The SAGE Handbook of Conflict Communication: Integrating Theory, Research, and Practice

Handbooks

Edited by: John G. Oetzel & Stella Ting-Toomey

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  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Part I: Interpersonal Conflict

    Part II: Organizational Conflict

    Part III: Community Conflict

    Part IV: Intercultural/International Conflict

    Part V: Conclusion

  • Copyright

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    List of Figures and Tables

    FIGURES

    • Hypothetical Relationship Between Relational Distance (X) and Conflict Avoidance (Y) When Group Membership Is a Dichotomous Dummy Variable and Group (G) Interacts With X55
    • Similarities Between Components Related to Emotion and Conflict 71
    • Communicative Responses to Emotion 88
    • Forms of Social Knowledge 98
    • Cognitive Processes 107
    • Social Cognition Approach to Conflict 120
    • Framework for Organizing Questions About, and Research on, Conflict in Romantic Relationships 130
    • The Interdependence of Communication Schemata, Family Communication Patterns, and Family Conflict 172
    • Model of Strategic Conflict 191
    • Increased Negativity Over Time 203
    • Relational Conditions 227
    • Nicotera's (1993) Three-Dimensional Model of Conflict Tactics 302
    • Phases and Concepts 600
    • Functional Analysis Framework 618
    • Behaviors Used in Negotiation: A.E.I.O.U. Model 672
    • Filter Check Model 677
    • An Adaptive Model of Integrated Threat Theory 694
    • Cultural Values Dimensional Grid: Four Conflict Approaches 699
    • Situational Appraisal Factors and Relational Features on Face Concerns and Conflict Styles 707
    • Understanding Intercultural Conflict: A Situational Appraisal Framework 710
    • Social Ecological Model of Conflict Contexts 731

    TABLES

    • A Sample of Common Definitions of Communication and Conflict 6
    • Components of Conflict Definitions 7
    • Studying Interethnic and Intercultural Conflict 40
    • Studying Interpersonal Conflict 41
    • Studying Organizational and Community Conflict 46
    • Examples of Conflict Strategies and Tactics in Observational Research 197
    • Managing Three Types of Workplace Conflict 366
    • Conflict Management System Options 375
    • Three Types of Research on Managing Organizational Conflict 380
    • The Equity of Conflict Management Systems Within Organizations Compared to Litigation and Collective Bargaining 381
    • The Efficiency of Conflict Management Systems Within Organizations Compared to Litigation and Collective Bargaining 381
    • Elements of a Way of Working 402
    • Lessons Learned 414
    • Communication-Based Programs of Research of Crisis/Hostage Negotiation Dynamics 462
    • Comparing Three Approaches to Democracy, Conflict Management, and Dialogue 522
    • Macro-Level Models for Structuring Citizen Conversations 528
    • Functions and Dysfunctions 617
    • Outcomes and Impact of Intergroup Dialogue Initiatives in Cyprus 645
    • 10 Principles of Intergroup Conflict 683

    Introduction

    Conflict is a prevalent phenomenon of our lives (Thomas & Schmidt, 1976; Wilmot & Hocker, 2001). Conflict is “an expressed struggle between at least two interdependent parties who perceive incompatible goals, scarce resources, and interference from others in achieving their goals” (Wilmot & Hocker, 2001, p. 41). Turning on the news, going to work, wandering through the neighborhood, or interacting with loved ones, we witness and participate in many examples of conflict such as wars, community violence, disputes at work, and marital discord.

    In addition to being frequent, conflict has certain consequences. The negative consequences get the most “press” and they—rather than positive outcomes—tend to be associated with conflict. These costs include violence/death, divorce, economic losses, dissatisfaction, discord, and trauma. On the other hand, conflict also provides such opportunities as personal growth, relational development, improved decision making, and identifying and addressing problems. Many communication scholars emphasize that the consequences of conflict are due to the way the conflict is managed (e.g., Wilmot & Hocker, 2001). If we manage conflicts constructively, then we have positive outcomes; if we manage conflicts poorly, we have negative outcomes.

    What it means to manage conflict constructively or destructively is a complex issue. A simplistic answer is that constructive conflict is done cooperatively, while destructive conflict is done competitively. However, this superficial assessment belies the many factors involved in a conflict. There is a proliferation of research about conflict theory and practice. Much of this research examines the multitude of factors involved in conflict situations. The amount of research makes it difficult to synthesize key principles and practices of constructive conflict management. The chapters in this handbook aim to provide this synthesis in a variety of specific contexts.

    This particular handbook emphasizes constructive conflict management from a communication perspective. This perspective places primacy in the message as the focus of conflict research and practice. The means to express conflict is through communication (verbal and nonverbal messages); likewise, the means to manage and address conflict is through communication. In this introduction, we discuss the purpose, intended audience, and organizational framework of this volume. In describing the organizational framework, we also introduce the first two chapters since these serve as general overviews for the four main sections.

    Purpose and Audience for this Volume

    The general purpose of The SAGE Handbook of Conflict Communication is threefold: (a) to assemble in one resource the knowledge base of the field of conflict communication; (b) to identify the best theories, ideas, and practices of conflict communication; and (c) to provide the opportunity for scholars and practitioners to link theoretical frameworks and application tools. This multi-pronged purpose grew from our focus on communication and the intended audience.

    We had three primary constituencies in mind as we designed this handbook: (a) academics who will use it as a resource for their scholarship, (b) instructors who will use it as a main or supplementary text in advanced undergraduate and graduate courses in conflict communication, and (c) practitioners who are responsible for a variety of conflict management processes and systems in a variety of settings and who are interested in bridging theory and practice (e.g., organizations, political entities, mediation, counseling, courts, etc.). The multiple constituencies presented a challenge to both the structure and the authors of the Handbook. The authors handled this challenge brilliantly. For academics/instructors, the Handbook must reflect the state of the art regarding conflict communication theory and research. The content needs to advance thinking on conflict and to stimulate new ideas and guide future scholarship and research. For practitioners, the Handbook must be practical and applicable to the ongoing conflicts that they view and participate in on a daily basis. The application of research must promote critical reflection on existing practices as well as provide creative and innovative ideas to improve conflict practices. These goals are interdependent in that academics want innovative and heuristic ideas to benefit a variety of constituencies and practitioners want practical suggestions that are framed by current research.

    Essentially, we aimed to develop a book that integrated theory, research, and practice. We asked the contributing authors to include both the latest theory and the “best known” practices in their chapters rather than having separate chapters for either practice or theory. To help integrate both research and practice (and provide some consistency in content), we provided a list of six guiding questions for each author and asked them to consider these questions in the best manner possible. The questions were as follows:

    • What organizational framework (e.g., model, theory, or schema) guides the design and the conceptual development of the chapter?
    • What lines of conflict-related research have been conducted that can be grouped under this organizational framework?
    • What are your assessments of the strengths, gaps, and/or controversies that face this line of research?
    • Does this line of research address global cross-cultural or domestic diversity conflict-related issues? Do you have any specific suggestions?
    • What do you think are the most meaningful theoretical directions or research issues that are worth pursuing in the next 10 years? Why?
    • What are the major applied or practical issues that can be derived from the review of the literature for this framework? What can you say to conflict practitioners or mediators?

    You will see that certain authors emphasize research, while others emphasize practice (and some balance both). The result is a volume that does a solid job of integrating theory, research, and practice.

    Finally, we also sought to expand the discourse and research beyond mainstream conflict research and practice in the United States (as evidenced by Question 4 above). We want the audience to include academics and practitioners from not only around the world, but also from diverse communities in the United States. To this end, we included a section that focuses specifically on intercultural/international conflict communication and asked some international scholars/practitioners (and U.S. scholars with international experience and backgrounds) to contribute chapters. We also asked authors to include research and practice beyond mainstream U.S. contexts where possible (or note these limitations in the literature).

    Organizational Framework and Overview of Introductory Chapters

    The Handbook is divided into four parts plus a general introduction and a conclusion. Two chapters are included in the introduction and provide an overview of definitional, theoretical, and methodological issues in conflict communication. In the first chapter, Putnam tracks the development of definitions and approaches to the study of conflict and communication. She reviews the early work on communication and conflict dating back to the 1970s and tracks the role that communication has played in defining conflict, developing approaches to studying it, exploring models of negotiation and mediation, and moving from quantitative to qualitative methods of research. She concludes by suggesting ways to integrate knowledge across the discipline and to investigate the ways that conflict contributes to individual, organizational, and societal growth.

    In the second chapter, Fink, Cai, and Wang offer an overview of quantitative approaches for researching conflict communication. They focus on critical issues for comparing conflict communication across groups (e.g., organizations, job positions, gender, etc.), particularly cross-cultural comparisons. They consider four critical questions for making such comparisons: (a) Are the meaning of conflict and the variables representing the conflict process comparable across the cultures being investigated? (b) Are the samples comparable? (c) Do the samples use the same processes with the same variables for dealing with conflict? and (d) Are the cultures at the same place in the process under investigation? To help address these questions, they consider critical issues in types of data (qualities and quantities, levels of analysis, and time dependence), sampling, and data analysis. They also display specific approaches and instruments for observing, measuring, and interpreting conflict communication in each of the four contexts.

    Both of these introductory chapters have a decidedly research flavor as they set the stage for the nature of conflict research in the four specific parts. These four parts are focused on contexts in which conflict occurs: interpersonal, organizational, community, and intercultural/international. Each section includes chapters on specific topics within the contexts and concludes with an overarching chapter focusing on “best practices” for conflict management. We describe each of these contexts, and the respective chapters, in the introductions for each part.

    In the conclusion, Oetzel, Ting-Toomey, and Rinderle attempt to synthesize the chapters in this volume. The focus on specific contexts that may encourage some readers to believe that there is limited overlap in contexts. To the contrary, we believe that the contexts are layered and interdependent. We use multilevel theorizing, specifically within a social ecological framework (Rousseau & House, 1994; Stokols, 1996). Social ecological theory examines the relationship of an organism to its environment (Stokols, 1996). In this volume, the organism(s) is conflict process and/or participants and we include the four contexts as the environment. We discuss the layered nature of these contexts and identify different ways in which the contexts shape, frame, and influence conflict communication in different contexts. We also present future directions for research and practice based on the social ecological framework.

    References
    Rousseau, D. M., & House, R. J.(1994). Meso organizational behavior: Avoiding three fundamental biases. In C. L.Cooper & D. M.Rousseau (Eds.), Trends in organizational behavior (Vol. 1, pp. 13–30). New York: John Wiley.
    StokolsD.Translating social ecological theory into guidelines for community health promotionAmerican Journal of Health Promotion10(1996)282–298http://dx.doi.org/10.4278/0890-1171-10.4.282
    ThomasK.SchmidtW.A survey of managerial interest with respect to conflictAcademy of Management Journal19(1976)315–318http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/255781
    Wilmot, W., & Hocker, J.(2001). Interpersonal conflict (6th ed). Dubuque, IA: William C. Brown.

    Acknowledgments

    Editing The SAGE Handbook of Conflict Communication was a daunting and, at the same time, an exhilarating task. We are indebted to many individuals who encouraged and motivated us to bring this book to completion. First and foremost, we want to thank all the invaluable authors in the Handbook. Without their commitment, hard work, and focused energy, this volume would not be in your hands. They were a pure joy to work with and, as you can see from the finished product, they are an outstanding group of individuals who have dedicated their lives to researching and fine-tuning conflict communication theories and practices with passion. Thank you again to the chapter authors for journeying with us to make this handbook a reality.

    Second, we express our sincere appreciation to our editorial assistant, Susana Rinderle. She did amazingly meticulous work in proofing and double-checking the citations/references in the text and helping us to coordinate with the authors in a timely fashion. Third, we want to thank Todd Armstrong, the Communication Editor at Sage, who encouraged us develop this book from the very beginning. Todd has been consistently supportive and encouraging throughout the various developmental phases of the book. Fourth, we extend our special applause to Deya Saoud, Senior Editorial Assistant to Todd, for helping us navigate the multitude of editorial steps in rounding off this book and for always being so efficient and responsive in answering our questions. Fifth, we want to thank Kristin Bergstad, Copy Editor at Sage, for her careful editing and keen eye in polishing up the collective chapters. Sixth, we express our profound gratitude and a big “thank you” to our colleagues at the University of New Mexico and the California State University at Fullerton. Our colleagues have provided us with an affirming and comfortable environment to conduct our scholarly work. We could not have asked for a more collegial and intellectually supportive group to work with. Lastly, we thank all our undergraduate and graduate students for their engaging energy, questionings, and curiosities in the classrooms and for pushing us forward in our quest to understand the connection between theory and practice issues in conflict communication.

    Individually, there are several people in our personal and professional lives to whom we would like to express our special acknowledgments. John: I want to thank my wife and life partner, Keri, for providing me with love, personal support, intellectual stimulation, and enriching insights during this arduous editing process. I also want to thank Stella for coediting this volume with me. I value our tranquil friendship and collaborative work and look forward to continuous learning and growing as I team with you in future projects. Stella: I want to thank my husband, Charles, and son, Adrian, for coming along with me on this academic journey and for always providing me with light-hearted humor, affection, and a secure home space for respite and rest. I also want to thank John for inviting me to coedit the Handbook with him. I value your collaborative spirit, inspiring vision, dialogue, and the fortitude to see this “big, thick volume” through to the end.

    To the readers, we thank you for taking the time to review each chapter in this handbook, and we encourage you to pursue your interest and goal of a deeper understanding of the rich tapestry of conflict communication in diverse arenas.

    Sage Publications thanks the following reviewers; Leda Cooks, University of Massachusetts, Amherst; William Donohue, Michigan State University; Peter M. Kellett, University of North Carolina at Greensboro; Linda L. Putnam, Texas A&M University; Randall G. Rogan, Wake Forest University; and Michael E. Roloff, Northwestern University.

  • Author Index

    About the Editors

    John G. Oetzel (Ph.D., University of Iowa, 1995) is Associate Professor and Chair in the Department of Communication and Journalism at the University of New Mexico. In 2004, he was named Regents' Lecturer by the College of Arts and Sciences at the University of New Mexico. He teaches courses in intercultural, health, and organizational communication, as well as research methods. His research interests focus on culture and conflict communication in workgroups, organizations, and health settings. His work has appeared in journals such as Human Communication Research, Communication Monographs, Communication Research, Management Communication Quarterly, Small Group Research, Communication Quarterly, Communication Reports, and the International Journal of Intercultural Relations. He is coauthor (with Stella Ting-Toomey) of Managing Intercultural Communication Effectively (Sage, 2001). He serves on several editorial boards, including Communication Education, International and Intercultural Communication Annual, and Western Journal of Communication.

    Stella Ting-Toomey is Professor of Human Communication Studies at California State University, Fullerton. Her research interests focus on fine-tuning the conflict face-negotiation theory and testing the impact of situational and ethnic identity factors on conflict styles. She also has a strong interest in linking intercultural communication theories with training practice. She has published more than 70 book chapters and articles in various academic journals, including International Journal of Intercultural Relations, Human Communication Research, Communication Monographs, and Communication Research, among others. She is also the author and editor of 15 books, most recently Understanding Intercultural Communication (with Leeva Chung), Managing Intercultural Conflict Effectively (with John Oetzel; Sage), Communicating Effectively With the Chinese (with Ge Gao; Sage), and Communicating Across Cultures. She has lectured widely throughout the United States, Asia, and Europe on the theme of mindful intercultural conflict competence.

    About the Contributors

    Bibiana Arcos (B.A. in Architecture, Universidad Javeriana de Bogotá, Colombia) is an M.A. student in the Department of Communication and Journalism at the University of New Mexico. She has published articles and worked as a managing editor of an architecture magazine in Colombia, where she began her emphasis in organizational communication. Her academic interests include organizational and intercultural communication in intersection with discourses of place, belonging, and identity.

    J. Kevin Barge (Ph.D., University of Kansas) is Associate Professor of Speech Communication at the University of Georgia. He is also a member of the Public Dialogue Consortium, a group of scholars and practitioners devoted to developing new forms of communicative practice that facilitate communities' working through polarized and polarizing issues. His major research interests center on developing a communication approach to management and leadership, and exploring the relationship between dialogue and public deliberation. His research has been published in The Academy of Management Review, Management Communication Quarterly, Communication Theory, Communication Monographs, Journal of Applied Communication Research, and Journal of Conflict Resolution. He has served on a number of national and international editorial boards for journals, such as Communication Monographs, Management Communication Quarterly, Journal of Applied Communication Research, and Conflict Resolution Quarterly. He is a former editor of Communication Studies.

    Benjamin J. Broome is Professor in the Hugh Downs School of Human Communication at Arizona State University (ASU), where he teaches courses in intercultural communication, group facilitation, and conflict resolution. His research focuses on the third-party facilitator role in complex problem situations. His publications have appeared in journals such as International Negotiation, Systems Research and Behavioral Science, International Journal of Intercultural Relations, Human Communication Research, Management Communication Quarterly, Journal of Conflict Resolution, Journal of Social Psychology, International Journal of Conflict Management, Small Group Research, American Indian Quarterly, and Communication Education. Over the past decade, he has been involved with peacebuilding efforts in Cyprus, where he has worked closely with groups of Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots in conflict resolution, problem solving, and interactive design. In addition he has worked with a number of government agencies, business organizations, professional associations, educational institutions, Native American Tribes, and community groups in the United States, Europe, and Mexico. He has a strong commitment to developing avenues for genuine dialogue that meaningfully addresses the increasingly complex and diverse issues facing our contemporary world.

    Deborah A. Cai (Ph.D., Michigan State University, 1994) is Associate Professor in the Department of Communication at the University of Maryland. As an international researcher with ties to China, her scholarly interests center on intercultural communication, negotiation, and conflict management. Her research focuses on the interaction of contextual factors of conflict situations with the cultural orientations of those involved in affecting conflict outcomes and processes. Particular emphasis is given to the effect of cultural and religious values in Asian countries on communication processes. Her past works examine cultural differences in negotiation plans, enactment of face-management strategies, and the mediating effects of role on culture in business negotiation. Her research has been presented at national and international conferences and is published in places such as Communication Monographs, Communication Yearbook, Human Communication Research, Journal of Applied Communication, and the Asian Journal of Communication.

    Daniel J. Canary is Professor in the Hugh Downs School of Human Communication at Arizona State University. He has authored or coauthored nine books and more than 50 articles and scholarly book chapters. A former President of the International Network on Personal Relationships, he has served on many editorial boards that publish research on the topic of interpersonal communication. He is current Editor of the Western Journal of Communication. He completed his Ph.D. from the University of Southern California in 1983. Contact information: Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1205; e-mail: dan.canary@asu.edu; tel: 480-965-6650.

    John P. Caughlin is Associate Professor of Speech Communication at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. His research examines communication in families and other close relationships, focusing on the causes and consequences of avoiding communication. Recent work has appeared in journals such as Communication Monographs, Human Communication Research, Journal of Marriage and Family, Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, and Personal Relationships. One of his papers on the demand/withdraw pattern of communication in marriage won the Knower Outstanding Article Award from the Interpersonal Division of the National Communication Association. In 2004 he received the Miller Early Career Achievement Award from the International Association for Relationship Research.

    Susan W. Coleman has worked as an international organizational consultant and trainer specializing in negotiation, cross-cultural communication, conflict resolution, and collaborative strategies to help people and systems deal more effectively with differences and find creative solutions since 1988. She has designed and implemented a worldwide conflict resolution program for the United Nations Secretariat and was also a key player in establishing a conflict resolution program at Teachers College, Columbia University, where she served as the Director of International Projects from 1997 to 2004. She has worked for a wide variety of diplomatic organizations, schools, global companies, governments, and nonprofits, and her training materials have been translated into many languages. She was published in The Handbook of Conflict Resolution: Theory and Practice (2000) and is currently working on a conflict skills book for the general public with an accompanying demonstration and skills practice CD-ROM. To order any of her manuals, videotapes, or other materials or for inquiries about her services, please go to her website at http://www.colemanraider.com or write to Coleman Raider International, 44 Travis Corners Road, Garrison, NY 10524; tel: 845-424-8300.

    William A. Donohue is currently Distinguished Professor of Communication at Michigan State University. He received his Ph.D. in Communication in 1976 from The Ohio State University. His work lies primarily in the areas of mediation and crisis negotiation. He has worked extensively with several state and federal agencies in both training and research activities related to violence prevention and hostage negotiation. He has more than 60 publications dealing with various communication and conflict issues and has won several awards for his scholarship from national and international professional associations. He is an active member of the International Association for Conflict Management, is on the editorial board of several journals in the areas of conflict management and communication, and is an evaluator for several federal grants. He has published in a variety of journals, including International Negotiation, International Journal of Conflict Management, and Negotiation Journal.

    Laura Kathleen Dorsey (Ph.D., Howard University, 2000) is Assistant Professor of Speech Communication at Morgan State University in Baltimore, Maryland. Her areas of teaching and research expertise include organizational communication, small group communication, interpersonal communication, racial/ethnic relations, leadership development, unconscious group processes, and internalized oppression. She also has more than a decade of experience in organizational consultation and training, both nationally and internationally.

    Melodi A. Everett (M.A., Western Michigan University, 2003) is an advertising account coordinator with BBDO Detroit. Her research interests include diversity in organizations, interracial conflict, and the impact of fatherlessness on the adult relationships of women of color.

    Edward L. Fink is Professor and Chair of the Department of Communication, Affiliate Professor of Sociology, and Affiliate Professor of Psychology at the University of Maryland. His research involves attitude and belief change, communication theory, and research methods and statistics. He is a University of Maryland Distinguished Scholar-Teacher and recipient of the International Communication Association's B. Aubrey Fisher Mentorship Award. He coauthored The Measurement of Communication Processes and has published more than 50 articles, monographs, and chapters in the communication, sociology, psychology, criminology, and health education literatures. From 1991 to 1996 he served as Associate Editor of the Journal of Communication, and from 1998 to 2000 he was editor of Human Communication Research.

    Mary Anne Fitzpatrick (Ph.D., Temple University) is founding Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences at the University of South Carolina and a Carolina Foundation Distinguished Professor of Psychology. The author of more than 100 articles, chapters, and books, she also is a past President of the International Communication Association and recipient of the ICA Career Productivity Award of 2001.

    Rebecca Royer Franks is a doctoral candidate in communication at the University of Utah. She has an MA. in Communication from Texas A&M University. She was a Dispute Resolution Specialist with the Bureau of Land Management before returning to graduate school to study environmental conflict. Her research examines the intersection of power, resistance, and identity in environmental conflicts.

    Johny T. Garner is a doctoral candidate at Texas A&M University. He received his MA. degree from Abilene Christian University in 2001. His research interests include dissent and resistance in organizations, coworker communication, and group dialectics.

    Eytan Gilboa (Ph.D., Harvard University) is Professor of Communications and Government and senior researcher at the Begin-Sadat Center for Strategic Studies, at Bar-Ilan University in Israel, and is currently Visiting Professor at the University of Southern California. His most recent works include an edited volume, Media and Conflict: Framing Issues, Policy Making, Shaping Opinions (2002) and articles published in the Journal of Communication, Political Communication, Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics, Critical Studies in Media Communication, and Georgetown Journal of International Affairs. He is the recipient of the 2001 Best Article Award of the International Communication Association.

    Laura K. Guerrero (Ph.D., University of Arizona, 1994) is Professor in the Hugh Downs School of Human Communication at Arizona State University, where she specializes in relational and nonverbal communication. Her work on emotion focuses on communicative responses to jealousy, anger, sadness, and hurtful events. She also conducts research on conflict communication in both relational and task-oriented contexts. Her book credits include The Handbook of Communication and Emotion (coedited with Peter Andersen) and Without Words: Nonverbal Communication in Close Relationships (coauthored with Kory Floyd). She was awarded the Gerald R. Miller Early Achievement Award from the International Association for Relationship Research.

    Mitchell R. Hammer, Ph.D., is Principal in Hammer Consulting, LLC, an intercultural consulting firm, and Professor of International Peace and Conflict Resolution at the American University in Washington, D.C. His work focuses on crisis and conflict dynamics across cultures and author identification. His 1997 book (coedited with R. G. Rogan & C. Van Zandt), Dynamic Processes of Crisis Negotiation: Theory, Research and Practice, was given the Outstanding Book Award in 1998 by the International Association of Conflict Management. He has published widely, and won awards for his scholarship from the Speech Communication Association, the Academy of Management, the International Communication Association, and the Society of Intercultural Education, Training and Research. In 1997, he advised the Japanese government on negotiation strategies concerning the hostage crisis in Peru, and in 1996 he and Randall G Rogan identified a set of letters with the writing of the “Unabomber Manifesto,” assisting the investigation that identified Ted Kaczynski as the “Unabomber.”

    Ann-Sofi Jakobsson Hatay (B.A., M.A., doctoral candidate) is a peace and conflict researcher and lecturer at Uppsala University, Sweden. Her research focuses on peace processes in intrastate conflicts, the role of civil society in peace and democratization processes, and reconciliation. For many years she conducted field research on the conflicts and peace processes in Northern Ireland and Cyprus. Her other research projects include an analysis of international assistance to democratization and reconciliation in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, and Macedonia. Among her most recent publications are The Political Dynamics of Peacebuilding and Peacemaking in Divided Societies: A Comparative Study of the Peace Processes in Northern Ireland and Cyprus (in press) and Macedonia: A Strategic Conflict Analysis (2005). She is also the organizer and facilitator of numerous peacebuilding dialogue initiatives, and a consultant on peace and conflict related matters.

    Tricia S. Jones is Professor in the Department of Psychological Studies in Education, Temple University. She has published more than 40 articles and book chapters on conflict, and coedited the volumes New Directions on Mediation (Sage, 1994), Does It Work? The Case for Conflict Resolution Education in Our Nation's Schools (2000), and Kids Working It Out: Stories and Strategies for Making Peace in Our Schools (2003). Her research in conflict resolution education has been funded by the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, the Packard Foundation, the Surdna Foundation, the Pennsylvania Commission on Crime and Delinquency, the George Gund Foundation, and the United States Information Agency. Her current funded research from the U.S. Department of Education's Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education program is the Conflict Resolution Education in Teacher Education program, educating preservice teacher and counselor candidates in urban education environments about conflict resolution education. She is a past President (1996–1997) of the International Association of Conflict Management. She currently serves as the Editor-in-Chief of Conflict Resolution Quarterly, the scholarly journal of the Association for Conflict Resolution. She is the recipient of the 2004 Jeffrey Z. Rubin Theory to Practice Award from the International Association for Conflict Management.

    Krishna Kandath is Assistant Professor in the Department of Communication and Journalism at the University of New Mexico. He received his Ph.D. from The Ohio University, Athens. His teaching and research interests are in history and philosophy of communication, theory, and critical/cultural inquiry.

    Erika L. Kirby (Ph.D., University of Nebraska-Lincoln) is Associate Professor and Chair in the Department of Communication Studies at Creighton University. Her teaching and research interests include organizational, applied, and work-family/life communication and discourse as well as their intersections with gender and feminism. She has published articles in outlets such as the Journal of Applied Communication Research, Management Communication Quarterly, Communication Yearbook, and Communication Studies, and serves on the editorial boards of the Journal of Applied Communication Research, Communication Studies, and Communication Teacher.

    Ascan F. Koerner (Ph.D., University of Wisconsin) is Associate Professor of Communication Studies at the University of Minnesota-Twin Cities. His research focuses on family communication and on the cognitive bases of relationships and their influence on interpersonal communication, including message production and message interpretation. He is a contributor to publications such as The Handbook of Family Communication and The Handbook of Personal Relationships, and journals such as Communication Monographs, Communication Theory, and Human Communication Research.

    Sandra G. Lakey is Associate Professor at Pennsylvania College of Technology; she is also head of the Communication and Literature Department. She completed her Ph.D. from Pennsylvania State University in 2000. Working with Dan Canary, she focused her research on interpersonal goals, communication competence, and interpersonal conflict. Currently, she is working on a study of relationships between interpersonal goals and perceptions of effectiveness and appropriateness. In addition, her classroom experiences are creating an increasing interest in the ways students' mindless nonverbal behaviors in the classroom affect instructors' perceptions and behaviors. Contact information: Pennsylvania College of Technology, 1 College Ave., Williamsport, PA 17701; e-mail: slakey@pct.edu; tel: 570-326-3761.

    Angela G. La Valley (M.A., University of Colorado-Boulder, 2003) is a doctoral student in the Hugh Downs School of Human Communication at Arizona State University, where she specializes in interpersonal and family communication. Her current research interests include the nonverbal communication of emotions and intergenerational family communication around issues related to care giving and support.

    David B. Lipsky is Professor of Industrial and Labor Relations and Director of the Institute on Conflict Resolution at Cornell University. He is currently the President-Elect of the Labor and Employment Relations Association. He served as Dean of the School of Industrial and Labor Relations (ILR) at Cornell from 1988 until 1997 and has been a member of the Cornell faculty since 1969. He received his B.S. in 1961 from the ILR at Cornell and his Ph.D. in Economics from MIT in 1967. He is the author of 53 articles and the author or editor of 15 books and monographs. He is the coauthor (with Ronald L. Seeber and Richard D. Fincher) of Emerging Systems for Managing Workplace Conflict (2003). He is also the coeditor (with Thomas A. Kochan) of Negotiations and Change: From the Workplace to Society (2003). He was a member of the inaugural class of the National Academy of Human Resources. In 1998 he received the Judge William B. Groat Alumni Award for professional accomplishment and service to the School of Industrial and Labor Relations. He received the General Mills Foundation Award for Achievement in Teaching from the ILR School in 2003.

    Stephen W. Littlejohn is a partner in the communication consulting firm Domenici Littlejohn, Inc., and is a project manager for the Public Dialogue Consortium. Most recently, he helped to design and facilitate peace dialogues in Sri Lanka and Indonesia, and he currently facilitates institutional planning for U.S. tribal colleges. His work has taken him to Ireland, the United Kingdom, Argentina, and throughout the United States, helping groups and communities work collaboratively to resolve difficult issues. He has written widely on topics related to communication, conflict, and dialogue, including Moral Conflict: When Social Worlds Collide (Sage, 1997), Engaging Communication in Conflict: Systemic Practice (Sage, 2001), and Mediation: Empowerment in Conflict Management (2001). The eighth edition of his book Theories of Human Communication was recently published (2005), and he is working on two new books, Communication, Conflict, and the Management of Difference and Communication and the Management of Face: From Theory to Practice, both forthcoming in 2006. He received his Ph.D. in Communication from the University of Utah and was a professor of Speech Communication at Humboldt State University for 26 years. He now lives in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Additional information can be found at http://www.domenici-littlejohn.com.

    Phola Mabizela (M.A., University of New Mexico, 2004) is a communication consultant, focusing on imparting “soft skills,” in particular intercultural communication, cultural fluency, and interpersonal communication within the South African corporate environment. Her ongoing research is the construction of identity among women in multicultural, tradition-bound, and still-patriarchal societies.

    M. Chad McBride (Ph.D., University of Nebraska-Lincoln) is Assistant Professor of Communication Studies at Creighton University. His research and teaching interests include communication in personal relationships, families, and social networks.

    Courtney Waite Miller (Ph.D., Northwestern University, 2004) is an Assistant Professor in the Communication Arts and Sciences department at Elmhurst College. Her research is focused on interpersonal communication, specifically conflict in close relationships.

    Anne Maydan Nicotera (Ph.D., Ohio University, 1990) is Associate Professor of Communication and Culture at Howard University. Her research focuses on culture and conflict in organizational and relational contexts, race and gender issues, diversity, and aggressive communication predispositions. She has published her research in numerous journals. She has also published four books and several chapters. Her consulting specialty is design and implementation of communication skills workshops and seminars.

    Mark P. Orbe (Ph.D., Ohio University, 1993) is Professor of Communication and Diversity in the School of Communication at Western Michigan University, where he also holds a joint appointment in the Center for Women's Studies. His research and teaching interests center on exploring the inextricable relationship between culture and communication across multiple contexts.

    Tarla Rai Peterson is Professor of Communication at University of Utah, and Adjunct Professor of Wildlife Sciences at Texas A&M University. Her research focuses on how rhetoric and dissent influence environmental policy within democratic systems. She has facilitated workshops to enhance understanding and management of environmental conflicts in the United States and Europe. She has authored more than 50 articles and book chapters, as well as a book titled Sharing the Earth: The Rhetoric of Sustainable Development.

    Marshall Scott Poole is Professor of Communication and of Information and Operations Management at Texas A&M University. He received his Ph.D. in 1980 from the University of Wisconsin and taught at the Universities of Illinois and Minnesota before coming to Texas A&M. His research interests include group and organizational communication, information systems, conflict management, and organizational innovation. His articles have appeared in Management Science, Organization Science, Information Systems Research, MIS Quarterly, Human Communication Research, Communication Monographs, Small Group Research, and Academy of Management Review. He has coauthored or edited ten books, including Communication and Group Decision-Making, Theories of Small Groups: Interdisciplinary Perspectives, Organizational Change and Innovation Processes: Theory and Methods for Research, and The Handbook of Organizational Change and Innovation. He is a Fellow of the International Communication Association.

    Linda L. Putnam (Ph.D., University of Minnesota, 1977) is George T and Gladys H. Abell Professor in the Department of Communication at Texas A&M University and past Director of the Conflict and Dispute Resolution Program at the Bush School of Public Affairs. Her current research interests include negotiation and organizational conflict, environmental conflict, and language analysis in organizations. She is the coeditor of The New Handbook of Organizational Communication (2001), Communication and Negotiation (1992), and Communication and Organization: An Interpretive Approach (1983), and the Handbook of Organizational Discourse (2004). She is the 1993 recipient of the Charles H. Woolbert Research Award for innovative research in communication, the 1999 recipient of the Distinguished Scholar Award from the National Communication Association, the 2005 recipient of the Steven H. Chaffee Career Productivity Award, a Fellow and Past President of the International Communication Association, and Past President of the International Association for Conflict Management.

    Ellen Raider (M.Ed., Temple University) is a mediator, trainer, and program developer whose training materials have been used by educational, business, and governmental organizations throughout the world. In partnership with Morton Deutsch, she launched the International Center for Cooperation and Conflict Resolution (ICCCR) and graduate studies in Conflict Studies at Teachers College at Columbia University. In collaboration with the New York City Board of Education she trained staff from 150 high schools, launching a major citywide effort to reduce school violence by increasing students' conflict resolution and mediation skills. In her own consulting practice, she has designed cross-cultural conflict resolution programs for the worldwide staff at UNICEF; the Committee for National Security; the American Friends Service Committee; and the U.S./USSR Trade Negotiation Project. She is currently a member of the Independent Commission on Public Education in New York City, a group whose mission is to bring about a human-rights based system of education in New York City.

    Susana Rinderle (M.A., Communication, University of New Mexico; B.A., Sociology, UCLA) has a varied background as a social worker, journalist, social service/academic program manager, business consultant, professional trainer, mediator, performer, and university instructor. She studied at Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) in Mexico City and worked in Guadalajara, México. Her main research interests are identity and labels, intercultural conflict, the U.S. Latino experience, and Mexican-White U.S. American communication. She recently left teaching communication and sociology at UNM to become an Organizational Development consultant and trainer for UNM Hospitals. Her work is forthcoming in the Journal of Communication Inquiry and the International and Intercultural Communication Annual.

    Randall G. Rogan (Ph.D., Michigan State University) is Professor and currently serves as Department Chair for the Department of Communication at Wake Forest University. His research is in forensic discourse analysis of crisis negotiations and author identification. In particular, his research focuses on the affective and framing features of conflict communication, for which he has received scholarly awards. In fact, his 1997 book (coedited with M. R. Hammer & C. Van Zandt), Dynamic Processes of Crisis Negotiation: Theory, Research and Practice, was awarded the Outstanding Book Award in 1998 by the International Association of Conflict Management. He is recognized as an international expert and leading researcher in crisis negotiation. He has consulted with various law enforcement agencies on crisis negotiation and threatening communication. Of particular note, his analysis of written documents assisted in the investigation that resulted in the arrest of the Unabomber.

    Michael E. Roloff (Ph.D., Michigan State University, 1975) is Professor of Communication Studies at Northwestern University. His research interests include bargaining and negotiation, and conflict management. He is the author of Interpersonal Communication: The Social Exchange Approach and coeditor of Persuasion: New Directions in Theory and Research, Interpersonal Processes: New Directions in Communication Research, Social Cognition and Communication, and Communication and Negotiation. His work has been published in such journals as Communication Monographs, Communication Research, and Human Communication Research. He is Senior Associate Editor of the International Journal of Conflict Management, and he has served as editor of the Communication Yearbook and as coeditor of Communication Research.

    Ronald L. Seeber is Professor and Associate Dean at the School of Industrial and Labor Relations at Cornell University. He is also Executive Director of the Cornell Institute on Conflict Resolution. He received his B.S. in Industrial Engineering at Iowa State University in 1975 and received his A.M. (1977) and Ph.D. (1981) degrees in labor and industrial relations from the University of Illinois. He has written on a wide range of topics in the field of labor-management relations and dispute resolution and has published extensively in academic journals. He has been an active participant in the professional meetings of the Labor and Employment Relations Association, the Association for Conflict Resolution, and the Academy of Management. He has coauthored or edited eight books on labor relations and dispute resolution topics, including (most recently) Emerging Systems of Managing Workplace Conflict with David B. Lipsky and Richard D. Fincher (2003). He has conducted numerous seminars and workshops on negotiations and dispute resolution for corporate, government, and union groups.

    Jiro Takai is Associate Professor of Social and Cultural Psychology at the Department of Educational Psychology, Nagoya University, in Japan. He received his Ph.D. from the Department of Communication at the University of California, Santa Barbara. His general research interests are in cross-cultural comparisons of interpersonal communication competence. His specific research interests are aimed at explaining diverse communication styles from a conception-of-self perspective. His publications include articles that have appeared in the International Journal of Intercultural Relations, Communication Monographs, and the Japanese Journal of Experimental Social Psychology.

    Anita L. Vangelisti is interested in interpersonal communication among family members and between romantic partners. Her current work focuses how communication affects, and is affected by, emotions and interpretive processes such as attribution. She has published her research in journals such as Communication Monographs, Human Communication Research, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Personal Relationships, Family Relations, Journal of Adolescent Research, and Journal of Social and Personal Relationships. She is coeditor of the Cambridge University Press book series on Advances in Personal Relationships, was associate editor of Personal Relationships, edited the ISSPR Bulletin, and has served on the editorial boards of numerous journals. She has coauthored and edited several books and is presently working on two more volumes.

    Qi Wang (M.A., Kent State University, 2000; B.A., Peking University, 1997) is a doctoral student in the Department of Communication at the University of Maryland. Her areas of interest include intercultural communication, negotiation and conflict management, social influence, and research methods.

    Wallace Warfield is Associate Professor at the Institute for Conflict Analysis and Resolution, George Mason University in Fairfax, Virginia. In this capacity, he teaches laboratory-simulation and practicum courses, as well as theory courses. As a practitioner, he has done mediation, facilitation, training, and problem-solving workshops in community, interethnic, and organizational conflict in the United States and other countries. He is the author of a number of publications in the field of conflict analysis and resolution and has most recently been a member of a research team looking at conflict zones of peace in Colombia.

    A. Michael Weinman is a doctoral candidate in the Department of Communication and Journalism at the University of New Mexico. After emigrating from Jerusalem to Taos, New Mexico, in 1972 and working as an electrical engineer and an educator, he entered the fields of intercultural communication and educational technologies in 1996 in order to promote communication among learners from different cultures. He received a Master's degree from UNM College of Education after completing research in Morocco concerning the use of distance education technologies in international intercultural education. His academic and civic interests are in introducing, promoting, and researching dialogic communication in American Muslim communities, community building through participative action research, mediation as community service, and conflict resolution.

    Stacey M. Wieland (M.A., University of Southern California) is a doctoral student in the Department of Communication at the University of Colorado, Boulder. She studies organizational communication and is specifically interested in how individuals discursively construct the relationship between working life and private life. She considers how people (re)produce and shape structures and policies in ways that simultaneously enable and constrain them in relation to work and life. As such, she is specifically interested in the Swedish context for studying work/life and considering what organizations and individuals in the United States and Sweden can learn from one another about work/life issues.

    Qin Zhang (Ph.D., University of New Mexico) is Assistant Professor in the Department of Communication at Fairfield University. Her research interests focus on intercultural communication in interpersonal and instructional contexts. She is particularly interested in intercultural conflict management and resolution and effective teacher communication behaviors across cultures. Her publications have appeared in the International and Intercultural Communication Annual, Journal of Intercultural Communication Studies, and Journal of Intergroup Relations.


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