The Handbook of Communication Science

Handbooks

Edited by: Charles R. Berger, Michael E. Roloff & David R. Roskos-Ewoldsen

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  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Part 1: Overview

    Part 2: Communication Codes

    Part 3: Fundamental Processes

    Part 4: Functions

    Part 5: Communication Contexts

  • Dedication

    To the memory of Steve Chaffee and Gerry Miller, two extraordinary communication scientists

    Copyright

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    Preface to the Second Edition

    More than two decades have passed since publication of the Handbook of Communication Science's first edition. During this time, several handbooks addressing a variety of specific communication contexts and topical areas of communication inquiry have appeared on the communication research landscape. Given these developments, this seems to be an especially propitious time to produce a handbook that serves to integrate these ostensibly diverse areas. As the present volume's chapters aptly demonstrate, there are a number of vectors along which these seemingly diverse areas of inquiry show distinct tendencies for convergence. Some might wonder why a second edition has taken so long. Conversations about a second edition of this handbook took place a few years after its publication; however, at that time the editors were engaged in other long-term research and writing projects. They simply did not have the time to undertake a project of this magnitude. Then, at about the time the editors might have been able to direct their energies toward a second edition, one of them passed away. After this sad and unexpected event, it took additional time to assemble the current editorial ensemble.

    At the time the first edition of this handbook was published, the editors noted that the earlier Handbook of Communication(Pool, Schramm, Frey, Maccoby, & Parker, 1973) included many authors based in a variety of social science disciplines. The editors further observed that for the first time, a communication handbook included authors whose training and intellectual homes were primarily in communication-related departments. Almost all of the chapters included in this second edition of the Handbook of Communication Science are similarly authored by researchers trained and housed in communication departments both in the United States and abroad. Although this tradition has been carried forward from the handbook's first edition, there have been substantial changes in the substantive and methodological contoursofthe communication science terrain since publication of the first edition.

    Given the dynamic nature of communication science, not surprisingly, new domains ofinquiry not only have appeared on the scene but also have quickly developed into burgeoning research enterprises. Such areas as computer-mediated communication and human-computer interaction are two obvious casesinpoint; eachofthemisrepresented by a chapterin the present volume. Neither domain received chapter-length treatment in the first edition. In addition to these two chapters, several othersinthis edition devote considerable spacetodiscussing the ways in which the Internet has altered the conduct of communicative commerce in such contexts as health and politics and how those who seek to understand mass media effects and communication campaigns must take seriously these new communication modalities. New communication technologies are having equally significant impactsonthe ways in which interactions that were formerly conducted face-to-face can now be accomplished through technological mediation. Mediated social interaction has begunto play a pivotal roleinthe development and main-tenanceofpersonal relationships, especially those conducted over long distances. Given the increasing costsoftransportation and concomitant reductions in physical mobility, mediated social interaction will very likely become an even more pervasive feature of everyday communicative life and an expanding venue for research activity.

    Beyond these responses to the dramatic innovations in communication technology, some areas represented in the handbook's first edition have expanded to the point that they now require two chapters to provide adequate coverage of them. The communication and conflict literature was reviewed in just one chapter in the handbook's first edition. The present volume includes separate chapters on interpersonal conflict and intergroup conflict. Similarly, the present volume contains a chapter on persuasion and another on compliance gaining. The first edition included a single chapter focused only on the former. Interpersonal aspects of health communication and issues related to health communication campaigns are considered in two different chapters of this edition, whereas only one chapter was devoted to health communication in the first edition. Although the role of emotion-related processes in communication was mentioned in passing by only a few authors in the first edition, the present edition has an entire chapter devoted to communication and emotion.

    First-edition authors were asked to write their chapters using a template featuring the individual, interpersonal, organizational, and macro-social levels of analysis. Each of these levels of analysis was explicated in separate chapters in that edition, and the authors of the remaining chapters were encouraged to consider their particular chapter's substantive focus from the perspective of each of the four levels. With few notable exceptions, most authors found it difficult, if not impossible, to implement this four-level schema in their chapters. The difficulty authors found in using the levels approach does not deny the “levels” nature of the communication science domain. Perhaps the time was not ripe for such a venture. Although we did not attempt to have the present volume's authors employ such a template in writing their chapters, one of this edition's chapters is devoted to issues surrounding levels of analysis. Methodological developments that have come to the fore since the handbook's first edition have fostered increased attention to the importance of different levels of analysis in understanding a variety of communication phenomena. Multilevel modeling and hierarchical linear modeling, methodological tools that enable researchers to tease out intra- and interlevel effects, are among these developments. We suspect that the continuing and increasing use of these methodologies across substantive domains of communication science may enable authors to pen chapters appearing in future editions of this handbook that seriously consider a variety of communication phenomena from a multilevels perspective.

    Longitudinal changes in the substantive foci of communication science since the handbook's first edition have been substantial and impressive. Against this highly optimistic backdrop, with both great fondness and sadness, we wish to remember Steve Chaffee, a coeditor of the handbook's first edition, and Gerry Miller, who was an adviser to two of this edition's editors and an author of a chapter in the first edition. Both of these communication scientists were outstanding theoreticians, researchers, and writers, but what is more, today they are both remembered as extremely generous and kind human beings who were fun to work with and to be around. They were both wonderful storytellers. Unfortunately, they both left us too soon. Now, the Gerry and Steve stories that are part of today's communication science folklore do not centrally concern theoretical or research matters; rather, they focus on the humanity of these two fine people. Theories may come and go, but Steve and Gerry will not soon be forgotten. We have thus dedicated this volume to their memory.

    This edition of the handbook would not exist were it not for the encouragement of the two people who founded Sage Publications, Sara Miller McCune, the “SA” in SAGE, and George McCune, the “GE” in SAGE. Sara was a driving force who devoted much time and effort toensuring the publication of the handbook's first edition. Although George has passed away, Sara continues to be active on many other projects and recently has launched the magazine Miller-McCune, a publication dedicated to using social science theory and research to ameliorate social problems. This recent development is consistent with what has now become an impressive history of SAGE's continuing support for publishing social scientific communication theory and research.

    Finally, we would be remiss if we did not thank our respective families for the forbearance and understanding they accorded us during the inevitable emotional turbulence associated with completing a project like this one. We solemnly promise them and ourselves that considerable time will pass before we contemplate undertaking a project of this scope.

    Charles R. Berger
    Davis, California
    Michael E. Roloff
    Evanston, Illinois
    David R. Roskos-Ewoldsen
    Columbus, Ohio
    Reviewer List

    Deborah A. Cai (University of Maryland)

    Laura K. Guerrero (Arizona State University)

    David R. Seibold (University of California, Santa Barbara)

    Sandi Smith (Michigan State University)

    Reference
    Pool, I. S., Schramm, W., Frey, F. W., Maccoby, N., & Parker, E. B. (Eds.). (1973). Handbook of communication. Chicago: Rand McNally.
  • Author Index

    About the Editors

    CHARLES R. BERGER(PhD, Michigan State University) is Professor in the Department of Communication at the University of California, Davis. His research interests include message production processes and the processing of threatrelated messages by intuitive and rational systems. He is a former editor of Human Communication Research and coeditor (with Sandra Ball Rokeach) of Communication Research. He is currently a member of several editorial boards of communication journals. He is a Fellow and a Past President of the International Communication Association (ICA). Among the books he has published are Language and Social Knowledge: Uncertainty in Interpersonal Relations(with James J. Bradac), a volume that received both the National Communication Association (NCA) Golden Anniversary Book Award and the ICA Fellows Book Award. Social Cognition and Communication(with Michael E. Roloff) received a book award from the NCA's Social Cognition Division. He also coedited the first edition of the Handbook of Communication Science(with Steven H. Chaffee) and Communication and Social Influence Processes(with Michael Burgoon). His book, Planning Strategic Interaction: Attaining Goals Through Communicative Action, received the NCA Interpersonal Communication Division's Gerald R. Miller Book Award. He is corecipient (with Judee Burgoon) of the NCA's Mark Knapp Award, and he received the NCA's Distinguished Scholar Award. He is an area editor for the International Encyclopedia of Communication.

    MICHAEL E. ROLOFF(PhD, Michigan State University) is Professor of Communication Studies at Northwestern University. His research and teaching interests are in the general area of interpersonal influence. He has published articles and offers courses focused on persuasion, interpersonal compliance gaining, conflict management, organizational change, and bargaining and negotiation. His current research is focused on conflict avoidance and serial arguing in intimate relationships, the interpretation and construction of persuasive messages, and the effects of planning and alternatives on negotiation processes. He has coedited four research volumes: (1) Persuasion: New Directions in Theory and Research,(2) Social Cognition and Communication,(3) Interpersonal Processes, and (4) Communication and Negotiation. He wrote Interpersonal Communication: The Social Exchange Approach. He completed a term as the editor of Communication Yearbook and is currently coeditor of Communication Research. He was corecipient of the Woolbert Award for Outstanding Contribution to Communication Research from the Speech Communication Association and of a publication award from the Social Cognition and Communication Division of the National Communication Association. He has been the Chair of the Interpersonal Communication Division of the National Communication Association. He is currently Director of the National Communication Association Publications Board. He has received several teaching awards from groups at Northwestern, including the Associated Student Government, the Mortar Board, and the Alumni Association.

    DAVID R. ROSKOSEWOLDSEN(PhD, Indiana University) is Professor in the School of Communication at The Ohio State University (OSU). Prior to joining the faculty at OSU in January 2009, he was Professor in the Department of Psychology at the University of Alabama. His research interests focus on media psychology, attitudes, social influence, and health communication. He cofounded the journal Media Psychology with Dr. Jennings Bryant in 1999 and founded the journal Communication Methods and Measures in 2007. He is the immediate past chair of the Information Systems Division and chair elect of the Mass Communication Division of the International Communication Association and chair elect of the Communication and Social Cognition Division of the National Communication Association. He has published in a variety of journals ranging from the Journal of Communication, Human Communication Research, Media Psychology, Communication Monographs, Journal of Advertising, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Health Psychology, and Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. In his spare time, he enjoys photography, camping, backpacking, and canoeing.

    About the Contributors

    Charles Atkin(PhD, University of Wisconsin–Madison) chairs the Department of Communication at Michigan State University. He has published six books and 150 journal articles and chapters dealing with media effects on health, political, and social behavior. He is coeditor (with Ron Rice) of two editions of the influential Public Communication Campaigns book. He has served as a campaign design consultant or evaluation researcher on numerous national public information and education programs dealing with drunk driving, alcohol and drug abuse, heart disease, and breast and colon cancer. His health campaign work has been recognized with the 2006 Award for Applied Social Science Research from the Decade of Behavior consortium and the 2008 Outstanding Health Communication Scholar Award from the ICA/NCA Health Communication Divisions.

    William L. Benoit(PhD, Wayne State University) is Professor of Communication at the University of Missouri. He has published in such journals as Communication Monographs, Human Communication Research, Journal of Communication, Journal of Applied Communication Research, Political Communication, Quarterly Journal of Speech, and Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly. He has published several books; his most recent is Communication in Political Campaigns.

    Franklin J. Boster(PhD, Michigan State University) is Professor in the Department of Communication at Michigan State University. He also is affiliated with the Law School at Michigan State University, where he is a fellow of the Trial Practice Institute, and in the Department of Community and Behavioral Health at the University of Iowa. His substantive interests center on the study of social influence and group dynamics. Presently, he is investigating the attributes of pivotal members of group networks and the manner in which they diffuse health information throughout those networks.

    Jennings Bryant(PhD, Indiana University) is CIS Distinguished Research Professor, holder of the Reagan Endowed Chair of Broadcasting, and Associate Dean for Graduate Studies and Research at the University of Alabama. He received the university's BlackmonMoody Outstanding Professor Award for 2000 and was President of the International Communication Association in 2002–2003. In 2006, he received a Distinguished Scholar Award from the Broadcast Education Association and was elected a Fellow of the International Communication Association. He is Advisory Editor of the 11volume International Encyclopedia of Communication. Author or editor of 28 scholarly books or textbooks, he has published more than 120 articles in peerreviewed journals, has written more than 180 chapters published in edited scholarly books, and has delivered more than 200 papers at conventions of national and international professional associations. His primary research interests are in entertainment theory, mass communication theory, media effects, and media and children.

    JUDEE K. BURGOON (EdD, West Virginia University) is Site Director for the Center for Identification Technology Research, Eller College of Management, University of Arizona. She holds appointments as Professor of Communication, Family Studies, and Human Development and also a Distinguished Visiting Professor appointment at the University of Oklahoma. She has authored eight books and more than 250 articles, chapters, and reviews on such topics as nonverbal and relational communication, deception, and computermediated communication. Her current research—funded by the National Science Foundation, Department of Defense, and Department of Homeland Security—is examining ways to automate analysis of nonverbal and verbal communication to detect deception. She is a Fellow of the International Communication Association, which has also honored her with its Fisher Mentorship and Chaffee Career Achievement Awards. She is also recipient of the National Communication Association's Distinguished Scholar Award, Golden Anniversary Monographs Award, and Woolbert Award for Research with Lasting Impact.

    Brant R. Burleson(PhD, University of Illinois, UrbanaChampaign) is Professor of Communication and Affiliate Professor of Psychological Sciences at Purdue University. His research examines supportive forms of communication (such as comforting), as well as their effects on varied forms of wellbeing, and focuses on how people both produce and process supportive messages. Other research interests include communication skill acquisition and development, the effects of communication skills on relationship outcomes, and the role of emotion in communication and relationships. He has authored more than 140 articles, chapters, and reviews and has edited several publications, including The Handbook of Communication and Social Interaction Skills, Communication of Social Support, and Communication Yearbook. He is a Fellow of the International Communication Association, a Distinguished Scholar of the National Communication Association, and a recipient of the BerscheidHatfield Award for Distinguished Midcareer Achievement from the International Association for Relationship Research.

    Donald J. Cegala (PhD, Florida State University) is Emeritus Professor in the School of Communication and the Department of Family Medicine at The Ohio State University. He was on the Ohio State faculty for 35 years. He is the former Chair of the Health Communication Division of the National Communication Association and a member of the OSU Institute for Primary Care Research and the OSU Comprehensive Cancer Center. He has served as a consultant and grant reviewer for the National Cancer Institute and was the recipient of the 2006 NCA/ICA Health Communication Scholar Award. He has published more than 50 book chapters and articles in academicjournals and is known nationally and internationally for his research on physicianpatient communication, particularly with respect to patient communication skills interventions.

    James Price Dillard's(PhD, Michigan State University) scholarly interests focus on the communication processes by which individuals attempt to change the opinions and behaviors of others. His work on the impact of interaction goals on message production contributed to our understanding of how and why people create interpersonal influence messages, especially in the context of close relationships. More recently, he has turned his attention to understanding the role of emotion in persuasive health communication. He has received the John E. Hunter Award for MetaAnalysis and the National Communication Association Golden Anniversary Award for article of the year. He was coeditor of The Persuasion Handbook and past editor of the journal Human communication Research.

    Melissa A. Dobosh (MA, University of Delaware) is a doctoral student in the Department of Communication at the University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign. Her areas of specialization are organizational and group communication. Specifically, her research focuses on relational communication in organizations, group resiliency, and leadership. Her doctoral dissertation will address the relational capacities that work teams rely upon when faced with organizational stressors. Work from her master's thesis on leadership emergence in small groups was presented in a poster session at the National Communication Association in 2005, and her paper on top management team conflict was presented at the International Association of Conflict Management in 2006.

    Donald G. Ellis (PhD, University of Utah) is Professor of Communication at the University of Hartford. His is interested in communication issues related to ethnopolitical conflicts with particular emphasis on intractable conflicts, intercultural communication, and democracy. He is the past editor of the journal CommunicationTheory and the author of numerous books and articles, including TransformingConflict:Communication andEthnopoliticalConflict. He has been a Fellow at the Asch Center for the Study of Ethnopolitcal Conflict and a Fulbright Scholar in Israel in 2004–2005. He participates in various national organizations and lectures and writes in the fields of communication, political conflict, conflict resolution, and related topics.

    Kory Floyd(PhD, University of Arizona) is Professor of Human Communication and Director of the Communication Sciences Laboratory at Arizona State University. His research focuses on the communication of affection in personal relationships and on the interplay between communication, physiology, and health. He has authored or edited seven books and nearly 75 journal articles and book chapters and recently served as editor of the Journal of Family Communication. His work has been supported by the National Institutes of Health and has earned several awards, including the G. R. Miller Early Career Achievement Award from the International Association for Relationship Research.

    Howard Giles (PhD, DSc, University of Bristol) is Professor (and past Chair) of Communication at the University of California, Santa Barbara (with affiliated positions in Linguistics and Psychology). His work is in the general area of intergroup communication, with particular crosscultural interests in intergenerational encounters as well as policecivilian interactions. Founding editor of the Journal of Language andSocialPsychology and the Journal ofAsianPacificCommunication and past editor of HumanCommunicationResearch, he has been past president of the International Communication Association and the International Associationof Language & Social Psychology. Furthering one of his intergroup research interests, he is a Reserve Lieutenant (with many outstanding service awards) in the Santa Barbara Police Department and oncall 247 for both their Crisis Negotiation Response and Police Chaplain Teams.

    Laura K. Guerrero(PhD, University of Arizona) is Professor in the Hugh Downs School of Human Communication at Arizona State University. Her research focuses on relational and nonverbal communication, with emphases in attachment, emotion, and the “dark side” of interpersonal communication. She has published numerous articles and chapters on these topics. Her book credits include Nonverbal Communication in Close Relationships(with Kory Floyd) and The Nonverbal Communication Reader(with Michael Hecht). She received the 2001 Early Career Achievement Award from the International Association for Relationship Research and the 1994 Outstanding Doctoral Dissertation Award (from the Interpersonal Communication Division of the International Communication Association), and she is a twotime recipient of the Western States Communication Association's Dickens Best Article Award.

    R. Lance Holbert(PhD, University of Wisconsin–Madison) is Associate Professor in the School of Communication at The Ohio State University. His research interests include the study of entertainment media within the context of politics and relations between different types of political communication campaign information outlets. He presently serves on several editorial boards for some of the discipline's top journals, including Communication Monographs, Journal of Communication, and the Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media. He has published more than 40 peerreviewed journal articles since earning his PhD in 2000, with his most recent research appearing in such journals as Human CommunicationResearch, Media Psychology, and Political Communication.

    Young Yun Kim(PhD, Northwestern University) is Professor of Communication at the University of Oklahoma. Her main research aim has been to establish the centrality of communicative competence and engagement in adapting to a new, unfamiliar, or changing cultural environment. Her current research program investigates psychological, situational, and environmental factors that are linked to associative/dissociative communication behaviors of individuals facing ethnically dissimilar others. She has published more than 90 journal articles and book chapters, as well as 12 books, including Becoming Intercultural(2001) and Communicating With Strangers(4th ed., 2003, with W. Gudykunst). She has served on 11 journal editorial boards, including Communication Research, Human Communication Research, and Journal of Communication. She is a Fellow of the International Communication Association, a Founding Fellow of the International Academy for Intercultural Research, and a recipient of a Top Scholar Award for Lifetime Achievement in Intercultural Communication.

    Christoph Klimmt(PhD, Hannover University of Music and Drama) is Assistant Professor in the Department of Communication, University of Mainz, Germany. His research is focused on media entertainment, and he has made various theoretical and empirical contributions to the understanding of video game enjoyment. He has published more than 30 articles in international and German peerreviewed journals and more than 40 book chapters that also reflect his research interest in new media technologies, experimental media effects studies, and methodological issues in communication science.

    Ascan F. Koerner (PhD, University of Wisconsin–Madison) is Associate Professor of Communication Studies and the Donald V. Hawkins Professorfor 2008–2009 at the University of Minnesota–Twin Cities. His research focuses mainly on family communication patterns and the cognitive representations of relationships and their influence on interpersonal communication, including message production and message interpretation. His research has appeared in communication journals, such as CommunicationMonographs,CommunicationTheory, and HumanCommunicationResearch, and interdisciplinary journals, such as the Journal ofMarriage andFamily and the Journal ofSocial andPersonalRelationships, and a number of edited volumes.

    Geraldm.Kosicki(PhD, University of Wisconsin–Madison) is Associate Professor in the School of Communication at The Ohio State University. He was Faculty Director of the OSU Center for Survey Research from 2001 to 2004 and principal investigator of the center's largest research project—ongoing studies of economic and political perceptions of Ohioans known as the Buckeye State Poll. Today he is a faculty coordinator of Ohio State's Graduate Interdisciplinary Specialization in Survey Research and a faculty adviser of the undergraduate Survey Research Minor. His research interests are in political communication, public opinion, and media effects, particularly related to framing, media priming, and public construction of public issues. His current teaching areas include public opinion and communication, communication theory, civic journalism, survey research methods, and media and terrorism.

    Michaelw.Kramer(PhD, University of Texas at Austin) is Professor and Chair of the Department of Communication at the University of Missouri. His research in organizational settings has focused on employee transitions such as newcomers, job promotions, transferees, exit processes, and corporate mergers. In group settings, he has focused on decision making and membership in voluntary groups such as theater and community choirs. He has made theoretical contributions in the theory of managing uncertainty, in his book (Managing Uncertainty in Organizational Communication), group dialectical theory, and a theory of language convergence/ meaning divergence. His has used research methods ranging from structural equation modeling to ethnography. His research appears in a wide variety of journals, including Communication Monographs, Human Communication Research, Journal of Applied Communication, Journal of Communication, and the Academy of Management Journal.

    Kathleenj.Krone(PhD, University of Texas at Austin) is Professor of Communication Studies at the University of Nebraska– Lincoln. She has published in the areas of upward influence in leadermember relationships, emotion management in organizations, and organizational communication in China. She is a past chair of the Organizational Communication Division of the National Communication Association. She is coeditor with Linda L. Putnam of the multivolume reference Organizational Communication, published in 2006. She has served on the editorial boards of the Journal of Applied Communication Research, Management Communication Quarterly, and Communication Monographs and currently is serving as Forum Editor for Management Communication Quarterly.

    Eunjulee(PhD, Stanford University) is Associate Professor in the Department of Communication at Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea. Her research centers on social cognition and social influence in computerbased communication. Specifically, she has investigated how the restrictions of textonly media affect the ways in which individuals form impressions of anonymous interaction partners, process information, and exhibit grouporiented behaviors, such as group conformity and gender stereotyping. She has also examined what facilitates and inhibits social treatment of computers in human-computer interaction. Her work has won several top paper awards from various divisions of the International Communication Association, the National Communication Association, and the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication and has appeared in journals such as HumanCommunicationResearch,CommunicationResearch,Journal ofCommunication,MediaPsychology, and the InternationalJournal ofHumanComputerStudies. She currently serves on the editorial boards of HumanCommunicationResearch,CommunicationResearch, and MediaPsychology.

    Shu Li(PhD, Northwestern University) is Assistant Professor of Communication at the University of Memphis. Her research interests include negotiation strategy, conflict management, and the experience and expression of emotions in organizational and intercultural contexts. She also studies these subjects in health communication projects and is currently working on improving multidisciplinary communication and building an integrated patient/family communication plan at a local hospital.

    Douglas M. Mcleod(PhD, University of Minnesota) is Professor of Journalism and Mass Communication at the University of Wisconsin. His research develops two lines of inquiry into the antecedents and consequences of mass communication. The former focuses on the role of the media in both domestic and international conflicts, including media coverage of social protest and its impact on the audience. The latter, including research on media framing and priming, examines several factors shaping the information content of mass media and its consequent outcomes on knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions.

    Jack M. Mcleod (PhD, University of Michigan) is MaierBascom Professor Emeritus in Journalism and Mass Communication at the University of Wisconsin– Madison. He recently coauthored the following chapters: “Knowledge as Understanding: TheInformation Processing Approach to Political Learning” and “U.S. Election Coverage” (with M. Sotirovic); “Political Communication Effects” and “The Role of Method in Advancing Political Communication Research” (with D. McLeod and G. Kosicki); “Communication and Education: Creating Competence for Socialization Into Public Life” (with D. Shah, D. Hess, and N.J. Lee); and “Personal Networks and Political Socialization” (with N.J. Lee). He was coeditor (with D. Shah) of the special issue on communication and political socialization for Political Communication.

    Sandra Metts(PhD, University of Iowa) is Professor in the School of Communication at Illinois State University, where she teaches graduate and undergraduate courses in interpersonal communication, emotion, language, and communication and aging. Her research interests include relationship transgressions, forgiveness, facework and politeness, sexual communication, and emotions in close relationships. Her work has appeared in a number of edited books on relationship processes and in such journals as Personal Relationships, Journal of Social Psychology, Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Family Relations, Western Journal of Communication, Communication Quarterly, and Human Communication Research. She has served as president of the Central States Communication Association, editor of Communication Reports, and associate editor of Personal Relationships, and currently she is an associate editor for the Journal of Social and Personal Relationships.

    Renee A. Meyers(PhD, University of Illinois) is Professor in the Department of Communication at the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee. She also serves as the Coordinator of the University of Wisconsin System Leadership Site for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning. Her research interests include the study of small group decision making and argument and investigation of the role of communication in cooperative learning groups. Her articles have appeared in Human Communication Research, Communication Monographs, Journal of Communication, The Handbook of Group Communication, Communication Studies, Small Group Research, and Communication Yearbook, among other outlets. She has served on the editorial boards of several communication journals, including Journal of Communication, Communication Studies, Communication Monographs, and Communication Theory. She also served as chair of the Group Communication Division of the National Communication Association.

    Robin L. Nabi(PhD, University of Pennsylvania) is Associate Professor of Communication at the University of California, Santa Barbara. Her research focuses on the interplay between emotion and cognition in persuasion and mass media contexts. Her work has appeared in journals such as Journal of Communication, Communication Theory, Communication Monographs, Communication Research, Human Communication Research, Media Psychology, and Cognition & Emotion, and she serves on the editorial boards of several communicationfocused journals. She is currently a coeditor of Media Psychology, chair of the Mass Communication Division of the International Communication Association, and vicechair of the Communication and Social Cognition Division of the National Communication Association. She is coeditor of the forthcoming SAGE Handbook of Media Processes and Effects.

    Mary Beth Oliver (PhD, University of Wisconsin–Madison) is Professor of Media Studies at the Pennsylvania State University. Her research is in media effects, with an emphasis on media and emotion, as well as media and social cognition. She is former coeditor of MediaPsychology and associate editor of CommunicationTheory and the Journal ofCommunication. In 1996, she was awarded a Fulbright scholarship to conduct research on media and stereotyping in New Zealand. She currently serves asa codirector of the Media Effects Research Laboratory at Penn State.

    Charles Pavitt(PhD, University of Wisconsin–Madison) is Professor in the Department of Communication at the University of Delaware. He teaches courses across the entire realm of interpersonal communication but limits his research to contentanalytic studies of interpersonal interaction, usually in the small group context. In addition, he has a longstanding interest in the relationship between the philosophy of science and communication theory, with his current thinking in that area reflected in the chapter included here. Finally, he is responsible for the definitions for statistical baseball terminology to be included in the forthcoming third edition of the Dickson Baseball Dictionary.

    Sally Planalp(PhD, University of Wisconsin–Madison) is Professor in the Department of Communication at the University of Utah. Her primary area of research is interpersonal communication with emphases in facetoface interaction, close relationships, emotion, and health communication in interpersonal contexts, especially endoflife issues. Her work has appeared in journals such as the Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Human Communication Research, Cognition and Emotion, Communication Monographs, Health Communication, and Communication Theory. Her 1999 book, Communicating Emotion: Social, Moral, and Cultural Processes, addresses wideranging communication issues from diverse disciplinary perspectives.

    Marshall Scott Poole(PhD, University of Wisconsin–Madison) is Professor of Communication and Senior Research Scientist at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications at the University of Illinois UrbanaChampaign. His research interests include group and organizational communication, information systems, collaboration technologies, organizational innovation, and theory construction. He is the author of more than 125 articles and book chapters. His articles have appeared in Communication Monographs, Human Communication Research, Quarterly Journal of Speech, Communication Research, Small Group Research Management Science, Organization Science, Information Systems Research, MIS Quarterly, and Academy of Management Review, among others. He has coauthored or edited 10 books, including Theories of Small Groups: Interdisciplinary Perspectives, Organizational Change and Innovation Processes: Theory and Methods for Research, and The Handbook of Organizational Change and Innovation. He has been named a Fellow of the International Communication Association and a Distinguished Scholar of the National Communication Association.

    Erika J. Pribanicsmith(PhD, candidate, University of Alabama) is a graduate student in the mass communication program with a specialization in journalism history. A creative thinker who enjoys finding ways to answer historical questions using new techniques and technology, she has produced a variety of works on 19thand early 20thcentury print media. Drawing on her background as a magazine and newspaper journalist, her teaching focuses include depth reporting and writing for new media. She also moonlights as a Web designer for several College of Communication departments and campus organizations.

    Beverly Roskosewoldsen (PhD, Indiana University) is Associate Dean for the Social Sciences subdivision in the College of Arts and Sciences at The University of Alabama (UA). She also is Associate Professor in the Department of Psychology at UA. Her research focuses on visualspatial cognition, defined as the comprehension, representation, and use of visual and spatial information. Recent research has investigated comprehension of visual stories, visual working memory, visual creativity/generative thinking, wayfinding, and spatial ability, including individual and group differences in each area (e.g., life span age, intelligence, and gender). Her research has been and is supported by grants from the Office of Naval Research, National Institute on Drug Abuse, and National Science Foundation. She teaches undergraduate and graduate courses on statistics, perception, and visualspatial cognition.

    Charles T. Salmon(PhD, University of Minnesota) is Dean of the College of Communication Arts and Sciences and Ellis N. Brandt Professor of Public Relations at Michigan State University, as well as Professor in the School of Communication at the Interdisciplinary Center, Herzliya. He has served as a health communication adviser for UNICEF in Kazakhstan, a visiting scientist at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and codirector of the Center for Health and Risk Communication in the Emory University School of Public Health. He is the editor of Information Campaigns: Balancing Social Values and Social Change and, with Theodore Glasser, Public Opinion and the Communication of Consent. He is a former recipient of a Fulbright fellowship and the Pathfinder Award for Outstanding Research in Public Relations.

    David R. Seibold (PhD, Michigan State University) is Professor of Communication (Division of Social Sciences, College of Letters and Science) and Codirector of the Graduate Program in Management Practice (Technology Management Program, College of Engineering) at the University of California, Santa Barbara. He has published two books and more than 100 articles and chapters on persuasion and interpersonal influence, group interaction, organizational communication, and applied communication. A former editor of the Journal of appliedCommunicationResearch, he has served as chair of the Interpersonal and SmallGroup Interaction Division in the National Communication Association (NCA) and as chair of the Interpersonal Communication Division and the Organizational Communication Division of the International Communication Association. A recipient of numerous awards for scholarship, teaching, and service, he is a Distinguished Scholar of the NCA.

    John L. Sherry(PhD, Michigan State University) is Associate Professor in the Department of Communication at Michigan State University (MSU), Principal Investigator in the GEL Laboratory at MSU, and Associate Editor of Communication Theory. In addition, he is an Editorial Board member of Human Communication Research, Journal of Communication, and Media Psychology and is Chair of the International Communication Association Game Studies Special Interest Group. His primary research interest is media effects, focusing on neurophysiological reactivity to media that explains the etiology of the media use and the effects those media have. Recent studies have uncovered a neurophysiological mechanism explaining television and video game use and gender differences in game use.

    Mirit Devorah Shoham (PhD, University of California, Santa Barbara) is Assistant Professor at Ohio University's School of Communication Studies. She is primarily interested in social influence, exploring the spread of attitudes within and across groups. In taking a multilevel and multimethod approach, she incorporates a networkanalytic perspective in her investigation of contagion processes, culminating in socially derived attitudes during occasions of sensemaking in organizations. She has published in HumanCommunicationResearch and frequently presents her research at the International Communication Association and Sunbelt Social Networks conferences. Receiving the Edwin R. Schoell Award for Excellence in Teaching (University of California at Santa Barbara, Department of Communication: 2005–2006) and a top paper award at an International Communication Association meeting (Dresden, Germany, June 2006) reflects her dedication to the field and her enthusiastic optimism for a future of mentorship and scholarship.

    Patricia M. Sias(PhD, University of Texas at Austin) is Professor of Communication in the Edward R. Murrow College of Communication at Washington State University. Her research centers on workplace relationships. She has published articles in and served on the editorial boards of a variety of academic journals, including Communication Monographs, Human Communication Research, Managemen tCommunication Quarterly, Western Journal of Communication, Communication Quarterly, and Journal of Applied Communication Research. She served as secretary and chair of the Organizational Communication Division of the National Communication Association. She has won numerous awards for her research, including the W. Charles Redding Outstanding Dissertation in Organizational Communication Award from the International Communication Association, several top paper awards from the National Communication Association, and the Distinguished Faculty Achievement Award from the Washington State University College of Liberal Arts.

    Alan L. Sillars(PhD, University of Wisconsin) is Professor of Communication Studies at the University of Montana. His research focuses on conflict and interpersonal perception, particularly in the context of family relationships. He has published numerous articles and chapters on these topics. He received the Franklin H. Knower article award from the National Communication Association on two occasions and recently served as editorinchief for Communication Monographs.

    Jordan Soliz (PhD, University of Kansas) is Assistant Professor in the Department of Communication Studies at the University of Nebraska–Lincoln. Hisresearch focuses on communication and intergroup processes in family and personal relationships, with an emphasis on grandparentgrandchild relationships, multiethnic families, stepfamilies, and inlaw relationships. His research has been published in Communication Monographs, Journal of Applied Communication Research, Journal of Family Communication, and Western Journal of Communication.

    Denise Haunani Solomon(PhD, Northwestern University) is Professor of Communication Arts and Sciences and Associate Dean for Graduate Studies at Penn State University. Her research focuses generally on the causes and consequences of turbulence in romantic associations, as well as how communication participates in those experiences. Her research has examined how relationship qualities, including interpersonal power, relational uncertainty, and interdependence, shape people's perceptions of and communication about relational irritations, problematic events, uncertaintyprovoking events, changes in sexual intimacy, jealousy experiences, hurtful messages, and sexually harassing statements. This work has culminated in the relational turbulence model, which is a theory describing how transitions in romantic relationships promote relationship qualities that polarize cognitive, emotional, and communicative reactions to both ordinary and extraordinary experiences. She also serves on the editorial boards of five journals and is currently an associate editor for Personal Relationships.

    Richard L. Street, Jr. (PhD, University of Texas at Austin) is Professor and Head of Communication at Texas A&M University. He is also Director of the Health Communication and DecisionMaking Program in the Houston Center for Quality of Care and Utilization Studies, Baylor College of Medicine. He has developed an extensive program of research examining issues related to health care provider–patient communication, medical outcomes, and strategies for increasing patient involvement in care. He is coauthor (with Ron Epstein at the University of Rochester) of PatientCentered Communication in Cancer Care: Promoting Healing and Reducing Suffering (2007), a monograph for the National Cancer Institute that serves as a roadmap for future cancer communication research. In 2003, he was named Outstanding Health Communication Scholar by both the National Communication Association and the International Communication Association. In 2008, he received the L. Donohew Health Communication Scholar Award from the University of Kentucky.

    S. Shyam Sundar(PhD, Stanford University) is Professor and Codirector of the Media Effects Research Laboratory at Penn State University's College of Communications. His research investigates social and psychological effects of technological elements unique to Webbased mass communication. He was among the first to publish refereed research on the effects of new media in leading communication journals and has been identified as the most published author of Internetrelated research in the field during the medium's first decade. A frequently cited source on technology, he has testified before the U.S. Congress as an expert witness and delivered talks at universities in several countries. He serves on the editorial boards of Communication Research, Human Communication Research, Journal of Communication, Media Psychology, Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, and Communication Methods & Measures, among others. He is Chair of the Communication & Technology division of the International Communication Association.

    Sarah J. Tracy (PhD, University of Colorado–Boulder) is Associate Professor and Director of the Project for Wellness and WorkLife in The Hugh Downs School of Human Communication at Arizona State University– Tempe. Her criticalinterpretive communication scholarship examines emotion and identity within organizations, with a specific focus onemotion labor, workplace bullying, worklife navigation, care work, humor, burnout, and dirty work. She is interested in contextual useinspired research, qualitative methodologies, public scholarship, and engaging work that can potentially provide space for organizational and societal transformation. She has presented and published her research internationally, and it can be found in Communication Monographs, Management Communication Quarterly, Communication Theory, Qualitative Inquiry, Human Communication Research, Journal of Applied Communication Research, Journal of Management Studies, and Western Journal of Communication. She is coauthor of the book Leading Organizations Through Transition: Communication and Cultural Change.

    Anita L. Vangelisti(PhD, University of Texas at Austin) is the Jesse H. Jones Centennial Professor of Communication at the University of Texas at Austin. Her work focuses on the associations between communication and emotion in the context of close, personal relationships. She has published numerous articles and chapters and has edited or authored several books. Vangelisti has served on the editorial boards of more than a dozen scholarly journals. She has received recognition for her research from the National Communication Association, the International Society for the Study of Personal Relationships, and the International Association for Relationship Research.

    Peter Vorderer(PhD, Technical University of Berlin) is Scientific Director of the Center for Advanced Media Research Amsterdam (CAMeRA) and head of the Department of Communication Science, VU University Amsterdam, the Netherlands. He specializes in media use and media effects research with a special focus on media entertainment and digital games. Together with Dolf Zillmann and Jennings Bryant, he has edited three volumes on media entertainment and video games.

    Joseph B. Walther(PhD, University of Arizona) is Professor in the Department of Communication and the Department of Telecommunication, Information Studies and Media at Michigan State University. His research focuses on the interpersonal dynamics of communication via computer networks, in personal relationships, work groups, social support, and educational settings, areas in which he has published several original theories and numerous empirically based research articles. He has previously held appointments in Cognitive Science, Information Science, or Education and Social Policy at Northwestern University, Cornell University, The University of Manchester, and elsewhere. He was chair of the Organizational Communication and Information Systems division of the Academy of Management and the Communication and Technology division of the International Communication Association.

    Steven R. Wilson(PhD, Purdue University) is Professor in the Department of Communication at Purdue University. He also has been a faculty member at Michigan State, Northern Illinois, and Northwestern Universities. His research and teaching focus on interpersonal communication, social influence, and aggresion/ conflict. He is the author of Seeking and Resisting Compliance: Why Individuals Say What They Do When Trying to Influence Others(2002) as well as more than 50 articles and book chapters on these topics. His recent research explores patterns of parentchild interaction in families at risk for child maltreatment as well as patterns associated with children's school readiness (funded by the Lilly Endowment). He is a recipient of the National Communication Association's (NCA's) Bernard Brommel Award for Outstanding Scholarship or Distinguished Service in Family Communication and has served as chair of both the International Communication Association's and the NCA's interpersonal communication division as well as associate editor of the interdisciplinary journal Personal Relationships.


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