

    ISSN: 0272–3646

    URL: http://www.bellpub.com/phg/index.html

    Frequency: 6 issues per year

    Published Since: 1980

    Book Reviews: No

    2009 Journal Impact Factor: 0.81

    Physical Geography is a journal that covers the interesting nexus of geography and geology. Articles in this journal cover the subjects of geomorphology or the study of landforms and the geologic forces that shape them, climatology and climate change, biogeography, hydrology and glaciology, and soil science. There are occasional special issues where all of the articles will cover one topic.

    Others, Including Techniques and Applications
    Applied Geography

    ISSN: 0143–6228

    URL: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/30390/description#description

    Frequency: 4 issues per year

    Published Since: 1981

    Book Reviews: Yes

    2009 Journal Impact Factor: 2.324

    Applied Geography publishes research articles that focus on the solution of human problems through the application of geographical methods and theories. In addition to original research articles, readers will also find review articles in the journal.

    Geographical Analysis

    ISSN: 0016–7363

    URL: http://www.wiley.com/bw/journal.asp?ref=0016-7363

    Frequency: 4 issues per year

    Published Since: 1969

    Book Reviews: Yes

    2009 Journal Impact Factor: 1.641

    Geographical Analysis is unique on this list because it stresses the presentation of quantitative research articles in all areas of geography. Articles include more mathematical models and statistical analyses of geospatial subjects than in other journals.

    International Journal of Geographical Information Science

    ISSN: 1365–8816

    URL: http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/tf/13658816.html

    Frequency: 12 issues per year

    Published Since: 1987

    Book Reviews: Yes

    2009 Journal Impact Factor: 1.533

    Geographic information science (GIS) is a rapidly growing subdiscipline of geography. The International Journal of Geographical Information Science is one of the major journals in the field. It publishes substantial articles on the application of GIS to environmental issues, land use, planning, transportation, and other social situations. There are also technical articles that discuss software and database management issues.

    International Journal of Remote Sensing

    ISSN: 0143–1161

    URL: http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/titles/01431161.asp

    Frequency: 12 issues per year

    Published Since: 1980

    Book Reviews: Yes

    2009 Journal Impact Factor: 1.089

    Remote sensing is the use of an instrument to gather data at a distance from an area being studied. Remote sensing is used in a wide number of fields including agriculture, meteorology, geology, and biology as well as geography. The International Journal of Remote Sensing is the official journal of the Remote Sensing and Photogrammetry Society. Issues contain articles on the techniques and application of remote sensing to any discipline. The editors welcome review articles.

    Remote Sensing of Environment: An Interdisciplinary Journal

    ISSN: 0034–4257

    URL: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/505733/description#description

    Frequency: 12 issues per year

    Published Since: 1969

    Book Reviews: No

    2009 Journal Impact Factor: 3.612

    Remote Sensing of Environment is an example of a highly technical journal that expects the reader to have an understanding of the field. Issues contain articles on theory as well as the application of remote sensing techniques to real world situations. There are often special issues on a topic, and a few review articles. In the issues I examined, I did not find any book reviews.

    MichaelMcDonnellWestern Michigan University
    Geography. (2010). In Ulrich's periodicals directory 2011 (
    49th ed.
    , pp. 3877–3915).New Providence, NJR. R. Bowker.
    Ulrich, C. (Ed.). (1935). Geography. In Periodicals directory: A classified guide to a selected list of current periodicals foreign and domestic (
    2nd ed.
    , pp. 163–166).New YorkR. R. Bowker.

    Appendix C: The World Wide Web and Geography

    The World Wide Web provides an almost endless source for geographic information. It has become such an important source in the 21st century that providers of information from individuals to governmental agencies make available huge amounts of data spanning many years. Remotely sensed satellite images in real time and archives of maps several hundred years old are equally accessible. A clear objective that defines the purposes for a web search is an important beginning point. From there, the World Wide Web literally opens a window on the world—past, present, and future—for the study of geography.

    The following website descriptions are representative of what professional geographers use in their research and teaching. It does not include every URL, but those selected were based on three criteria: (1) geographically relevant, (2) web service stability for a considerable time period while recognizing that sites may be terminated in the future, and (3) data and information are from a reliable, validated source, which may be a professional society, academic organization, government, or corporate agency. While the websites represent a sample, they will from time to time be linked to other websites to form an extended web of reference sites available as geographic resources.

    The National Cancer Institute employs the techniques and tools of geography in their research. They investigate the spatial patterns of U.S. death rates from various types of cancer and produce their results in graphs, charts, tables, and maps available online. This web-base resource links users to the Atlas of Cancer Mortality in the United States: 1950 to 1994, which allows for downloads of the maps, text, tables, and figures available in the hardcopy book as well as data (in ASCII or DBF format) that were used to create the graphics. For each form of cancer listed, users can find the summaries of geographic patterns and variations, cancer disease codes, and other health information. Mortality charts and graphs can be viewed here by 5-year rates, various types of cancer, or by state. Users can customize these maps by selecting a specific age range, time period, race, or gender, such as white male, white female, black male, or black female. This site also allows for customizing mortality maps for production in research or for data display. One special feature of this website is that visually impaired users can access these data as a text file that is generated when the chart or graph is formatted.

    Central Intelligence Agency, the World Factbook: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook

    Since its inception in 1947, the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) has been dependent on geographic information for its intelligence gathering and national security functions. In 1962, the CIA's internal publication was made public as the Factbook and an unclassified version was later published. In 1997, the Factbook became available online via the Internet and is updated on a weekly basis. This online resource includes information such as transportation, history, geography, and economics for 267 countries, territories, and dependencies that represent most of Earth's surface and considerable areas of the oceans. The website has different search queries that researchers can use for obtaining various information. There are regional maps, maps of the world, definitions and notes for using the Factbook, a guide to country profiles, and a guide to country comparisons. For each country, viewers will find similar information regarding the geography (area, climate, terrain, natural resources, etc.), people, government, economy, communications, transportation, military, and transnational issues. Data on the Factbook website can be viewed via the tables that are displayed in the browser and can be downloaded as a text file for importing into a spreadsheet. This resource provides basic knowledge about each country as well as allows for comparisons between countries.

    Centers for Disease Control and Statistics: http://www.cdc.gov/DataStatistics

    Researching health topics such as epidemics and their spread has been a component of geographic research since John Snow proposed that cholera was being spread by contaminated drinking water in London in 1854. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) provides data useful for spatially analyzing patterns of such health issues as aging, blood disorders, annual flu outbreaks, life expectancy, and smoking and tobacco use for U.S. states and territories. In addition to the statistics and facts for each topic, geographers may also find information about that specific division of the CDC (e.g., Cancer Prevention and Control), communicable disease prevention, data and statistics, research efforts, publications, and other news and resources. The scale of the data available is based on the variable, as some data are only available on a statewide basis while other data are available at the county level. Some data are displayed as tables on the website only while other data may be downloaded in spreadsheets and then imported into GIS for further spatial analysis. Geographers interested in health and medical geography research can choose to receive email updates regarding particular topics to stay abreast of the most current data and statistics.

    EM-DAT: The International Disaster Database: http://www.emdat.be

    Geographers have researched natural hazards and disasters for many decades. Those natural events receive considerable attention, such as the 2004 Indian Ocean Earthquake and Tsunami, Hurricane Katrina in 2005, the Haiti and Chilean earthquakes in 2010, the Australian tropical cyclones and subsequent flooding of 2011, and the offshore earthquake and subsequent tsunami northeast of Japan in 2011. Natural disaster events occur in areas of higher population density as well as remote, sparsely populated regions such as interior Australia. Reporting on them may be from official sources or from individual residents using the Internet and streaming video or photos. Geographers with their spatial tools and methodologies are among the leaders in research on disasters, disaster planning, and disaster mitigation. The Center for Research on Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED) Database provides core data on disasters from around the world beginning in 1900 to the present. Custom data sets by region, country, date, and disasters events can be accessed. Disaster events researchers may access disaster profiles based on types of disaster (natural or technological) and the country or region affected. Data obtained from these searches are presented for web browsers and may be downloaded in spreadsheet format for further study. Disaster maps based on CRED data from 2003 to present are also available. As part of CRED's research trend graphs are available for use in the analysis of natural or technological disaster.

    Federal Election Commission: http://www.fec.gov

    The Federal Election Commission (FEC) was created in 1975 to enforce and manage the Federal Election Campaign Act and to oversee federal election financing. Political geographers use this website in particular due to the range of data available for download and spatial analysis. Their Disclosure Data Catalog allows for searches such as administrative fines, campaign and committee financial reports, candidate and committee financial summaries, and individual expenditures. Each source has a metadata description and the data are retrievable as comma delimited or spreadsheet format files for importing and analyses. Over half of these sources have their data available with Rich Site Summary capabilities. The FEC website provides users with their public meeting schedule as well as audio recordings of prior committee sessions, open meetings, and public hearings dating to September 2008. The latest press releases and fundraising information can be found in the FEC's Press Office section, including 2009 FEC Weekly Digests. Subscribing to their email alert system for new press releases is optional from the website. The FEC's Quick Answers page provides users with answers to the most frequently asked questions including compliance, disclosure, finance, candidates, Political Action Committees parties, and public funding. In an effort to keep everyone abreast of new developments and information, the FEC has a Disclosure Data Weblog for reporting and retrieving information.

    FEMA Map Service Center: http://www.msc.fema.gov

    The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) is responsible for assisting public and private agencies in times of disasters as well as providing a help plan for and to mitigate future disasters. FEMA relies on the tools and techniques of geographers, especially spatial analyses, cartography, and GIS. The FEMA Map Service Center provides an online resource for viewing flood zones in and around communities. The main page allows users to search for flood maps or the Digital Flood Insurance Rate Maps databases and identify the pertinent maps for local projects and references. Users can also view the National Flood Hazards Layer online using the MapViewer—Web application. Users may download the desktop viewer version of MapViewer and FIRMette, which produces flood insurance rate maps that may be printed on an office printer. The Product Catalog area of the website displays the documents, databases, and maps available for download, purchase, or acquisition, including Flood Insurance Rate Maps, Letters of Map Change, the National Flood Insurance Manual, and HAZUS, which estimates the potential loss from floods, earthquakes, and hurricane force winds.

    The Gap Analysis Program (GAP) uses techniques common to biogeography in their mission to identify habitats that are not adequately represented within existing conservation holdings. The website for GAP provides information specific to the project as well as links to the National Land Cover viewer, the PAD-US Protected Areas Viewer, the GAP Online Analysis tool, with access to downloadable data from each. Data for the Protected Areas Viewer may be downloaded as a geodata file or a shape file. Land cover data may be downloaded by region as either an Esri grid or an ERDAS Imagine file. The application includes case studies as well as how to use GAP for state wildlife action plans, how community planners can utilize GAP, and the aquatic analysis tool. Information on conferences and publications relating to the GAP project and biodiversity may be accessed from the website.

    International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set: http://icoads.noaa.gov

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration provide a comprehensive source for surface marine data. The International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS) includes monthly summaries as boxes that encompass 2 latitude by 2 longitude referenced to the year 1800. Since 1960, smaller coordinate grid boxes are also available. The dataset was created from several national and international data sources that measure variables such as sea surface, air temperature, pressure, humidity, and wind. Data coverage is based on relative geographic position to shipping routes (since much of the reporting is by ships, buoys, coastal stations, etc.) and the date of the report. Nearly all data are downloadable in ASCII format for importing to software applications for further analysis. ICOADS provides links to other data sources, programs, and projects that could be used in conjunction with these data for enhanced analyses. A bibliography of publications that have been produced from datasets is included.

    Gerlach, A. C. (Ed.). (1970). The national atlas of the United States of America. Washington, DC: Department of the Interior, Geological Survey. Available from http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.gmd/g3701gm.gct00013

    Atlases are an essential resource for geographers. Once available only in print form, their excellent information was often matched by size and bulkiness of the atlas. In the 21st century, many atlases are available in digital form on handheld devices and are portable to the field, the office, and the classroom. Atlases have the advantage of providing geographic information relating to one or more topics in one convenient location. The National Atlas of the United States of America is no exception. This atlas was first published in 1970 and was one of the first national atlases. The atlas was later scanned and placed online using JPEG 2000 technology. Maps included in this atlas include general reference maps for different regions of the country including urban areas, Pacific outlying areas, Caribbean outlying areas, and special subject maps of physical, history, economic, sociocultural, administrative, mapping and charting, and world geographic information. Within each special topic, there are several pages of text that explain the maps in that section as well as provide background information to the reader regarding the maps. Geographers rely on atlases as a depository of maps and data that have long-term use for researching change over time.

    The GIS Bibliography is a link between geography, research that is underway, and the geographic information systems, science, and/or technology. Esri has compiled over 100,000 entries from books, journals, conference proceedings, and reports with more entries added regularly. The resource may be searched by categories, such as magazines, audiovisual, academic and scholarly research, theses and dissertation, or by phrase or title. The advanced search option allows for searches by keywords, types of material, and year range in the GIS Bibliography. Entries in the bibliography include abstracts, reference types, publishers, keywords, and general availability. References can be emailed to the requestor. This resource also provides a link to the GIS Dictionary. This reference source defines terms commonly found in the GIS field from operations and modeling to spatial statistics and geodesy. It includes terminology specific to Esri's software packages.

    Google Earth has many applications for the public's use of geographic tools of digital spatial visualization, including aerial photos, satellite images, and traditional maps. It functions on different operating systems or can be used in conjunction with Google Maps in a web browser or from a handheld mobile device. Users of Google Earth have the ability to literally travel for a bird's-eye view of nearly any location in the world and view a range of satellite imagery, maps, photographs, terrain models, and document the specificity of the location using latitude, longitude, elevation, and the date of the image. The Street View features provide photographs of locations from street level to provide a sense of what the place looks like if one were actually walking or driving along the street. Google provides tutorials for novices and more experienced user to enhance the rigor of the visuals and the observations. Tutorials for the novice include searching for places, how to use Street View and 3D Trees, drawing and measuring, and taking tours. For more advanced users, Google provides assistance on geotagging photos, recording a tour, and importing GPS data into the application.

    Geography is the cornerstone upon which Google Maps is designed. A web-based GIS program permits visualization of specific and general locations on the globe. Maps may be displayed different ways and at different scales. Large-scale street maps provide information that would be necessary to navigate or locate places within a pattern of streets. Users can view the locations by satellite imagery, which provides a general idea of the terrain, or physical geography. In addition to the mapping features of Google Maps, users are also provided with additional information about the place, such as street-level photos and links to major cultural, administrative, and historical sites nearby, such as a university or national park. Other useful features of Google Maps are the abilities to obtain instructions to or from locations and the ability to create and share viewer generated maps with other users.

    Google Scholar is an online database useful for research in many disciplines, including geography. The site consists of scholarly literature that may not be generally accessible, such as rare books and maps. The resources provided through Google Scholar consist of journals, scholarly books, court opinions, theses, and records from professional societies and university library collections, among other sources. The database permits searches across disciplines without going to separate or different databases. It helps locate full-text documents through nearby libraries or from the Internet. The sources on Google Scholar are listed similarly to other research databases, providing information such as date published, author(s), and citations of the item in other published works. When a search is performed, the citations are displayed as well as a two- or three-sentence abstract or overview of the reference. Articles related to the original article can also be examined through a related articles link.

    Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research: http://www.icpsr.umich.edu/icpsrweb/ICPSR

    Geography has a unique role as a discipline since human geography is recognized as a social science and physical geography as a natural science. As a result of this unique role, geography is viewed as a synthesizing science that easily integrates information from other disciplines and puts them into their spatial context. The Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR) is a consortium of over 700 academic and research institutions and organizations that assist the social science community in accessing and analyzing data, including geographic and spatial data. Their data archive has over 500,000 social science research files and data collections on a broad range of topics that social scientists research. Their database may be searched by citation, author, or journal. Online analysis of data can be provided through the ICPSR website using the Survey Documentation Analysis tool. The ICPSR website permits researchers to submit their own data and findings to the consortium.

    The Landsat Program: http://landsat.gsfc.nasa.gov

    Remote sensing has been a critical method of collection data in geography since the first aerial photograph of the Beivre Valley was taken by French author and artist Felix Tournachon in 1858 from a tethered hot air balloon. Since that time, aerial photography has advanced to cameras mounted on airplanes and satellites for photo from higher and higher altitudes. NASA and its fleet of satellites with specially designed sensors became referred to as satellite remote sensing after it launched the Landsat Program in the early 1970s. The main difference was that the digital images transmitted to Earth were not photos but computer-enhanced data from the multispectral sensing instruments. The result is that photos continue to be used for certain geographic research and remotely sensed images for other research or both can be used to complement one another for certain types of research. Satellite images have the advantage of nearly continuous data for Earth as satellites orbit Earth every 90 minutes. Geostationary satellites observe the same region of Earth on a continuous basis as they collect and transmit their digital data. Air photos are usually spread over longer periods between flyovers. Over extended periods, the data reveal urban growth and land use and land cover change, surface water, erosion and mass of Earth's surface, and environmental contaminants, to name just a few. Images from anywhere in the world can be viewed online with the assistance of the USGS Global Visualization Viewer. Most images can be downloaded from the USGS website as this agency is the repository for Landsat imagery. NASA created the Landsat Education and Outreach Program to allow educational personnel to access to resources for use in the classroom from grades K through 14. These resources are designed to help students and teachers enhance their spatial thinking skills when study topics such as natural resources management, urbanization, deforestation, and disaster preparedness.

    The Library of Congress, American Memory: http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/index.html

    American Memory is a collection of photos, films, books, guidebooks, maps, sheet music, and other documents detailing the American experience. All are on file in the Library of Congress and other libraries, institutions, and agencies across the county and can be viewed online. Resources can be searched by topics that range from advertising, African American History, architecture and landscape, cities and towns, culture and folklife, environment and conservation, government and law, immigration, American expansion, literature, maps, Native American History, women's history, and numerous other topics. Searches based on time periods, places, events, and sound recordings are possible. Geographers examining change over time will find this collection of Americana useful.

    National Geographic Data Center Interactive Map Services: http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/maps/interactivemaps.html

    GIS is the driver for the National Geophysical Data Center's Interactive Map Services. The maps produced from this center display data layers simultaneously. The data files also provide links to the underlying data and where it may be obtained as a download. Capabilities of these maps include zoom, pan, identify, search, and find. The Open Geospatial Consortium Web Map Service protocol provides access to much of the data and will produce a map as a standard image such as GIF. Databases are available for natural hazards, marine data, paleoclimatology, satellite data, snow and ice, thermal springs, global ecosystems, collaborations between NOAA and other organizations, such as the hydrographic survey data, and defense meteorological satellite program. Maps from the website have corresponding information that discusses the data, where it was acquired, a brief explanation of the data layers, and what the maps shows. Links are provided to other websites where data on complementary mapping topics are available.

    National Geospatial Program Applications: http://www.epa.gov/geospatial/tools.html

    Geography is central to undertaking the responsibilities of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Their mission and nearly every project they initiate have a geographic component. They have developed data sets and applications to assist the public with spatially visualizing environmental information. The datasets and applications are presented as topics, including air quality, water quality, the environment in one's neighborhood, and waste management. The air quality section includes the National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment tool (NATA 99); AIRNOW, which provides air quality information; and the Smart Way Interactive Activity Map to illustrate transportation energy consumption and emission reductions. BASINS and WATERS are the tools used for water quality research. BASINS is used for watershed and water quality research, whereas WATERS uses surface water data for the entire United States and its territories. ECHO, EnviroFacts, Enviromapper, Environmental Justice Geographic Assessment Tool, and My Environment allow geographers to explore their neighborhoods in greater depth. Data regarding air and water quality, hazardous waste sites, and economic conditions of the neighborhood can be investigated using these tools. The Waste Management Facility Siting Tool allows for examining proposals for the locations of those facilities based on risk and proximity to sensitive or hazardous areas. Applications and data available from the EPA are available for use online or can be downloaded to a local computer for use.

    National Park Service, Wolves of Yellowstone: http://www.nps.gov/yell/naturescience/wolves.htm

    This National Park Service website presents a case study of the reintroduction of the Northern Rocky Mountain wolves to Yellowstone National Park. A 2009 map of wolf territories in Yellowstone National Park details the wolf pack in the Northern Range and non-Northern Range of the Park, and the number of adult wolves and end-of-year pup counts are provided. Data prior to 2008 may be downloaded as an Adobe Acrobat's Portable Document Format (pdf). Linkages to wolf management program from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Montana's Wolf Conservation and Management Program are available from the website. Viewers can also link to other wildlife projects of the National Park Service by listing species, such as amphibians, birds, mammals, or reptiles, and plants.

    National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Dynamic Maps, GIS Data and Analysis Tools: http://www.nrel.gov/gis

    Renewable resources and clean energy are ready topics for geographic and spatial analysis. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) uses GIS to examine renewable resources, such as wind, solar, biomass, and geothermal energy, and provides the information to the public. The datasets provided by NREL are designed for GIS software applications. They have also developed applications that demonstrate the ways that data may be applied. These applications include the Bio-Power Tool for viewing biomass resources, the Geospatial Toolkit for assistance in planning future renewable energy projects, In My Backyard toolkit for estimating the amount of electricity a solar photovoltaic array or wind turbine could produce in a backyard, and the Solar Power Prospector Tool for mapping solar resources in the United States and northern Mexico. For users without a GIS software package on their computer, NREL has also provided a link to Esri's ArcExplorer Tool, a free download that allows users to view NREL's geospatial data layers. NREL provides data and maps their research that can be viewed online via their dynamic maps site, allowing users to select certain themes, then make inquiries, survey, and change the scale of the maps.

    David Rumsey Map Collection: http://www.davidrumsey.com

    Cartography is essential to geography as maps are a traditional and significant source of information used by geographers. The David Rumsey Map Collection began over 25 years ago and contains over 150,000 maps focusing on 18th- and 19th-century North and South America. In 1996, digitization of these maps began and over 24,000 titles are available online with more being added daily. The unique feature of this online map collection is that viewers can view various maps from different time periods simultaneously. Geographers can examine the boom and bust cycle of a town or region, the development of the U.S. railroad system, or the spatial pattern of mining excavations. Other areas of the globe are also covered in this collection including Europe, Asia, and Africa. The main map browser is the LUNA browser; however, many of these maps can be viewed in Google Earth and Google Maps, GIS browsers, Second Life, and the Insight Java Client. The website also features a blog to keep viewers informed of new available maps.

    U.S. Census Bureau, American Factfinder: http://factfinder.census.gov

    American FactFinder provides a clearinghouse of data, maps, and statistics regarding American communities, counties, states, and territories. Users can search databases by different categories, including population size, age and sex, aging, disability, education, employment, income, origins and language, poverty, race and ethnicity, relationships, and veterans. Data for residential housing are categorized under physical and financial characteristics. Factsheets and data are available for business, industry, foreign trade, and government. All of these data are derived from the Decennial Census, the American Community Survey, the Puerto Rico Community Survey, the Economic Census, the Population Estimates Program, the Populations Projections Program, the Annual Economic Surveys, and the Census of Governments. All are prepared by the U.S. Census Bureau. The Download Center allows for datasets to be accessed. Tables can be downloaded as zipped, pipe-delimited files. In addition to data, this website provides thematic and reference maps.

    U.S. Census Bureau, Business and Industry: http://www.census.gov/econ

    The Business and Industry section of the U.S. Census Bureau provides economic data for the United States, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the territories. The census of business and industry is undertaken every 5 years and reports local to national level statistics. Geographically, the data from the census may be used to locate business markets, evaluate industry growth, design sales territories, or develop models for the production and consumption pattern of the United States. The data may be accessed in the form of quick reports by geographic location and industry group or as thematic maps. Much of the data are valuable to the business and commercial sectors. Therefore, the data are prepared so they will be readily accessible without time consuming searches. Data from the Economic Census may be downloaded for further analysis in either a comma delimited or tab delimited file format. The Economics Indicator Database provides information regarding national statistics on a monthly and quarterly basis for selected sectors including construction, government, international trade, manufacturing, retail trade, services, and wholesale trade. Data are downloadable as a text file or in a spreadsheet compatible file.

    U.S. Census Bureau, Census Bureau Geography: http://www.census.gov/geo/www

    The discipline of geography has been a significant part of the census since the first enumeration in 1790. The U.S. Census Bureau Geography Division was established in 2002 as census data were increasingly used for many additional types of spatial analysis, including mapping, graphing, statistical tables, and statistical reports. The census provides data necessary to show spatial distributions and patterns within the country for migration, age characteristic of the population, business and agriculture, economic trends by state and region, educational levels, and numerous other data sets. The local agencies of government, from townships to state levels, use the census data to map, analyze, model, and make predictions regarding community and regional changes related to population characteristics and economic trends. Private companies use census data for market studies and to determine the locations of proposed retail and warehouse facilities. The website includes information in the major categories of Geographic Programs, Census Geographic Products, Map and Mapping Resources, and Understanding Census Geography—Reference Resources.

    The tools and techniques of geography and spatial analysis are used to produce the digital Ag Atlas. Maps that may be viewed on the website are in five major categories: Crops and Plants, Economics, Farms, Livestock and Animals, and Operators. Each map may be viewed in Adobe Acrobat's pdf or as a GIF image. The maps were digitally produced at a scale of 1:21,000,000 for the continental United States and Hawaii and 1:63,000,000 for Alaska. The types of maps included in the atlas are choropleth maps, density, percent or average value of products, or dot-density maps. The dot maps are traditional, illustrating the density of the product; the second type of dot map is an increase-decrease map showing the positive and negative values of the product as related to the earlier census values. In addition to the most current Ag Census, the data from past years may be downloaded as far back as 1840. The 2007 Census of Agriculture database can be queried using the Quick Stats tool to view customized tables as the national, state, and county level.

    U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis: http://www.bea.gov

    The Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) website makes economic accounts data available that permit the spatial analysis of the U.S. economy. The accounts monitored by BEA are categorized in four major areas, with three of them being geographic. They are national, regional, and international accounts, as well as by industry. Data may be downloaded in comma-delimited format (.csv), text format (.txt), or as a pdf so they can be exported to software applications for analysis. These data may also be joined to GIS layers in order to examine the spatial patterns associated with the economic and business activities for specific periods. Interactive maps may be viewed and modified to answer specific spatial questions, such as the changes in Gross Domestic Product by State. These maps can be helpful in gaining a preliminary view of what is happening in one region of the country or between the United States and its trade partners. BEA regularly provides information and updates on their latest releases of statistics, and current research publications.

    U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Geospatial Services: http://www.fws.gov/GIS/index.htm

    The Geospatial Services provided by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) provide data about nearly every aspect of wildlife, including coastal barrier resources, threatened and endangered species, critical habitat, ecosystem regions, landscape conservation cooperatives, migratory bird conservation, national wetlands inventory, and system of boundaries, roads, and trails in the wildlife refuge network. This website enables their employees, researchers, and the general public to access their national GIS databases that provide information on the wide range of fish and wildlife topics. Much of these data will download as either compressed geodata files to be used in a spreadsheet or a shape file to be opened in GIS software. Some databases are suitable for use with Google Earth. In addition to the geospatial data, the website provides information regarding U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) educational and outreach opportunities and policies. The webpage provides links to other agencies that provide data closely related to that of the USFWS such as the National Agriculture Imagery Program and the National Biological Information Infrastructure.

    U.S. Geological Survey: http://www.usgs.gov

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is the main government agency responsible for conducting scientific inquiries into the health of ecosystems, the environment, natural hazards, natural resources, climate variability, land-use change, and Earth science systems in the United States. Their data and research are available through an extensive print and digital library. Current information on Earth science topics is available for researching spatial and temporal change. Photographs and video clips are available from their website. The USGS website is a wealth of scientific information for physical geographers especially, but the site is also useful for any geographer investigating human–environment interaction.

    University of Texas at Austin, Perry-Castañeda Map Collection: http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps

    Maps are essential to geography. When maps were available only in print form, they were taken into the field, folded and unfolded many times, were kept in the storage compartment of the family car, and misplaced in faraway places. Collection of original maps are important for many reasons. One reason is that there are not many originals remaining, and they are valuable. Therefore, in the last decade of the 20th century, there were organizations and libraries that began to scan their map collections into a digital map. That process has continued, and there are collections of rare as well as very valuable and unique maps available online. They can be read using handheld and tabletop digital image viewers. Having maps easily accessible online allows for geographers all over the world to efficiently and cost-effectively view and use them. The map collection at the Perry-Casteñada Library at the University of Texas at Austin is one of the most extensive online collections available. Geographers can find maps at a variety of scales including the world, continents, countries, states, and cities. Maps can be searched by theme such as climate, energy, ethnography industry and economy, land use, military, and population. This website also includes links to other map sites that provide more maps such as route planning sites, weather map sites, and outline map sites. Maps may be viewed from this site in any program that will open JPEG or GIF files. Viewers looking to purchase maps will also find this site useful because they can search for commercial maps or their facsimile printed from the digital copy in three types: new maps, antique maps, and maps by topics such as aerial and satellite imagery, nautical charts, and topographic maps.

    University of Virginia Libraries, Historical Census Browser: http://fisher.lib.virginia.edu/collections/stats/histcensus/index.html

    Each decade when a new U.S. Census of population is released, geographers go to work at making sense of this data by examining changes in population in the past, the newly released data, and what that portends for the future of the country. These types of research projects are much more manageable with the assistance of the Historical Census Browser hosted by the University of Virginia. Users of this website can examine topics over time by state or county in such areas as slave populations, education and literacy, and manufacturing. They may also be interested in investigating multiple topics within the same census year. These data may be examined at different scales, sorted by category, and ratios between data categories can be created. The Map It feature of the website allows users to view data as an interactive map. While data included in these tables cannot be downloaded directly from this website, users are directed to the Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research website for downloads and supplemental data.

    Lisa M.Dechano-CookWestern Michigan University

    Appendix D: Association of American Geographers Specialty Groups

    Geography is a field of knowledge about Earth, its environments, and its peoples. The Association of American Geographers (AAG) is the largest professional and academic organization of geographers in the United States. As a service to its membership, the AAG encourages the organizations of special topic groups that study and research their special content interests within the discipline. Following is a listing of the topics that the AAG members have identified as their interests. It is a diverse and lengthy list that reflects the wide range of topics within the discipline of geography.

    The special groups normally function as points of contact and discussion for geographers and other people interested in the particular topic. Some groups maintain discussions electronically. Others sponsor special paper presentations and discussion sessions at the annual conference of the AAG.

    Each topic has a short phrase or statement that generalizes the intent and/or content of the specialty group. Each topic is much more detailed and engaging when fully explained. It is recommended that the detailed information about the topics be accessed by using the linkages to the AAG website. Many geographers who are professionally engaged in research on the topics may be reached through the AAG website. The URL addresses that may be used are as follows:


    Focuses on the regional and special topics with reference to Africa.

    Animal Geography

    Includes geographers interested in studying natural conditions in which animals live, biogeography, and topics related to the movement, marketing, and protection of animals.

    Applied Geography

    The use of geographical knowledge and methodologies to address problem in local communities, transnational issues, and those faced by businesses and governmental agencies.

    Asian Geography

    Focuses on the regional and special topics with reference to Asia.

    Bible Geography

    Entails the use of the Bible as a source of information for geographic and spatial research.


    Develops the linkages between geography and biology with special reference to the environmental and spatial distribution of plants, animals, and other organisms.

    Business Geography

    Focuses on the spatial information, data sources, and analytical methodologies that are applicable to businesses and the decisions they make about location, markets, and completion.

    Canadian Studies

    Focuses on the regional and special topics with reference to Canada.


    Maps, their design and production, and their use by professionals and the general public are addressed.


    Focuses on the regional and special topics with reference to China.


    The classification and mapping of climate patterns; the influence of climate on agriculture, business, recreation, and other activities; and climate change are studied.

    Coastal and Marine

    The large expanse of Earth's surface where land meets streams and bodies of water and the interactions that result are the focus.

    Communication Geography

    Communication technologies, their role in linking places together, and the impact on economic, cultural, and political change are studied.

    Community College

    Instructors in 2-year community colleges use this as a forum for the exchange of ideas.


    The spatial distribution, changes, and characteristics of glacial and ice fields and sea ice are studied.

    Cultural and Political Ecology

    Cultural and political ecology includes the study of relationships between Earth's resources, environmental conditions, and social and spatial dynamics.

    Cultural Geography

    The study of human groups, their use of resources, and the impacts they have made on the landscape.


    The spatial aspects of linkages among technical and digital aspects for research and communications and the need for extending and developing spatial technology.

    Development Geographies

    International development is the focus in the developed and the developing countries and transnational governmental and nongovernmental organizations.


    Improving the accessibility to other special topics groups and activities for geographers with disabilities.

    Economic Geography

    Industrial and economic studies of geographic importance are undertaken.

    Energy and Environment

    The relationship between energy consumption and the environment are studied.

    Environmental Perception and Behavioral Geography

    The perception of the environment, both natural and built, and the relationship to the behavior of people are the focus.

    Ethics, Justice, and Human Rights

    Promoting informed and ethical decisions within society regarding issues with geographic implications.

    Ethnic Geography

    The research is intended to improve intercultural and multiethnic projects and interactions within geography.


    Focuses on the regional and special topics with reference to Europe.

    Geographic Information Science and Systems

    Focuses on the development and applications of geographic information systems (GISs) within the geography and related disciplines.

    Geographic Perspectives on Women

    Promotes research and teaching regarding the role of women.

    Geography Education

    Promotes the teaching and learning of geography at all levels of education.

    Geography of Religions and Belief Systems

    Uses a perspective from religion to study the role of beliefs in geographic research.


    Closely related to physical geography, the processes that shape Earth's land features are studied.

    Graduate Student

    Designed for participation by students studying for advanced degrees in geography.


    Natural hazards may become natural disasters when they impact populations and the identification of hazards and their assessment as a risk is a topic of study.

    Health and Medical Geography

    The incidents, spread, and confinement of diseases and medical conditions using spatial analysis are the topics.

    Historical Geography

    The relationship between scholarship in history and geography with a focus on the implications of geography for historical events and periods are addressed.

    History of Geography

    The development of geography as a discipline and the philosophical and methodological changes experienced are the focus.

    Human Dimensions of Global Change

    The role of humans in bringing changes to Earth's surface and its atmosphere are addressed.

    Indigenous Peoples

    The involvement of indigenous people in geographic research that is meaningful in the provision information and methodologies for future use.


    The holistic study of landscapes within the human–environmental traditions of geography.

    Latin America

    Focuses on the regional and special topics with reference to Latin America.

    Middle East

    Focuses on the regional and special topics with reference to the Middle East.

    Military Geography

    The uses of geographic information in military operations and the importance of geography to logistics in military operations are studied.

    Mountain Geography

    Environments and people in high elevation and their adaptations to demanding conditions are studied.

    Paleoenvironmental Change Specialty Group

    Long-term global environmental changes are reflected in past landscapes that are researched collecting data using special research methodologies to reconstruct the past.

    Political Geography

    Political geography includes issues such as boundaries and countries as well as local electoral districting and the patterns of voting and outcomes of elections.


    The movement, age and gender structures, and the spatial patterns of distribution and density are several of the interests that geographers have with population locally, nationally, and globally.

    Public-Private Affinity Group

    Public and private organizations often overlap in their spatial footprint as they fulfill objectives and provide services locally, regionally, and internationally.

    Qualitative Research

    The use of qualitative research methods is significant within geography and the intent is to identify commonalities and clarify differences with other research methodologies.

    Recreation, Tourism, and Sport

    The spatial patterns of activies that people pursue in their leisure time is the focus of this topic.

    Regional Development and Planning

    The application of geographic principles and methods to planning at local and regional scales is the focus of this topic.

    Remote Sensing

    The use of remote sensing ranges from standard film and aerial photos that have been a standard in geographic observation and research to the most recent uses of satellite sensing and geodigital data collection.

    Retired Geographers

    The collective memory and experiences of professional geography is the focus for this topic.

    Rural Geography

    The role of rural regions, landscapes, and economic activities are included in this topic.

    Russian, Central Eurasian, and East European

    Focuses on the regional and special topics with reference to the geography of Russia, Central Asia and the transition zone where European and Asian cultures meet, and Eastern Europe.

    Sexuality and Space

    The spatial aspects of place and environment that define the role of gender, sexuality, and personal relationships are researched.

    Socialist and Critical Geography

    The study of geographic space as it is affected by social and cultural movements and the effects on the conditions of living and working for individual and groups.

    Spatial Analysis and Modeling

    The analysis of spatial patterns and the development of spatial models that permit explanation of the past and present and predictions for future changes in the physical and social environments are the focus.

    Stand Alone Geographers Affinity Group

    The role of and challenges to geographers who work along or who serve as members of multidisciplinary team on research projects, planning assignments, as private consultants, or in one member college and university departments.

    Study of the American South

    Focuses on the regional geography and other topics about the economy, historical geography, and change with specific reference to the southern United States.

    Transportation Geography

    The spatial networks of all types of transportation linkages and developments ranging from the role of early transport to sustainable transportation in the future.

    Urban Geography

    The geographic aspects of cities, the patterns and functions of urban landscapes, and the influences on their service regions.

    Water Resources

    The spatial availability and use of water is studied from local to international scales in this topic.


    Physical, cultural, and regional geography have exerted influences on the places where viticulture has developed and the local and global distribution and consumption of the wine.

    Joseph P.StoltmanWestern Michigan University

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