Handbook of European Union Politics
Publication Year: 2006
The European Union (EU) poses quite profound questions for scholars and students of the social and political sciences. This benchmark Handbook is designed to provide an authoritative state-of-the art guide to the scope of the field suitable for both established scholars and students of the EU; reflect and contribute to the debates about the nature of the field of EU studies and EU politics in particular; and explore in detail the development of the many approaches to the study of EU politics. Divided into four sections, the Handbook focuses on theorizing European integration; the EU as polity; politics and policy making in the EU; and the EU and the international system.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
Part I: Process: Theorizing European Integration
- Chapter 1: The Political Sciences of European Integration: Disciplinary History and EU Studies
- Chapter 2: Rational Choice and EU Politics
- Chapter 3: Constructivism and EU Politics
- Chapter 4: Another Europe is Possible: Critical Perspectives on European Union Politics
- Chapter 5: Disciplinary Perspectives on EU Politics: History, Law, Economics and Sociology
Part II: The European Union as Polity
- Chapter 6: The European Union as a Polity (I)
- Chapter 7: The European Union as a Polity (II)
- Chapter 8: Legislative Politics
- Chapter 9: Executive Politics
- Chapter 10: Judicial Politics
- Chapter 11: Organized Interests in the European Union
- Chapter 12: Political Parties in the European Union
- Chapter 13: Public Opinion, Socialization and Political Communication
- Chapter 14: Constitutional Politics
- Chapter 15: Bringing Federalism Back in
- Chapter 16: Normative Political Theory and the European Union
Part III: Politics and Policy-Making in the European Union
- Chapter 17: Overview: The European Union, Politics and Policy-Making
- Chapter 18: Fiscal and Monetary Policy: Coordination and Integration in Macro-Economic Policy
- Chapter 19: The Politics of Regulation and the Internal Market
- Chapter 20: The Politics of Redistribution
- Chapter 21: Environmental Policy in the European Union: Bridging Policy, Politics and Polity Dimensions
- Chapter 22: Gender and European Union Politics
- Chapter 23: The Politics of European Union Domestic Order
- Chapter 24: New Modes of Governance in the European Union: A Critical Survey and Analysis
- Chapter 25: Europeanization: The Domestic Impact of European Union Politics
Part IV: The European Union and the International System
- Chapter 26: Overview: The European Union and the World
- Chapter 27: The European Union and International Political Economy: Trade, Aid and Monetary Policy
- Chapter 28: European Foreign Policy
- Chapter 29: ‘The European and the Universal Process’? European Union Studies, New Regionalism and Global Governance
Introduction and Editorial Arrangement © Knud Erik Jrgensen,
Mark A. Pollack and Ben Rosamond 2007
Chapters 1-29 © SAGE Publications Ltd 2007
First published 2006
Every effort has been made to trace the copyright holders but if any have been inadvertently overlooked the publishers will be pleased to make the necessary arrangement at the first opportunity.
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ISBN-10 1-4129-0875-2 ISBN-13 978-1-4129-0875-7
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Ian Bache is Senior Lecturer in Politics at the University of Sheffield. Between 2003-2005, Dr Bache convened the UACES Study Group and ESRC Seminar Series on The Europeanization of British Politics and Policy-Making? His publications include: The Politics of European Union Regional Policy (1998, UACES/Sheffield Academic Press); Multi-level Governance (with Matthew Flinders) (2004, Oxford University Press); Politics in the European Union, 2nd edn (with Stephen George) (2006, Oxford University Press); and The Europeanization of British Politics (with Andrew Jordan) (2006, Palgrave Macmillan). He is currently writing a book on Europeanization and Multi-level Governance for Rowman and Littlefield.
Tanja A. Börzel is Professor of Political Science and holds the Chair of European Integration at the Free University of Berlin. She completed her PhD at the European University Institute, Florence, Italy, in 1999. Between 1999-2004, she held positions at the Max-Planck Institute for Common Goods, Bonn, at the Humboldt University of Berlin, and at the University of Heidelberg. Her teaching and research interests include international institutions, compliance, European politics, comparative federalism, and the implementation of EU policies. She has published several articles on these subjects, as well as two books: States and Regions in the European Union (2002, Cambridge University Press), and Environmental Leaders and Laggards in Europe (2003, Ashgate). Her current research projects are on compliance with EU norms and rules in member states, accession countries, and neighbourhood countries.
Walter Carlsnaes is Professor of Political Science in the Department of Government, Uppsala University, and Adjunct Professor at the Norwegian Institute of International Affairs. He has published seven books, of which four are co-edited volumes, including the Handbook of International Relations (2002, Sage). He was also founding editor of the European Journal of International Relations. His main research interests are in foreign policy analysis, IR theory, and the philosophy of social science, EU external relations, as well as Swedish and South African foreign and security policy.
Dario Castiglione teaches Political Theory at the University of Exeter. His main research interests are in the history and theory of political thought and European constitutionalism. His publications include co-edited volumes on The Constitution in Transformation (1996, Blackwell), The History of Political Thought in National Context (2001, Cambridge University Press), The Culture of Toleration in Diverse Societies (2003, Manchester University Press), Making European Citizens (2006, Palgrave), and The Language Question in Europe and Diverse Societies (2006, Hart).
Jeffrey T. Checkel is Professor of Political Science and a Research Professor at the ARENA Centre for European Studies, both at the University of Oslo. His research and teaching [Page x]interests are international relations theory (international institutions, constructivism, transnational politics), European integration (research methods, socialization dynamics, identity), qualitative methods, politics in East and West Europe (former USSR, Germany), and human rights. His publications have appeared in American Political Science Review, Comparative Political Studies, European Journal of International Relations, European Union Politics, Europe—Asia Studies, International Organization, International Studies Quarterly, Journal of European Public Policy, Review of International Studies, Slavic Review and World Politics. In addition, he is the author of Ideas and International Political Change (1997, Yale University Press) and recently edited a special issue of the journal International Organization (Fall 2005) on international socialization in Europe. Checkel serves on the Board of Editors of International Organization, and co-edits the Sage series Foundations of International Relations.
Manuele Citi graduated cum laude in Political Science at the University of Pisa. He is presently a doctoral student in the Department of Political and Social Sciences at the European University Institute, Florence, Italy, writing a thesis on the determinants of the evolution of EU science and technology policy.
Lisa Conant is Associate Professor of Political Science at the University of Denver and author of the book, Justice Contained: Law and Politics in the European Union (2002, Cornell University Press). She has engaged in research on the comparative study of law and society as a Jean Monnet fellow at the European University Institute and a fellow at the Berlin Program for Advanced German and European Studies. Her ongoing research concentrates on transformations in the rights and obligations of citizenship that derive from European Union law and the European Convention on Human Rights.
Patrick M. Crowley is an international economist and Associate Professor of Economics at Texas A&M University in Corpus Christi, Texas, USA. He specializes in studies of regional integration, with particular emphasis on the European Union. He has published widely in journals such as the Journal of Common Market Studies, the Journal of Economic Integration, and the International Trade Journal, and has been the editor for several edited volumes on Europe, including the volume entitled Before and Beyond EMU (2002, Routledge). Crowley is currently co-chair of the economics interest section of the European Union Studies Association of the US, and is also co-editor of the journal Current Politics and Economics of Europe. In 2004-2005 Crowley was a visiting research scholar at the Bank of Finland in Helsinki, Finland.
Adrian Favell is Associate Professor of Sociology at UCLA. He is the author of Philosophies of Integration: Immigration and the Idea of Citizenship in France and Britain (1998, Macmillan), and has published work on migration, mobility and multicul-turalism in Europe, the integration of immigrants, EU immigration policy, and the sociology of European integration. He is currently finalising a new book, Eurostars and Eurocities, which examines the impact of free movement in the EU on three cities – Amsterdam, London and Brussels – through the experiences of foreign resident professionals.
[Page xi]Andreas Føllesdal is Professor of Politics and Director of Research in the Norwegian Centre for Human Rights at the University of Oslo. His research focuses on the political philosophy of the European Union, on topics of distributive justice, federalism, minority rights, deliberative democracy, subsidiarity, and European citizenship, published in such journals as Journal of Political Philosophy, Law and Philosophy, Journal of European Public Policy, Journal of Peace Research, and International Journal on Minority and Group Rights. He has edited books on democracy, the welfare state, consultancy, and on the European constitution. He is Founding Series Editor of Themes in European Governance (Cambridge University Press).
Andrew Geddes is Professor of Politics and Director of the Centre for International Policy Research at the University of Sheffield, UK. His particular area of research interest is European and EU migration and asylum policy and politics. Recent publications include Immigration and European Integration: Towards Fortress Europe? (2000, Manchester University Press), The Politics of Migration and Immigration in Europe (2003, Sage), and The European Union and British Politics (2004, Palgrave).
Mark Hallerberg is Associate Professor in the Department of Political Science at Emory University. His research focuses on fiscal institutions and fiscal policy, coalition governments, and the consequences of internationalization for European Union countries. He is the author of one book and has published over 20 peer-reviewed articles in academic journals in political science and economics. He has held visiting scholar positions at the University of Amsterdam, University of Bonn, University of Mannheim, and University of Munich.
Simon Hix is Professor of European and Comparative Politics at the London School of Economics and Political Science. He is author of The Political System of the European Union (2005, Palgrave), and co-author (with Abdul Noury and Gerard Roland) of Democratic Politics in the European Parliament (2006, Cambridge University Press). He has published articles in the American Journal of Political Science, World Politics, British Journal of Political Science, Comparative Political Studies, European Journal of Political Research, Journal of Common Market Studies, and West European Politics. He is also Director of the European Parliament Research Group and Associate Editor of the journal European Union Politics.
Markus Jachtenfuchs is Professor of European and International Governance at the Hertie School of Governance in Berlin. He holds a PhD from the European University Institute, in Florence, Italy, and served in various positions at the Mannheim University, Greifswald University and International University Bremen. His research interests are in the field of European governance, international institutions, and the transformation of the state.
Knud Erik Jorgensen is Jean Monnet Professor in the Department of Political Science at the University of Aarhus. He has been a visiting fellow at Chatham House, the European University Institute and the University of Toronto. He is the former editor of the journal Cooperation and Conflict and editor or co-editor of Reflective Approaches to European Governance (1997, Macmillan), European Approaches to Crisis Management (1997, [Page xii]Kluwer), (with Thomas Christiansen and Antje Wiener) The Social Construction of Europe (2001, Sage), (with Karin Fierke) Constructing International Relations (2001, ME Sharpe) and (with Tonny B. Knudsen) International Relations in Europe. Traditions, Perspectives and Destinations (2006, Routledge). He has contributed chapters to numerous edited volumes and published articles in journals such as the Journal of European Public Policy, European Journal of International Relations, Governance, Journal of Common Market Studies, and Cooperation and Conflict. He is currently preparing a monograph on European foreign policy and a new textbook on IR Theory.
R. Daniel Kelemen is University Lecturer in Comparative European Politics in the Department of Politics and International Relations and Fellow and Tutor in Politics at Lincoln College, Oxford. Kelemen's research interests include European Union politics, comparative political economy, comparative federalism, judicial politics, and environmental policy. He is currently conducting an ESRC funded research project on the judicialization of public policy in Europe entitled: Suing for Europe: Adversarial Legalism and European Governance. A book based on this research, to be entitled, Suing for Europe? The Rise of Adversarial Legalism in the European Union will appear with Harvard University Press in 2007. Together with Keith Whittington and Greg Caldeira, he is co-editing The Oxford Handbook on Law and Politics (forthcoming 2007, Oxford University Press).
Andrea Lenschow is junior Professor of Political Science and European Integration at the faculty of social sciences at the University of Osnabrück (since 2003). Previously, she was assistant Professor (Hochschulassistentin) at Salzburg University and held fellowships at the European University Institute in Florence and at the Erasmus University of Rotterdam. She received her PhD in Political Science at New York University, and Masters Degrees in Political Science and public administration at Pennsylvania State University. She has published widely on comparative and EU environmental policy, theories of institutional and policy change, Europeanization, policy implementation, and policy convergence.
Ian Manners is a senior researcher at the Danish Institute for International Studies. His publications include Substance and Symbolism: an Anatomy of Cooperation in the New Europe (2000, Ashgate); with Richard Whitman (eds) The Foreign Policies of European Union Member States (2000, Manchester University Press); with Sonia Lucarelli (eds) Values and Principles in European Union Foreign Policy (2006, Routledge); and Europe and the World: Between Regional Integration and Globalisation (forthcoming, Palgrave). His article ‘Normative Power Europe: a Contradiction in Terms?’ won the prize for the best article in the Journal of Common Market Studies for 2002.
David G. Mayes is Advisor to the Board at the Bank of Finland, Professor of Economics at London South Bank University, and Honorary Professor of Banking and Financial Institutions at the University of Stirling. He is advisor to central banks in several of the new member states and in those that hope to become members. He has published widely on European integration particularly in the financial, monetary, trade, and single market fields. He was Director of the ESRC research programme on the Single Market and a member of the Maas Group on the single currency. His latest book is on Adjusting to EMU (2005, Palgrave-Macmillan).
[Page xiii]Gail McElroy is Assistant Professor in the Department of Political Science at Trinity College, Dublin. Her research interests include legislative organization and the comparative study of political parties. She has recently published articles on committee structure and political competition in the European Parliament. Her current work focuses on the nature of multi-level party competition in the European Union, with particular reference to the creation and maintenance of transnational political groups.
Alan S. Milward is Professor Emeritus of European Integration Studies, European University Institute, in Florence, Italy, and is currently an Official Historian at the Cabinet Office in the UK. He is the author of several books, including The Reconstruction of Western Europe, 1945—1951 (1984, University of California Press), and The European Rescue of the Nation-State, 2nd edn (2000, Routledge). He is currently working on the official history of Great Britain and the Common Market, the first volume of which was The Rise and Fall of a National Strategy, 1945—1963 (2002, Frank Cass).
Kalypso Nicolaïdis is University Lecturer in International Relations at Oxford University, and a Fellow at St Antony's College. She teaches in European integration, international relations, international political economy and game theory. In the academic year 2004-2005, she was Vincent Wright Chair at Sciences-Po, Paris. She has published on the EU as well as other issues in international affairs in numerous journals including Foreign Affairs, Foreign Policy, The Journal of Common Market Studies, Journal of European Public Policy, and International Organization. Her latest publications include: Whose Europe? National Models and the Constitution of the European Union (2003, Oxford University Press), and The Federal Vision: Legitimacy and Levels of Governance in the US and the EU (2001, Oxford University Press).
Mark A. Pollack is Associate Professor of Political Science at Temple University. His research focuses on the role of international institutions in global and regional governance, with specific projects examining the delegation of powers to the supranational organizations of the EU, the creation of new mechanisms for the governance of the transatlantic relationship, and the ‘mainstreaming’ of gender issues in international organizations. He is the author of The Engines of European Integration: Delegation, Agency and Agenda Setting in the EU (2003, Oxford University Press), and co-editor of six books, including most recently Policy-Making in the European Union, with Helen Wallace and William Wallace (2005, Oxford University Press), as well as over two dozen articles and book chapters.
Elisabeth Prügl is Associate Professor in the Department of International Relations at Florida International University. Her current research foci include gender and agricultural policy reform in the European Union; gender mainstreaming in atypical arenas, including security policy; and the theoretical intersection of feminist and constructivist approaches in International Relations. Professor Prügl spent the 2001/2002 academic year as a Fulbright Senior Scholar at the University of Bremen. Her recent publications include ‘Feminism and constructivism: Worlds apart or sharing the middle ground?’ with Birgit Locher in International Studies Quarterly (March 2001) and The Global Construction of Gender: Home-Based Work in the Political Economy of the 20th Century (1999, Columbia University Press).
[Page xiv]Tapio Raunio is Professor of Political Science at the University of Turku. His research interests include the role of national legislatures and parties in European integration, the European Parliament, and the Finnish political system, and he has published articles in journals such as the European Journal of Political Research, Journal of Common Market Studies, Party Politics, and Scandinavian Political Studies.
Leonard Ray is Associate Professor of Political Science at the Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. He earned a doctorate in Political Science from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and has published several scholarly articles on public support for the European Union in journals such as the Journal of Politics, European Journal of Political Research, Political Behaviour, and European Union Politics. His work has focused on the role of political parties and ideology is structuring opinions about the EU. His current research examines cultural solidarity and support for EU expansion, as well as the relationship between European identities and support for EU institutions.
Martin Rhodes is Professor of Political Economy, Graduate School of International Studies, University of Denver, in Denver, Colorado. Between 1999-2006 he was Professor of Public Policy in the Department of Political and Social Sciences at the European University Institute, Florence, Italy, and from 2004-2006, Scientific Director of the EU Framework 6 Integrated Project NEWGOV (New Modes of Governance). He is the author of over 100 book chapters and journal articles on globalization, EU policy-making and comparative European public policy and political economy, relating especially to labour markets, pension systems and welfare states.
Jeremy Richardson has held Chairs at the Universities of Strathclyde, Warwick, and Essex. His most recent post was as Professorial Fellow at Nuffield College, Oxford, where he is now an Emeritus Fellow. He is editor of The Journal of European Public Policy and has recently published the third edition of his textbook on the EU, European Union: Power and Policy-making (2006, Routledge).
Thomas Risse is Professor of International Politics at the Freie Universität Berlin. Major recent publications include, (ed. with R. K. Herrmann and M. Brewer) Transnational Identities. Becoming European in the European Union (2004, Rowman & Littlefield), (ed. with W. Carlsnaes and B. Simmons) The Handbook of International Relations (2002, Sage), (ed. with M.G. Cowles and J. Caporaso) Transforming Europe. Europeanization and Domestic Change (2001, Cornell University Press), (ed. with S. C. Ropp and K. Sikkink) The Power of Human Rights: International Norms and Domestic Change (1999, Cambridge University Press), and Cooperation among Democracies. The European Influence on U.S. Foreign Policy (1995, Princeton University Press). Professor Risse was also Associate Editor of International Organization (until 2006), and Coordinator of the Research Centre ‘Governance in Areas of Limited Statehood’ at the FU Berlin.
Ben Rosamond is Professor of Politics and International Studies at the University of Warwick where he is also an Associate Fellow of the Centre for the Study of Globalization and Regionalization. He has held visiting positions at Aarhus University, the Australian [Page xv]National University, Columbia University, the Copenhagen Business School, the University of Oxford, and New York University. He is founding co-editor of the journal Comparative European Politics and author of Theories of European Integration (2000, Macmillan/St Martin's Press), and Globalization and the European Union (forthcoming, Palgrave Macmillan). He is the author of around 50 refereed articles and book chapters on theories of regional and European integration, the role of ideas and discourses in national and supranational policy-making, and British political economy.
Justus Schönlau holds a PhD from the University of Reading and is currently an Honorary Fellow at the University of Exeter (School of Humanities and Social Sciences) and associate research fellow at the Centre for European Policy Studies, Brussels. He has been working on the EU's constitutional process both as an academic (in the EU-funded research projects EURCIT and CIDEL) and as a researcher to the chairman of the Constitutional Affairs Committee in the European Parliament. He is the author of Drafting the EU Charter: Rights, Legitimacy and Process (2005, Palgrave). He lives and works in Brussels.
Michael Smith is Professor of European Politics and Jean Monnet Chair in the Department of Politics, International Relations and European Studies at Loughborough University, UK. He has written very widely on the external policies of the EU. His most recent publications include International Relations and the European Union (2005, Oxford University Press, edited with Christopher Hill), and The European Union's Roles in International Politics (2006, Routledge, edited with Ole Elgström) as well as many other books and articles. Currently he is working on a jointly-authored volume dealing with EU-US relations (due for publication 2007), and on a longer-term project dealing with crises and crisis management in the Euro-American system.
Jonas Tallberg is Associate Professor at Stockholm University and Research Fellow at the Swedish Institute of International Affairs. His primary research interests are delegation to international institutions, compliance and legalization in international cooperation, and multilateral negotiations, with a regional specialization in European Union politics. He is the author of Leadership and Negotiation in the European Union (2006, Cambridge University Press), and European Governance and Supranational Institutions: Making States Comply (2003, Routledge). He has published articles in journals such as International Organization, European Journal of International Relations, Journal of Common Market Studies, Journal of European Public Policy, and West European Politics.
Helen Wallace is Director of the Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies at the European University Institute, Florence. From 1998 she was Director of the British Economic and Social Research Council's One Europe or Several? Programme (1998-2001). She is currently a member of several editorial advisory boards of journals. She is a member of the Advisory Group to DG Research of the European Commission on Social Sciences and Humanities and of the Group of Political Analysis, which advises President Barroso of the European Commission. She is a Companion of the Order of St Michael and St George and a Fellow of the British Academy. Her recent publications include The Council of Ministers of the European Union with Fiona Hayes-Renshaw (1997, [Page xvi]Macmillan); (ed.) Interlocking Dimensions of European Integration (2001, Palgrave); contributed to Bruno de Witte (ed.) Ten Reflections on the Constitutional Treaty for Europe (2003, EUI); (co-author) An Agenda for a Growing Europe (2004, Oxford University Press); Policy-Making in the European Union, 5th edn, with William Wallace and Mark A. Pollack (2005, Oxford University Press). She has published articles in numerous journals, including the Journal of Common Market Studies and Governance.
William Wallace is emeritus Professor of International Relations at the London School of Economics. He was director of studies at the Royal Institute of International Affairs in London from 1978-1990, and a fellow of St Antony's College, Oxford, from 1990-1995. He was a member of the (British) House of Lords European Union Committee from 1996-2001, and chair of its sub-committee on Justice and Home Affairs from 1997-2000. He has written extensively on European international politics and transatlantic relations, in particular on cooperation in foreign policy and defence.
Alex Warleigh-Lack is Professor of Politics and International Relations at Brunel University. He is Chair of UACES (University Association for Contemporary European Studies, http://www.uaces.org) between September 2006 and September 2009. His most recent research monograph is Democracy in the European Union: Theory, Practice and Reform (2003, Sage) and his main research interests are reform of the EU and comparative regional integration/regionalization.
Ramses A. Wessel is Professor of the Law of the European Union and other International Organizations and Co-Director of the Centre for European Studies of the University of Twente, the Netherlands. He is Director of European Studies and Senior Research Fellow of the Institute for Governance Studies. Additional functions include: Editor-in-Chief and founder of the International Organizations Law Review and Editor-in-Chief of the Dutch journal and yearbook on peace and security, Vrede en Veiligheid. He is a Senior Member of the Netherlands Institute of Government (NOB) and Associate Member of the research school Ius Commune. He graduated in 1989 at the University of Groningen in International Law and International Relations. He wrote his PhD at Utrecht University on The European Union's Foreign and Security Policy. His research interests lie in the field of international and European institutional law, with a focus on international organizations, multi-level regulation, and EU external relations.
Alasdair R. Young is Senior Lecturer in international politics at the University of Glasgow. His teaching and research focus on the interaction between trade and regulatory policies and politics, with particular reference to the European Union and the World Trade Organization. His publications include: Extending European Cooperation: The European Union and the ‘New’ International Trade Agenda (2002, Manchester University Press), and (with Helen Wallace) Regulatory Politics in the Enlarging European Union (2000, Manchester University Press), as well as articles in Global Environmental Politics, Journal of Common Market Studies, and World Politics. He is co-editor of Politics and the JCMS Annual Review of the European Union.