The SAGE Handbook of Curriculum and Instruction
Publication Year: 2008
Subject: Curriculum & Content (general)
The SAGE Handbook of Curriculum and Instruction is the first book in 15 years to comprehensively cover the field of curriculum and instruction. Editors F. Michael Connelly, Ming Fang He, and JoAnn Phillion, along with contributors from around the world, synthesize the diverse, real-world matters that define the field. This long-awaited Handbook aims to advance the study of curriculum and instruction by re-establishing continuity within the field while acknowledging its practical, contextual, and theoretical diversity.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
Part I: Curriculum in Practice
- Section A: Making Curriculum
- Chapter 1: Curriculum Policy and the Politics of what Should be Learned in Schools
- Chapter 2: Curriculum Planning: Content, form, and the Politics of Accountability
- Chapter 3: Making Curricula: Why do States Make Curricula, and How?
- Chapter 4: Subject Matter: Defining and Theorizing School Subjects
- Section B: Managing Curriculum
- Chapter 5: Structuring Curriculum: Technical, Normative, and Political Considerations
- Chapter 6: Curriculum Implementation and Sustainability
- Chapter 7: Technology's Role in Curriculum and Instruction
Part II: Curriculum in Context
- Section C: Diversifying Curriculum
- Chapter 8: Curriculum and Cultural Diversity
- Chapter 9: Identity, Community, and Diversity: Retheorizing Multicultural Curriculum for the Postmodern Era
- Chapter 10: Students' Experience of School Curriculum: The Everyday Circumstances of Granting and Withholding Assent to Learn
- Chapter 11: Immigrant Students' Experience of Curriculum
- Chapter 12: Teaching for Diversity: The Next Big Challenge
- Section D: Teaching Curriculum
- Chapter 13: Teacher Education as a Bridge? Unpacking Curriculum Controversies
- Chapter 14: Cultivating the Image of Teachers as Curriculum Makers
- Chapter 15: Teachers' Experience of Curriculum: Policy, Pedagogy, and Situation
- Section E: Internationalizing Curriculum
- Chapter 16: Indigenous Resistance and Renewal from Colonizing Practices to Self-Determination
- Chapter 17: Globalization and Curriculum
- Chapter 18: Community Education in Developing Countries: The Quiet Revolution in Schooling
Part III: Curriculum in Theory
- Section F: Inquiring into Curriculum
- Chapter 19: Curriculum Inquiry
- Chapter 20: Curriculum Policy Research
- Chapter 21: Hidden Research in Curriculum
- Chapter 22: Reenvisioning the Progressive Tradition in Curriculum
- Chapter 23: What the Schools Teach: A Social History of the American Curriculum since 1950
- Chapter 24: Curriculum Development in Historical Perspective
- Chapter 25: Curriculum Theory since 1950: Crisis, Reconceptualization, Internationalization
- Chapter 26: The Landscape of Curriculum and Instruction: Diversity and Continuity
The SAGE Handbook of Curriculum and Instruction is the first book in 15 years to comprehensively cover the field of curriculum and instruction. Editors F. Michael Connelly, Ming Fang He, and JoAnn Phillion, along with contributors from around the world, synthesize the diverse, real-world matters that define the field. This long-awaited Handbook aims to advance the study of curriculum and instruction by re-establishing continuity within the field while acknowledging its practical, contextual, and theoretical diversity.
Copyright © 2008 by Sage Publications, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Sage Publications, Inc.
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320
Sage Publications Ltd.
1 Oliver's Yard
55 City Road
London, EC1Y 1SP
Sage Publications India Pvt. Ltd.
B 1/I 1 Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area
Mathura Road, New Delhi 110 044
Sage Publications Asia-Pacific Pte. Ltd.
33 Pekin Street #02-01
Far East Square
Printed in the United States of America
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Connelly, F. Michael.
The SAGE handbook of curriculum and instruction/F. Michael Connelly, Ming Fang He, JoAnn Phillion.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-1-4129-0990-7 (cloth)
1. Curriculum planning. 2. Education and state. I. He, Ming Fang. II. Phillion, JoAnn. III. Title.
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
07 08 09 10 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Acquiring Editor: Diane McDaniel
Editorial Assistant: Ashley Plummer
Production Editor: Sarah K. Quesenberry
Copy Editor: Renee Willers
Typesetter: C&M Digitals (P) Ltd.
Proofreader: Carole Quandt
Indexer: Julie Grayson
Cover Designer: Janet Foulger
Marketing Manager: Nichole Angress
Editorial Advisory Board
Editorial Advisory Board
Michael W. Apple, John Bascom Professor of Curriculum and Instruction and Educational Policy Studies, Department of Curriculum and Instruction, University of Wisconsin–Madison, United States
Yin Cheong Cheng, Professor, Editor, Asia Pacific Journal of Teacher Education and Development, Hong Kong Institute of Education, Hong Kong
Larry Cuban, Professor Emeritus of Education, School of Education, Stanford University, United States
Linda Darling-Hammond, Charles E. Ducommun Professor, School of Education, Stanford University, United States
Donna Deyhle, Professor of Education, Department of Education, Culture and Society, University of Utah, United States
Freema Elbaz-Luwisch, Senior Lecturer, Faculty of Education, University of Haifa, Israel
Ding Gang, Professor and Dean, School of Education Science, East China Normal University, China
Jesse Goodman, Professor of Education, Department of Curriculum and Instruction, Indiana University, United States
Ruth Hayhoe, Professor of Higher Education, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, Canada
Philip W. Jackson, David Lee Shillinglaw Distinguished Service Professor, Department of Education, University of Chicago, United States
Gloria J. Ladson-Billings, H. I. Romnes Fellow, Department of Curriculum and Instruction, University of Wisconsin Madison, United States
Colin Marsh, Professor, Department of Education, Curtin University, Editor Curriculum Perspectives (Journal of the Australian Curriculum Studies Association), Australia
William F. Pinar, Professor, Canada Research Chair, Department of Curriculum, University of British Columbia, Canada
Margaret Placier, Associate Professor of Education, Policy Studies Educational Leadership and Policy Analysis, University of Missouri-Columbia, United States
William H. Schubert, Professor of Curriculum and Instruction, College of Education, University of Illinois at Chicago, United States
Dennis Thiessen, Professor and Chair, Department of Curriculum, Teaching, and Learning, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, Canada
Sofia Villenas, Associate Professor, Department of Curriculum and Instruction, The University of Texas at Austin, United States
Ian Westbury, Professor of Curriculum and Instruction, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, United States
Malak Zaalouk, Education Adviser, UNICEF MENA Regional Office, Middle East and North Africa, Jordan
The editorial process involved many people who contributed to the final product and without whom this would be a very different document. The SAGE Handbook of Curriculum and Instruction is the result of a steady stream of consultation with scholars both in and out of the field of curriculum studies. Errors and omissions are, of course, our responsibility. However, to the extent that this handbook may be said to fairly reflect the diversity of practice and thought in the field and to represent established and more junior scholars and scholarship, much is owed to those who offered their ideas, advice, and suggestions. So many people have had a hand in shaping this document that our comments here are restricted to those in appointed roles. To attempt to list all those who have offered useful, wise counsel beyond this list would surely leave out many.
Several people have played special roles in helping us to pull this handbook together. Phil Jackson, editor of the 1992 Handbook of Research on Curriculum: A Project of the American Educational Research Association, graciously interrupted his project on Dewey and Hegel to discuss this handbook. Ian Westbury's contribution was immense, and it is difficult to disentangle his role as Part I Editor from his de facto role as an overall handbook editor. Few people have his depth of scholarship combined with his broad, international understanding of the field. Ian Westbury was colleague, critic, consultant, and manuscript editor. Bill Schubert, a curriculum historian and supporter of diverse streams of thought, offered helpful advice throughout. Ruth Hayhoe, a prominent China scholar and former member of the Canadian Embassy in Beijing, offered comment and advice on international, global, and comparative aspects of curriculum studies. The Narrative Inquiry Community, a colloquium group in the Department of Curriculum Teaching and Learning at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, was a sounding board from the beginning as the idea of this handbook turned into a concrete document.
Gary Pyper was indispensable in setting up the computer file system and for developing an activities flow chart. The details of establishing contractual contacts with authors were carried out with efficiency by Candace Schlein. One piece of advice that the editors can confidently recommend is that anyone taking on a task of this sort should have the kind of file system and flow chart prepared by Pyper, and the sort of intelligent, energetic support provided by Schlein. The Sage staff was extraordinary. One sometimes wonders why authors credit their commercial publishing house editors. Now we know why. Dr. Diane McDaniel initiated the project within Sage and contacted Michael Connelly as possible editor. One of the hesitations in taking on the task had to do with the publisher's role in a massive and uncertain undertaking such as this. Following rather lengthy discussions it became clear that Diane was committed to seeing the project through, which was no small commitment with the almost daily changing faces in some publishers' offices. She was supportive, highly task-oriented, and responsive. The Sage staff members Diane assigned to work with us were professional, knowledgeable, efficient, and always quick to respond. Overall, this was a fine working relationship with the publisher.
Introduction: Planning The Handbook: Practice, Context, and Theory[Page ix]The Landscape of Curriculum and Instruction
Curriculum and instruction refers to one of the largest and most diverse set of activities within the field of education. Many universities and colleges have departments and programs of curriculum and instruction, and there are state, provincial, and school board divisions and departments of curriculum and/or instruction. The study of the immense range of activities covered by curriculum and instruction defines the field of curriculum studies. The scope of curriculum and instruction activities is so broad that it consists of a diverse array of established academic and practical communities of subfields and specializations.
So broad is the practical, public display of concerns of curriculum and instruction and of its sub-fields and specializations that it encompasses almost the entire range of educational thought. Disentangling what is purely curriculum from what is education more generally is difficult. Ultimately, curriculum and instruction is delimited by configurations of factors, which Schwab (1960) called commonplaces, acting together in practical, real world environments. The significance of the breadth and practical relevance of curriculum and instruction is that these matters are central to educational thought and are never far from practical, political, policy, and public discussions in education.
Broadly speaking, the practical communities of subfields and specializations may be thought of as falling into three main areas: curriculum subject matters (e.g., history, mathematics, sex education), topics (e.g., antiracism, gender, indigenous education) and preoccupations (e.g., curriculum evaluation, curriculum implementation), and general curriculum or curriculum theory. This breakdown, without the latter general curriculum or curriculum theory area, more or less reflects [Page x]the curriculum structure and preoccupations of the schools. There are, of course, positions in university curriculum and instruction departments that have no counterpart in the schools. But when they exist, for instance, as a position in curriculum evaluation, equity, multicultural curriculum, or urban education, they are there because of practical realities in the schools, because of community and public concerns, or because of a combination of both. The landscape of practice drives the metalevel organizational structure and inquiry in curriculum and instruction. There can be little doubt from reading the literature that practical topics are revealed, understood, shaped, and sometimes improved by theoretical application and critique. But theory is not the principal source of practice and institutional organization. Practice and public concern are the ground and justification for university departments of curriculum and instruction and for the research and teaching pursued there. The university's curriculum structure and work originates in practice and is ultimately justified in practical and public terms. Justification, of course, comes in many forms, ranging from cooperative partnership to sharp critique.
Organizationally, the set of subfields and specializations are held together more by the idea of curriculum and instruction than by the scholarly bonds of a field of close colleagues with common academic interests in the form of conferences, journals, and other accoutrements of collegiality. This situation is seen in schools where teachers of different subjects and topics may belong to different professional societies, attend different professional development day activities and conferences, subscribe to different professional magazines, and so on. Likewise, in colleges and universities, members of a curriculum or curriculum and instruction department will rarely travel, meet, or work together except for general curriculum department considerations, such as staffing, program considerations, university and professional certification reviews, and social events. Apart from these general activities, departmental members may have relatively independent professional career trajectories.
The field of curriculum studies and the meaning of the term curriculum continues to undergo the significant growth noted by Jackson (1992) for the English language literature. This growth is related to the expanding range of practical, policy, and political matters in educational thought more generally; to the nature and quality of public discourse; and to expanding philosophical and methodological possibilities (Green, Camilli, & Elmore, 2006; Short, 1991) originating in the social sciences, humanities, and arts. In the curriculum studies research literature, this expansion is most noticeable in the expanding diversity of practical subject matters and in the topics and preoccupations that are studied. Curriculum subject matter areas (science education and social studies education) and topics and preoccupations (reading, textbooks, language learning, antiracism, gender, achievement, and equity) are increasingly studied with a rich and nuanced assortment of methodologies, conceptual analyses, philosophical perspectives, and political and/or social considerations. Once nonexistent or small practical curriculum areas are now often considered fields of their own with conferences, journals, and books replete with competing academic and ideological outlooks.
Banks and Banks (2004), for instance, edited the massive 49-chapter Handbook of Research on Multicultural Education, a larger volume than this handbook of curriculum and instruction, for which multicultural curriculum is one of its topics. Banks and Banks show that multicultural education was linked to late 19th century and early 20th century African American scholarship and to the curriculum reform movement of the 1930s, but it was not until the impact of the civil rights movement in the 1960s and 1970s that this topic came into its own. Multicultural education has become an important part of educational studies in general and also an important part of curriculum studies as it appears in this handbook. Likewise, in recent years, curriculum and instruction has branched out into other areas in response to the diversification of cultures, languages, communications, economies, ecological systems, and ways of living in countries, locales, and inevitably in schools and in research related to curriculum and instruction. This intricate diversity poses both opportunities and challenges to all curricular stakeholders, such as teachers, parents, students, administrators, and curricular policymakers, in terms of finding new, multiple, and eclectic ways of making curriculum, managing curriculum, diversifying curriculum, teaching curriculum, internationalizing curriculum, and inquiring into curriculum.
Moreover, the diversity of inquiry in curriculum subject matter areas and in the topics and preoccupations is further enriched by the application of a wide array of alternative theoretical [Page xi]possibilities infusing the intellectual arena from the social sciences, humanities, arts, and sciences. So expansive is this diversity, that favored and established theoretical sources in one topic may be mostly unknown or perhaps supplanted by competing theoretical positions in a related topic or preoccupation. This growth of practical diversity and range of available theoretical resources is now one of the curriculum and instruction field's most noticeable features. Moreover, comparative, cross-cultural, and multicultural curriculum studies are bringing forward different ways of knowing and being, which challenge taken for granted forms of logic, practice and theory, and rationality. In addition to these developments, the general curriculum or curriculum theory area has also been influenced by the social sciences, humanities, arts, and sciences. Here, too, there is a diverse array of writings, some with practical connections to curriculum subject matters and to the topics and preoccupations, and some concerned with more abstract matters.Assessing the Need for a Handbook
The breadth of the curriculum and instruction field and the diversity of its curriculum subject matters and topics and preoccupations presented the greatest challenge to conceptualizing and planning this handbook. As we began the initial stages of organizing the structure of this handbook, we wondered, “Was such an undertaking feasible?” To include all possible curriculum subject matters, topics and preoccupations, and general curriculum or curriculum theory positions would result in an index rather than a handbook. Accordingly, the task was one of finding a way to represent this imaginary index with an inclusive concept and framework. There is important precedence with several publications claiming a Handbook of Curriculum title. The classic, standard-setting document is Jackson's (1992) Handbook of Research on Curriculum: A Project of the American Educational Research Association. Over 50 scholars in diverse areas are represented in that handbook's author list. The Jackson handbook was important to our thinking.
In determining the need for a new handbook, we canvassed a cross section of curriculum scholars by letter, e-mail, telephone, and video conference. Strong support for the significance and impact of the Jackson handbook (1992) was expressed. There was also recognition of the need for a new handbook that acknowledges the increasing practical diversity and complexity of the field's subject matters and topics and preoccupations. In addition, we undertook a literature review of curriculum journals for the period 1992–2005. This review reflected our interest in published research in curriculum and instruction and our attempt to size up developments in the field following the Jackson handbook. We paid special attention to published reviews of the Jackson handbook and to commentary on the overall state of the field of curriculum studies. The results of the canvas, the reviews of the Jackson handbook, journal reviews, and reviews of the state of the field revealed six matters that needed to be addressed in a new handbook: (1) a working vision or conceptualization of the field that respects its diversity; (2) a comprehensive and inclusive set of authors, ideas, and topics; (3) an international, global, and comparative outlook; (4) a target audience of curriculum and instruction practitioners as well as graduate students and university researchers; (5) a focus on post-1992 curriculum policy, practice, and scholarship; and (6) a representation of curriculum subject matters without covering specific subjects.Vision and Conception of the Field: Addressing the Six Needs
The first two handbook needs, conceptualization of the field and inclusiveness, are closely related. A conceptualization of the field that respects its diversity will be comprehensive and will include authors with widely different views. Our first thought was that the literature of curriculum theory might be the place to find inclusive conceptualizations. This literature was helpful to some extent. Reading this literature reveals a multiplicity of viewpoints, many of which could serve as a possible starting point for conceptualizing this handbook: social, political, philosophical, moral, historical, spiritual, theological, ecological, critical, epistemological, experiential, and others. Attractive as any one of these might be, there is a built-in exclusiveness to each that would, at the very least, result in other views being read through a particular lens if such were chosen to organize this handbook. Nevertheless, all of these views need to be welcome in this handbook's conception.
As we thought about this matter, we realized that any conception for this handbook other [Page xii]than perhaps an alphabetized list of topics would give shape to the field and would, therefore, not be neutral with respect to other conceptual possibilities. Accordingly, our effort became one of advancing a conception of curriculum that was as inviting and inclusive as possible and then of making our view as transparent as possible. The remainder of this section serves this purpose.Comprehensive and Inclusive
We see curriculum and instruction as multidimensional and engaged in a dynamic interplay between practice, context, and theory. This dialogue shapes and is shaped by the experiences of curriculum stakeholders, such as students, parents, teachers, educators, curriculum policymakers, and administrators. In its broadest sense, this handbook emerges from a concept of curriculum and instruction as a diverse and complex landscape defined and bounded by schools, school boards, and their communities as well as by policies, preservice and inservice teacher education, public and political discourse, and academic research. While the Jackson handbook (1992) was driven by the latter, this handbook is oriented to practical places on the landscape, such as the topics and preoccupations of schools, societies, and governments. We think of curriculum primarily as a set of practical activities for which any and all research and theoretical positions that might apply to a curriculum problem, puzzle, or difficulty are considered. The starting point is practice and its needs; and while this may seem to some to state the obvious, it is important to note given the possible eminence that may be and sometimes is assigned to theory. We intend that this handbook's content be recognizable by curriculum practitioners as well as by curriculum researchers. Our hope is that both practitioners and researchers will see their interests reflected in this handbook's overall goal of bringing forward the practical and theoretical diversity, complexity, and vitality of the field of curriculum and instruction.International, Global, and Comparative
Historically as cultures and societies intermingled, education and what in parts of the West is called curriculum were influenced. The broad question addressed in this handbook is, “What happens when cultures meet and curricula are intermingled?” The study of these influences has tended to occur in fields other than curriculum, such as philosophy, history, sociology, and anthropology. There have, however, been international comparative curriculum studies and organizations. This handbook is designed to bring these initiatives up-to-date and to increase the prominence of comparative curriculum studies.Practitioner and Researcher Audiences
The intended audience—the practitioner, policymaker, and researcher—reflects the conceptualization of the field as a landscape of places, situated in context, where different kinds of curricula are enacted by school practitioners and teacher educators, where public educational debate is expressed in curriculum terms and reflected in state and system policies, and where research and theory eclectically connects with these matters. We are aware that it is likely that graduate students, teacher educators, and curriculum researchers will be this handbook's principal readers, but we want the world of practical curriculum as seen in schools, public discourse, and policymaking to be the starting point and ground of this handbook. With this in mind, we intend that curriculum practitioners will find this handbook recognizable, dealing with topics and preoccupations that directly relate to their practical world of curriculum.Changes in the Field since 1992
The curriculum field as defined by curriculum subject matter, topics and preoccupations, and theoretical writing has been active since the Jackson handbook (1992). That handbook is a key document in the field. This current handbook focuses on post-1992 changes in practice, policy, and scholarship. Restricting chapters solely to this time period would unnecessarily interrupt the temporal flow of events. However, to the extent possible, developments since 1992 in the topics and preoccupations of curriculum studies as well as in its theory are brought forward.Representing Curriculum Subject Matter
Part I of this handbook, “Curriculum in Practice,” is devoted to practical matters in which issues across different school subject matters are addressed. While Section A in Part I deals with important issues in the making of curriculum, there are no subject matter specific chapters. Readers of this handbook interested in [Page xiii]curriculum studies as a whole need to be aware that specific curriculum subject matters, such as social studies, reading, and mathematics are not treated. Nevertheless, the idea of subject matter in the curriculum is directly addressed in one chapter and found in others.From Identified Needs to Handbook Structure
A preliminary handbook prospectus built around the above considerations was circulated to the 18 scholars who comprise this handbook's editorial advisory board. These scholars, who represent a cross section of diverse interests and scholarly pursuits in the field, were consulted on the need for this Handbook and on its direction; their views were incorporated into the development of The SAGE Handbook of Curriculum and Instruction.
Moving from the initial review and resulting six needs for a new handbook, we undertook several conceptual initiatives and refinements of the original six needs. We began by concentrating on the idea of recognizability. Recognizability is rarely an issue for researchers when research is being reviewed and drawn forward, but it is an issue for policymakers and practitioners who want to know what is happening in the world of research relative to their concerns. We grappled with this question by asking ourselves what it is that curriculum people actually do. We wondered if it would be possible to structure this handbook in a way that reflects curriculum work and that makes it possible to draw research together under these activities. As a result, three rather simple notions governed our thinking behind the final structure of this handbook: verbs representing curriculum work (e.g., making curriculum), the grounding of curriculum studies in practice, and the notion of experience.
Starting with a practical conception of curriculum focused on the experience of curriculum as it appears in schools, policy discussion, and public discourse rather than with reflective theoretical thought about it led us to structure this handbook from practice to theory rather than the other way around. Thus, The SAGE Handbook of Curriculum and Instruction is divided into three parts: Part I: Curriculum in Practice, Part II: Curriculum in Context, and Part III: Curriculum in Theory. This structure is intended as a symbol of how this complex field is given life and moves forward. We see curriculum as ongoing in schools and in state and provincial departments day by day, and we see it in daily public discourse in the media, political campaigns, and in professional organizations. Curriculum is visible in practical and public venues. We wanted to place this sense up front and to craft this handbook in such a way that the field's most obvious, visible features would be in the foreground. Abstract, theoretical thought could then be seen as eclectically taking its place as appropriate to these visible features of the curriculum landscape and its context.
This three-part structure should not be made more of than is intended by its symbolic representation of the field's central logic of resting upon and being grounded in the concrete practical activity called curriculum. We might as easily have used a two-part structure of practice and theory or even have reversed the part order, giving an appropriate codicil to our reasoning. We might also have used a different orienting language: curriculum practice, curriculum context, and curriculum theory rather than inserting in to each part title (e.g., “Curriculum in Practice”). Again, though it could have been otherwise, we chose this linguistic form to symbolically avoid one of the field's worries, which is that the form of theoretical writing called curriculum theory could become somewhat independent of curriculum, as if curriculum theory were a field unto itself and curriculum practice yet another field. Our linguistic use of in is an attempt to convey a sense that theoretical curriculum writing is part of curriculum as practiced, and that curriculum as practiced is conceptually enriched with added meaning when thought about in terms of context and theory.
The idea of experience and what curriculum people do led us to the verb structure that governs the naming of this handbook's six sections. As with our use of in, in the part titles, the use of verbs in the section titles, such as “Making Curriculum,” could be otherwise, but is deliberately used to convey a particular concept of the curriculum field as practical, namely an action form of the practical. One might find this organizational structure of doings in the field useful while thinking that a different set of doings than those used in this handbook more adequately represents the field. We are not wedded to the particular set of six doings, though we do think they provide a usefully comprehensive map of the field. Within the six sections and their included chapters used in this handbook are [Page xiv]four chapters on making curriculum and three chapters on managing curriculum in Part I: Curriculum in Practice; five chapters on diversifying curriculum, three chapters on teaching curriculum, and three chapters on internationalizing curriculum in Part II: Curriculum in Context; and eight chapters on inquiring into curriculum in Part III: Curriculum in Theory.The Editorial Process
The editorial process giving rise to the above considerations and handbook structure relied on an editorial advisory process. An editorial advisory board was appointed. Members were chosen primarily on the grounds of breadth of insight into the field and international interest and/or location. We consider ourselves particularly fortunate in having Philip Jackson on this board. Though Philip is well known for his scholarship, he is also known as a thoughtful, sometimes wry, observer and commentator on the field. He rises above a personal stance, and this is one of the reasons, no doubt, he was chosen to edit the Handbook of Research on Curriculum: A Project of the American Educational Research Association (1992). The board was involved in the process of defining and refining the purpose and scope of The SAGE Handbook of Curriculum and Instruction as found in our handbook prospectus. The board was also involved in suggesting authors and consulting authors.
The list of authors and coauthors is the result of a rather lengthy, thoughtful process. In addition to the large number of names suggested by the editorial advisory board, we independently scanned membership lists in relevant organizations, and we reviewed authorship in relevant journals, books, and professional magazines. Our process was to identify the first author and to invite and encourage that person to work with coauthors. The choice of coauthor was entirely up to the contacted author, though we encouraged the involvement of more junior scholars, including advanced doctoral candidates. We also suggested using coauthors with international experience and/or international knowledge of the relevant literature. In several cases the person we approached agreed to contribute to this handbook, but in a coauthored role, to which we readily agreed.
We gave a great deal of thought to the manuscript review process and sought advice on this matter from our editorial advisory board. Our decision was to appoint consulting authors for each chapter. There are advantages to a blind review process, but criticism, at the expense of manuscript improvement, can sometimes overshadow this procedure. Our purpose was to strengthen submitted manuscripts. As a result, our manuscript review process was an open one in which consulting authors gave their best critical advice on improving the manuscript, knowing that they would ultimately be identified with it. We believe the method was a good one. Though consulting authors were aware that their identities were revealed to the authors, strong comment was often offered—so much so that in one or two cases manuscripts were withdrawn or replaced. The result, we believe, is that The Handbook consists of a set of strong chapters.
Due to the extensiveness of the field of curriculum studies and because we wanted to explore diverse perspectives and meaning in each of this handbook's parts, we appointed part editors: Ian Westbury for Part I, Allan Luke for Part II, and William Schubert for Part III. These editors were chosen for their comprehensive grasp of curriculum and for their ability to step outside their own particular reference points to review the writing of others. Their editorial task was principally to write the introductory essay for each part. They were free to offer editorial comment on each chapter, something that was taken up from time to time. Moreover, we consulted with the part editors as our bank of authored texts grew and we were able to assess possible areas still needing attention. As a result, several chapters were commissioned at a later stage in the development of The Handbook.
Finally, we hope that readers will join us in seeing curriculum and instruction as a field grounded in practice and characterized by a continuous interaction among practice, context, and theory. This interplay is shaped by and shapes the experiences of diverse curriculum stakeholders—students, parents, teachers, educators, policymakers, administrators, teacher educators, and curriculum scholars. To understand and to participate effectively in this interplay, flexible deliberative methods and flexible application of ideas are needed, both of which are expressed in The Handbook. Every chapter in this handbook brings forward the best and most important research and theory relevant to that chapter's topic. The chapters are neither prescriptive “how to do it” chapters, nor are they [Page xv]polemical. Taken together, the set of chapters constitute a scholarly summary of research and theory within a practical framework designed to foster the advancement of the field of curriculum and instruction.ReferencesBanks, J. A., & Banks, C. A. M. (Eds.). (2004).Handbook of research on multicultural education (2nd ed.). San Francisco: John Wiley.Green, J. L., Camilli, G., & Elmore, P. B. (Eds.). (2006).Handbook of complementary methods in education research. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Jackson, P. W. (Ed.). (1992).Handbook of research on curriculum: A project of the American Educational Research Association. New York: Macmillan.(1960).The teaching of science as enquiry. In J. J. Schwab & P. F. Brandwein (Eds.), The teaching of science (pp. 3–103). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press..Short, E. C. (Ed.). (1991).Forms of curriculum inquiry. Albany: State University of New York Press.
About the Editors[Page 586]
F. Michael Connelly is Professor Emeritus at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education of University of Toronto (OISE/UT). He has written on science education, curriculum studies, teacher education and, with Jean Clandinin, narrative inquiry. He was cofounder and editor of Curriculum Inquiry, founding Director of the OISE/UT Center for Teacher Development, Director of the Canada Project, Second International Science Study, and Director of the Hong Kong Institute of Education/OISE/UT doctoral program. He has made teaching a priority, with many former students winning dissertation and research and teaching awards. He has worked with schools, school boards, and teacher organizations; and wrote policy papers for the Science Teachers Association of Ontario, the Ontario Teachers Federation, and the Ontario Ministry of Education. He received American Educational Research Association's (AERA.) Division B Lifetime Achievement Award, the Canadian Society for the Study of Education's Outstanding Canadian Curriculum Scholar Award, the Canadian Education Association Whitworth award, the Ontario Confederation of University Faculty Association's award for excellence in teaching, and other scholarly awards. He has worked internationally in human resource development, curriculum, teacher education, and community schools in Jordan, Egypt, and China. His long-term, ongoing, urban education research program in Bay Street Community School is supported by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada. He is currently studying the narrative histories of immigrant children's knowledge structures and ways of knowing as they interact with the Canadian school system. The work involves collaboration with selected Chinese schools and universities.
Ming Fang He is Associate Professor of Curriculum Studies at Georgia Southern University. She currently advises doctoral students, directs doctoral dissertations, and teaches graduate courses in curriculum studies, multicultural education, and qualitative research methods. Her preservice teacher education courses are in foundations of education. Most of her recent published work is on cross-cultural narrative inquiry of language, culture, identity in multicultural contexts, cross-cultural teacher education, and curriculum studies. She published her work in a book, A River Forever Flowing: Cross-Cultural Lives and Identities in the Multicultural Landscape in 2003. She coedited a book in 2005 with JoAnn Phillion and Michael Connelly, Narrative and Experience in Multicultural Education. She was an editor of Curriculum Inquiry (2003–2005) and is an Associate Editor of Multicultural Perspectives. She also coedits a book series with JoAnn Phillion, Research for Social Justice: Personal~Passionate~Participatory Inquiry. She has been engaged in a program of research on language, culture, and identity development of Chinese immigrant children and their mainstream schooling in-between Black and White tensions in the U.S. South. She coordinates an International Educator Training Program subcontracted by International Research & Exchanges Board (IREX), The U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs. Her current research is expanded to multicultural education with a particular focus on the minority and immigrant education in Mainland China, Hong Kong, and the United States.[Page 587]
JoAnn Phillion is Associate Professor of Curriculum Studies in the Department of Curriculum and Instruction at Purdue University. She teaches graduate courses in curriculum theory and multicultural education and an undergraduate course in preservice teacher development. Her research interests are in narrative approaches to multiculturalism, teacher knowledge, and teacher education. Her early research was a narrative inquiry in an inner-city Canadian school and was published by Ablex and Information Age in Narrative Inquiry in a Multicultural Landscape: Multicultural Teaching and Learning in 2002 and in 2006, as well as in numerous articles in Curriculum Inquiry, Journal of Curriculum Studies and Multicultural Education. She coedited a book with Ming Fang He and Michael Connelly, Narrative and Experience in Multicultural Education, published in 2005. She has also published on the uses of technology in multicultural teacher education. With Ming Fang He, she coedits the series, Research for Social Justice: Personal~Passionate~Participatory Inquiry. Her recent research focuses on immigrant students in international contexts, in particular on minority students and parents' experiences in Hong Kong schools. She is involved in international teacher education and study abroad in Honduras and Hong Kong.
About the Part Editors[Page 588]
Allan Luke teaches sociology and discourse analysis, curriculum, and policy at the Faculty of Education, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia. Trained as a primary teacher in Canada, he has worked as a preservice teacher educator, researcher, theorist, senior government policy advisor, university dean, and public intellectual in Australia and Asia. His most recent book is Bourdieu and Literacy Education (2007).
William H. Schubert is Professor of Education, University Scholar, and coordinator of the PhD Program in Curriculum at the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC), where his teaching has been awarded several times. He has published 10 books and 150 articles or chapters on curriculum theory and history in and out of school. Former president of the John Dewey Society, The Society for the Study of Curriculum History, Society of Professors of Education and vice president of American Educational Research Association (AERA), he received the Lifetime Achievement Award in Curriculum Studies from AERA in 2004 and the Raywid Award from SPE in 2007. Bill acknowledges Ann Lynn Lopez Schubert (1952–2006) for invaluable contributions to his work and life.
Ian Westbury is Professor of Curriculum & Instruction at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and General Editor of the Journal of Curriculum Studies. He edited, with Neil J. Wilkof, Science Curriculum and Liberal Education: Selected Essays of Joseph J. Schwab (1978); with Stefan Hopmann and Kurt Riquarts, Teaching as a Reflective Practice: The German Didaktik Tradition (2000), and with Geoffrey Milburn, Rethinking Schooling: Twenty-five Years of the Journal of Curriculum Studies (2007).
About the Consulting Authors[Page 589]
Kathryn H. Au is Dai Ho Chun Professor of Education in the College of Education at the University of Hawaii at Manoa. Previously, she worked as a researcher, curriculum developer, teacher educator, and classroom teacher at the Kamehameha Elementary Education Program (KEEP) in Honolulu. Her research interest is the school literacy development of students of diverse cultural and linguistic backgrounds. She has published over 70 articles on this topic, as well as a textbook, Literacy Instruction in Multicultural Settings. Kathy serves or has served on the editorial advisory boards of the Reading Research Quarterly, The Reading Teacher, the Journal of Literacy Research, Educational Researcher, and the Review of Educational Research. She has been elected president of the National Reading Conference and a vice president of the American Educational Research Association.
Nina Bascia is Professor and Chair of the Department of Theory & Policy Studies at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education of the University of Toronto (OISE/UT). Her research interests include educational policy, school reform, and organizational studies, especially with respect to educators' work and careers; teacher unions are a recurring focus of her work. Her most recent publication is the International Handbook of Education Policy, coedited by Alister Cumming, Amanda Datnow, Kenneth Leithwood and David Livingston (2005).
Gert J. J. Biesta is Professor of Educational Theory at the School of Education and Lifelong Learning, University of Exeter, United Kingdom, and Visiting Professor for Education and Democratic Citizenship at Örebro University and Mälardalen University, Sweden. Recent books include Derrida & Education (2001, coedited with Denise Egéa-Kuehne), Pragmatism and Educational Research (2003, coauthored with Nicholas C. Burbules), and Beyond Learning: Democratic Education for a Human Future (2006).
Donald Blumenfeld-Jones is Associate Professor of Curriculum Studies at Arizona State University. He specializes in arts-based education research, ethics and classroom discipline, hermeneutics, and critical social theory—all applied to curriculum. He has published in such journals as The Journal of Curriculum Theorizing, Educational Theory, Journal of Thought, Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, and Qualitative Inquiry. He also has numerous book chapters dealing with curriculum thinking, dance education, ethics, and arts-based education research. He is presently working on a book applying the ethics of Emmanuel Levinas and Martin Buber to arts-based education thinking, education discourse, and classroom life. Prior to his academic career, he danced professionally for 20 years.
Robert Boostrom is Chair of the Department of Teacher Education at the University of Southern Indiana, where he has taught courses in educational foundations since 1993. Since 1997 he has been U.S. Editor of The Journal of Curriculum Studies. With Philip Jackson and David Hansen, he is coauthor of The Moral Life of Schools. He is also author of Thinking: the Foundation of Critical and Creative Learning in the Classroom.
Carola Conle (PhD, University of Toronto, Canada) is a professor in the Department of Curriculum, Teaching, and Learning, at OISE/UT. She has published in journals such as the [Page 590]American Educational Research Journal, Curriculum Inquiry, Journal of Curriculum Studies, Teaching and Teacher Education, Educational Theory, and European Journal of Teacher Education. Her publications include the 2003 article, “Anatomy of Narrative Curricula,” published in the Educational Researcher. Her funded research focuses on the moral qualities of experiential narratives and on ethos and the imagination in students' encounter with media narratives. In 2006–2007, she was an invited speaker in seven European countries.
Geraldine Anne-Marie Connelly is Director of Education of the Toronto District School Board. She has served as Director of the Curriculum and Assessment Policy Branch in the Ontario Ministry of Education. Her career includes teaching and administration in rural and urban environments in Alberta, the Northwest Territories, New York, Chicago, and Ontario, at both the secondary and post-secondary levels. She has also worked in South Africa providing advice on curriculum development. Gerry has received several awards acknowledging her commitment to equity and public education, including the Distinguished Educator Award from OISE/University of Toronto in 2001 and the Government of Ontario Teacher Dedication Award by the Royal Conservatory of Music, Learning Through the Arts, for exemplary dedication to the professional development and growth of teachers in 2006.
Larry Cuban is Professor Emeritus of Education at Stanford University. His background in the field of education prior to becoming a professor included 14 years of teaching high school social studies in ghetto schools, directing a teacher education program that prepared returning Peace Corps volunteers to teach in inner-city schools, and serving 7 years as a district superintendent. His major research interests focus on the history of curriculum and instruction, educational leadership, school reform, and the uses of technology in classrooms. His most recent books are Cutting through the Hype, 2006, with Jane David; The Blackboard and The Bottom Line: Why Schools Cant Be Businesses, 2004; and Oversold and Underused: Computers in the Classroom, 2001.
Jim Cummins is a Canada Research Chair in the Department of Curriculum, Teaching and Learning of the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education at the University of Toronto. His research focuses on literacy development in multilingual school contexts as well as on the potential roles of technology in promoting language and literacy development. His most recent book is Literacy, Technology, and Diversity: Teaching for Success in Changing Times (2007, with Kristin Brown and Dennis Sayers).
Elliot W. Eisner is the Lee Jacks Professor Emeritus at Stanford University. For 40 years he has studied the potential of the arts to develop forms of thinking and to provide qualities of experience that are useful, indeed necessary, to lead life well. He has served as president of a number of organizations, such as the National Art Education Association, the American Educational Research Association, the International Society for Education Through Art, and the John Dewey Society. He has lectured on the arts and education throughout the world.
Freema Elbaz-Luwisch is on the Faculty of Education, University of Haifa. Her research focuses on teacher development, border pedagogy, and the contribution of personal stories and narrative in teacher education. Her recent book, Teachers' Voices: Storytelling and Possibility, was published in 2005.
Michelle Fine is a Social Psychologist and Professor in the PhD program in psychology at the City University of New York (CUNY) Graduate Center. Her primary research interest is social injustice in public high schools, prisons, and among youth in urban communities, using both qualitative and quantitative methods. Her publications include The Unknown City: Lives of Poor and Working-Class Young Adults (1998), Speedbumps: A Student-Friendly Guide to Qualitative Research (2000), and Construction Sites: Excavating Race, Class, Gender, and Sexuality in Spaces for and by Youth (2000)—all coauthored with Lois Weis.
Chris Forlin is currently Head of the Division of Special Education and Associate Professor in the Department of Educational Psychology, Counseling and Learning Needs at the Hong Kong Institute of Education. She has extensive experience in teaching and in working with systems, schools, and training institutions to establish sustainable, inclusive educational practices. Professor Forlin has [Page 591]published widely and has presented at many international conferences. She has worked in various countries, including Australia, China, Hong Kong, Vietnam, and South Africa, focusing her research on curricula and pedagogy associated with inclusive educational approaches and catering for children with special educational needs. In the past 4 years she has won two teaching and learning awards for her work in special and inclusive education, and in 2004 she was given the Making a Difference Award from the Disability Services Commission in Western Australia.
Jim Garrison is a professor of philosophy of education at Virginia Tech in Blacksburg, Virginia. His work concentrates on American pragmatism and especially on the philosophy of John Dewey. Jim is a past winner of the Jim Merritt award for his scholarship in the philosophy of education and the John Dewey Society lifetime achievement award. Jim is a past president of the Philosophy of Education Society and president of the John Dewey Society.
Geneva Gay is Professor of Education at the University of Washington, Seattle, where she teaches graduate courses in curriculum theory and Multicultural Education. Her areas of specialization are culturally responsive teaching; the intersections of race, culture, ethnicity, teaching, and learning; conceptualizing curriculum development; and pre- and inservice teacher preparation for working more effectively with students of color. She consults widely on these issues for school districts, school buildings, colleges and universities, and professional organizations throughout the United States. She also has traveled to other countries to promote these same concerns, including Canada, Brazil, Taiwan, South Africa, England, and Scotland.
Ash Hartwell has 35 years of field experience working at community, national, and international levels on educational policy analysis, planning, and research. He has provided technical assistance and training for the establishment and strengthening of national educational planning divisions in Egypt, Botswana, Lesotho, and Uganda. He has provided leadership in establishing innovative designs for basic education reform in Egypt, Ghana and Malawi, and Afghanistan. He has also held regular and honorary teaching positions in several universities in Africa and in the United States. He is currently a professor at the Center for International Education, University of Massachusetts and a policy advisor for the Education Development Center and USAID's Educational Quality Improvement Policy (EQUIP 2) project, focusing on complementary basic education for underserved populations.
Margaret Haughey, originally from Northern Ireland, went to Canada in 1968 to teach in Edmonton and eventually went to graduate school at the University of Alberta. Since then she has worked at a variety of universities—Victoria University, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of British Columbia, and Simon Fraser University—before returning in 1986 to the University of Alberta as a professor in Educational Policy Studies and most recently as Associate Dean, Faculty of Graduate Studies and Research.
John N. Hawkins is Professor and Chair of the Social Science and Comparative Education Division of the Graduate School of Education and Information Studies at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). He is also Director of the Center for International and Development Studies, and past Dean of International Studies, UCLA. He is a specialist on higher education reform in the United States and in Asia and the author of 15 books and over 60 research articles on education and development in Asia. His latest book is Changing Education: Leadership, Innovation, and Development in a Globalizing Asia Pacific, and his latest journal article appears in Global Education. He has conducted research throughout Asia since 1966 when he first visited the People's Republic of China.
David Hopkins is the inaugural HSBC Chair in International Leadership, where he supports the work of iNet, the International arm of the Specialist Schools Trust and the Leadership Centre at the Institute of Education, University of London. He is also a Professorial Fellow at the Faculty of Education, University of Melbourne. Between 2002 and 2005 he served three Secretary of States as the Chief Adviser on School Standards at the Department for Education and Skills. Previously, he was Chair of the Leicester City Partnership Board and Professor of Education, Head of the School, and Dean of the Faculty of Education at the University of Nottingham. Before that again he was a Tutor at the University of Cambridge Institute of Education, a Secondary School teacher and Outward Bound [Page 592]Instructor. David is also an International Mountain Guide who still climbs regularly in the Alps and Himalayas. Before becoming a civil servant he outlined his views on teaching quality, school improvement and large scale reform in School Improvement for Real (2001). His new book Every School a Great School has just been published.
Stefan T. Hopmann is Professor (comparative and historical research in education) at the University of Vienna, Austria and at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) in Trondheim. His research interests include the comparative history of schooling and teaching, curriculum research, and research on educational accountability. His recent projects deal with the history and scope of Didaktik (the Continental European tradition of thinking about teaching), with accountability and the social context of school governance (No State, No School, No Child Left Behind), and with the impact of assessment and testing on schooling (ASAP: Achieving School Accountability in Practice).
Kenneth R. Howe is Professor in the School of Education, University of Colorado at Boulder. He has written on a variety of topics, ranging from the quantitative-qualitative debate to a philosophical examination of constructivism to a defense of multicultural education. His recent research has focused on education policy analysis, particularly school choice, and the controversies surrounding the nature of scientific research in education. His books include the Ethics of Special Education (with Ofelia Miramontes), Understanding Equal Educational Opportunity: Social Justice, Democracy and Schooling, Values in Evaluation and Social Research (with Ernest House), and Closing Methodological Divides: Toward Democratic Educational Research.
Philip W. Jackson is the David Lee Shillinglaw Distinguished Service Professor Emeritus in the Departments of Education and Psychology at the University of Chicago where he has been a member of the faculty since 1955.
Stephen T. Kerr is Professor of Education in the College of Education at the University of Washington in Seattle, Washington. He teaches in two programs—Educational Communication and Technology (in the Area of Curriculum and Instruction) and Cognitive Studies (a cross-disciplinary program). He has a strong collateral interest in Russian education and has an adjunct appointment in the Program in Russian, East European, and Central Asian Studies.
Craig Kridel is the E. S. Gambrell Professor of Education and Curator of the Museum of Education, University of South Carolina. His research interests include progressive education, documentary editing, and educational biography, and he has recently published (with R. V. Bullough, Jr.) Stories of the Eight Year Study: Rethinking Schooling in America. He currently serves as the editor of the forthcoming Sage Encyclopedia of Curriculum Studies and has served as associate editor of the Macmillan Encyclopedia of Education. He has arrayed Books of the Century (featured in Education Week and Educational Leadership), edited Writing Educational Biography, and coedited Teachers and Mentors and The American Curriculum. He served on the Editorial Board of the History of Education Quarterly and the Journal of Curriculum Theorizing and has served as past president of the Society for the Study of Curriculum History, board member of the John Dewey Society and Professors of Education, and program chair of American Educational Research Association's Division B. http://www.ed.sc.edu/kridel/
John Chi-kin Lee is a professor at the Department of Curriculum and Instruction, Director of the Centre for University and School Partnership, Faculty of Education and Dean of Education at the Chinese University of Hong Kong. Over the past decade, he has directed and assisted large-scale school improvement projects and curriculum reform projects. His forthcoming books are The Changing Role of Schools in Asian Societies: Schools for the Knowledge Society (with Kerry Kennedy), Developing Teachers and Developing Schools in Changing Contexts (with Ling-Po Shiu), and Schooling for Sustainable Development in China: Experience with Younger Children (with Michael Williams).
Stacey J. Lee is currently a professor in the Division of Urban Education at the Graduate Center, City University of New York. She taught for more than a decade at the University of Wisconsin-Madison's Department of Educational Policy Studies. An educational anthropologist, her research focuses on identity formation among Asian American students, including the intersections of race, ethnicity, gender, and [Page 593]class. Lee is an expert on the education and socialization of the Hmong, a Southeast Asian ethnic group that has traditionally been misunderstood and underserved by American educators. Most recently she has conducted ethnographic research on first- and second-generation Hmong American high school students. Her major works include Up Against Whiteness: Race, School, and Immigrant Youth (2005) and Unraveling the Model-Minority Stereotype: Listening to Asian American Youth (1996). Lee is an active member of the American Educational Research Association and recently chaired their special interest group on research and education of Asian and Pacific Americans.
Ann Lieberman is an Emeritus Professor from Teachers College, Columbia University, and a Senior Scholar at The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. She was American Educational Research Association President in 1992. Lieberman is widely known for her work in the areas of teacher leadership and development, collaborative research, networks and school-university partnerships, and on the problems and prospects for understanding educational change. Her recent books include Inside the National Writing Project: Connecting Network Learning and Classroom Teaching with Diane Wood and Teacher Leadership with Lynne Miller. Dr. Lieberman has run two school university partnerships and created the National Center for Restructuring Education, Schools and Teaching (NCREST) with Linda Darling-Hammond at Teachers College.
Ulf P. Lundgren is a professor at the University of Uppsala, Sweden; Visiting Professor at Mälardalen University, Sweden; Secretary General at the Swedish Research Council; and editor of the electronic journal Studies in Educational Policy and Educational Philosophy. He was formerly Professor and Vice Chancellor at Stockholm Institute of Education and Director General for the Swedish Agency for Education. He has published in research journals such as Governance for Quality of Education. His recent works include Utbildningsreformer och politisk styrning(with Bo Lindensjö, 2000),“The Political Governing (Governance) of Education and Evaluation” (in Haug, P. & Scwandt, T. A.: Evaluating Educational Reforms. Scandinavian Perspectives, 2003), “Sweden: A Welfare State in Transition” (with Eva Forsberg, in Rotberg, I. C, Change and Tradition in Global Education Reform, 2004), “Utbildningspolitik och utbildningskoder. Om framtidens historia” (2006), and Köpenhamn: Selskabet for skole-og utdanningshistorie (2006).
Teresa L. McCarty is the Alice Wiley Snell Professor of Education Policy Studies at Arizona State University, where she also directs a large-scale study of Native American language shift and retention. Her research, teaching, and service focus on indigenous education, language planning and policy, and ethnographic methods in education. Her recent books include “To Remain an Indian”: Lessons in Democracy from a Century of Native American Education (with K. Tsianina Lomawaima, 2006), Language, Literacy, and Power in Schooling (Lawrence Erlbaum, 2005), and A Place To Be Navajo—Rough Rock and the Struggle for Self-Determination in Indigenous Schooling (2002).
Gary McCulloch is Brian Simon Professor of the History of Education and Dean of Research and Consultancy at the Institute of Education, University of London. He is currently the president of the History of Education Society (United Kingdom) and is a former editor of the international journal History of Education. His recent published work includes Cyril Norwood and the Ideal of Secondary Education (2007) and Documentary Research in Education, History and the Social Sciences (2004). He is joint editor of the Routledge International Encyclopedia of Education (2008).
Cherry A. McGee Banks is Professor of Education and the Interim Director of the Education Program at the University of Washington, Bothell. In 1997, she received the Distinguished Teaching Award from the University of Washington, Bothell, and in 2000 she was named a Worthington Distinguished Professor. Professor Banks has contributed to several major research journals and is associate editor of the Handbook of Research on Multicultural Education, coeditor of Multicultural Education: Issues and Perspectives, and coauthor of Teaching Strategies for the Social Studies. She has served on several national committees and boards including the American Educational Research Journal's editorial board and the Board of Examiners for the National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education and is currently chair of the American Educational Research Association Editorial Book Board.
Geoffrey Milburn is a Professor Emeritus at the University of Western Ontario, London, Canada. He is currently editor of the Journal of Curriculum Studies, Canada.[Page 594]
Janet L. Miller is a professor in the Department of Arts & Humanities, Teachers College, Columbia University. She served from 2001–2007 as first elected president of the American Association for the Advancement of Curriculum Studies and from 1978–1998 as managing editor of JCT: The Journal of Curriculum Theorizing. She was elected vice president of American Educational Research Association (AERA) for Division B-Curriculum Studies (1997–1999), and elected AERA Secretary of Division B (1990–1992). Her books include Sounds of Silence Breaking: Women, Autobiography, Curriculum (2005) and Creating Spaces and Finding Voices: Teachers Collaborating for Empowerment (1990). She coedited with William C. Ayers A Light in Dark Times: Maxine Greene and the Unfinished Conversation (1998).
Pedro Noguera is a professor in the Steinhardt School of Education at New York University and the Director of the Metropolitan Center for Urban Education. Noguera's research focuses on the ways schools are influenced by social and economic conditions in the urban environment. From 2000–2003, he served as the Judith K. Dimon Professor of Communities and Schools at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. From 1990–2000, he was a professor in Social and Cultural Studies at the Graduate School of Education and the Director of the Institute for the Study of Social Change at the University of California, Berkeley. Noguera has published over 150 research articles in several major research journals, monographs, and research reports on topics such as urban school reform, conditions that promote student achievement, youth violence, the potential impact of school choice and vouchers on urban public schools, and race and ethnic relations in American society.
Lynn Paine is a faculty member in the Department of Teacher Education at Michigan State University. Her scholarly interests focus on the comparative study of teaching, teacher education, and teacher development. Initially through extensive research on teaching in China, and now more recently in comparative projects, she focuses on the practices of teaching and teacher learning understood in social and cultural contexts. She is currently engaged in a cross-national study of the preparation of lower secondary math teachers. Her recent work examines new teacher induction in China, France, Japan, New Zealand, Switzerland, and the United States.
Margaret Placier is an associate professor in Education Policy Studies at the University of Missouri-Columbia. She holds an MA in Anthropology and a PhD in Foundations of Education from the University of Arizona. Her areas of teaching include social foundations of teacher education, sociology of education, history of education policy, and policy analysis. In her courses, she emphasizes a critical analysis of schooling in the social contexts of political structures, cultural communities, and ethical perspectives. She conducts qualitative research on the topics of state and district policy formation, the language or rhetoric of policymaking, and teacher education reform and practice, using soci-olinguistic and ethnographic approaches.
William J. Reese is a professor of Educational Policy Studies and History, University of Wisconsin-Madison. He is the author of several books on the history of American education, including most recently America's Public Schools: From the Common School to “No Child Left Behind” (2005) and History, Education, and the Schools (2007).
Virginia Richardson is a professor in the Educational Studies program, School of Education, University of Michigan. She previously served on the faculty at the University of Arizona, and prior to that was an Assistant Director in the National Institute of Education, Washington, DC. Her research interests include research on teaching, including teacher beliefs and decision making, teacher-student interaction around the moral dimensions of classrooms; research on teacher change, including teacher education and staff development; teaching policy; qualitative methodology; and evaluation and research design. She has written many articles, chapters, and books and was the editor of the American Educational Research Journal and of the Handbook of Research on Teaching (4th ed.). She was vice president of American Educational Research Association's Division K and was awarded the Lifetime Achievement Award from the American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education.
Fazal Rizvi is a professor of educational policy at the University of Illinois, where he directs its global studies in education program. He has written extensively on globalization and educational policy, new cultural formations, and internationalization of higher education. He published Youth [Page 595]Flows: Identities and Education in a Global Context (coedited with Nadine Dolby) in 2007 and Globalizing Education Policy (coauthored with Bob Lingard) in 2008. He is currently an international member of United Kingdom's Research Assessment Exercise RAE2008.
Edmund C. Short is Professor Emeritus of Education, The Pennsylvania State University and is currently at the University of Central Florida. His writing and teaching focus on curriculum research, policy, and practice.
Patrick Slattery is a professor and Regents Scholar in the College of Education and Human Development at Texas A&M University. He has published articles in several major research journals, and his books include Curriculum Development in the Postmodern Era (2nd ed., 2006); Ethics and the Foundations of Education: Teaching Convictions in a Postmodern World, with Dana Rapp (2003); Understanding Curriculum (1995); and Contextualizing Teaching (2000). Dr. Slattery is a former editor of JCT: Journal of Curriculum Theorizing, the current coeditor of The Journal of Curriculum and Pedagogy, and the president of the American Association for the Advancement of Curriculum Studies.
Roger Slee is Dean of the Faculty of Education at McGill University. Prior to arriving at McGill University, he was the Deputy Director General of the Queensland Department of Education in Australia. He has also held research chairs and has been the Dean of the Faculty of Education at the University of Western Australia and the University of London (United Kingdom). He was the editor of The Australian Disability Review and is the founding editor of the International Journal of Inclusive Education. He is dedicated, through his publishing and research, to the project of inclusive schooling.
James Spillane is the Spencer T. and Ann W. Olin Chair in Learning and Organizational Change at Northwestern University, where he is a Professor of Human Development and Social Policy, Learning Sciences, and Management and Organizations and a Faculty Fellow at the Institute for Policy Research. He is a senior research fellow with the Consortium for Policy Research in Education (CPRE). Spillane's work explores the policy implementation process at the state, school district, school, and classroom levels and explores school leadership and management. He is author of Standards Deviation: How Local Schools Miss-Understand Policy (2004), Distributed Leadership (2006), and numerous journal articles and book chapters.
Carlos Alberto Torres is a political sociologist of education and a professor of Social Sciences and Comparative Education, Graduate School of Education and Information Studies, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). He is also the founding Director of the Paulo Freire Institute-Sao Paulo and the founding Director of the Freire Institute-UCLA. He is the author, coauthor, or editor of more than 50 books and 200 research articles and chapters in books; his most recent books are Cultures of Arab Schooling: Critical Ethnographies from Egypt, edited with Linda Herrera; The University, State, and Market: The Political Economy of Globalization in the Americas, edited with Robert Rhoads; and a number of works of fiction, including his novel in Portuguese, O Manuscrito de Sir Charles (2006).
Linda Tuhiwai Smith is Professor of Education at the University of Auckland and Joint Director of Nga Pae o te Maramatanga, The National Institute for Research Excellence in Maori Development and Advancement. She is from two Maori iwi (Tribes): Ngati Porou and Ngati Awa. She is well known for her writings on indigenous education and indigenous research. Her book Decolonizing Methodologies: Research and Indigenous Peoples is a widely used text. More recently she has published in the Handbook of Qualitative Research (3rd ed.), edited by Denzin and Lincoln.
Wiel Veugelers is a professor of education at the University for Humanistics in Utrecht and a researcher and lecturer at the Graduate School of Learning and Instruction of the University of Amsterdam (the Netherlands). He has published on moral development, citizenship education, youth culture, teachers' pedagogical views and actions, educational change, and teachers' networks. Recent books are Teaching in Moral and Democratic Education, with Fritz Oser and Network Learning for Educational Change, with Mary John O'Hair. He is also the editor of the book series Moral Development and Citizenship Education.[Page 596]
Ana María Villegas is Professor of Curriculum and Instruction at Montclair State University. She specializes in the education of racial-ethnic and language minority students. Her research focuses on culturally responsive teaching, preparation of teachers for a diverse student population, and preparation and retention of a diverse teaching force. Among her publications is a book entitled Educating Culturally Responsive Teachers: A Coherent Approach. She was the 2004 recipient of the Margaret B. Lindsay Award for Distinguished Research in Teacher Education from the American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education.
Sofia Villenas is Associate Professor of Education and Latino Studies at Cornell University. She teaches and publishes in the areas of educational anthropology, Latino education, and multicultural-ism. She is coeditor with Dolores Delgado Bernal, C. Alejandra Elenes, and Francisca Godinez of Chicana/Latina Education in Everyday Life: Feminista Perspectives on Pedagogy and Epistemology. She is also coeditor of Race is … Race isn't: Critical Race Theory and Qualitative Studies in Education with Laurence Parker and Donna Deyhle. Her work has appeared in such journals as Harvard Educational Review, the International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education and Anthropology, and Education Quarterly.
Leonard J. Waks is Professor Emeritus of Educational Leadership and Policy Studies at Temple University. He earned doctorates in philosophy (University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1968) and Psycho-educational Processes (Temple University, 1984). He taught philosophy at Purdue and Stanford and philosophy of education at Temple. His publications include more than 100 journal articles and book chapters and the book Technology's School (1995). He was cofounder and program director of the National Technological Literacy Conferences and has served on the boards of numerous scholarly journals including Curriculum Inquiry and The Journal of Curriculum Studies. He currently chairs the Commission on Social Issues of the John Dewey Society.
Geoff Whitty is Director of the Institute of Education, University of London. Geoff's main areas of teaching and research are the sociology of education, education policy, and teacher education. He has led evaluations of major developments in United Kingdom education including, most recently, the renewed emphasis on pupil voice. His publications include Sociology and School Knowledge (1985), with John Furlong, Len Barton, Sheila Miles and Caroline Whiting; Teacher Education in Transition (2000); and Making Sense of Education Policy (2002). He is regularly invited to serve as a specialist advisor to the House of Commons Education and Skills Select Committee.
About the Contributing Authors