The SAGE Handbook of Education for Citizenship and Democracy


Edited by: James Arthur, Ian Davies & Carole Hahn

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    Notes on Contributors

    Wolfgang Althof is the Teresa M. Fischer Professor of Citizenship Education at the University of Missouri, St. Louis. He was at the University of Fribourg, Switzerland, 1984-2004, a Visiting Scholar at Harvard University 1995-1996. Dr. Althof taught university courses and workshops in Germany, Switzerland, Austria, and the US, and lectured in many other countries. Dr. Althofs research includes studies in professional morality; democracy and education in schools; changes in individual conceptions of personal and societal values and morality in East and West Germany after the liquidation of the German Democratic Republic; intergenerational values transmission; and prevention of right-wing extremism and ethnic violence in schools. His recent focus has been on moral/character development and citizenship education.

    John Annette is Professor of Citizenship and Lifelong Learning and Pro Vice Master at Birkbeck College, University of London. He has published articles on citizenship and service learning, community development and community leadership and his publications include Education for Democratic Citizenship co-edited with Sir Bernard Crick and Professor Andrew Lockyer published by Ashgate in December 2003. He has been an advisor to the British government on citizenship education in schools and also adult learning for citizenship through civic engagement.

    James Arthur is Professor of Education at Canterbury Christ Church University and has written on the relationship between theory and practice in education, particularly the links between communitarianism, social virtues, citizenship, religion and education. He was involved as a member of the National Forum for Values in Education and the Community and has subsequently participated in various curriculum consultations with the QCA. He was a member of the History Task Group in 1999 to revise the History National Curriculum and has since been a member of a sub-group of the Citizenship Working Party as well as a member of various committees on citizenship in the Department for Education and Skills and the Teacher Development Agency. Professor Arthur is also Director of CitizED (

    Patricia G. Avery is a Professor in the Department of Curriculum and Instruction at the University of Minnesota in the US. She has studied political education and socialization for over 25 years, with a particular emphasis on the development of political tolerance among adolescents. Currently she is the lead evaluator for the Deliberating in a Democracy Project, a five-year study in which models for discussing controversial public issues are implemented in secondary classrooms in five post-Communist countries (Azerbaijan, Czech Republic, Estonia, Lithuania, Russia) and the US. Professor Avery teaches graduate courses in social studies education and research methodology.

    James A. Banks is Kerry and Linda Killinger Professor of Diversity Studies and Director of the Center for Multicultural Education at the University of Washington, Seattle. He is a past President of both the American Educational Research Association (AERA) and the National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS). Professor Banks is a member of the National Academy of Education and was a fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences at Stanford during the 2005-2006 academic year. His books include Diversity and Citizenship Education: Global Perspectives; Educating Citizens in a Multicultural Society; Teaching Strategies for Ethnic Studies; Cultural Diversity and Education: Foundations, Curriculum and Teaching; and Race, Culture, and Education.

    Keith C. Barton is a Professor in the Division of Teacher Education at the University of Cincinnati and has served as a visiting professor at the UNESCO Centre for Education in Pluralism, Human Rights and Democracy at the University of Ulster. His work focuses on the teaching and learning of history and social studies, and he has conducted several studies of students historical understanding in the US and Northern Ireland. He is co-author, with Linda S. Levstik, of Doing History: Investigating with Children in Elementary and Middle Schools and Teaching History for the Common Good.

    Marvin W. Berkowitz is a developmental psychologist and the Sanford N. McDonnell Professor of Character Education and co-director of the Center for Character and Citizenship at the University of Missouri-St. Louis. He is co-editor of the Journal of Research in Character Education and recipient of the 2006 lifetime achievement award from the Character Education Partnership.

    Jane Bernard-Powers is Professor of Elementary Education at San Francisco State University.

    Kathy Bickmore is Associate Professor in Curriculum Studies and Teacher Development at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto, Canada. She teaches (graduate and pre-service teacher education) and conducts research in education for constructive conflict, peace building, conflict resolution, equity, and citizenship/ democratization in public school contexts.

    David Carr is Professor of Philosophy of Education at the University of Edinburgh. He is author of Educating the Virtues (1991), Professionalism and Ethics in Teaching (2000) and Making Sense of Education (2003), as well as of many philosophical and educational papers. He is also editor of Education, Knowledge and Truth (1998), co-editor (with Jan Steutel) of Virtue Ethics and Moral Education (1999), and (with John Haldane) of Spirituality, Philosophy and Education (2003).

    Sir Bernard Crick is Emeritus Professor of Politics at Birkbeck College, London. He was knighted in 2001 for services to citizenship and political studies. He is author of In Defence of Politics, and George Orwell: a Life, and recently Essays on Citizenship. He is the chair of the advisory group that reported as The Teaching of Citizenship and Democracy in Schools (QCA, 1998). Citizenship adviser to the Department for Education (England), 1998 to 2001 and to the Home Office 2002-2005. He is chair of the advisory group on citizenship and language learning for immigrants, reporting in 2004 as The New and the Old.

    Ian Davies is Reader in Educational Studies at the University of York, UK. He is a deputy director of citizED (, the editor of the journal Citizenship, Teaching and Learning and the author of books and articles about citizenship education. He has collaborated on many international projects. He is a past fellow of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science and has been appointed by the Council of Europe as an expert on education for democratic citizenship.

    Bernadette L. Dean is an Associate Professor, head academic and student affairs and team leader of the citizenship rights and responsibilities Pakistan Programme at the Aga Khan University, Institute for Educational Development, Karachi, Pakistan. She gained her PhD from the University of Alberta, Canada, in 2000. Her teaching and research interests are in education and development, social studies education, citizenship education and action research. She has taught at all educational levels, from kindergarten to graduate level and is interested in identifying ways to improve the quality of education in Pakistan. She has presented her research at many national and international conferences and has published widely in academic journals and books. In addition, she has written social studies textbooks and a teaching learning resource entitled Creating a Better World: Education for citizenship, human rights and conflict resolution.

    Joseph Jinja Divala is a tutor in the Department of Education Policy Studies at the University of Stellenbosch, South Africa, and he previously lectured in Philosophy and Philosophy of Education at Chancellor College in the University of Malawi. His research interests are in democracy and citizenship education, education and justice, and educational autonomy. His current research is centred on higher education autonomy, with particular reference to governance arrangements of higher education systems in Africa.

    Lisa Duty is a policy advisor in the areas of high school transformation and college access and success with KnowledgeWorks Foundation. Lisa helps provide leadership in the areas of policy development, state relations and legislative advocacy. Prior to KnowledgeWorks, she was a consultant at the Ohio Department of Education in the areas of middle and high school reform. She participated in exchanges and served as a citizenship education consultant in Poland, Ukraine and South Africa.

    Penny Enslin is Professor of Education in the Department of Educational Studies at the University of Glasgow and Professor Emeritus at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg. She teaches philosophy of education and her research interests lie in the area of political philosophy and education. She has published widely on citizenship and democracy education, gender and the education of girls, higher education, peace education, nationalism, and liberalism.

    Mark Evans is Senior Lecturer in the Department of Curriculum, Teaching and Learning at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto and has held different administrative positions (Director of the Secondary Teacher Education Program; Acting Associate Dean, Teacher Education). Mark teaches a variety of courses and has been involved in a variety of curriculum reform initiatives locally and internationally in the areas of citizenship and teacher education. He has written and contributed to numerous articles, books, and learning resources.

    Elizabeth Frazer is Official Fellow and Tutor in Politics, New College, Oxford, and University Lecturer in Politics, Department of Politics and International Relations, University of Oxford.

    Stephen Gorard is Professor of Education at the University of Birmingham. His research is focused on issues of equity (Pupils Views of Equity in Education, 2005, Compare), especially in educational opportunities and outcomes (Value-added is of little value, 2006, Journal of Educational Policy), and on the effectiveness of educational systems. Recent project topics include widening participation in learning (Overcoming the Barriers to HE, 2007, Trentham), the role of technology in lifelong learning (Adult Learning in the Digital Age, 2006, Routledge), informal learning, 1419 provision, the role of targets, the impact of market forces on schools, underachievement, teacher supply and retention (Teacher Supply: the Key Issues, 2006, Continuum), and developing international indicators of inequality.

    Carole L. Hahn is the Charles Howard Candler Professor of Educational Studies at Emory University in Atlanta, USA. She is a past president of the National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) and was the US national research coordinator for the Civic Education Study of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement. She is an Advisory Professor at the Hong Kong Institute of Education, author of the book Becoming Political: Comparative Perspectives on Citizenship Education, and recipient of the Jean Dresden Grambs Distinguished Career Research Award from NCSS.

    Diana Hess is Associate Professor of Curriculum and Instruction at the University of Wisconsin-Madison in the US. Since 1998 she has been researching what young people learn from deliberating highly controversial political and legal issues in schools. Currently, she is the lead investigator of a five-year study that seeks to understand the relationship between various approaches to issues discussions in secondary schools and the actual political engagement of young people after they leave high school. She teaches undergraduate and graduate courses in social studies and democratic education. Professor Hess holds a PhD from the University of Washington, Seattle, WA.

    Chi-Hang Ho is a Lecturer in the Department of Chinese at the Hong Kong Institute of Education, Peoples Republic of China.

    John Huckle is an ESD consultant and visiting fellow at the University of York. He is the co-editor with Stephen Sterling of Education for Sustainability (Earthscan, 1996) and co-author with Adrian Martin of Environments in a Changing World (Prentice Hall, 2001). John has written curriculum and teacher training materials for WWF-UK; facilitated workshops for WWF-Chinas Environmental Education Initiative; and prepared materials on ESD for the citizED website. He has a particular interest in socially critical approaches to ESD.

    Andrew S. Hughes is a university teaching professor, a title recognizing contributions to excellence in university teaching, at the University of New Brunswick, Canada. He is the author of some 75 articles and an equal number of commissioned reports. His particular interest lies in the application of evidenced based teaching to citizenship education. His recent work has involved collaboration with the Russian Association of Civic Education, culminating in the Spirit of Democracy Project.

    Orit Ichilov is a professor and sociologist whose research has focused on the political socialization of young people, and on citizenship and human rights education. Ichilov was the Israeli National Representative and chief investigator in the Civic Education International Study of the IEA. She chaired the Department of Educational Sciences at Tel-Aviv University and was vice-president of the International Society of Political Psychology. Ichilov chaired a sub-committee on education advising the Ministry of Justice on the implementation in legislation of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. In 2007, she was Visiting Scholar at Oxford University in the UK.

    Lee Jerome is the Secondary PGCE Programme Director at London Metropolitan University and has been involved in initial and continuing citizenship teacher education since 2000, at the Institute for Citizenship, where he co-authored The Citizenship Co-ordinators Handbook (2003), and in H.E. posts. He has published a variety of teaching resources to support citizenship teachers and acted as consultant for a range of organisations focusing on history, identity and citizenship. He served on a government working group developing assessment guidance and is a trustee of the Association for Citizenship Teaching and School Councils UK. Lee is currently researching the implementation of citizenship education policy in schools.

    Scott Jones is a social studies teacher at Hazelwood West High School (Hazelwood, MO) and a doctoral student in Educational Psychology at the Center for Character and Citizenship at the University of Missouri-St. Louis.

    Kerry J. Kennedy is a professor and Dean of the Faculty of Professional and Early Childhood Education at the Hong Kong Institute of Education. He has played an active role in teacher professional associations and public policy forums and is a Fellow of the Australian College of Education and a Life Member of the Australian Curriculum Studies Association.

    David Kerr is Principal Research Officer at NFER (National Foundation for Educational Research in England and Wales) and Visiting Professor in Citizenship at Birkbeck College, University of London. He is currently the Director of the eight-year Citizenship Education Longitudinal Study in England and Associate Director of the new IEA International Civic and Citizenship Education Study (ICCS). He has worked closely with the Council of Europe on its Education for Democratic Citizenship and Human Rights Education Project (EDC/HRE), carried out consultancies in Europe and internationally and published widely in the field.

    Martina Klicperov-Baker is senior research scholar at the Institute of Psychology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic in Prague and adjunct professor at San Diego State University in the US. Born in Prague, Czechoslovakia, she received her education in social and educational psychology from the Universita Karlova. A specialist in political psychology, she has done extensive international research in psychological preconditions for democracy, post-totalitarian syndrome, transitions to democracy, political culture and civility. She is an author and editor of a number of books including Democratic citizenship in comparative perspective, Ready for Democracy? Civic Culture and Civility and Democratic culture in the Czech Republic.

    Wing On Lee is Professor and Vice President (Academic) at The Hong Kong Institute of Education (HKIEd) and is a world renowned scholar in the fields of comparative education, citizenship education, and moral and values education.

    Linda S. Levstik is Professor in the Department of Curriculum and Instruction at the University of Kentucky. She is co-author with Keith C. Barton of Doing History and Teaching History for the Common Good (Erlbaum). She is also co-editor with Cynthia Tyson of Handbook on Research in Social Education (Routledge, Taylor and Francis). Her research on childrens and adolescents historical thinking in national and cross-national settings appears in a number of journals including Theory and Research in Social Education, Teachers College Record, The American Educational Research Journal, and The International Review of History Education. Professor Levstik currently works with several grants to improve history teaching in rural schools.

    Katherine Madjidi is a doctoral student at the University of Outario, Canada, whose areas of interest include international development, transformative and experiential learning, and indigenous knowledge.

    Bethan Marshall worked as an English teacher in London for nine years before taking up her post at Kings College. Currently a senior lecturer in education she specializes in issues relating to the teaching of English and assessment. She was part of the Kings Medway Formative Assessment Project (KMOFAP) team and, for two years, the director at Kings of the Learning How to Learn project, funded by the Economic and Social research Council. She has written extensively on the subject of English and assessment including her book English Teachers: An unofficial Guide and as a co-author of Assessment for Learning: Putting it into practice.

    Merry M. Merryfleld is Professor of Social Studies and Global Education at the Ohio State University, USA. Her research has focused on the teaching and learning of global perspectives, cross-cultural experiential education, the role of social studies in the development of African nations, and online pedagogy for diversity and equity. Her most recent book is Social Studies and the World: Teaching Global Perspectives, co-authored with Angene Wilson. Last year she was a visiting scholar at the Hong Kong Institute of Education. She has won awards from SITE for her research on online intercultural communication and from AACTE for her teacher education program in international and global education.

    Mitsuharu Mizuyama is a professor at Kyoto University of Education, Japan, where he has been employed since 1998, after teaching in junior high schools in Kyoto. He has been head of the Kyoto Universitys Education Center for Educational Research and Training since 2005. He also serves as a committee member of the Kyoto Environmental Education Center and the Kyoto Environment Council, working on measures against global warming. He has published books in Japanese on environmental education and on social studies in junior high school.

    Fouad Moughrabi is Professor and head of the Department of Political Science at the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga and director of the Qattan Center for Educational Research and Development in Ramallah, Palestine.

    Audrey Osier is Professor of Education and Director of the Centre for Citizenship and Human Rights Education at the University of Leeds, UK. Her publications include Changing Citizenship: Democracy and Inclusion in Education (Open University Press, 2005) co-written with Hugh Starkey. In 2007 she was a visiting scholar at the University of Washington in Seattle.

    Farid Panjwani is Senior Instructor at the Institute for the Study of Muslim Civilisations of the Aga Khan University in London.

    Marianna Papastephanou is Assistant Professor in the Department of Education, University of Cyprus. She completed her undergraduate studies at the University of Crete (Department of Philosophy and Social Studies 1992); graduate studies at the University of Cardiff, UK (PhD in Philosophy, 1996) and at Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany (1994). She has worked as a part-time Lecturer (1995-1996) and Associate Lecturer (1996-1997) at the University of Cardiff. Her research interests are: Modernism, Postmodernism and Philosophy of Education, Cognitive interests, Theories of Subjectivity, Language, Culture and the ensuing educational implications, and Social and Critical Theory of the Frankfurt School.

    Lynne Parmenter works as a professor in the School of Culture, Media and Society of Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan. She has lived and worked in Japan for the past 14 years, teaching at high school and university levels. Her main research interest is in global citizenship education, and she also carries out research in the areas of foreign language education and comparative education policy.

    Graham Pike is Professor and Dean of Education at the University of Prince Edward Island, Canada where he teaches global and international education. He has directed many projects in environmental education, global education and human rights education, in partnership with government and non-governmental organizations. As a consultant he has visited more than 20 countries, including substantial work for UNICEF on school improvement projects in the Middle East and Eastern Europe. He has written extensively on global education, including ten co-authored books for teachers. He is the 2006 winner of the Award for Innovation in International Education, given by the Canadian Bureau for International Education.

    Murray Print is Director of the Centre for Research and Teaching in Civics and Professor of Education, University of Sydney. He is a recognized leader in Civic Education and Curriculum Development within Australia and internationally. He has directed many projects in civics including Values, Policy and Civics Education in the Asia-Pacific Region; Civics Education Assessment and Benchmarking; the Consortium Project in Civics and Citizenship Education; the first phase of the IEA International Civics Study; and most recently a major ARC-funded project on youth participation in democracy. He is Vice President of Civitas International, an international civic education organization.

    Alan Reid is Professor of Education at the University of South Australia, and Director of the Concentration for Research in Education, Equity and Work (CREEW) in the Hawke Research Institute for Sustainable Societies. His research interests include educational policy, curriculum change, social justice and education, citizenship education and the history and politics of public education.

    Alistair Ross is Professor of Education at London Metropolitan University, where he directs the Institute for Policy Studies in Education. He co-ordinates the Childrens Identity and Citizenship in Europe Erasmus Thematic network. His research interests are in social justice and equity in education, childrens social and political learning, teachers and their careers, and access to higher education.

    Alan Sears is Professor of Social Studies Education and a member of the Citizenship Education Research and Development Group at the University of New Brunswick, Canada. He has been a social studies teacher for more than 25 years working at all levels from primary to graduate school. Professor Sears teaches undergraduate courses in social studies education and graduate courses in research methods and educational policy and regularly supervise PhD and MEd students. He has published widely in social studies and citizenship education and is the Chief Regional Editor for Canada for the journal, Citizenship Teaching and Learning.

    Daniel Schugurensky is Associate Professor in the Department of Adult Education and Counselling Psychology, University of Ontario, Canada.

    Alan Smith is the UNESCO Chair in Education at University of Ulster (Coleraine) in Northern Ireland. He is currently the Director of the ESRC Values and Teacher Education Policy in Northern Ireland Project and leading the evaluation of the Introduction of Citizenship to the Curriculum in Northern Ireland for CCEA. He has undertaken numerous consultancies in the UK, Europe and internationally and published and lectured widely in the field of citizenship and human rights education.

    Hugh Starkey is Reader of Education at the University of London Institute of Education. He has published widely on human rights education and intercultural education. He has acted as expert to and undertaken research for the Council of Europe, European Commission and UNESCO.

    Vanita Sundaram is Lecturer in Education at the University of York. Her current area of research is students perceptions of fairness (equity). This includes how students learn and experience justice in different educational contexts, how these notions and experiences may differ between and within groups of students, and the link to perceptions of justice in a wider, societal context. Also of interest is the formation of gender and sexual identities in school and young peoples understanding of sexual rights as taught through the Citizenship curriculum.

    Kazuya Taniguchi is a professor at Tohoku University, Japan.

    Bernard Trafford has been Head of Wolverhampton Grammar School, UK, since 1990. From September 2008 he takes up the Headship of the Royal Grammar School, Newcastle upon Tyne. He is 2007/2008 Chairman of the Headmasters and Headmistresses Conference also Chair of Trustees of School Councils UK. He writes and speaks widely on school/student councils and childrens rights in education. He has recently been advising the UK government on Citizenship and Participation and has co-written a manual on the democratic governance of schools for the Council of Europe. His doctoral research charted the changes within his school as it adopted a democratic, power-sharing ethos.

    Christine Twine has recently retired from her post as Education for Citizenship Development Officer for Learning and Teaching Scotland (LT Scotland) based in Glasgow. She has been closely involved in education for citizenship developments in Scotland over the past decade. She has overseen the production of numerous guidance and resources for all sectors of education and has been instrumental in bringing the Scottish Framework for Education for Citizenship to life. She has also contributed to a number of European collaborative projects concerning citizenship and human rights education.

    Cynthia A. Tyson is an associate professor at Ohio State University, USA. Her research interests focus on the development of culturally relevant teaching and the use of childrens literature in early childhood social studies/civic education. She has worked as an educational consultant both nationally and internationally exploring frameworks for teaching for social justice. She has presented numerous papers at national and international meetings including NCSS and the affiliate College University Faculty Assembly (CUFA). Dr. Tyson is the Chair of the NCSS Social Justice Committee. She has scholarly work in Theory and Research in Social Education, Social Education, Social Studies and the Young Learner, Educational Researcher and other books and journals.

    Lew Zipin lectures in sociology and policy of education at the University of South Australia, where he is key researcher in the Centre for Studies of Literacy, Policy and Learning Culture within the Hawke Research Institute for Sustainable Societies. His research interests include critical theories of power in education; issues of policy, governance, work and ethics in schools and higher education, and education for social justice.


    The editors would like to thank Helen Fairlie at Sage for all her support. We would especially like to thank warmly Roma Woodward and Elizabeth Melville who have helped us manage this project through all the stages of production. Their assistance and expertise have been invaluable and we are most grateful and appreciative of their significant contribution.

    James Banks would like to thank the publishers Kappa Delta Pi, International Honor Society in Education, for allowing him to reproduce material that appeared in The Educational Forum journal, Volume 68, Summer 2004.

    Penny Enslin and Joseph Divala would like to thank Nicki Hedge for her advice in the preparation of their chapter.

    Carole Hahn would like to thank the following people who reviewed her chapter and offered helpful suggestions: Diana Hess, University of Wisconsin; Peter Levine, Director of CIRCLE (Center for Information and Research on Civic Learning and Education); Walter Parker, University of Washington; and Judith Torney-Purta, University of Maryland.

    Lee Jerome would like to thank Bhavini Algarra for helpful comments on a draft of his chapter and Terry Pickeral for drawing his attention to the assessment work being developed by the National Center for Learning and Citizenship.

    Martina Klicperova-Baker would like to thank the Grant Agency of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic for supporting her research project # IAA7025303 Democratic ethos: Social Psychological Analysis and Intercultural Empirical Probes, and the following expert reviewers: Antonn Stank, Univerzita Palackho, Czech Republic; Ivo K. Feierabend, San Diego State University, USA.

    Audrey Oslers contribution draws on material first published as Osler, A. (2008) Human rights education and education for democratic citizenship, in: C. Mahler., A. Mihr and R. Toivanen (eds.) The United Nations Decade for Human Rights Education and the Inclusion of National Minorities. Frankfurt: Peter Lang Verlag. She would like to thank the editors for allowing her to re-use this material.

    Marianna Papastephanou wishes to thank the editors of the Journal of Philosophy of Education for permission to use material that first appeared in Volume 39, Number 3 of that journal.

    Graham Pike would like to acknowledge Maryam Wagners assistance in preparing his chapter and to thank Deborah Hutton and Merry Merryfield for their insights into recent developments in the US.

    Alan Sears and Andy Hughes would like to thank the following people for their contribution in reviewing their chapter on Canada: William Hatley, MA. Student, Faculty of Education, University of Calgary; Barbara Hillman, University of New Brunswick; Emery Hyslop-Margison, University of New Brunswick; Yvonne Hbert, University of Calgary; Jennifer Tupper, University of Regina.


    Thirty years ago a handbook reviewing political socialization research through the mid-1970s was issued. The authors of the chapters were almost all political scientists from the US, and they were preoccupied with debating which agent of socialization was the most important. Was it the family, the peer group, the school, or the mass media? Little attention was given to learning processes or developmental processes that might characterize these contexts or to influential people in them. Psychological approaches received some attention. Empirical findings from the multi-method study of a large US sample of elementary school students, conducted in the 1960s at the University of Chicago by Robert Hess and myself, were referenced. The other psychologists mentioned, such as Piaget and Kohlberg, were recognized for their broad theories that could be applied to the political or civic domain. Only one of the 15 authors of this handbook suggested ways to improve education for citizenship. The concept of democracy was implicit rather than explicit, appearing just once in the index.

    The mid-seventies was the last time for nearly two decades that substantial research attention was given to political socialization or citizenship education in the US (or other countries). For example, the release of results from the first IEA Civic Education Study reporting on 30,000 students tested in 1972 in 9 countries received little attention. Its most interesting finding was that students whose classes encouraged discussion of issues had higher scores on civic knowledge and were less authoritarian than other students, even after a variety of other factors were controlled. Perhaps because political scientists were not comfortable working in schools or with young people who couldnt be expected to make rational choices, these scholars turned their attention to other age groups and issues. The field of political psychology developed during this period, but it has remained largely the province of social and personality psychologists, most of whom are more interested in studying university students rather than younger subjects.

    It took the fall of the Soviet Empire in one part of Europe and distressing levels of political disengagement in other parts of Europe and North America in the early 1990s to bring political socialization and education for citizenship back to the forefront of concern. Young people in post-Communist Europe represented a new generation needing preparation for democracy, and their parents and teachers were not well-equipped to undertake this task. Educators from North America and Scandinavia enthusiastically proposed citizenship education programs, sometimes with and sometimes without opportunities to reflect on assumptions or evaluate results.

    The IEA Civic Education Study (also called the second IEA study or the CIVED Study) was begun at about this time. IEA is a consortium of educational research institutes established in 1957, with headquarters in Amsterdam. In 1993 members of the IEA General Assembly requested a study to examine the role of schools in preparing young people for democracy. I served as the International Steering Committee Chair for this study working with the International Coordinating Center at the Humboldt University of Berlin. I will not review the findings here; they are available in reports and articles on the web, and are referred to in chapters in this book. Some features of the design of this study are relevant, however.

    First, 11 of the 29 countries participating in the study were from Central or Eastern Europe. Because so little was known about how these newly democratic countries would approach a renewal of citizenship education, the CIVED study was conducted in two phases. The first phase was an exploration of what was expected of 14-year-old people in this domain. This was accomplished through chapter-length case studies assessing the content, context and processes of citizenship education in 24 countries, published by IEA in 1999.

    Second, the study was conducted as an international collaborative effort in which participating national research co-ordinators provided input to the conceptual framework for the test and survey. The items and scales included in the testing of 140,000 adolescents in 29 countries during the studys second phase were also vetted by these national co-ordinators. These results were published in 2001 and 2002. A recent survey of the process of international collaboration in 26 social and behavioral science projects found that the IEAs structures, honed through decades of experience, were effective in ensuring rigor while incorporating countries views.

    Third, because it is the IEAs policy to release the original data from students, teachers, and schools, considerable secondary analysis has been undertaken by teams in different countries, ranging from studies of active citizenship in Europe to analysis of civic knowledge and attitudes of disenfranchised groups in North America and Scandinavia. A number of chapters in this volume include primary or secondary analyses of these data.

    Fourth, the IEA study began during a period of enhanced interest in education for citizenship among policy makers and the public in many countries of the world. This meant that emerging scholars who participated in the study in their own country could find support for continuing work in this area, and several are authors of chapters in this volume.

    I have traced this context in some detail because it suggests that this is a propitious moment for an assessment of the state of the art in citizenship education in relation to democracy and thus for the publication of this handbook. The volume is unique in a number of ways in comparison to those of the past. Among its authors are specialists in political studies, sociologists, philosophers, and curriculum specialists, as well as individuals familiar with learning and psychological processes and with the preparation of teachers. There is material for those interested in furthering research, in debating policy, in improving programs design or materials, and in enhancing educators pedagogical skill.

    In contrast to earlier handbooks where US scholars predominated, authors from three other English speaking countries,(Australia, Canada, and the UK) are well represented here. In addition to providing information about their own countrys trajectory of political socialization and citizenship education for the past decade, these authors grapple with the conceptual foundations of civic education in relation to democracy, with approaches that draw on several disciplines, with research conducted using qualitative as well as quantitative methods, and with a diversity of perspectives (from marginalized groups as well as political elites). In describing country-level programs and concrete challenges, scholars from a number of other countries have contributed their insights. Thus the work has the character of an international collaboration focused on concepts and issues rather than a collection of unrelated descriptions of national programs.

    In addition to the representation of different perspectives, a distinct strength of this volume is that the authors go beyond slogans or accepted truisms to grapple with issues that are contested but benefit from being addressed from different viewpoints. It is notable, for example, that themes related to equity are discussed not only in the chapter with that title in the foundational section but are also elaborated in other chapters in that section, in several of the chapters in the section dealing with specific countries, and in the section on pedagogy when the focus is on the discussion of controversial issues. The chapter on globalization as a foundational concept relates in several ways to the chapter on global education as a form of citizenship education, and both hold up the issue to consider its different facets. A critique of ideological assumptions is central in a chapter focused on this topic, and is also echoed elsewhere in the volume.

    The chapters on specific countries call attention to the role of national and local context, suggesting caveats on the general prescriptive statements that so often characterize this field. The voices and perspectives of students are taken into account on topics such as the meaning of equity and of political discussion, rather than assuming that there is a barrier-free channel between elaborate statements of goals in a curriculum and the realities of students understanding. The authors expand our grasp of the important issues without becoming vague and insubstantial. The chapters are constructive without becoming a detailed manual for classroom activities.

    In short, I recommend the volume to a wide range of readers for its breadth of vision and success in moving the field forward. I hope we will not wait another 30 years to refine and test these ideas in the real world of political and educational controversy and in the actions of teachers and their students.

    Judith Torney-Purta, PhD,

    Professor of Human Development,

    University of Maryland (College Park), USA

    Judith Torney-Purta PhD, is a developmental and educational psychologist who is Professor of Human Development in the College of Education at the University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, 20742, US. In 2005 she won the national Decade of Behavior Research Award in Democracy and the University of Marylands Landmark International Research Award.


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