The Handbook of Community Practice


Edited by: Marie Weil

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  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Part I: The Context of Community Practice

    Part II: Major Approaches to Community Practice

    Part III: Issues, Areas, and Fields of Community Practice

    Part IV: Supports for Community Practice: Management, Monitoring, Research, and Evaluation

  • Introduction

    The Handbook of Community Practice is the first volume in this field, encompassing community development, organizing, planning, and social change, and the first community practice text that provides in-depth treatment of globalization—including its impact on communities in the United States and in international development work. The Handbook is grounded in participatory and empowerment practice including social change, social and economic development, feminist practice, community-collaboratives, and engagement in diverse communities. It utilizes the social development perspective and employs analyses of persistent poverty, policy practice, and community research approaches as well as providing strategies for advocacy and social and legislative action.

    The Handbook consists of thirty-six chapters, which challenge readers to examine and assess practice, theory, and research methods. As it expands on models and approaches, delineates emerging issues, and connects policy and practice, the book provides vision and strategies for community practice in the coming decades.

    The Handbook will stand as the central reference for community practice, and will be useful for years to come as it emphasizes direction for positive change, new developments in community approaches, and focuses attention on globalization, human rights, and social justice. It will also be useful to faculty and students of community practice and will provide practitioners with new grounding for planning, development and organizing.


    To those current and future students who will carry on community practice—in work to foster social and economic development, in mutual work with people to improve the conditions and quality of their lives, to advance the profession's mission to press unwaveringly for human rights, and to work always toward social justice.


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    MarieWeilUniversity of North Carolina, Chapel Hill

    Community practice has been an integral part of social work since its inception in the Settlement House Movement and the Charity Organization Societies. In its grassroots organizing, interagency planning, and social action aspects, this method of practice engages citizens in problem solving, works to improve the quality of life for vulnerable groups and communities, and enacts the profession's social justice mission through a variety of practice models from policy practice to political action. While practice emphases varied over the course of the 20th century—sometimes with greater focus on organizing services, on grassroots organizing, on planning, on social action—the essential purposes to strengthen communities and services, and to press for access, equality, empowerment, and social justice have not wavered.

    Indeed, community practice is expanding in the early decades of the 21st century in the United States and around the world. At the same time, major new contexts are developing that will have an impact on community practice work everywhere: the increasing interaction of multiple cultures within and among nations; the continuing struggle to make human rights for everyone—including women and children—a reality throughout the world; and the far-reaching impacts of globalization on the poor and working classes in Western democracies and the Global South alike. Many practice strategies are likely to prove tried and true, others will need modifications for diverse settings or changing populations, and doubtless other strategies will be conceived in the future as needed.

    All communities are and will continue to be affected by the global economy and the social, economic, and political shifts that will continue interactively. Community practitioners will need to be cognizant, proactive, and seriously engaged to bring forth closer global connections that support human and sustainable development rather than witnessing the risks and damage to local economies, social structures, and environments that are already evident. Community practice approaches from community development to social action must take into account new complexities, challenges, and opportunities in this period of unparalleled global change. Indeed, community practice is the critical component of the profession that can help citizens, groups, communities, and organizations enlarge civil society, increase grassroots political clout, advocate for human rights, and work for positive social change to support those most disadvantaged by macro changes.

    This book is intended to assist current and future social work students, faculty, and practitioners as they confront the challenges posed in the coming decades. For these reasons, this handbook places significant emphasis on social, economic, and sustainable development. Themes in this book emphasize organizing, planning, and development perspectives—from policy, through multiple practice models and strategies, to work focused on building people's skills for local, regional, and international projects as well as on knowledge development to respond effectively to changing and challenging macro contexts. Social work has much to be proud of in the history of community practice, and we now face major challenges to move values and purposes forward to support human flourishing in the 21st century (Friedmann, 1992). For this reason, it seems a vital time for a handbook of community practice to help lay out the agendas and consider directions for our future work.

    The Handbook of Community Practice is the fifth work in a major series undertaken by Sage to establish the current state of the art—knowledge, theory, and research—in major areas of social work practice and to point the way to the future. Initially, I was asked to take on this project by Jim Nageotte, Sage's social work editor at that time, and Charles Garvin of the University of Michigan. Jim birthed and nurtured this series with great support from Charles, to determine areas, editors, and major topics needed for such a series. I am immensely grateful for their support and this opportunity to work with colleagues to lay the groundwork for community practice in the coming decades.

    The Handbook series is a major accomplishment for the social work literature—a landmark in some ways as significant as the Council on Social Work Education's development and documentation of social work education issues in the thirteen-volume Social Work Curriculum Study (1959) coordinated by Werner Boehm nearly a half-century ago. That important effort served to clarify methods and models for all social work education. In contrast, the current Handbook series demonstrates both how central values have been maintained and how far we have come in knowledge development.

    The previous publications in the Handbook series are The Handbook of Direct Social Work Practice, edited by Paula Allen-Meares and Charles Garvin; The Handbook of Social Policy, edited by James Midgley, Martin Tracy, and Michelle Livermore; The Handbook of Social Welfare Management, edited by Rino Patti; and The Handbook of Social Work Research Methods, edited by Bruce Thyer. I am honored to be a part of this effort and have greatly enjoyed bringing together the strongest company of community practice scholars working in its diverse aspects to examine and present the state of the art and directions for community practice.

    I am especially appreciative of the support, concern, and assistance that have been offered by Arthur Pomponio, Sage's editor for social work, who stepped in to assist with a work in progress and encouraged the vision and direction of the book with great enthusiasm, and that of Veronica Novak and Diana Axelsen, who have made working with Sage a highly enjoyable experience.

    I am also very appreciative of the advice, support, and skillful work undertaken in the early stages of this effort by the Associate Editors who agreed to contribute to the book and to review and prepare initial recommendations to authors. Having two sounding boards for chapter development was, I think, extremely useful for a considerable number of authors. I extend great thanks to them and to the authors who saw the need for this volume and worked with creative diligence to document where we are and where we need to be going in a wide range of community practice arenas. Many of the authors are members of the Association for Community Organization and Social Administration, others have written for the Journal of Community Practice, and many have major books as well as definitive professional articles to their credit. I have been pleased to extend the range of perspectives on community practice in this volume, and have particularly relished not only the diversity of perspectives but also the great diversity of authors engaged in this project—by generation, ethnicity, gender, geography, and specialization. This diversity helps to make this volume more representative of community practice across the nation. Three “generations” of scholars are represented in the volume: the majority are stellar senior scholars, long-term leaders in our field, who have helped to shape the community practice literature since the 1970s and 1980s. Other authors are extraordinary mid-career scholars, widely recognized and respected as leaders in their specializations, many of whom have made building partnerships with community organizations and particular populations the focus of their service as well as scholarly careers. Finally, some are rising stars—close to the pressing realities of current practice and carrying forward commitment to the future of community practice scholarship. It has been an extraordinary experience to work with such a talented and committed group of scholars. My thanks and admiration to them all.

    Development of the literature. There is a growing historical literature in community practice (Addams, 1960; Betten & Austin, 1990; Deegan, 1990; Fisher, 1984; Garvin & Cox, 2001; Lewis, 1973; Rothman, 1999; Weil, 1996), and a rich and varied literature about practice (Brager & Specht, 1973; Cox, Erlich, Rothman, & Tropman, 1970, 1984; Harper & Dunham, 1959; Kramer & Specht, 1983; Murphy, 1954; Rivera & Erlich, 1992; Ross, 1955, 1958; Rothman, Erlich, & Tropman, 2001; Taylor & Roberts, 1985) and a rapidly growing periodical literature—particularly in the Journal of Community Practice, and also in Social Development Issues, Administration in Social Work, Sociology and Social Welfare, the Progressive Journal of Social Work, and the Journal of Social Policy, among others. This volume, however, adds to the literature an opportunity to survey the scope of community practice perspectives, approaches, methods, skills, and research strategies in a comprehensive way that has not before been undertaken. While there are several community practice entries in the most recent Encyclopedia of Social Work, 19th Edition (Edwards, 1995) and several chapters in the Social Workers' Desk Reference (Roberts & Greene, 2002), this volume represents an encyclopedia of community practice documenting the strong development of the knowledge base and the state of the art in practice.

    A number of significant textbooks about community practice have been published over the last twenty years, covering major approaches or specializing in one method such as planning or organizing. Some have been edited collections (Cox, Erlich, Rothman, & Tropman, 1970, 1984; Kramer & Specht, 1983), while others have been texts undertaken by a single or small number of authors (Brager & Specht, 1973; Ecklein & Lauffer, 1972; Hardcastle, Wenocur, & Powers, 1997; Homan, 2004; Lauffer, 1978; Rubin & Rubin, 1992). The Handbook of Community Practice builds on all these earlier works and presents both the scope and depth of community practice. The authors have had the welcome opportunity to compose a comprehensive summary of their favorite subjects and methods.

    As a result, this volume provides unprecedented opportunities (1) to examine the range of practice methods focused on community interventions; (2) to consider the political, economic, social, and global shifts that are changing the context of practice; (3) to explore theory; and (4) to analyze the ways in which knowledge, methodology, and research can provide direction and inform leaders, facilitators, and practitioners of ways to strengthen communities and service systems as well as organize, plan, and act for needed change. Authors have critically examined knowledge, theory, practice, and methods, and have worked to define and interpret emerging issues that future students, practitioners, community leaders, scholars, and researchers will need to confront in coming years.

    Organization of the book. The handbook is organized into four sections. Part I provides views on the context of community practice and covers central issues that impact practitioners' work. It provides an historical grounding for community practice and an overview of emerging trends, as well as an in-depth treatment of issues of diversity and challenges related to practice in communities of color—both areas that are essential to understanding American society and identifying directions for future practice. It continues with an innovative perspective on theory and theorizing for community practice—illustrating the range of theories and the kind of critical thinking needed to enlighten and guide practice. This section also includes an analysis of the conditions of persistent poverty and possibilities of asset-building, and concludes with a discussion of the evolution of community practice and an analysis of practice models in light of the changing contexts of the 21st century. These chapters reaffirm the values and purposes of community practice and identify challenges for the future.

    Part II provides a panorama of the range and levels of community practice, exploring the major approaches—development, organizing, planning, and social change—and levels—grassroots engagement, political and legislative action, radical organizing, coalitions, system reform, and policy practice. These chapters focus on the methods and strategies of practice employed in each of these arenas.

    Part III examines a variety of issues, areas, and fields of community practice. Section A, “Issues and Areas,” explores the importance of multiculturalism and inter-group empowerment strategies, feminist community practice, faith-based organizing, and program development and service coordination. Section B, “Fields,” addresses the topics of rural practice, health and mental health settings, child mental health, community building, economic and social development, and investing in socially and economically distressed communities. This section illustrates the breadth of community practice and its specializations in many settings. Section C, “Global Approaches and Local Issues,” expands the focus with treatises on global change and use of social indicators, practice challenges in the global economy, and local and international strategies for engagement of women in economic development through microcredit strategies.

    Part IV addresses supports for community practice. Among topics examined are management, resource development, research methodologies and empowerment research, practice in the electronic community, and use of administrative data to support community change. These chapters treat operational and strategic issues, explore the expansion of practice into virtual communities, and advocate for increased efforts in research and evaluation by expanding the range of methodologies, engaging citizens in empowerment research, building partnerships among researchers, agencies, and communities, and by using administrative data to plan, evaluate, and support community change efforts. The concluding chapters then deal with trends, advances in technology, and the challenges of program development and of engaging in stronger partnerships with community members, as well as advancing the research and knowledge base through evolving methodologies.


    I extend great appreciation to my colleagues who served as associate editors of this volume. Each is a renowned scholar in multiple areas of community practice. Many special thanks to Michael Reisch and Lorraine Gutiérrez of the University of Michigan, Elizabeth Mulroy of the University of Maryland, Ram Cnaan of the University of Pennsylvania, and Dorothy Gamble, my colleague and scholarly partner at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. All were of great help in reviewing chapters and advising and encouraging authors, thus ensuring the quality of the volume.

    My deep thanks to Jennie Vaughn and Margaret Morse of the UNC Chapel Hill School of Social Work, copy editors par excellence. Special thanks also to Tezita Negussie, Karen Smith Rotabi, and Jennifer Hemingway-Foday for their help with research and logistics and their generous support. Finally, I express great appreciation to my partner, Charles Weil, who has endured this long process and remained stalwart and loving.


    This volume is personally dedicated to the lives, memories, and accomplishments of extraordinary mentors in community practice with whom I have had the great good fortune to work: Anne E. Queen of the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, who opened my eyes and my heart to community work through engagement in the civil and human rights movements and to community development on the Tule River Reservation; Eleanor Ryder of the University of Pennsylvania School of Social Work, who engaged me in community theory and methods; Michael Blum of University Settlement and Nationality Services Center of Philadelphia, who imparted strategies and skills; Paul Schreiber, former Dean of the Hunter College School of Social Work, CUNY, who was and is my model of scholarship and integrity; and Barbara Solomon of the University of Southern California, who has brilliantly led social work toward empowerment practice. I offer special thanks also to David Austin, Rino Patti, and Shanti Khinduka for their early and consistent encouragement and their exemplary scholarship.

    Addams, J.(1960). A centennial reader. New York: Macmillan.
    Betten, N., 8 Austin, M. J. (Eds.). (1990). The roots of community organizing, 1917–1939. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
    Boehm, W. W. (Ed.), (1959). Social work curriculum study. New York: Council on Social Work Education.
    Brager, G., 8 Specht, H.(1973). Community organizing. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Cox, F. M., Erlich, J. L., Rothman, J., 8 Tropman, J. E. (Eds.). (1970). Strategies of community organization. Itasca, IL: F. E. Peacock.
    Cox, F. M., Erlich, J. L., Rothman, J., 8 Tropman, J. E. (Eds.). (1984). Tactics and techniques of community organization (2nd ed.). Itasca, IL: F. E. Peacock.
    Deegan, M. J.(1990). Jane Addams and the men of the Chicago School, 1892–1918. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.
    Ecklein, J. L., 8 Lauffer, A. A.(1972). Community organizers and social planners. New York: John Wiley 8 CSWE.
    Edwards, R. L. (Ed.). (1995). Encyclopedia of social work (19th ed.). Washington, DC: NASW Press.
    Fisher, R.(1984). Let the people decide: Neighborhood organizing in America. Boston: Twayne.
    Friedmann, J.(1992). Empowerment: The politics of alternative development. Cambridge: Blackwell.
    Garvin, C. D., 8 Cox, F. M.(2001). A history of community organizing since the Civil War with special reference to oppressed communities. In J.Rothman, J. L.Erlich, 8 J. E.Tropman (Eds.), Strategies of community intervention (pp. 65–100). Itasca, IL: F. E. Peacock.
    Hardcastle, D. A., Wenocur, S., 8 Powers, PR. (1997). Community practice: Theories and skills for social workers. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Harper, E. B., 8 Dunham, A.(1959). Community organization in action. New York: Association Press.
    Homan, M. S.(2004). Promoting community change: Making it happen in the real world (3rd ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks Cole/Thompson.
    Journal of Community Practice(1990). New York: Haworth Press.
    Kramer, R., 8 Specht, H.(1983). Readings in community organization practice (3rd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Lauffer, A.(1978). Social planning at the community level. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Lewis, V. S.(1973). Charity organization society. In R.Morris (Ed.), Encyclopedia of social work (16th ed., pp. 94–98). Washington, DC: NASW Press.
    Murphy, C. G.(1954). Community organization practice. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
    Rivera, F. G., 8 Erlich, J. L.(1992). Community organizing in a diverse society. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn 8 Bacon.
    Roberts, A. R., 8 Greene, G. J. (Eds.). (2002). Social workers' desk reference. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Ross, M. G.(1955). Community organization: Theory, principles and practice. New York: Harper 8 Row.
    Ross, M. G.(1958). Case histories in community organization. New York: Harper 8 Row.
    Rothman, J. (Ed.). (1999). Reflections on community organization: Enduring themes and critical issues. Itasca, IL: F. E. Peacock.
    Rothman, J., Erlich, J. L., 8 Tropman, J. E.(2001). Strategies of community intervention (6th ed.). Itasca, IL: F. E. Peacock.
    Rubin, H. J., 8 Rubin, I. S.(2000). Community organizing and development. Columbus, OH: Merrill.
    Taylor, S. H., 8 Roberts, R. W. (Eds.). (1985). Theory and practice of community social work. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Weil, M.(1996). Model development in community practice: An historical perspective. In M.Weil (Ed.), Community practice: Conceptual models (pp. 5–67). New York: Haworth Press.
  • Author Index

    About the Editors

    About the Editor

    Marie Weil is Berg-Beach Professor of Community Practice and former Associate Dean at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill School of Social Work, where she teaches community practice, policy practice, and theory for social work intervention. She has led state-wide research and community-based planning and implementation initiatives in family support and family preservation and for adolescent family life programs, as well as consulting and conducting program evaluations for small nonprofits. Previously, she taught at the University of Southern California. She is the author or coauthor of thirteen books primarily focused on community practice; the author or coauthor of over thirty chapters related to community practice, feminist practice, and empowerment practice and service development for families and children; and more than 42 articles and monographs. She began her career working in community development in settlement houses in Philadelphia. She has served as Deputy Director of the Office of Economic Opportunity of Delaware and as Planning Director of the Wilmington Housing Authority. She is a founding member of the Association for Community Organization and Social Administration (ACOSA) and was the Founding Editor of the Journal of Community Practice, producing the first ten volumes. She is a recipient of ACOSAs Career Achievement Award.

    About the Associate Editors

    Michael Reisch is Professor and Director of the Multicultural Social Welfare History Project at the University of Michigan. He is the author or editor of more than 20 books and monographs, including The Road Not Taken: A History of Radical Social Work in the U.S., From Charity to Enterprise, and Social Work in the 21st Century, and more than 80 articles and book chapters on the history and philosophy of social welfare, community organization theory and practice, the nonprofit sector, and contemporary policy issues, particularly welfare reform. His work has been translated into French, Spanish, Italian, and Bulgarian, and he has lectured widely in Europe and Latin America. For more than 30 years, he has held leadership positions in national and state advocacy, professional, and social change organizations. He has directed or consulted on political campaigns at the federal, state, and local levels in four states and has been honored for his work by the Maryland State Legislature, the San Francisco Board of Supervisors, and numerous local and national nonprofit organizations, professional associations, and universities.

    Dorothy N. Gamble is Clinical Associate Professor at the University of North Carolina School of Social Work at Chapel Hill. A member of the faculty since 1978, she currently teaches courses relating to citizen participation and sustainable development, and has led summer school abroad courses to Costa Rica, Honduras, Mexico, and South Africa. Within the university, she had been working for the past five years with an interdisciplinary network to provide guidance for ethically grounded community-based education. She is on the advisory board of the Center for Sustainable Enterprise at the Kenan Flagler Business School, and she is a Center Associate at the Duke-UNC Rotary Center for International Studies in Peace and Conflict Resolution. Her community service activities include numerous consultations with grassroots community groups and service on a number of public and nonprofit boards. She is a member of the editorial board of the Journal of Community Practice and has written extensively in the areas of community practice and development.

    Lorraine Gutiérrez is a member of the faculty in the School of Social Work at the University of Michigan, where she teaches courses in multicultural practice and community work. She is an internationally recognized scholar in the area of multicultural practice in social work and has published more than 35 books, chapters, and articles on topics such as multicultural organizational development, working with women of color, group work, empowerment practice, and multicultural community organizing. In addition to her scholarship and teaching in this area, she has served as a consultant on this topic to large and small organizations including the Council on Social Work Education, the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare, and schools of social work throughout the United States. She has a strong commitment to using her scholarship to improve services on the local level.

    Elizabeth A. Mulroy is Professor of Management and Planning at the University of Maryland School of Social Work, Baltimore. Her research interests include organizations and their environments, and families in neighborhood poverty. Her current research is on “Networks That Work,” a three-city study of diverse multisector collaborations and networks formed to collectively address large-scale social problems such as homelessness. Implications focus on the development of social environment theory to guide management and community practice. She is the author of numerous publications including the book The New Uprooted: Single Mothers in Urban Life (1995), is editor of Women as Single Parents: Confronting Institutional Barriers in the Courts, the Workplace, and the Housing Market (1988), and is writing a new book, New Perspectives on Management and Community Practice.

    Ram A. Cnaan is Professor and Director of the Program for the Study of Organized Religion and Social Work at the University of Pennsylvania School of Social Work. He has published numerous articles in scientific journals on a variety of social issues and is the author of The Newer Deal: Social Work and Religion in Partnership and The Invisible Caring Hand: American Congregations and the Provision of Welfare. He is writing a book on the effect of congregations in urban America. He conducted the first national study on the role of local congregations in the provision of social services and has developed a related course. He is a national expert on nonprofit organizations and voluntary action with a specialty in the study of volunteerism and has studied the role of volunteers in human services, volunteer management, and volunteerism as a social construct. Most recently, he is studying the nexus between religion and volunteerism.

    About the Contributors

    Catherine Foster Alter is Dean and Professor at the Graduate School of Social Work at the University of Denver. From 1986–1992, she served as Director of the Iowa University School of Social Work. Her practice background in urban planning and social service administration led to a continuing interest in building theory and knowledge about interorganizational networks and collaborations as a strategy for social change. Her book with Jerald Hage, Organizations Working Together (1993) is used today by doctoral students in many disciplines. Her recent research focuses on alleviating poverty by using strategies such as micro-enterprise and self-employment programs that enable low-income women to move toward self-sufficiency. Most recently she was co-principal investigator on the evaluation of Colorado's welfare reform program.

    Teiahsha Bankhead is Assistant Professor at California State University, Sacramento, in the Division of Social Work. She is coauthor with Jewelle Taylor Gibbs of Preserving Privilege: California Politics, Propositions and People of Color. Her research interests include social policy analysis and issues related to race, ethnicity, and gender.

    Stephanie C. Boddie is Assistant Professor at the George Warren Brown School of Social Work at Washington University in St. Louis. She has coauthored (with Ram Cnaan) The Newer Deal: Social Work and Religion in Partnership, and The Invisible Caring Hand: American Congregations and the Provision of Welfare. She has also published several book chapters and articles on faith-based social services.

    Eleanor L. Brilliant is Professor at Rutgers University School of Social Work. Her past work experience includes serving as Associate Executive Director (Planning, Allocations and Evaluation) for United Way of Westchester. She has also been Vice President/Secretary of the Association for Research on Nonprofit Organizations and Voluntary Action, and national Treasurer for the National Association of Social Workers. Her books include The United Way: Dilemmas of Organized Charity and Private Charity and Public Inquiry: A History of the Filer and Peterson Commissions.

    William E. Buffum is Professor and Director of the George Williams College School of Social Work at Aurora University, Aurora, Illinois. Previously, he was Associate Dean at Barry University's School of Social Work and also at the University of Houston Graduate School of Social Work. His social work practice and research interests are in the areas of poverty organizing, community partnerships, and community mental health. He is a member of ACOSA, CSWE, NASW, NADD, SSWR, and the National Network for Social Work Managers. His current work is in forensic mental health.

    Steve Burghardt is Professor of Community Organizing and Planning at the CUNY-Hunter College School of Social Work where he specializes in community organizing, community building, the political economy of social service work and innovative models of management, training and service. Author of The Other Side of Organizing and The Welfare State Crisis and the Transformation of Social Services (with Michael Fabricant), he has just completed The Glass Is Always Full: Leadership Lessons From Everyday Folks for Lasting Executive Excellence (with Willie Tolliver).

    Iris Carlton-LaNey is Professor in the School of Social Work at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. She has coedited two books and is the editor of African American Leadership: An Empowerment Tradition in Social Welfare History. She writes extensively about rural social work with elderly women and has been honored for her scholarship on African American social welfare history.

    Paul Castelloe is Co-Executive Director of the Center for Participatory Change, a nonprofit organization in western North Carolina. His work focuses on supporting grassroots groups by integrating methods from community organization, popular education, and international participatory development.

    Julian Chun-Chung Chow is Associate Professor at the School of Social Welfare, University of California, Berkeley. His research focuses on urban poverty issues, neighborhood services, and community practice, particularly responsive service delivery to culturally diverse populations.

    Terry L. Cross is an enrolled member of the Seneca Nation of Indians and has served as Executive Director of the National Indian Child Welfare Association since 1983. He is the author of Heritage and Helping an eleven-manual curriculum for tribal child welfare workers, Positive Indian Parenting curriculum, and Cross-Cultural Skills in Indian Child Welfare. He coauthored Toward a Culturally Competent System of Care (with Karl W Dennis, Mareasa R. Isaacs, and Barbara J. Bazron). He is experienced in evaluation design and policy-related research, and he has organized culturally specific technical assistance programs for more than 15 years.

    Kelsey Crowe is a doctoral student at the School of Social Welfare, University of California, Berkeley. Her research focuses on community capacity building and organizational development in low-income, multiethnic communities.

    Dennis Culhane is Professor of Social Welfare Policy at the School of Social Work and Codirector of the Cartographic Modeling Laboratory at the University of Pennsylvania. His research on homelessness and housing makes extensive use of administrative data.

    David Dempsey is the Manager of Government Relations/Political Action at the National Association of Social Workers (NASW). Previously, he served as Executive Director of the Washington State, Missouri, and Pennsylvania chapters. His publications include “Establishing ELAN (an Education, Legislation Action Network) in a State Chapter,” in Practical Politics, and he is coauthor of the 1996 article “Political Practica: Educating Social Work Students for Policymaking.” He has also presented at numerous social work education and social policy conferences on the subjects of politics and government.

    Erin Drinnin is Adult Community Program Coordinator and Manager for The Homestead, an agency serving people with autism spectrum disorders in Des Moines, Iowa. She previously served as an intern for the North Carolina Commission for Mental Health, Developmental Disabilities and Substance Abuse.

    John L. Erlich is Professor, Division of Social Work, California State University, Sacramento, and former Chair, Policy, Planning, and Administration. His coauthored publications include Community Organizing in a Diverse Society, Strategies of Community Intervention, Tactics and Techniques of Community Intervention, and Taking Action in Organizations and Communities. His scholarship focuses on grassroots organizing, diversity, and social action.

    Richard J. Estes is Professor of Social Work at the University of Pennsylvania. He is the author of more than 100 articles and books on various aspects of international and comparative social welfare including The Social Progress of Nations; Trends in World Social Development; Health Care and the Social Services; Internationalizing Social Work Education; Toward a Development Strategy for the Asia and Pacific Region; Resources for Social and Economic Development; Medical, Social, and Legal Aspects of Child Sexual Exploitation: A Comprehensice Review of Child Pornography, Child Prostitution, and Internet Crimes Against children; Social Development in Hong Kong: The Unfinished Agenda; and At the Crossroad: Development Challenges at the Beginning of a New Century.

    Michael Fabricant is the Executive Officer of the Doctoral Program in Social Welfare at the Graduate Center and Vice President for Senior Colleges of the Professional Staff Congress of the City University of New York. He is the author of five books and numerous articles. His most recent books include The Crisis of the Welfare State and Transformation of Social Service Work (with Steve Burghardt) and Settlement Houses Under Siege: The Struggle to Sustain Community Organizations in New York City (with Robert Fisher). A thread that runs through all of his work on homelessness, juvenile justice, and nonprofit community agencies is the extraction of praxis implications from both research findings and activist experience.

    Walter C. Farrell, Jr., is Professor of Management and Community Practice in the Schools of Social Work, Public Health, and Public Policy, and Associate Director of the Urban Investment Strategies Center of the Kenan Institute in the Kenan-Flagler Business School at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. He has published widely in the areas of urban social issues, minority economic development, social welfare policy, and workforce diversity.

    Robert Fisher is Professor of Social Work and Director of Urban and Community Studies at the University of Connecticut. He is the author of a variety of books, including Let the People Decide: Neighborhood Organizing in America and, most recently, with Michael Fabricant, Settlement Houses Under Siege: The Struggle to Sustain Community Organizations in New York City. He is the recipient of two Fulbright fellowships and the Moses Distinguished Professorship at the Hunter College School of Social Work. He has been involved in community organizing and social justice efforts since the early 1970s.

    Barbara J. Friesen is Director of the Research and Training Center on Family Support and Children's Mental Health, and Professor, Graduate School of Social Work, at Portland State University in Portland, Oregon. Her research areas include family participation in mental health and other settings, the development and testing of a peer-based training program for families in early childhood settings, and evaluations of community-based systems of care.

    Denise Gour, LCSW, is an entrepreneurial social worker with a strong preference for evidence-based models. As a Program Director at Metropolitan Family Service in Portland, Oregon, she established several successful family- and community-strengthening models serving thousands of children and adults each year. With Volunteers of America Oregon, she is directing a pilot program aimed at decreasing the recidivism rates of young felony offenders.

    Amy E. Hillier is Research Associate at the Cartographic Modeling Laboratory and a lecturer in the Urban Studies program and School of Social Work at the University of Pennsylvania. Her research and teaching focus on the application of geographic information systems (GIS) to social welfare, urban history, and public health.

    Marie D. Hoff is a retired social work professor, with faculty service at Saint Louis University and Boise State University; she taught social policy and macro-practice methods. Her major research focus has been the relationships between environmental concerns and human social welfare. She has published articles and two edited books on these topics: The Global Environmental Crisis: Implications for Social Welfare and Social Work (with J. G. McNutt), and Sustainable Community Development: Studies in Economic, Environmental and Cultural Revitalization. She is currently developing a Catholic Charities social services organization for the state of Idaho.

    Cheryl Hyde is Associate Professor at the School of Social Work, University of Maryland-Baltimore, where she is Cochair of the Management and Community Organization Concentration and Assistant Director for Community-Based Research at the Social Work Community Outreach Service. Her areas of interest include community capacity building, social movements, feminist praxis, multicultural organizational development, and diversity learning strategies. She is on a number of editorial boards, including those of the Journal of Community Practice and Administration in Social Work and is Chair of the Association for Community Organization and Social Administration.

    Bruce S. Jansson is the Driscoll/Clevenger Professor of Social Policy and Administration at the School of Social Work of the University of Southern California. He has written many articles and books including Becoming an Effective Policy Advocate: From Policy Practice to Social Justice (4th ed., 2003); The Sixteen-Trillion-Dollar Mistake: How the U.S. Bungled Its National Priorities From the New Deal to the Present (2001); and The Reluctant Welfare State, American Social Welfare Policies, Past, Present, and Future (5th ed., 2004).

    James H. Johnson, Jr., is William Rand Kenan, Jr., Distinguished Professor of Management, Sociology, and Public Policy and Director of the Urban Investment Strategies Center of the Kenan Institute in the Kenan-Flagler Business School at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. He has published widely in the areas of entrepreneurship and minority economic development, urban poverty, public policy, interethnic minority conflict in advanced societies, and welfare reform.

    Armand Lauffer is Professor Emeritus of the School of Social Work at the University of Michigan. He now directs the MBA Program in Nonprofit Management and Jewish Communal Leadership at The Interdisciplinary Center, Herzliya, Israel. He initiated Michigan's Project STAR (Student Teacher Achievement Ratio) and its Continuing Education Program; Sage Publications' two Human Service series; and a process that led to establishment of the Association for Community Organization and Social Administration, from which he received a career achievement award in 2001. His more than twenty books include Social Planning at the Community Level; Careers, Colleagues and Conflicts; Gramts, Etc.; Strategic Marketing The Practice of Continuing Education; Understanding Your Social Agency; Volunteers; and Getting the Resources You Need.

    Edith A. Lewis is Associate Professor of Social Work and Adjunct Associate Professor of Women's Studies at the University of Michigan. Her research and teaching interests include women and families of color, the lessons from parallel forms of social work practice in populations of color, international social welfare policy and services, and multicultural teaching.

    Roger A. Lohmann is Professor of Social Work, Benedum Distinguished Scholar, and Director of the Nonprofit Management Certificate Program in the Division of Social Work, School of Applied Social Sciences, in the Eberly College of Arts and Sciences at West Virginia University. He created and operates nearly two dozen electronic discussion lists, including ARNOVA-L, which has been in continuous daily operation for the past 15 years, and the original ACOSA-L list. His current interest is in electronically enhanced communication.

    Michelle Livermore is Assistant Professor of Social Work at The Ohio State University. She has published in the area of social development and edited The Handbook of Social Policy (with James Midgley and Martin Tracy). She continues to work in the areas of social capital, civic engagement, local capitalism, and employment.

    Jacquelyn McCroskey is the John Milner Associate Professor of Child Welfare at the USC School of Social Work. She works actively with county, city, and school district policy makers in Los Angeles County, using data and scholarship to inform policy and guide improvements to service delivery systems for children and families. Her research includes analysis of service financing, organization and performance, and the impact of family-centered child welfare services.

    John McNutt is Associate Professor of Social Work in the College of Social Work at the University of South Carolina. He initiated and continues to work with the Council on Social Work Education APM Technology Forum. He also created the original ACOSA Web site and operates the SWPolicy, NIRG, and other discussion lists. He has been a recognized national leader in advocating for the use of technology in community-level social work education. His principal interest is in electronic advocacy.

    James Midgley is the Harry and Reva Specht Professor of Public Social Services and Dean of the School of Social Welfare at the University of California, Berkeley. He has published widely on issues of social development and international social welfare. His most recent books include The Handbook of Social Policy (with Martin Tracy and Michelle Livermore), Controversial Issues in Social Policy (with Howard Karger and Brene Brown), and Social Policy for Development (with Tony Hall).

    Terry Mizrahi is Professor at Hunter School of Social Work CUNY, Director of the Education Center for Community Organizing, and Chair of the Community Organizing and Planning concentration. She is the author of numerous books and articles related to community organizing, health advocacy, health policy and patients' rights. She was one of the founders of the Association for Community Organization and Social Administration and its publication the Journal of Community Practice. She is the coauthor of Strategic Partnerships: Building Effective Coalitions and Collaborations (ECCO) and coeditor of the book Community Organization and Social Administration, and she is engaged in other research, consultation, and training on coalition building. She is a national leader in the National Association of Social Workers and served as its President from 2001–2003.

    Jacqueline Mondros is Professor and Associate Dean at University of Southern California School of Social Work. She has worked with social change organizations in Philadelphia, New York, and Miami, Florida, and has written extensively on community organizing and community work. Prior to her academic career, she was executive director of a settlement house. In Miami, she established the largest university-community partnership in the state, piloting community projects for children, families, and the elderly in Haitian and Latino communities.

    Lynne Clemmons Morris is Associate Professor in the School of Social Work and Human Services at Eastern Washington University. Her current research interests are focused on impacts of destination resort development in rural western mountain communities and uses of information technology in the delivery and evaluation of rural human services.

    John Morrison is Professor and former MSW Program Chair at Aurora University. He is a board member and past chair of the Association for Community Organization and Social Administration. He serves on the board of the Illinois Chapter of NASW and the Editorial Board of the Journal of Community Practice. He is coeditor, with Terry Mizrahi, of Community Organization and Social Administration: Advances, Trends and Issues. His current academic interests include international social work, prevention, and social development.

    Susan Murty is Associate Professor and MSW Program Coordinator at the School of Social Work at the University of Iowa. Her research focuses on rural service delivery, rural community practice, network analysis, intergenerational service learning, and domestic violence. She is currently developing an end-of-life care curriculum in the MSW Program with support from a Social Work Leadership Development Award received from the Project on Death in America.

    Biren (Ratnesh) A. Nagda is Associate Professor of Social Work and Director of the Intergroup Dialogue, Education and Action (IDEA) Training and Resource Institute at the University of Washington. His interests focus on cultural diversity, social justice, intergroup dialogue, and multicultural practice. He has done extensive research and published on intergroup dialogues in community settings, including a community-based research project examining practices in addressing race issues through small group dialogues.

    Kristine E. Nelson is Professor at the Graduate School of Social Work at Portland State University in Oregon. She is coauthor of Reinventing Human Services: Community- and Family-Centered Practice and has conducted six federally funded studies of family preservation services and child neglect.

    Helzi Noponen is an economic development planner who has been engaged in funded research, professional practice and university teaching activities in the fields of microfinance, gender and development, and sustainable livelihoods programs. She is a regional specialist in South Asia where she has been involved in field research and technical assistance projects for the past 24 years. Most recently, she has been involved in consultation with PRADAN—Professional Assistance for Development Action in India. Currently she is an external consultant to three Ford Foundation-funded Microfinance and Livelihood NGOs in India.

    Yolanda C. Padilla is Associate Professor at the School of Social Work and Research Associate at the Populations Research Center, University of Texas at Austin. Her current projects examine health trajectories of Mexican American children from birth to age five, living conditions of children of immigrants, and the status of children along the U.S.-Mexico border.

    Joan Pennell is Professor and Chair in the Department of Social Work at North Carolina State University. She is the principal investigator of the North Carolina Family-Centered Meetings Project and previously directed the North Carolina Family Group Conferencing Project. Previously she served as principal investigator for a Newfoundland and Labrador (Canada) demonstration of family group conferencing in situations of child maltreatment and domestic violence. Her publications focus on empowerment approaches to community practice, program development, and research. She coauthored Community Research as Empowerment and Family Group Conferencing: Evaluation Guidelines.

    Salome Raheim is Associate Professor and Director of the University of Iowa School of Social Work. Economic empowerment, community development and culturally competent practice are major areas of her research, teaching, and practice. She has published numerous articles related to women, welfare, microfinance, and economic opportunity.

    Beth Glover Reed is Professor at the University of Michigan-Ann Arbor with a joint appointment in Social Work and Women's Studies. Her research focuses on how social systems of various sizes create and sustain patterns of inequity and how these patterns can be changed towards a more socially just society. She teaches several courses in community organizing and community and social systems.

    Maria Roberts-DeGennaro is Professor of Social Work at San Diego State University. She was the first President of the National Association for Community Organization and Social Administration. Her scholarship focuses on policy and interorganizational behavior. She was granted a Silberman Fund Award for her research related to the 1996 Welfare Reform Act. Her latest research interests have centered around Web-based education. She is the recipient of an award for outstanding faculty contributions in the College of Health and Human Services at SDSU.

    Herbert J. Rubin is Professor Emeritus of Sociology at Northern Illinois University. He is the author of Applied Social Research and (with Irene Rubin) three editions of Community Organizing and Development. He has written articles that explore rural development in Thailand, suburban land-use fights, cooperative housing, and economic and community development. Two of his publications, the monograph The Dynamics of Development in Rural Development and his book on community renewal in the United States, Renewing Hope Within Neighborhoods of Despair: The Community-based Development Model, explore issues of social change. He is currently studying national, Washington-based organizations that advocate for the poor.

    Irene S. Rubin is Professor of Public Administration at Northern Illinois University. She is the author of Running in the Red: The Political Dynamics of Urban Fiscal Stress, Shrinking the Federal Government, Class Tax and Power: Municipal Budgeting in the United States, and Balancing the Federal Budget: Eating the Seed Corn or Trimming the Herds. She has written journal articles about citizen participation in local government in Thailand, how universities adapt when their budgets are cut, and fights between legislative staffers and elected and appointed officials about unworkable policy proposals. She is conducting an interviewing project on how local officials view and use contracts with the private sector and with other governmental units to provide public services.

    Anna Scheyett is Assistant Clinical Professor of Social Work at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, where she teaches health and mental health policy and practice in mental health and in organizations and communities. She also conducts training in mental health system reform. She has extensive experience working with people with severe and persistent mental illnesses and is the author of Making the Transition to Managed Behavioral Healthcare: A Guide for Agencies and Practitioners.

    Robert Schneider is Professor at Virginia Commonwealth University School of Social Work and National Chairperson of Influencing State Policy ( He is coauthor with Lori Lester of Social Work Advocacy: A New Framework for Action and coeditor with Nancy P. Kropf and Anne Kisor of the journal Gerontological Social Work.

    Michael Sherraden is the Benjamin E. Youngdahl Professor of Social Development and Director of the Center for Social Development at the George Warren Brown School of Social Work at Washington University, St. Louis. He is author of Assets and the Poor: A New American Welfare Policy and coeditor of Alternatives to Social Security: An International Inquiry.

    Margaret Sherrard Sherraden is Associate Professor of Social Work at the University of Missouri, St. Louis and Research Professor at the Center for Social Development at Washington University, St. Louis. Her books include Community Economic Development and Social Work with William Ninacs and Kitchen Capitalism: Microenterprise in Low-Income Households with Cynthia K. Sanders and Michael Sherraden.

    Nancy Shore is a doctoral student in social welfare at the University of Washington. Prior to returning to school, she worked at a Head Start program. In addition to her commitment to child welfare, her other research and teaching interests include community-based participatory research and ethics.

    Laura Wernick is in the Joint Doctoral Program in Social Work and Political Science and the Women's Studies Certificate Program at the University of Michigan. Her interest areas include urban politics, civic engagement, organizational theory, and intersectionality and power. Her dissertation research examines factors constraining and enabling community stakeholder participation and engagement in human service system and policy change. She works with Professor Robin Ely of the Harvard Business School on issues of diversity, pedagogy, and power within the workplace.

    Gaynor I. Yancey is Assistant Professor of Social Work at Baylor University in Waco, Texas. She is the Associate Director of the FASTEN (Faith and Service Technical Education Network) national research project, a study of public and private sector collaboration in meeting the needs of the urban poor. She is coauthor with Ram Cnaan and Stephanie Boddie of the chapter “Bowling Alone But Serving Together: The Congregational Norm of Community Involvement” in Religion, Social Capital, and Democratic Life. Her research interest is in organizing and development through the work of faith-based organizations and congregations.

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