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Chapter 9: Reinventing Freire: Exceptional Cases of Citizenship Education in Brazil
Like most Latin American countries, Brazil is characterized by severe economic and social inequalities that result in exclusion and extreme poverty for large segments of the population. Without access to basic human rights such as sufficient food and clean water, gainful employment, land ownership, or meaningful social and political participation, the basic preconditions for full citizenship are negated for millions of Brazilians. Educational opportunities are particularly affected in this segmented and hierarchical system, which tends to reproduce inequalities rather than diminish them.
Brazilian schools are mandated with promoting education for citizenship, but many public schools - largely due to the state withdrawal and funding cuts that occurred ...