The SAGE Handbook of Criminological Theory


Edited by: Eugene McLaughlin & Tim Newburn

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    Putting this Handbook together has been much more complicated and drawn out than we originally anticipated. Consequently, we would like to thank our contributors not only for taking part in this project, and for their support, but also for their commitment and their patience. In addition, we owe a number of people a debt of gratitude for their contribution to the eventual shape of the Handbook. When we were working up a structure and rationale, and at other key moments, we were given advice, constructive criticism and feedback from John Braithwaite, Lynn Chancer, Ron Clarke, Kathy Daly, Richard Ericson, David Farrington, Marcus Felson, Jeff Ferrell, Mark Finnane, Roger Matthews, David Nelken, Pat O'Malley, Jonathan Simon, Richard Sparks, and Charles Tittle. We were shocked and saddened to learn of the untimely death of Richard Ericson who was in the process of completing a chapter on risk and insurance for the Handbook. Richard's unique contribution to advancing theoretical criminology will be missed. Finally, but very importantly, we would like to express our gratitude to Miranda Nunhofer and Caroline Porter at Sage who have been incredibly supportive throughout and to the whole Sage production team who have handled the process in an exemplary manner.

    Notes on Contributors

    Katja Franko Aas is Professor of Criminology at the Department of Criminology and Sociology of Law, University of Oslo. She has written extensively on issues of globalization, surveillance and uses of information and communication technologies in contemporary penal systems. Her recent publications include Cosmopolitan Justice and its Discontents (with C. Baillet, forthcoming), Technologies of Insecurity: the Surveillance of Everyday Life (with H.M. Lomell and H.O. Gundhus, Routledge-Cavendish, 2009), Globalization and Crime (Sage, 2007) and Sentencing in the Age of Information: From Faust to Macintosh (Routledge-Cavendish, 2005).

    Robert Agnew is Samuel Candler Dobbs Professor of Sociology at Emory University. His research focuses on the causes of crime and delinquency, particularly his general strain theory of delinquency. He is currently working on a book dealing with the underlying assumptions of crime theory, including assumptions regarding free will and the nature of human nature. His most recent works include Juvenile Delinquency: Causes and Control (Oxford, 2009); Pressured Into Crime: An Overview of General Strain Theory (Oxford, 2006); and Why Do Criminals Offend: A General Theory of Crime and Delinquency (Oxford, 2005).

    Ronald L. Akers is a Professor of Criminology and Sociology at the University of Florida. He is recipient of the Edwin H. Sutherland Award and a Fellow of the American Society of Criminology. Dr Akers has authored over 100 journal articles and book chapters on theory, research and policy in criminology, criminal justice, corrections, law, and deviance. He is best known for his development and testing of social learning theory, and the social structure social learning model, as a general theory of crime and deviant behavior. He is author of Criminological Theories: Introduction, Evaluation, and Application (now in its 5th edition, with Christine Sellers, Oxford University Press, 2008); Law and Control in Society (with Richard Hawkins, Prentice Hall, 1975); Drugs, Alcohol and Society (Wadsworth, 1992); Deviant Behavior: A Social Learning Approach (Wadsworth, 1973, 1977, and 1985), and Social Learning and Social Structure: A General Theory of Crime and Deviance (Northeastern University Press, 1998 and Transaction Publishers, 2009).

    Ronet Bachman worked as a statistician and research analyst at the Bureau of Justice Statistics before going back to teaching at the University of Delaware, where she is now a Professor and Chair of the Department of Sociology and Criminal Justice. She has written several books on research methods and statistics, along with books on issues related to violence and victimization. She is currently the PI of a National Institute of Justice funded project exploring the differential trajectories of desistance for male and female drug involved offenders over a 20 year time period. She lives with her husband and co-author (Ray), their son, John, and their dog, Mickey II, in Newark, Delaware.

    Laura A. Baker is currently a Professor of Psychology at the University of Southern California in Los Angeles. Her research interests include the development, refinement, and application of quantitative genetic models in the study of individual differences in human psychological traits, including both social and cognitive domains. Of particular interest are genetic models of delinquency, human aggression, psychopathic traits and criminal behavior. The application of biometrical growth curve models to the study of stability and change in behavior and psychological traits throughout the lifespan is also of special interest. Baker is Director of the Southern California Twin Project, in which she coordinates a comprehensive longitudinal twin study of risk factors for aggressive and antisocial behavior. In addition to mentoring graduating students and postdoctoral associates, she teaches courses in Behavioral Genetics and Multivariate Statistics in Psychology. Recent journal articles can be found in Journal of Child Abnormal Psychology, Journal of Adolescence, Psychophysiology, Development and Psychopathology, British Journal of Developmental Psychology, and Behavior Genetics.

    Gregg Barak is a Professor of Criminology and Criminal Justice at Eastern Michigan University and former Visiting Distinguished Professor in the College of Justice and Safety at Eastern Kentucky University. He is the author and/or editor of 16 books, including Criminology: An Integrated Approach (Rowman and Littlefield, 2009). Dr Barak is a Fellow of the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences and the recipient of the Lifetime Achievement Award from Critical Division of the American Society of Criminology.

    Timothy Brezina is Associate Professor of Criminal Justice at Georgia State University. His research and teaching interests include criminological theory and youth violence. Currently, he is conducting multi-methods research, combining quantitative data analyses with findings obtained from in-depth interviews with active street offenders. This research focuses on the attitudes, perceptions, beliefs and experiences that contribute to serious persistent offending among young people, such as the anticipation of an early death, or the belief that one is ‘successful’ at crime. Recent publications appear in the journals Criminology, Justice Quarterly, Journal of Drug Issues, and Deviant Behavior.

    Michael Cavadino is Professor of Law at the University of Central Lancashire. He has researched and written widely on penology and mental health law. He is author of The Penal System: An Introduction (with James Dignan, 4th edn, Sage Publications, 2007), Penal Systems: A Comparative Approach (with James Dignan, Sage, 2006), Criminal Justice 2000: Strategies for a New Century (with Iain Crow and James Dignan, Waterside Press, 1999), The Law of Gravity: Offence Seriousness and Criminal Justice (Joint Unit for Social Services Research, 1997) and Mental Health Law in Context: Doctors' Orders? (Dartmouth, 1989)

    Sharon Chamard is an Associate Professor with the Justice Center at the University of Alaska Anchorage. She is interested in the spatial distribution of crime, and along these lines has conducted research on geographic patterns of sexual assault and youth violence. Currently she is focusing on the displacement movements of chronic public inebriates. She has written two Problem-Oriented Guides for Police for the Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, one on partnering with businesses to address public safety problems, and the other on homeless encampments. She is the co-editor, with Rashi Shukla, of the February 2010 special issue of Security Journal containing papers given at the July 2008 Environmental Criminology and Crime Analysis (ECCA) symposium. She is the research consultant to the Community Action Policing Team (a problem-oriented policing unit) of the Anchorage Police Department, and frequently works with community groups in Anchorage to develop, implement, and evaluate solutions to crime and disorder problems.

    Ronald Clarke is University Professor at Rutgers and Visiting Professor at the Jill Dando Institute, University College London. He worked for 15 years in the British Home Office and was head of the Research and Planning Unit from 1982–84. While at the Home Office he helped to develop situational crime prevention and to launch the British Crime Survey. He is author or joint author of more than 220 publications including Designing out Crime (HMSO, 1980), The Reasoning Criminal (Springer-Verlag, 1986), Superhighway Robbery: Preventing E-commerce Crime (Willan Publishing, 2003), Crime Analysis for Problem Solvers (US Department of Justice, 2005) and Outsmarting the Terrorists (Praeger, 2006). His current research interest is wildlife crime.

    Kathleen Daly is Professor of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Griffith University (Brisbane). She writes on gender, race, crime, and justice; and on restorative, Indigenous, and international criminal justice. Her book, Gender, Crime, and Punishment (1994, Yale University Press) received the Michael Hindelang award from the American Society of Criminology. With Lisa Maher, she co-edited Criminology at the Crossroads: Feminist Readings in Crime and Justice (Oxford University Press, 1998); and with Andrew Goldsmith and Mark Israel, Crime and Justice: A Guide to Criminology (Lawbook Company, 2006). First based in the United States, she travelled to Australia in 1995 as a Senior Fulbright Scholar to study restorative justice. From 1998 to 2006, she received three Australian Research Council (ARC) grants to research restorative justice and the race/gender politics of new justice practices. In 2008, she began an international project on innovative responses to sexual violence; and in 2009, as co-PI with Elena Marchetti and Jackie Huggins, a project on sentencing Indigenous partner violence in Australia, both funded by the ARC. In addition to books and edited volumes, she has published over 70 articles in journals, law reviews, and books. She is a Fellow of the Academy of the Social Sciences in Australia, and immediate past President of the Australian and New Zealand Society of Criminology.

    David P. Farrington, O.B.E., is Professor of Psychological Criminology at the Institute of Criminology, Cambridge University. He is a Fellow of the British Academy, of the Academy of Medical Sciences, of the British Psychological Society and of the American Society of Criminology. He is a Chartered Forensic Psychologist, co-chair of the US National Institute of Justice Study Group on Transitions from Juvenile Delinquency to Adult Crime and co-chair of the US Centre for Disease Control's Expert Panel on Promotive and Protective Factors for Youth Violence. He has been President of the American Society of Criminology (the first person from outside North America to be elected to this office), President of the European Association of Psychology and Law, President of the British Society of Criminology, President of the Academy of Experimental Criminology and Chair of the Division of Forensic Psychology of the British Psychological Society. His major research interest is in developmental criminology, and he is Director of the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development, which is a prospective longitudinal survey of over 400 London males from age 8 to age 48. In addition to 500 published journal articles and book chapters on criminological and psychological topics, he has published 75 books, monographs and government publications.

    Jeff Ferrell is Professor of Sociology at Texas Christian University, USA, and Visiting Professor of Criminology at the University of Kent, UK. He is the author of the books Crimes of Style (Garland, 1993; Northeastern University Press, 1996), Tearing Down the Streets (Palgrave/Macmillan/St. Martin's, 2001/2002), Empire of Scrounge (New York University Press, 2006) and, with Keith Hayward and Jock Young, Cultural Criminology: An Invitation (Sage, 2008), winner of the 2009 Distinguished Book Award from the Division of International Criminology, American Society of Criminology. He is also the co-editor of the books Cultural Criminology (Northeastern University Press, 1995), Ethnography at the Edge (Northeastern University Press, 1998), Making Trouble (Aldine de Gruyter, 1999), Cultural Criminology Unleashed (Routledge/Cavendish/Glasshouse, 2004), and Cultural Criminology: Theories of Crime (Ashgate, 2010, forthcoming). He is the founding and current editor of the New York University Press book series Alternative Criminology, and one of the founding editors of the journal Crime, Media, Culture: An International Journal (Sage), winner of the Association of Learned and Professional Society Publishers' 2006 Charlesworth Award for Best New Journal. In 1998 Ferrell received the Critical Criminologist of the Year Award from the Division of Critical Criminology, American Society of Criminology.

    Chris Greer is Senior Lecturer in the Department of Sociology at City University London. His primary research interests lie at the intersections between crime, media and culture and he has written extensively in this area. In addition to authoring numerous journal articles, chapters and official reports, Chris's books include Sex Crime and the Media: Sex Offending and the Press in a Divided Society (Willan, 2003), Victims, Crime and Society (edited with Pam Davies and Peter Francis, Sage, 2007) and Crime and Media: A Reader (Routledge, 2009). Chris is currently working on a monograph called Crime News (Routledge, forthcoming), which expands on a number of the themes discussed in the chapter in this collection. Chris is also founder and co-editor of the award-winning Crime, Media, Culture: An International Journal (Sage).

    Simon Hallsworth is Professor of Social Research at London Metropolitan University where he is also Director of the Centre for Social and Evaluation Research. He has written extensively on urban street violence and is an acknowledged expert on street organisations such as gangs. He has also written on contemporary penal change and development. Publications in these two substantive areas of his research include Street Crime (Willan, 2005) and The New Punitiveness: Issues, Themes and Perspectives (with Pratt, Brown, Brown and Morrison, Willan, 2005). He is currently exploring (with John Lea) the emerging contours of what they term the ‘Security State’.

    Tony Jefferson has been a Professor of Criminology at Keele University and at Sheffield University. He has also held Visiting Professorships in Sweden, Denmark, Australia and the USA, where he has recently completed a year (2007–08) as a Visiting Presidential Scholar at John Jay College of Criminal Justice, City University of New York. He has researched and published widely on questions to do with youth subcultures, the media, policing, race and crime, masculinity, fear of crime and, most recently, racial violence. His published works include Psychosocial Criminology (with Dave Gadd, Sage, 2007), Doing Qualitative Research Differently (with Wendy Hollway, Sage, 2000), The Case Against Paramilitary Policing (Oxford University Press, 1990), Interpreting Policework (with Roger Grimshaw, 1987) and Controlling the Constable (with Roger Grimshaw, HarperCollins, 1984), Policing the Crisis (with Stuart Hall et al., Palgrave MacMillan, 1978) and Resistance through Rituals, 1976/2006 (edited with Stuart Hall, Routledge, 1976 and 2006). Between 1999 and 2002 he was the British Editor for the journal Theoretical Criminology.

    Gary F. Jensen is Professor of Sociology and Religious Studies at Vanderbilt University. He is a Fellow of the American Society of Criminology and has published 66 articles and eight books. Most of his work involves the quantitative analysis of data on crime and delinquency. He is best known for research on delinquency and juvenile justice, social learning theory, and issues involving the social ecology of guns, gender issues in delinquency research, and religion and crime. Outside of criminology, he is an expert on societal responses to epidemic disease, witch hunts, and new forms of religious identity. He has been a consultant on survey methods in the study of crime and regularly advises colleagues in the use of time series analysis in criminology.

    Darrick Jolliffe is a Senior Lecturer in Criminology at the University of Leicester. Dr Jolliffe's main research interest is individual differences and offending, particularly the relationship between empathy and offending. Dr Jolliffe has published many systematic reviews and meta-analyses and he has also conducted a number of evaluations of various interventions including community justice initiatives, interventions for female offenders or ‘at risk’ females and interventions for young offenders. Dr Jolliffe's recent publications can be found in the Journal of Adolescence, Violence and Victims and Legal and Criminological Psychology.

    Susanne Karstedt is Professor of Criminology and Criminal Justice at the Centre for Criminal Justice Studies, University of Leeds. She is currently one of the editors of the British Journal of Criminology. She was recipient of the Sellin-Glueck-Award of the American Society of Criminology in 2007. Her research interests lie in comparative and international criminology, including violence and mass atrocities, white collar and middle class crime, and punishment. Her current research primarily focuses on democracy, crime and justice, and she has edited (with Gary LaFree) a special issue of the Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences on the topic (2006). She has researched and published widely on transitional justice, and her most recent publication is an edited collection on Legal Institutions and Collective Memories (Hart, 2009).

    Eugene McLaughlin is Professor of Criminology in the Department of Sociology, City University London. He is currently co-director of the Law, Justice and Journalism Research Centre. He has written extensively on police governance and reform, police–community relations, the managerialisation of criminal justice and contemporary criminological theory. His current research concentrates on the theory and practice of policing in multi-pluralist societies, the news-media and crime, and the contemporary knowledge practices of critical criminology. His most recent book is The New Policing (Sage, 2007). He is also the co-editor of Public Criminologies (Special Issue of Theoretical Criminology, edited with Lynn Chancer, 2007) and The SAGE Dictionary of Criminology (Sage, 2005, edited with John Muncie). He is a member of the editorial boards of the British Journal of Criminology, Crime, Media, Culture and Theoretical Criminology.

    Roger Matthews is Professor of Criminology at London South Bank University. He is author of a number of publications on realist criminology including Issues in Realist Criminology (edited with Jock Young, Sage, 1992) and Rethinking Criminology: The Realist Debate (edited with Jock Young, Sage, 1992). More recently he has published Prostitution, Politics and Policy (Routledge-Cavendish, 2008) and Doing Time: An Introduction to the Sociology of Imprisonment, 2nd edn (Palgrave/Macmillan, 2009).

    John Muncie is Professor of Criminology and Director of the International Centre for Comparative Criminological Research (ICCCR) at the Open University, UK. He is the author of the best selling text Youth and Crime (Sage, 3rd edition, 2009). His most recent research is on the impact of globalisation and neo-liberal penality on the formulation of law and penal policy for young people. He has published widely on issues in comparative youth justice and children's rights, including the co-edited companion volumes Youth Crime and Justice and Comparative Youth Justice (Sage, 2006). His other recent books are the edited works: Crime: Local and Global (Willan/Open University, 2010), Criminal Justice: Local and Global (Willan/Open University, 2010), The SAGE Library of Criminology: Youth Crime and Juvenile Justice (3 volumes, Sage, 2009), The SAGE Library of Criminology: Criminal Justice and Crime Control (3 volumes, Sage, 2007), The SAGE Library of Criminology: Criminology (3 volumes, Sage, 2006), The SAGE Dictionary of Criminology (Sage, 2nd edition, 2006) and Criminological Perspectives: Essential Readings (Sage/Open University, 2nd edition, 2003). He is editor (with Barry Goldson) of the Sage journal Youth Justice: An International Journal.

    Pat O'Malley is Professorial Research Fellow in Law at the University of Sydney, Australia. His work over the past 20 years has focused on risk in government and especially criminal justice, and more recently on how money, risk and telemetry have been brought together to create new forms of justice. Recent publications include Crime and Risk (Sage, 2010), The Currency of Justice: Fines Risks and Damages in Consumer Societies (Routledge, 2009) and, with Kelly Hannah-Moffat, Gendered Risks (Cavendish, 2006). Currently he is working on a monograph – Crime, Risk and Excitement – that explores the nexus between excitement, risk-taking and consumer culture.

    Tim Newburn is Professor of Criminology and Social Policy at the London School of Economics and a past President of the British Society of Criminology. He was a founding editor of the journal Criminology and Criminal Justice and is the author or editor of over 30 books, the most recent of which are: Criminology (Willan, 2007); Policy Transfer and Criminal Justice (with Jones, Open University Press, 2007); Handbook of Policing (Willan, 2008); Key Readings in Criminology (Willan, 2009); and Policing Developing Democracies (edited with Hinton, Routledge, 2009). He is currently working (with David Downes and Paul Rock) on an official history of post-war criminal justice.

    Ray Paternoster is Professor in the Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice at the University of Maryland, and research affiliate at the Maryland Population Research Center. His research interests include rational choice theory, the interface between criminology and behavioral economics, the transition between adolescence and adulthood, quantitative methods, and issues related to capital punishment. He received his Ph.D in 1978 from Florida State University and has been on the faculty at the University of Maryland since 1982.

    Adrian Raine is University Professor and the Richard Perry Professor of Criminology, Psychiatry, and Psychology at the University of Pennsylvania. He has published five books and 257 journal articles and book chapters, been the principal investigator on 17 extramural research grants and main mentor on 9 NIH pre-and post-doctoral awards, and given 228 invited presentations in 25 countries. For the past 33 years, Dr Raine's research has focused on the biosocial bases of antisocial and violent behavior in both children and adults. His research interests include the neurobiology of violence, psychopathic, and antisocial behavior; nutritional interventions to prevent child behavior problems; positive psychology; schizotypal personality; alcoholism; brain imaging; psychophysiology; neurochemistry; neuropsychology; environmental toxins, and behavioral and molecular genetics. His awards include a Research Scientist Development Award and an Independent Scientist Award from NIMH, the Joseph Zubin Memorial Award, the Robert G. Wright Professorship of Psychology at USC, and a University Professorship from the University of Pennsylvania.

    Paul Rock is Emeritus Professor of Sociology at the LSE and Visiting Professor of Criminology at the University of Pennsylvania. He has been a Visiting Professor at the University of California, San Diego; Simon Fraser University; the University of British Columbia and Princeton University; a Visiting Scholar at the Ministry of the Solicitor General of Canada; a Fellow of the Center for the Advanced Study of the Behavioral Sciences in Stanford, California; a resident at the Rockefeller Foundation Center at the Villa Serbelloni, Bellagio; and a Visiting Fellow at the Australian National University in Canberra. His books include The Social World of an English Crown Court (1993, Clarendon Press), Reconstructing a Women's Prison (1996, Clarendon Press), After Homicide: Practical and Political Responses to Bereavement (1998, Clarendon Press), Understanding Deviance (with David Downes, 6th edn, Oxford University Press, 2007; Canadian edition 2009) and Constructing Victims' Rights (September 2004, Clarendon Press). In collaboration with David Downes and Tim Newburn, he is currently working on the official history of criminal justice.

    Lee E. Ross is Associate Professor of Criminal Justice at the University of Central Florida. A graduate of Rutgers University, his research interests span a variety of areas, from his seminal work on religion and social control theory to more recent explorations into unintended consequences of mandatory arrest policies and the dynamics of domestic violence among African-Americans. As editor of The War Against Domestic Violence (CRC Press, 2010), his scholarship can be found in a variety of academic journals, including Justice Quarterly, Journal of Criminal Justice, Journal of Crime and Justice, Journal of Criminal Justice Education, The Encyclopedia of Race, Crime, and Justice, The Justice Professional, Sociological Spectrum, Sociological Focus, and Corrections Today. Professor Ross also spent several years as a group facilitator to the Milwaukee Domestic Abuse Intervention Program. Currently, he teaches graduate and undergraduate level courses in the area of domestic violence, race, crime, and justice, and cultural diversity in the criminal justice system.

    Lawrence Sherman is Wolfson Professor of Criminology at the Cambridge University Institute of Criminology, and Director of the Jerry Lee Center of Criminology at the University of Pennsylvania. He is the author of ‘Defiance, deterrence and irrelevance: a theory of the criminal sanction’ (Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 1993) and has a continuing interest in the moral basis of criminal offending. The architect of over 30 randomized field experiments in the US, UK and Australia, he is author of a series of reports on experiments in restorative justice with Heather Strang, with whom he directs the Cambridge Police Executive Programme.

    Catherine Tuvblad currently holds a research associate position at the University of Southern California, Department of Psychology. Catherine has a long-standing interest in individual differences and deviant behavior, particularly the causes behind the development of such behaviors. Her main research focus is on the development of antisocial, delinquent and criminal behavior. More specifically: the interplay of genetic and environmental influences on the development of antisocial and criminal behavior; identifying cognitive, psychophysiological, and biological endophenotypes for criminal behavior; personality, including normal and psychopathic personality traits in relationship to criminal behavior; social development, e.g., peer relationships, social interaction; psychiatric illnesses and disorders in relation to criminal behavior; the interplay with social risk factors on the development of antisocial and criminal behavior, e.g., peers, parents, school, media, neighborhood, socioeconomic status. Her recent publications can be found in Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, Psychophysiology, Development and Psychopathology, Aggressive Behavior, Behavior Genetics, and Child Development.

    Rob White is Professor of Criminology at the University of Tasmania, Australia. He has written extensively in the areas of juvenile justice, youth studies, crime prevention and eco-global criminology. Among his recent books are Controversies in Environmental Sociology (Cambridge University Press, 2004), Crimes Against Nature: Environmental Criminology and Ecological Justice (Willan, 2008), Environmental Crime: A Reader (Willan, 2009), and Global Environmental Harm: Criminological Perspectives (Willan, 2010).

    Tara Young is Senior Research Fellow at the Centre for Social and Evaluation Research at London Metropolitan University. She has expertise in qualitative and evaluation research and is currently teaching MSc Criminological Research Methods at London Metropolitan University. Tara has worked on a number of research projects focusing on group delinquency and gang membership. Her work on gangs in the UK, (with Professor Simon Hallsworth) has influenced policy at local and national levels. She has co-authored several journal articles on street-based youth groups. Her most recent publications can be found in the journals Youth Justice, Theoretical Criminology, Crime, and the books Practical Interventions for Young People at Risk (edited by Kathryn Geldard, Sage, 2009) and Children Behaving Badly? (edited by Christine Barker, Wiley, 2010).

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