The SAGE Handbook of Emotional and Behavioral Difficulties

The SAGE Handbook of Emotional and Behavioral Difficulties

Handbooks

Edited by: Philip Garner, Kauffman James & Elliott Julian

Abstract

’This important revision with updated material will inform professionals, students, and the interested public of evolving international perspectives on EBD. New chapters consider causation, the influence and role of social contexts and social support, ADHD, teacher knowledge and parental engagement. The new content presents us with fresh ideas and approaches.’ - Katherine Bilton, University of Alaska, USA This new edition of The Handbook of Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties, first published in 2004, has been completely reworked and refreshed by a new editorial team led by Philip Garner. A thorough revision of existing content, together with new material, bring the volume firmly up-to-date, and offers guidance and recommendations for future research and practice. Covering a range of important issues in EBD, chapters are organized into five ...

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    Acknowledgements

    Education at SAGE

    SAGE is a leading international publisher of journals, books, and electronic media for academic, educational, and professional markets.

    Our education publishing includes:

    • accessible and comprehensive texts for aspiring education professionals and practitioners looking to further their careers through continuing professional development
    • inspirational advice and guidance for the classroom
    • authoritative state of the art reference from the leading authors in the field

    Find out more at: http://www.sagepub.co.uk/education

    Acknowledgements

    This book is dedicated to the memory of Patricia L. Pullen, a truly gifted teacher of students with special educational needs.

    About the Editors and Contributors

    Editors

    Philip Garner is Professor of Education at the University of Northampton, UK. He has research interests in emotional and behavioural difficulties, teacher education, and special educational needs.

    James M. Kauffman is Professor Emeritus of Education, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA. His primary area of specialization and interest is emotional and behavioral disorders of children and youth.

    Julian Elliott is Principal of Collingwood College and Professor of Education at Durham University, UK. His research interests include children’s learning and behaviour difficulties, comparative education, and dynamic assessment.

    Contributors

    Bob Algozzine is a Professor in Educational Leadership at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte, USA. Working collaboratively with Kate Algozzine, his research interests include school-wide positive behavior support, behavior instruction, team decision making, and effective teaching.

    Kate Algozzine is a Research Associate with the Team-Initiated Problem Solving and ACCEPT Projects. Working collaboratively with Bob Algozzine, her research interests include school-wide positive behavior support, team decision making, and effective teaching in inclusive preschool and elementary classroom settings.

    Maha Al-Hendawi is an Assistant Professor of Special Education at Qatar University, State of Qatar. Her research interests include emotional and behavioral disorders, children at-risk, academic and social behavior interventions for children with EBD and children at-risk, professional development for special education teachers, and inclusion practices.

    Peter Alter , PhD is Assistant Professor at Saint Mary’s College of California, USA. His research interests include special education, emotional and behavioral disorders, classroom and behavior management, positive behavior support, and effective instruction.

    Dimitris Anastasiou is an Assistant Professor of Special Education at Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, USA. His research interests include high-incidence disabilities, academic interventions for children with learning disabilities, international and cultural issues in special education, and philosophical approaches to disability.

    Lori Anderson-DeMello , PhD is an ABA tutor with More than Words Pediatric Therapy in Valdosta, GA, USA specializing in applied behavior analysis (ABA) for students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Her research interests include using ABA interventions to increase language and communication skills, and decrease stereotypic behaviors in students with ASD.

    Dawn Behan , PhD is Director of Graduate Program in Education and Associate Professor of Education, Mount Mercy University, USA. She has research interests in special education, emotional/behavior disorders and learning disabilities, law, transition, co-teaching, assessment, instructional strategies, classroom management, professional development, action research, and single-subject design.

    Christopher Blake , PhD is President and Professor of Education at Mount Mercy University, USA. His research interests relate to cultural studies in education, qualitative research methods and ethnography, special education, religious education, higher education administration, and action research.

    Hill M. Walker , PhD is a Professor of Special Education and Co-Director of the Institute on Violence and Destructive Behavior at the University of Oregon. He has a long-standing interest in behavioral assessment and in the development of effective intervention procedures for use in school settings with a range of behavior disorders. He has been engaged in applied research during his entire career, dating from 1966. His research interests include social skills assessment, curriculum development and intervention, longitudinal studies of aggression and antisocial behavior, school safety, youth violence prevention, and the development of early screening procedures for detecting students who are at-risk for social-behavioral adjustment problems and/or later school drop-out.

    Bryan G. Cook is a Professor of Special Education at the University of Hawaii in Manoa, USA. His areas of interest include evidence-based practices, meta-research, and health and fitness of youth with high incidence disabilities.

    Maureen A. Conroy , PhD is Professor at the University of Florida, USA. Her research interests include early intervention and effective instructional and behavioral practices for students with emotional and behavioral challenges, students with autism spectrum disorders, and effective professional development practices for classroom-based interventions.

    Robert Conway is Emeritus Professor at the School of Education at Flinders University, Australia where he was the Dean (2007–2012). He has taught in both regular and special education. His research and teaching is in the area of students with emotional and behaviour problems in both mainstream and specialist settings.

    Paul Cooper is Chair Professor of Social-Emotional Development and Education and Associate Vice-President at the Hong Kong Institute of Education; Visiting Professor in the European Centre for Educational Resilience, University of Malta; and Honorary Life-Long Vice-President of the Social, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties Association.

    Harry Daniels is Professor of Education at the University of Oxford, UK. He has published widely in the fields of cultural historical theory and various aspects of special and inclusive education.

    John Dwyfor Davies is Emeritus Professor in the Department of Education at the University of the West of England, Bristol, UK. He continues to research and publish widely in matters relating to inclusion, exclusion, and challenging behaviour. He also provides consultancy to senior staff on school management and leadership.

    Bill Evans, PhD is a Director of the School of Education at the University of West Florida, USA. He has been a classroom teacher and written numerous books and articles related to assessment and classroom management. He consults with schools and government agencies in numerous countries and is actively involved in policy development.

    Michael Furlong is a Professor in the Department of Counseling/Clinical/School Psychology at the University of California Santa Barbara, USA and the Director of the Center for School-Based Youth Development. He is a Fellow of the American Psychological Association (Division 16, School Psychology). He co-edited the Handbook of Positive Psychology in the Schools (2009, 2014) and serves as the Editor of the Journal of School Violence.

    Robert A. Gable , PhD is Constance and Colgate Darden Professor of Special Education at Old Dominion University in Norfolk, VA, USA. He earned his doctoral degree at George Peabody College of Vanderbilt University; Nashville TN. His research interests include functional behavioral assessment, differentiating instruction, and special education teacher preparation.

    Michael M. Gerber is Professor of Education at the Gevirtz Graduate School of Education of the University of California, Santa Barbara, CA, USA, and Director of the UC Center for Research on Special Education, Disabilities, and Developmental Risk. His research interests include: instructional and behavioural interventions for students at high risk for poor school achievement and developmental outcomes, elements of school change, and learning in technology enabled environments.

    Kathryn Germer is currently studying at Peabody College of Vanderbilt University, USA. Her research interests include the design, implementation, and evaluation of functional assessment-based interventions within comprehensive, integrated, three-tiered (CI3T) models of prevention.

    Vasiliki Giannouli is Assistant Professor of School Psychology, University of Macedonia, Thessaloniki, Macedonia, Greece. Her research interests include learning disabilities, dyslexia, ADHD and mental retardation.

    George Th. Pavlidis is Professor of Learning Disabilities, University of Macedonia, Thessaloniki, Macedonia, Greece. His research interests include the use of ophthalmokinesis for the objective-biological prognosis and early diagnosis of dyslexia and ADHD. He also is involved in the treatment of learning disabilities, dyslexia and gifted and develops software and hardware for the diagnosis and effective treatment of the aforementioned conditions.

    Tamara Glen-Soles , PhD is a Psychologist, Director of The Secure Child Centre for Families and Children, Lecturer at McGill University, and Researcher at the Jewish General Hospital in Montreal, Canada. She specializes in child and adolescent mental health. Clinical and research interests include early childhood, attachment, relationship-based interventions, learning disabilities, ADHD, and autism/developmental disorders.

    Elena L. Grigorenko is Emily Fraser Beede Professor of Developmental Disabilities, Child Studies, Epidemiology and Public Health, and Psychology at Yale University, USA. Her research interests are in developmental disabilities, neuropsychiatric genetics, and cognitive development.

    Jo Hendrickson , Professor of Special Education and Director of REACH (Realizing Educational and Career Hopes) Program at The University of Iowa, USA. Her research currently targets college-age students with intellectual, behavioural, and learning challenges. UI REACH is a 2-year certificate program for students with intellectual disabilities who live on-campus.

    Bernd G. Heubeck , PhD is a Consultant and Clinical Psychologist who has worked in private practice and in community child & family mental health. For 20 years, some of it as Director of Clinical Psychology, he taught at the Australian National University, where he is still a Visiting Fellow. His research interests include evaluation, ADHD, families, schools and parent training.

    Shanna Eisner Hirsch is a doctoral student in the Department of Curriculum, Instruction, and Special Education, Curry School of Education, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA. Her research focuses on the judicious application of evidence-based practices for solving behaviour and learning problems.

    Garry Hornby , PhD is Professor of Education at the University of Canterbury, New Zealand. He has worked in schools as a mainstream and special class teacher and educational psychologist. His research is in the areas of educational psychology, special and inclusive education, emotional and behavioural difficulties, and parental involvement in education.

    Nanci Johnson is the Missouri School-Wide Positive Behavior Support Web and Data Coordinator and a research faculty member within the Center for School-Wide Positive Behavior Support at the University of Missouri, USA.

    Camille Jones , PhD is a school psychologist in Bonita Unified School District (California). She coordinates the Educationally-Related Mental Health Services provided to a diverse student population and conducts mental health assessments throughout the district.

    Clayton Keller is an Associate Professor and Coordinator of the Master of Education in Special Education at Qatar University, State of Qatar. His scholarship has been in the areas of inclusion, the construct of learning disabilities, educators who have disabilities, and international special education.

    Michael J. Kennedy is Assistant Professor of Education in the Department of Curriculum, Instruction, and Special Education, Curry School of Education, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA. In addition to studying teacher education, he has expertise in teaching students with high-incidence disabilities, including learning disabilities and emotional and behavioral disorders.

    Timothy J. Landrum is Chair of the Department of Special Education at the University of Louisville, Kentucky, USA. His work has focused on emotional and behavioral disorders in children and youth, classroom and behavior management, the identification of evidence-based practice, and the translation of research into practice.

    Gerhard Lauth is Professor for Psychology and Psychotherapy in Special Education at the University of Cologne. He has also worked in private practice and conducts training workshops. His research interests include ADHD, families, schools and parent training. He is author of the KES parent training (together with Bernd Heubeck).

    Kathleen Lynne Lane , PhD, BCBA-D is a Professor in the Department of Special Education at the University of Kansas, USA. Her research interests include systematic screenings and evidence-based practices within comprehensive, integrated, three-tiered (CI3T) models to support all students, including those with and at risk of emotional and behavioral disorders.

    Holly M. Menzies is a Professor in the Division of Special Education and Counseling at California State University, Los Angeles. She earned her master’s degree and doctorate in education from the University of California, Riverside. Dr. Menzies has participated in research that uses behavioral screening instruments to examine risk status of students with and without disabilities. Her areas of interest include student learning outcomes assessment at the university level and she is active in institution-wide assessment of student achievement.

    Susannah Learoyd-Smith, PhD is Research Officer at the University of Oxford, UK. Her interests are in understanding the influence of different school modalities on teachers, students, and parents at a number of levels.

    John Wills Lloyd is Professor of Education in the Department of Curriculum, Instruction, and Special Education, Curry School of Education, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA. His research has focused on applying behavioural pricinciples to the solution of both academic and social problems experienced by students and teachers.

    João A. Lopes , PhD is Associate Professor, Department of Applied Psychology, University of Minho, Portugal. His research interests include learning, behavioral and emotional problems. Issues related to classroom discipline and special education systems around the world are also main research areas of interest.

    Tim Lewis , PhD is Professor, Special Education at the University of Missouri, USA, Director of the University of Missouri Center for School-wide Positive Behavior Supports and Co-Director, Office of Special Education Program Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports.

    Michael R. Mayton , PhD, BCBA-D is an Assistant Professor of Special Education at West Virginia University, USA where he teaches courses in applied behavior analysis for students with disabilities and instructional methods for students with autism spectrum disorders.

    Helen McGrath , PhD is an Adjunct Professor in the School of Education at Deakin University, Australia. Her research interests include classroom-based programs for teaching social skills and resilience. She has been involved in the development of national educational frameworks for the promotion of student well-being and safe and supportive schools.

    Barbara S. Mitchell , PhD is Tier 2/3 Consultant for the Missouri School-Wide Positive Behavior Support Initiative at the University of Missouri, USA. Her areas of research interest include prevention and early intervention for students with social, emotional and behavioral challenges, school-based treatments for students with internalizing concerns, and positive behavioral interventions and supports.

    Nancy A. Mundschenk , PhD is an Associate Professor in the Department of Educational Psychology and Special Education at Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, USA. Her research interests include behavioral interventions, development of social competence, parent/family engagement, professional development in higher education, functional behavioral assessment, and multi-tiered systems of support.

    Christopher Murray , PhD is a faculty member in special education at the University of Oregon. His research interests include developing further understanding about social relationships and social contexts in the lives of children and youth with disabilities.

    Tom Nicholson is a Professor of Literacy Education, Institute of Education, College of Humanities and Social Sciences, Massey University, New Zealand. Research interests are in literacy acquisition. His teaching includes human development, language, literacy and cognitive development, literacy and social justice, teaching writing in the classroom, applied behaviour analysis, and research methods.

    Wendy Peia Oakes , PhD is an Assistant Professor at Arizona State University, Mary Lou Fulton Teachers College, USA. Her research focuses on school- and classroom-level practices within multi-tiered systems of support for improving educational outcomes of young children with emotional and behavioral disorders.

    Lindsey M. O’Brennan , PhD is a Postdoctoral Fellow at Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health, USA. Her research focuses on school-based youth violence prevention and intervention programming that aims to improve the overall school climate and connectedness among students and school staff.

    Paul O’Mahony, PhD was formerly Associate Professor of Psychology in the School of Medicine, Trinity College, Dublin, Republic of Ireland and, previously, Research Psychologist with the Irish Prison Service. He is author of several books on the Irish criminal justice system and has research interests in the social psychology of crime and punishment.

    Meagan O’Malley is a Research Associate in the Health and Human Development Program, WestEd, USA. Her research interests are school climate and safety, social and emotional learning, and social support in school settings. She coordinates technical support for state and national initiatives aimed at improving interpersonal and social-emotional supports provided in school environments.

    Maurice Place is Visiting Professor of Child and Family Psychiatry at Northumbria University, UK. His research interests are in ADHD, attachment difficulties, and epigenetic influences.

    Lauren C. Reed is a doctoral student at Old Dominion University in Norfolk, VA, USA. Her primary research interests include evidence-based academic and behavioral interventions for students with autism and emotional disabilities, the research to practice gap in special education, and special education teacher preparation.

    Mary Richter is Director of the Missouri School-wide Positive Behavior Support initive and a research faculty member within the Center for School-Wide Positive Behavior Support at the University of Missouri, USA.

    Elizabeth Roberts , PhD is a Psychologist at Lester B. Pearson School Board and Lecturer at McGill University, Canada. Her areas of research interest include multi-disciplinary assessment and emotional/academic support of students with diverse needs, particularly learning disabilities, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and emotional/behavioural difficulties.

    Égide Royer , PhD is Professor of Special Education at the Faculty of Education at University Laval, Québec, Canada. He is currently teaching on the topic of behavioural problems in schools and, as a researcher, interested by teachers’ pre- and in-service training and school achievement of EBD students.

    Amy E. Ruhaak is an instructor of special education at the University of Hawaii in Manoa, USA. Her areas of interest include evidence-based behavioral interventions for students with emotional and behavioral disorders, teacher preparation, and education policy.

    John Ryan PhD is Associate Head of Department of Education at the University of the West of England, Bristol, UK. His research and evaluation work covers a diverse range of educational topics with recent reports and publications on inclusion, Islam and citizenship education, technology-enhanced learning and leadership, and management.

    Richard Simpson is Professor of Special Education at the University of Kansas, USA. He has directed numerous demonstration programs for students with disabilities and coordinated a variety of federal grant programs related to students with disabilities. He has worked as a special education teacher, school psychologist, and coordinator of a community mental health outreach program.

    Carl R. Smith , PhD is Professor in the School of Education, Iowa State University, USA. His primary research interests are issues related to policy implications in serving youth with emotional or behavioral disorders.

    Kevin S. Sutherland , PhD is Professor at Virginia Commonwealth University, USA. His research focuses upon methods to increase effective instructional practices in classrooms and schools for students with/at-risk of EBD, intervention fidelity measurement, and intervention development.

    Melody Tankersley is Professor of Special Education at Kent State University, Ohio, USA. Her interests include the development and treatment of emotional and behavioral disorders of children and youth, and identifying and implementing evidence-based practices in schools and homes to prevent and respond to children’s unsuccessful social behavior.

    Gary Thomas is Professor of Inclusion and Diversity, School of Education, University of Birmingham, UK. His research interests are in inclusive education and social science methodology.

    John J. Wheeler , PhD is Director and Professor at the Center of Excellence in Early Childhood Learning and Development, East Tennessee State University, USA. His area of specialization is children with autism spectrum disorders, and those children who experience behavioral challenges as a result of developmental and/or emotional/behavioral disabilities.

    Andrew L. Wiley is Assistant Professor of Special Education at Kent State University, Ohio, USA. His interests include the moral, political, and socioeconomic context of special education for students with emotional and behavioral disorders, and the implementation of evidence-based practices in schools.

    Kimberly Yanek is a doctoral student at Old Dominion University in Norfolk, VA, USA. She currently serves as the Training Coordinator for the Virginia Department of Education Training and Technical Assistance Center’s SWPBS Initiative. Her research interests include using SWPBS to support positive student outcomes and teacher use of evidence-based practices.

    Mitchell L. Yell , PhD is Fred and Francis Lester Palmetto Chair of Teacher Education at the University of South Carolina, USA. His primary areas of research and writing is on IEP development, legal issues in special education, classroom management, emotional and behavioral disorders in children and youth, and evidence-based practices in special education.

    Kris Zorigian is a Doctoral Candidate in the School of Education, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, USA. He researches high incidence disabilities, motivation, and human development.

    Preface

    The behavior of children in schools, regardless of the age group the school serves, has long been a consistent source of interest and controversy. Indeed, more than 2000 years ago, Socrates spoke of young people who tyrannize their teachers. Greater problems emerged with the development of mass education in many industrialized countries at the end of the 19th century, when teachers were confronted by children with a variety of needs and difficulties that hitherto had been rarely encountered. Education systems have always struggled to adjust to changing social and economic conditions, and in the more economically developed nations of the world many students appear unable or unwilling to conform to typical academic and behavioral expectations. In many traditional societies, social commentators are increasingly expressing concerns about globalizing (Western) influences that often emphasize the instrumental value of education, place the importance of individual autonomy and needs above duty and responsibility to others, and undermine the authority of parents and teachers.

    In the economically developed world, those whose primary difficulty is in meeting behavioral expectations are typically identified as having EBD – emotional and/or behavioral difficulties or disorders. In some nations, these students may be officially identified in government language as emotionally disturbed (ED) or behaviorally disordered (BD) – or even as having social, emotional, and behavioral difficulties (SEBD), or other variants of the term. Whether the official language refers to emotions or behavior or both, or to a difficulty or disorder, makes little substantive difference. The point is simply that emotionally or behaviorally (typically both), they are unable to meet the demands of the typical educational setting.

    This handbook provides a systematic, comprehensive overview of the problems students with emotional and behavioral difficulties present to themselves, the schools they attend, their families, and to wider society. It addresses problems of definition, identification, measurement, causes, intervention, and teacher training. It includes an international approach to these issues, although some authors discuss primarily the problems and prospects that operate in their own country. In those cases, we encourage readers to draw parallels and contrasts with the national contexts with which they are most familiar.

    To really understand ourselves as social beings, we need a sense of perspective, which can often be provided by looking at relationships and practices in other societies and cultures. For this reason, we are likely to profit greatly from more international comparisons of what constitutes and what causes the condition we call EBD, and how school personnel can best intervene and be trained in the required interventions. At the same time, we know that EBD can be judged and dealt with appropriately only by taking into consideration the social contexts of the schools, families, and other institutions that operate in any particular nation. Diversity in national cultures often reflects differences of perspective. That is, behavior that is considered highly problematic in one place will not necessarily be considered as troubling in another, and what ‘works’ in one social context will not necessarily work in another. Still, it is very likely we can find some general principles that apply to students, schools, and families universally. These can be discovered only through research, not through ideological obsession or philosophical speculation. We are confident that as we find them, these ‘universal’ principles will point to our common humanity, regardless of our national culture.

    In this book we have collected a range of chapters that are designed to be useful to aspiring teachers currently training in colleges and universities, teachers, counselors, therapists, psychologists already working in the school system, and to academics with responsibility for leading in research and professional training. We welcome feedback on the value of this book and hope that readers, whatever their backgrounds and specialisms, will find its content to be both accessible and meaningful.

    We thank the contributors to this volume for their diligent work in writing chapters that represent the difficulty and complexity of identifying and serving students with EBD. Also due our thanks are the editors and publishers of our work. We are particularly grateful to Kathryn Bromwich at Sage Publications, who has overseen the project and shepherded us skillfully and gently through the task of putting this volume together.

    P. G. J. K. J. E.

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