The SAGE Handbook of Comparative Politics


Edited by: Todd Landman & Neil Robinson

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    List of Tables and Figures

    • Table 1.1 Causal conditions and presence of Black strikebreaking 24
    • Table 1.2 Truth table for the presence of Black strikebreaking 24
    • Table 1.3 Truth table for the presence of shaming, with counterfactual conditions 27
    • Table 2.1 Regression analysis of factors explaining democracy 39
    • Table 5.1 Different types of equivalence problems and strategies 88
    • Table 7.1 The four new institutionalisms 138
    • Table 11.1 Post-industrial democracies and the next tier of countries 198
    • Table 11.2 Functional Division of Gross Domestic Product, 2005 217
    • Table 16.1 The concept of self-expression values 305
    • Table 27.1 Sub-types of transitional justice 500
    • Table 28.1 Key features of the cross-national series of surveys 523
    • Figure 7.1 Scholars' use of the four new institutionalisms: Rational choice (RI), historical (HI), sociological (SI), and discursive (DI) 139
    • Figure 16.1 The human empowerment framework 306
    • Figure 16.2 Self-expression values related to elite-challenging actions and efficacious orientations 307
    • Figure 16.3 Self-expression values related to individual's definition of democracy and their demand for democracy 309
    • Figure 16.4 Self-expression values related to the over- and underrating of democracy 310
    • Figure 22.1 Forms of regional cooperation and integration of decision-making rules costs and benefits of membership 416
    • Figure 23.1 The categories and dimensions of human rights 427
    • Figure 24.1 The evolution of corruption perceptions, Indonesia, 1995–2001 442


    We would like to thank all of our contributing authors and the publisher, particularly David Mainwaring, for their patience and perseverance in the preparation of this manuscript. It has taken far longer to put this book together than we had hoped or planned and your forbearance has been much appreciated.

    That the book has appeared at all is in no small measure the result of help that we have received along the way. Karen Buckley has on several occasions provided heroic assistance, particularly as we went through the final edit. Financial assistance was provided at the start of the project by the University of Limerick Faculty of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences Research Board. Tom Lodge also made a crucial intervention that helped move the process along at a critical juncture.

    On a personal note we'd like to offer the traditional thanks to our families for their toleration of our absences and complaints about the progress of the work. Neil would like to thank Maura, for listening to the moaning, both general and specific, and for everything else, and Sáoirse and Mani for insisting – quite rightly – that playtime was accorded at least equal importance with all of life's other activities, including book editing.

    Todd offers thanks to Pavlenka and Stephen Small for being great friends and a super sounding board, and extends his heartfelt thanks to Melissa, Oliver, Sophia and Briony Rose (the newest addition to the Landman clan in the UK) for proving that family life and all that goes with it offers the best lessons for understanding the big questions in life.

    Notes on Contributors

    Sarah Birch is Reader in Politics at the University of Essex and Co-Editor of the British Journal of Political Science. She is author of Elections and democratization in Ukraine (Palgrave, 2000), Electoral systems and political transformation in post-communist Europe (Palgrave-Macmillan, 2003), and co-author of the companion volume, Embodying democracy: Electoral system design in post-communist Europe (Palgrave-Macmillan, 2002). Her most recent book is Full participation: A comparative study of compulsory voting (Manchester University Press, 2008). She has also published numerous articles on electoral systems and electoral conduct. Her current research interests include electoral conduct and political ethics.

    Vincent Boudreau is Professor of Comparative Politics at the City College of New York and the City University of New York's Graduate Center. Professor Boudreau writes about protest movements, state repression and democratization in Southeast Asia, both comparatively, and with particular focus on the Philippines. His latest book is Resisting dictatorship: Repression and protest in Southeast Asia (Cambridge, 2004). His most recent research seeks to explain divergent patterns of post-transition politics in Indonesia and the Philippines, and patterns of collective violence across Southeast Asia. He also serves on the editorial board of Comparative Politics.

    Shaun Bowler is Professor of Political Science at the University of California, Riverside. His research interests include comparative political behaviour and electoral systems. He is coauthor, along with Christopher Anderson, Andres Blais, Todd Donovan, and Ola Listhaug of Loser's consent (Oxford, 2005).

    James A. Caporaso is Professor of Political Science in the Department of Political Science, University of Washington. He is a former president of the International Studies Association (1997–98), former Chair of the Executive Committee of the European Community Studies Association (1995–97), and the editor of Comparative Political Studies. His research interests are in global political economy, regional integration, and comparative institutional analysis. He has published articles in the American Political Science Review, West European Politics, Journal of Common Market Studies, International Organization, and International Studies Quarterly.

    Paola Cesarini teaches in the Department of Political Science at Providence College, specializing in comparative politics and human rights. Previously, she worked for the World Bank, the United Nations, and the Institute of Latin American and Iberian Studies at Columbia University. Her primary research interests are: transitional justice, comparative democratization, and the politics of memory. She is co-editor, with Katherine Hite, of Authoritarian legacies and democracy in Latin America and Southern Europe (University of Notre Dame Press, 2004). Her work has appeared in peer-reviewed periodicals – such as the Journal of Latin American Studies and International Studies Review – and various edited volumes.

    Josep M. Colomer is Research Professor in Political Science at the Higher Council of Scientific Research and affiliated professor at Barcelona-Graduate School of Economics. He is elected member of the Academia Europaea and life member of the American Political Science Association. Author of two dozen books, published in five languages, including Political institutions (Oxford University Press, 2001), Handbook of electoral system choice (Palgrave-Macmillan, 2004) and Great empires, small nations (Routledge, 2007).

    Jan W. van Deth is Professor of Political Science and International Comparative Social Research at the University of Mannheim (Germany). His main research areas are political culture (especially social capital, political engagement, and citizenship), social change, and comparative research methods. He was Director of the Mannheim Centre for European Social Research (MZES), convenor of the international network Citizenship, Involvement, Democracy (CID), and Book Series Editor of the Studies in European Political Science of the European Consortium for Political Research (ECPR). He is a Corresponding Member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (KNAW) and national coordinator of the German team for the European Social Survey. Recent publications include Civil society and governance in Europe. From National to international linkages (edited with William Maloney; Edward Elgar, 2008).

    Barbara Geddes has written about the breakdown in authoritarian regimes, bureaucratic reform and corruption, political bargaining over institutional choice and change, and research design. Her publications include Paradigms and sand castles: Theory building and research design in comparative politics (2003), Politician's dilemma: Building state capacity in Latin America (1994), ‘What do we know about democratization after twenty years?’ Annual Review of Political Science (1999) and ‘A game theoretic model of reform in Latin American democracies,’ American Political Science Review (1991). Her current research focuses on politics inside dictatorships. She teaches Latin American politics, authoritarian politics, and research design at UCLA.

    Jack A. Goldstone is Hazel Professor and Director of the Center for Global Policy at George Mason University. He is the author of Revolution and rebellion in the early modern world (California, 1991), and editor of The Encyclopedia of Political Revolutions (Congressional Quarterly, 1998). He has received the Distinguished Contribution to Scholarship award of the American Sociological Association, the Arnoldo Momigliano Prize of the Historical Society, and fellowships from the ACLS and the MacArthur Foundation.

    Stephen E. Hanson is Herbert J. Ellison Professor in the Department of Political Science and the Director of the Ellison Center for Russian, East European, and Central Asian Studies at the Jackson School of International Studies at the University of Washington. He is the author of Time and revolution: Marxism and the design of Soviet institutions (University of North Carolina Press, 1997), winner of the 1998 Wayne S. Vucinich book award from the American Association for the Advancement of Slavic Studies. He is also a co-editor of Capitalism and democracy in Central and Eastern Europe: Assessing the legacy of communist rule, (Cambridge University Press, 2003), a co-author of Postcommunism and the theory of democracy (Princeton University Press, 2001), and the author of numerous journal articles examining postcommunist politics in comparative perspective.

    Darren G. Hawkins is Professor of Political Science at Brigham Young University, where he teaches and researches on international relations, human rights, and international organizations. He has coedited a volume of Delegation and agency in international organizations (Cambridge University Press) and authored International human rights and authoritarian rule in Chile(Nebraska University Press). He has also published a number of scholarly articles on international human rights, international institutions, and democracy. These have appeared in International Organization, Journal of Politics, International Studies Quarterly, Comparative Politics, Global Governance, Review of International Studies, and other journals.

    Paul M. Heywood is Sir Francis Hill Professor of European Politics at the University of Nottingham, and Adjunct Professor at Hunan University, China, where he is also Senior Adviser to the Anti-Corruption Research Center. He has published widely on political corruption, as well as on contemporary European politics. Amongst his recent books are Spain and the European Union (with Carlos Closa; Palgrave, 2004) and Developments in European politics (edited with Erik Jones, Martin Rhodes and Ulrich Sedelmeier; Palgrave, 2006). He is currently working on issues of administrative reform and corruption risks.

    John M. Hobson is Professor of Politics and International Relations at the University of Sheffield, and is co-director of the Political Economy Research Centre and a sub-editor of Political Studies. His main research interest lies in the critique of Eurocentrism and the reconstruction of a non-Eurocentric account of inter-civilizational relations and globalization, past and present. He has authored/co-authored six books to date, two of which are co-edited volumes. His most recent books are: The eastern origins of western civilisation (CUP, 2004); Everyday politics of the world economy (CUP, 2007; co-edited with Leonard Seabrooke). He has published over 40 book chapters and journal articles, and is currently working on a book that contains some of John A. Hobson's 1930's lectures, provisionally entitled The struggle for the international mind.

    Jennifer S. Holmes, is Associate Professor of Political Economy and Political Science at the University of Texas at Dallas. Her major area of research is political violence, terrorism, and political development with an emphasis on Latin America and Southern Europe. She is the author of Terrorism and democratic stability (Manchester University Press, 2001, Transaction, 2006), Terrorism and democratic stability revisited (Manchester University Press, 2008), and Guns, drugs, and development: Violence in Colombia (with Sheila Amin Gutiérrez de Piñeres and Kevin Curtin, University of Texas Press, 2009). She is also the editor of New approaches to comparative politics: Insights from political theory (Lexington Books, 2003, 2008), and coeditor of Latin American democracy: Emerging reality or endangered species? (Routledge, 2008). Articles by Dr. Holmes have been published in Terrorism and Political Violence, Latin American Politics & Society, Bulletin of Latin American Research, International Journal of Social Economics, Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, International Journal of Public Administration, and Revista de Estudios Colombianos.

    Philip Keefer is Lead Research Economist in the Development Research Group of the World Bank. The focus of his work, based on experience in countries ranging from Bangladesh, Benin, Brazil, and the Dominican Republic to Indonesia, México, Perú and Pakistan, is the determinants of political incentives to pursue economic development. His research, on issues such as the impact of insecure property rights on growth; the effects of political credibility on policy; and the sources of political credibility in democracies and autocracies, has appeared in journals ranging from the Quarterly Journal of Economics to the American Review of Political Science.

    Hans Keman is Professor and Chair in Comparative Political Science at the VU University Amsterdam. He has been editor of the European Journal of Political Research and recently of Acta Politica. He has published books and articles on Parties and Government in Parliamentary Democracies, Democracy and Social and Economic Performance, Social Democracy and the Welfare State, institutional theory and on Comparative Methods.

    Herbert Kitschelt is Professor for Comparative Politics at Duke University, North Carolina. In recent years he has primarily worked on the comparison of parties and party systems in advanced industrial democracies, post-communist Eastern Europe and Latin America. He is the co-editor of Patrons, clients and policies (Cambridge University Press, 2007) and co-author of the forthcoming Latin American party systems (Cambridge University Press, 2009). He is currently involved in a global comparison of patterns of democratic accountability in electoral democracies.

    Jan Kleinnijenhuis is Professor of Communication Science at the VU University Amsterdam since 1998. His research interests include agenda building and agenda setting processes in which both old and new media play their role, as well as methods for content analysis and panel survey analysis to chart these processes in great detail. He has published on these subjects in journals such as Political Analysis, the British Journal of Political Science, Journal of Communication, and the Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics. Together with Paul Pennings and Hans Keman he wrote Doing research in Political Science: An introduction to comparative methods and statistics (Sage, 1999/2006).

    Todd Landman is Reader in the Department of Government and Director of the Centre for Democratic Governance at the University of Essex. He is author of Studying human rights (Routledge, 2006), Protecting human rights (Georgetown, 2005), and Issues and methods in comparative politics (Routledge, 2000, 2003, 2008); co-author of Measuring human rights (Routledge, 2009), Governing Latin America (Polity, 2003), and Citizenship rights and social movements (Oxford, 1997, 2000); and editor of Human rights, Volumes I–IV (Sage, 2009). He has published articles in International Studies Quarterly, The British Journal of Political Science, Human Rights Quarterly, Democratization, The British Journal of Politics and International Relations, and Political Studies.

    David McKay is Professor of Government at the University of Essex. He is the author of Federalism and European Union (Oxford, 1999) and Designing Europe: Comparative lessons from the federal experience (Oxford, 2001) which won the W.J.M. Mackenzie prize for the best book published in political science, 2001. His research includes work on the sustainability of federal systems and in particular the links between institutional arrangements and the spatial dimension to political conflict including the political economy of European monetary union.

    David S. Meyer is Professor of Sociology, Political Science, and Planning, Policy and Design at the University of California, Irvine. He has published numerous articles on social movements and social change, and is author or coeditor of six books, most recently, The politics of protest: Social movements in America (Oxford University Press). He is most interested in the connections among institutional politics, public policy, and social movements, particularly in regard to issues of war and peace.

    Wolfgang C. Müller is Professor in Political Science, University of Mannheim and former Director of the Mannheim Centre for European Social Research (MZES). His recent book publications include Policy, office, or votes? How political parties in Western Europe make hard decisions (co-edited with Kaare Str⊘m; Cambridge University Press, 1999), Coalition governments in Western Europe (co-edited with Kaare Str⊘m; Oxford University Press, 2000), Delegation and accountability in parliamentary democracies (co-edited with Kaare Str⊘m and Torbjörn Bergman; Oxford University Press, 2003), Political parties and electoral change (co-edited with Peter Mair and Fritz Plasser; Sage, 2004), and Cabinets and coalition bargaining: The democratic life cycle in Western Europe (co-edited with Kaare Str⊘m and Torbjörn Bergman; Oxford University Press, 2008). His research interests include political representation, delegation relationships, government coalitions, political parties, and political institutions in Europe.

    Pippa Norris is the McGuire Lecturer in Comparative Politics at the John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University. She has also served as Director of the Democratic Governance Group at UNDP in New York. Her work compares democracy, elections and public opinion, political communications, and gender politics in many countries worldwide. A well-known public speaker and prize-winning author, she has published almost three-dozen books. This includes a series of volumes for Cambridge University Press: A virtuous circle (2000, winner of the 2006 Doris A. Graber award), Digital divide (2001), Democratic phoenix (2002) and Rising tide (with Ronald Inglehart, 2003), Electoral engineering (2004), Sacred and secular (with Ronald Inglehart, 2004, winner of the Virginia Hodgkinson prize), Radical right (2005), and Driving democracy: Do power-sharing institutions work? (2008), Her most recent books are Cultural convergence? Cosmopolitan communications and national diversity (with Ronald Inglehart, CUP, 2009), and an edited volume, Guardians of the public interest: Strengthening the news media, democratic governance and human development (The World Bank, 2009).

    Paul Pennings is Associate Professor of Political Science at the VU University Amsterdam. His research and teaching interests are in the fields of Comparative (European) Politics and Comparative Methods and Statistics. He has publised widely in peer-reviewed academic journals in political science, such as Acta Politica, Electoral Studies, European Journal of Political Research, European Union Politics, Party Politics, Political Studies and Sociological Methods and Research. His recent publications include Doing research in Political Science. An introduction to comparative methods and Statistics (with Hans Keman and Jan Kleinnijenhuis Sage, 2nd edition, 2006) and (with Christine Arnold) ‘Is Constitutional Politics like Politics “At Home”? The Case of the EU Constitution’, Political Studies 56 (4): 789–806, which was a finalist for the Harrison Prize for the best article published in Political Studies in 2008.

    Thomas Plümper is Professor of Government at the University of Essex and Director of the Essex Summer School in Social Science Data Analysis. He also holds affiliations with the Max Planck Institute of Economics in Jena, the Institute for International Integration Studies, Dublin and the Peace Research Institute in Oslo. He published articles in the American Journal of Political Science, International Organization, Political Analysis, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, World Development, European Journal of Political Research, the British Journal of Political Science, Journal of Conflict Resolution, and International Studies Quarterly.

    Charles C. Ragin holds a joint appointment as Professor of Sociology and Political Science at the University of Arizona. His substantive interests include such topics as the welfare state, ethnic political mobilization, and international political economy. However, for the past two decades his work has focused primarily on broad issues in methodology, especially the challenge of bringing some of the logic and spirit of small-N case-oriented research to the study of medium-sized and large Ns. His most recent books are Redesigning social inquiry: Fuzzy sets and beyond (University of Chicago Press, 2008) and Configurational comparative methods: Qualitative comparative analysis and related techniques (co-edited with Benoit Rihoux; Sage Publications, 2008).

    Neil Robinson is Senior Lecturer in the Department of Politics and Public Administration at the University of Limerick, Ireland. He is the author of Ideology and the collapse of the Soviet system. A critical history of Soviet ideological discourse (Elgar, 1995), Post-communist politics(with Karen Henderson, Prentice Hall, 1997), and Russia: a state of uncertainty (Routledge, 2002), and editor of Institutions and political change in Russia (Macmillan, 2000), Reforging the weakest link: global political economy and post-Soviet change in Russia, Ukraine and Belarus (Ashgate, 2004), and State-building. Theory and practice (with Aidan Hehir, Routledge, 2007). He has published in Soviet Studies, European Journal of Political Research, The Journal of Communist Studies and Transitional Politics, Review of International Political Economy, Communist and Post-Communist Studies and other journals.

    Claude Rubinson is a Ph.D. candidate in the Department of Sociology at the University of Arizona. His interests include globalization and comparative political-economy; art, technology, and culture; social stratification; and research methodology. He uses case-oriented, comparative research methods to study the relationship between political-economic decline and cultural expression. His dissertation examines the changing aesthetics and ideologies of the Arts and Crafts movement, which arose with the decline of British hegemony. In addition to his work on comparative methodology, he has also published work on multi-valued logic and logical ambiguity in ACM's /SIGMOD Record/.

    Andreas Schedler is Professor of Political Science at the Centro de Investigación y Docencia Económicas (CIDE) in Mexico City. His recent publications include Electoral authoritarianism: The dynamics of unfree competition (Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2006), “The Mexican Standoff: The Mobilization of Distrust,” Journal of Democracy (January, 2007), “Democrats with Adjectives: Linking Direct and Indirect Measures of Democratic Support” (with Rodolfo Sarsfield), European Journal of Political Research (August, 2007), and “The Contingent Power of Authoritarian Elections,” Democratization by elections? A new mode of transition, ed. Staffan I. Lindberg (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2009). His ongoing comparative research focuses on the internal dynamics of electoral authoritarian regimes worldwide.

    Vivien A. Schmidt is Jean Monnet Professor of European Integration and Director of the Center for International Relations at Boston University, and Visiting Professor at Sciences Po, Paris. She has written widely in the areas of European political economy, institutions and democracy, as well as political theory. Recent publications include Democracy in Europe (Oxford, 2006), The futures of European capitalism (Oxford, 2002), Welfare and work in the open economy (2 volumes co-edited with F.W. Scharpf, Oxford, 2000), and “Discursive Institutionalism: The Explanatory Power of Ideas and Discourse” Annual Review of Political Science (2008).

    Fredrik Söderbaum is Associate Professor of Peace and Development Research at the School of Global Studies, University of Gothenburg, and Senior Associate Research Fellow at the United Nations University-Comparative Regional Integration Studies (UNU-CRIS), Bruges, Belgium. His latest books include EU and the global South (co-edited with Patrik Stålgren, Lynne Rienner, 2009, forthcoming); Afro-regions: The dynamics of cross-border micro-regionalism in Africa (co-edited with Ian Taylor, Nordic Africa Institute, 2008), The EU as a global player: The politics of interregionalism (co-edited with Luk van Langenhove, Routledge, 2006), The political economy of regionalism: The case of Southern Africa (Palgrave Macmillan, 2004), Theories of New Regionalism (co-edited with Tim Shaw, Palgrave Macmillan, 2003).

    Willfried Spohn is Adjunct Professor in sociology at FU Berlin. He was director of an EU research project ‘Representations of Europe and the Nation in current and prospective member states – elites, media and civil society’ at the European University Viadrina, Frankfurt-Odra. His recent publications are (with Steven Hanson): Can Europe work? Germany and the reconstruction of postcommunist societies, Seattle, 1995; ‘History and the Social Sciences,’ International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behaviorial Sciences, London, 2001; (with Anna Triandafyllidou): Europeanization, national identities and migration, (2002), and ‘Multiple Modernity, Nationalism and Religion – A Global Perspective,’ in: U. Schuerkens (ed.), Global forces and local life – Worlds, (2003).

    Christian Welzel is Professor of Political Science at Jacobs University Bremen and Vice-President of the World Values Survey Association. He is also affiliated faculty and a regular visitor of the Center for the Study of Democracy at UC Irvine. His research focuses on the themes of democratization, modernization, human development, as well as human values and cultural change. Christian Welzel has published more than 80 scholarly articles and chapters. His most recent book (with Ronald Inglehart) is Modernaization, cultural change and democracy: The human development sequence (New York: Cambridge University Press).

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