The Handbook of Spiritual Development in Childhood and Adolescence


Edited by: Eugene C. Roehlkepartain, Pamela Ebstyne King, Linda Wagener & Peter L. Benson

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  • Part I: Foundations for the Scientific Study of Spiritual Development in Childhood and Adolescence

    Part II: Descriptive Approaches to Spiritual Development

    Part III: Spirituality and Human Development: Exploring Connections

    Part IV: The Ecologies of Spiritual Development

    Part V: Developmental Outcomes of Spiritual Development

    Part VI: Toward the Future in Practice, Policy, and Research

  • The SAGE Program on Applied Devolopmental Science

    Consulting Editor

    The field of Applied Developmental Science has advanced the use of cutting-edge developmental systems models of human development, fostered strength-based approaches to understanding and promoting positive development across the life span, and served as a frame for collaborations among researchers and practitioners, including policymakers, seeking to enhance the life chances of diverse young people, their families, and communities. The SAGE Program on Applied Developmental Science both integrates and extends this scholarship by publishing innovative and cutting-edge contributions.

    Richard M.Lerner


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    For our cherished children and grandchildren

    Micah and Linnea Aidan, Jack, Ella, Reed, and Zane, Liv, Kai, and Ryder


    In 1956, I was a young physician in training at the Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston. I was planning to be a psychiatrist and was also pursuing an interest in pediatrics. The clinical work was demanding—enough so that I had little time for the kind of reading I'd once enjoyed as an English major much taken with George Eliot's novels and those of the Russian masters Tolstoy and Dostoevsky, on both of whom I wrote long essays in my senior year.

    One day while I was on duty in the emergency ward, a 16-year-old high schooler arrived accompanied by his parents. He had suddenly lost the full use of his legs, in the midst of what had seemed to be a mild upper respiratory infection. The more I spoke with him in taking the usual clinical history, the more I was given pause by what he had to relate, apart from his description of the onset of a paralytic illness. To this day, I can hear him saying these words (which I tape-recorded as part of a hospital research project that I was then doing, eventually published in the American Journal of Psychiatry as “Neuropsychiatric Aspects of Acute Poliomyelitis”):

    My friends come to see me [he was a hockey player] and they get so upset, i have to calm them down! Look, it's no picnic, being this sick, but i have plenty of time to stop and think about what's really important. I didn't choose this [illness], but i figure i can do the best i can to beat it—and meanwhile i try to keep my spirits up. My folks, my brothers, and my sisters come here a lot, and they're great—they're rooting for me. The priest comes every day, and he's sure for me, praying a lot that i get better. Now i think of the Bible the way i never used to. i look hard at what Jesus Christ went through: a lot worse than this polio! i guess it took getting sick for me to have a deeper religious life. That's what my girlfriend said, and you know, she has a point. You get sick like this, and you're stopped in your tracks. My legs aren't working right, but my head is all-alive with thoughts. The priest said I'm beginning to talk like they do in religion classes, or philosophy classes. i laugh and say: “Go tell that to my teachers; maybe they'll boost my grades!” Actually, i was thinking the other morning about Thoreau. We read him in class, and now, here in the hospital, i thought of him. He'd be upset if he got polio so that he couldn't walk around that Walden Pond of his, but probably he'd make sure something good came out of it; he'd get deeper into life—what it all means—and that's a big trip, and there's a payoff to it, he told us. You become deeper yourself, that way. Sure you're paying a stiff price, but good things don't always come easy—that's what you learn reading the Bible, and from reading good books by people who want you, the one reading their words, to stop and think with them about what's it all about, being here for a while.

    In a sense, that young person's realizations belong in this volume, which is dedicated to expanding our understanding of spiritual development in childhood and adolescence. Indeed, the youth whose words grace my effort to respond to the following pages would eventually recover enough to walk (with crutches at first) and then return to school. He became a lawyer, and one day he told me: “I owe to polio a big part of my thinking, feeling life—and for sure, my spiritual life. The Lord lets us know, doesn't he, that if you're going to think about what really matters in life, you've got to be tapped on the shoulder. Something happens that asks you to go below the surface of things, that asks you to wonder about what it's all about—life's lessons, its purposes.”

    Yes, indeed, I recall thinking—and thought yet again as I explored the chapters ahead: the reflections of a range of essayists (observers of their fellow human beings) who want to address young people such as the one I have described, children and teenagers who are trying to find their bearings in life, and who do so psychologically, morally, spiritually, in the hope that their time here will really count. It's no small challenge, and yet it's such an affirming one: life's very reasons, ideals, and purposes, pursued and given expression—an invaluable achievement.



    This inaugural edition of The Handbook of Spiritual Development in Childhood and Adolescence is being published as part of a new burgeoning of scholarly interest in child and adolescent spiritual development. Around the world, scholars have formed interest groups and convened conferences to explore these issues. Special issues of academic journals in psychology, sociology, medicine, anthropology, education, and other fields have been published.

    Yet this area of inquiry lacks a cohesive, established base of foundational theory or research. Scholars tend to work within their own discipline and in relative isolation, disconnected from each other and lacking easy access to theory and research in other disciplines, traditions, and cultures. Study in this domain has lacked the visibility, integration, and research strength needed to give it prominence and broad acceptance in the academy as an integral theme in human development. Also missing has been the synthesis needed to set the stage for future research, as well as encourage the use of available research in policy and practice.

    By assembling leading scholars from multiple disciplines and four continents, it is our hope here to offer a comprehensive review of current scientific knowledge and to propose directions for the future. Drawing on psychology, sociology, anthropology, educational philosophy, and related disciplines, this handbook offers a kaleidoscope of current research. Furthermore, in the emerging tradition of applied developmental science (Lerner, Fisher, & Weinberg, 2000), it establishes the need for a dynamic interaction between knowledge generation and application wherein research informs practice, and, just as important, the realities, issues, and insights of practice inform research questions and approaches.

    The volume emerged initially from conversations among scholars, particularly at Search Institute, Fuller Theological Seminary, Tufts University, and Stanford University, who have engaged in a long-term project on thriving in adolescence, and its intersection with spiritual development. Then, in 2003, Search Institute received a grant from the John Templeton Foundation, which provided support for this volume as well as a companion work in religious studies that synthesizes how the world's religious traditions understand spirituality in childhood and adolescence (see Yust, Johnson, Sasso, & Roehlkepartain, in press). At the same time, scholars at Tufts University have compiled another complementary volume, An Encyclopedia of Religious and Spiritual Development in Childhood and Adolescence, also published by Sage (Dowling & Scarlett, in press). Together, these seminal works (along with the growing number of journals and conferences on these topics) are poised to move this field of inquiry and practice to new levels.


    Dowling, E., and Scarlett, G. (Eds.). (in press). An encyclopedia of religious and spiritual development in childhood and adolescence. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    LernerR. M.FisherC. B.WeinbergR. A.Toward a science for and of the people: Promoting civil society through the application of developmental scienceChild Development71 (2000) 11–20
    Yust, K. M., Johnson, A. N., Sasso, S. E., & Roehlkepartain, E. C. (Eds.). (in preparation). Nurturing child and adolescent spirituality: Perspectives from the world's religious traditions. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.


    If any kind of publication merits extensive acknowledgments, it is a handbook such as this one. To produce a work of this size, scope, and quality requires investments and commitments from many, many people and institutions. We particularly acknowledge Richard M. Lerner, a friend and colleague, who not only contributed and served as an adviser but also gave tremendous encouragement and guidance in the early stages of conceptualizing this book. It is likely that it would not have happened without his mentoring and encouragement.

    First, and most important, our sincerest thanks and appreciation go to the 67 scholars who have contributed to this volume as authors. Coming from many disciplines, perspectives, and nations, they invested tremendous energy in writing within the demanding expectations and exacting parameters that are necessary to create a cohesive volume. We applaud their patience with multiple layers of feedback and review, the nagging e-mails, and the aggressive schedule. We are proud to be associated with you through this volume.

    In addition to the authors, capturing the rich diversity and scope of scholarship in spiritual development requires engaging multiple perspectives and relationship networks in order to ensure that the volume adequately represents the field. Fourteen scholars from around the world served as editorial advisers, assisting the editors in shaping the scope of the volume, recommending authors, and reviewing chapters. In many cases, these leading scholars have also contributed chapters to the book. These advisers are:

    Hanan A. Alexander, Ph.D., Center for Jewish Education, University of Haifa

    Chris J. Boyatzis, Ph.D., Department of Psychology, Bucknell University

    Jacquelynne S. Eccles, Ph.D., Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan

    James W. Fowler, Ph.D., Candler School of Theology, Emory University

    Edwin I. Hernandez, Ph.D., Center for the Study of Latino Religion, University of Notre Dame

    Ariela Keysar, Ph.D., Center for the study of Religion in Society and Culture, Brooklyn College, City University of New York

    Shiva Khalili, Ph.D., National Research Center for Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

    Richard M. Lerner, Ph.D., Eliot-Pearson Department of Child Development, Tufts University

    Rebecca M. Nye, Ph.D., Divinity School, University of Cambridge

    Kenneth I. Pargament, Ph.D., Department of Psychology, Bowling Green State University

    F. Helmut Reich, Ph.D., Th.D., Departement Erziehungswissenschaften, University of Fribourg, Switzerland

    Christian Smith, Ph.D., Department of Sociology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

    Margaret Beale Spencer, Ph.D., Graduate School of Education, University of Pennsylvania

    James E. Youniss, Ph.D., Department of Psychology, The Catholic University of America

    In addition to these advisers, several other scholars offered careful peer reviews of the chapters in this volume, asking tough questions, offering sound advice, and adding immeasurably to the quality of the book. These reviewers were Chris J. Boyatzis, Bucknell University; John Calhoun, National Crime Prevention Council (retired); Mari Clements, Fuller Theological Seminary; W. Andrew Collins, University of Minnesota; Joseph Erickson, Augsburg College; Leslie J. Frances, University of Wales, Bangor; Hayim Herring, Synagogues: Transformation and Renewal; Cameron Lee, Fuller Theological Seminary; Robert London, California State University, San Bernardino; Mark Regnerus, University of Texas; Hope Straughan, Wheelock College; and Froma Walsh, University of Chicago.

    Primary financial support for compiling and editing this handbook was provided by the John Templeton Foundation, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, through its support of Search Institute's initiative to map the state of spiritual development in the social sciences. Particular thanks to Arthur Schwartz, who understood the need and affirmed the vision. In addition, we thank the Thrive Foundation for Youth for its support of early work that led to the development of this book.

    We also wish to thank our work colleagues at Search Institute and Fuller Theological Seminary, who tolerated our preoccupied minds, closed doors, and puzzled questions. However, we single out colleagues who directly contributed to the development of this book. At Search Institute, particular thanks goes to Mary Byers, who guided the manuscript through copyediting; Sandra Longfellow, who assisted with library work, literature searches, and bibliographies; Brent Bolstrom and Katie Streit, who provided research assistance; and Susan Herman, who not only provided administrative support but helped protect time for writing and editing.

    To our colleagues at Sage Publications, Jim Brace-Thompson and Karen Ehrmann: Thank you for believing in this project, for keeping on the pressure so that this project maintained its rightful priority amid competing demands, and for the careful attention you have given it throughout the process to ensure that this handbook is of highest quality.

    Finally, we particularly appreciate our families for their support, encouragement, and patience throughout the process of developing this book: Jolene, Micah, and Linnea Roehlkepartain; Brad and Aidan King; Jay, Jack, Ella, Reed, and Zane Wagener; and Tunie Munson-Benson, and Liv, Kai, Brad, and Ryder. Through it all, you eased our stresses and nurtured our spirits. Our deepest thanks.

    ∗Affiliations listed for identification purposes only.

  • Author Index

    About the Editors

    Eugene C. Roehlkepartain is senior adviser in the office of the president, Search Institute, Minneapolis, Minnesota, where he provides leadership for research, publishing, training, and consulting projects that focus on spiritual development, as well as the institute's work with congregations of all faiths. Roehlkepartain has written more than 25 books and reports, and numerous newspaper, magazine, and journal articles on youth development, families and parenting, community building, religious and spiritual development, and related issues. In addition to editing this volume, he is a coeditor of Nurturing Child and Adolescent Spirituality: Perspectives From the World's Religious Traditions (2005). He holds a bachelor's degree in journalism and religion from Baylor University in Waco, Texas.

    Pamela Ebstyne King serves as research assistant professor of psychology in the Center for Research in Child and Adolescent Development in the School of Psychology at Fuller Theological Seminary in Pasadena, California. Her primary research and teaching interests include positive youth development, spiritual and moral development, and theological perspectives of development. She is particularly interested in enabling thriving through families, congregations, schools, and youth-serving organizations. Ordained in the Presbyterian Church (USA), Dr. King has a background in child, youth, and adult ministry; a master's of divinity; and Ph.D. in family studies from Fuller Theological Seminary. She was a visiting scholar under the Divinity Faculty at Cambridge University and did her postdoctoral work at the Stanford Center on Adolescence. Dr. King is a coauthor of The Reciprocating Self: Human Development in Theological Perspective (2005). Her research has been published in Developmental Psychology, Applied Developmental Science, the Journal of Early Adolescence, and the Journal of Psychology and Christianity.

    Linda M. Wagener is associate professor of psychology and associate dean of the graduate school of psychology at Fuller Theological Seminary, where she is also codirector of the Center for Research in Child and Adolescent Development. Her research interests include positive youth development, with a particular focus on the spiritual, religious, and moral development of adolescence. Dr. Wagener is currently a principal investigator on an adolescent violence prevention grant from the United States Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

    Peter L. Benson is president of Search Institute, which provides leadership, knowledge, and resources to promote healthy children, youth, and communities. He has written extensively in adolescent development, altruism, spiritual development, and thriving in adolescence. He serves as principal investigator for Search Institute's initiative on spiritual development in childhood and adolescence. In 1991, he received the William James Award for career contributions to the psychology of religion from the American Psychological Association. Dr. Benson is the author or editor of numerous books and articles, including Developmental Assets and Asset-Building Communities, All Kids Are Our Kids: What Communities Must Do to Raise Caring and Responsible Children and Adolescents, and Religion on Capitol Hill: Myths and Realities. He is general editor for the Search Institute Series on Developmentally Attentive Community and Society, published by Springer. He holds a doctorate in experimental social psychology from the University of Denver.

    About the Contributors

    Muninder K. Ahluwalia is assistant professor in the Department of Counseling, Human Development and Educational Leadership in the College of Education and Human Services at Montclair State University in New Jersey. Her research focuses on multicultural counseling competence and identity development of racial and ethnic minorities in the United States. Her recent work addresses relational issues in qualitative research and the role of culture and religion in political contexts in shaping the psychological well-being of Sikh men post-9/11. Her research has been published in journals and texts including the Journal of Counseling Psychology, the Journal of Black Psychology, and The Handbook of Counseling Women.

    Amy E. Alberts is a doctoral student in the Eliot-Pearson Department of Child Development at Tufts University, where she is a doctoral research assistant on the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development and the Research Data Coordinator for the Early Intervention Study at the Brazelton Institute, Children's Hospital, Boston. Her research interests include contextual influences on parenting and adolescent development, outreach scholarship for promoting positive youth development, the family system, and spiritual development.

    Hanan A. Alexander heads the Center for Jewish Education and the Department of Overseas Studies at the University of Haifa, where he teaches philosophy of education. He is also a Fellow of the Van Leer Jerusalem Institute and, before moving to Israel with his wife and three children in 1999, was vice president of the University of Judaism in Los Angeles, lecturer in education at UCLA, and editor of the journal Religious Education. He has published widely on the philosophy of education and educational policy. His book Reclaiming Goodness: Education and the Spiritual Quest (2001) won a National Jewish Book Award, and he recently edited Ethics and Spirituality in Education: Philosophical, Theological, and Radical Perspectives (2004).

    Pamela M. Anderson is a third-year doctoral student in the Eliot-Pearson Department of Child Development at Tufts University. Pam is a doctoral research assistant on the Overcoming the Odds Study, a longitudinal study that seeks to understand the positive, developmental trajectories of a subset of African American gang and nongang youth in Detroit. Pam's primary research interests involve using applied research to inform programs and policies around the issues of health and well being among adolescents. She is also interested in the development of spirituality, meaning, mattering, and purpose in youth.

    Wayne T. Aoki is a clinical psychologist who has served on the faculty of the School of Psychology at Fuller Theological Seminary in Pasadena, California. His research focuses on positive youth development, evaluation of community-based and residential youth programs, and mentoring. Over the past two years he has been part of a team investigating the mediating influence of community assets and youth violence.

    Robert Atkins is a nurse and assistant professor in the College of Nursing at Rutgers University in New Jersey. He has a Ph.D. from the Department of Public Health at Temple University in Philadelphia. Over the past five years, he has been involved in research that seeks to investigate the factors that influence the life prospects of urban youth. In collaboration with Daniel Hart, he has coauthored several insightful and highly regarded publications on personality functioning and the civic and moral development of urban youth.

    Charles David Blakeney founded and codirected the Institute for Clinical-Developmental Psychology in Berkeley. His domestic policy consulting on children, youth, and families includes two years at the White House. His research and teaching focus on moral disorder, addiction, and recovery. Recent work includes “Leaps of Faith: The Role of Spirituality in Recovering Integrity among Jewish Alcoholics and Drug Addicts” and “Defining Useful Science,” an application of the Integrity Scale to evaluating secondary prevention programs. He is currently working on a model of developmental integrity as a research fellow at the Department of Education and Educational Psychology, University of Fribourg, Switzerland. He received a doctorate in education from Harvard University.

    Ronnie Frankel Blakeney is visiting professor and research fellow at the University of Fribourg. She received her doctorate at Harvard, was associate professor of ethnic studies at Sonoma State University, and served as codirector of the Institute for Clinical-Developmental Psychology in Berkeley. Her research, consulting, and teaching focus on cross-cultural communication; adolescent development; risk and prevention; and developmental psychopathology. She has consulted internationally on moral psychology and social welfare, including at the White House and the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health. Her current Swiss National Fund project is the intergenerational transmission of values across three generations.

    Dean Borgman is professor of youth ministry and holds the Charles E. Culpeper Chair of Youth Ministry at Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary's urban campus in Boston, Massachusetts. He is also founder and director of the Center for Youth Studies, a national and global network of those interested in research of adolescence and the youth culture. His areas of expertise include urban and cross-cultural youth ministry and the changing youth culture. Among his books are When Kumbaya Is Not Enough: A Practical Theology for Youth Ministry and Hear My Story: Understanding the Cries of Troubled Youth.

    Chris J. Boyatzis is associate professor of psychology at Bucknell University in Lewisburg, Pennsylvania. His primary interest is religious and spiritual development (RSD) processes in the family. He has edited special issues on RSD (March 2003, Review of Religious Research; January 2004, Applied Developmental Science, coedited with Pamela Ebstyne King). He has authored many chapters and articles on RSD and has papers forthcoming on links between women's and men's religiosity and spirituality in relation to their body image and disordered eating. He organizes a preconference on RSD at the biennial meetings of the Society for Research in Child Development and is involved in religious education at a local and national level.

    William M. Bukowski is professor and university research chair in the Department of Psychology and the Centre for Research in Human Development at Concordia University in Montrèal, Quèbec, Canada. His research program focuses on the features, processes, and effects of children's and adolescents' experiences with their peers.

    David Carr is professor of philosophy of education in the University of Edinburgh School of Education. He is author of Educating the Virtues (1991), Professionalism and Ethics in Teaching (2000), Making Sense of Education (2003), and of numerous book chapters and articles in philosophical and educational journals. He is also editor of Education, Knowledge and Truth (1998), coeditor (with Jan Steutel) of Virtue Ethics and Moral Education (1999) and (with John Haldane) of Spirituality, Philosophy and Education (2003).

    Robert Coles is the James Agee Professor of Social Ethics at Harvard University and professor of psychiatry and medical humanities at Harvard Medical School. Among his many books is The Spiritual Life of Children (Houghton Mifflin, 1990).

    Sheri-Ann E. Cowie is a doctoral student in counseling psychology at the Steinhardt School of Education of New York University. She is involved in qualitative and quantitative research on the professional experiences of African American CEOs and mental health professionals, as well as the role of self, other, and divine forgiveness in shaping dispositional optimism and pessimism. Her research interests include the relationship among spirituality, religion, transnational identity and positive psychological development for Jamaicans and other English-speaking West Indians.

    Emily Crawford is pursuing her doctorate in clinical psychology at Miami University in Oxford, Ohio. Her research interests focus on the prevention and education of violence against women, in particular, drug-facilitated sexual assault, alcohol use and abuse in college settings, and the interpersonal consequences of childhood abuse experiences and the factors promoting later vulnerability or resilience.

    Mary Lynn Dell is associate clinical professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences and of pediatrics, Children's National Medical Center and George Washington University School of Medicine, Washington, D.C.

    Jane R. Dickie is professor of psychology and director of women's studies at Hope College in Holland, Michigan. Her current research interests and publications concern parent-child relationships and children's concepts of God, women's communities and their impact on adult development, relationships between generations of feminists, and children's gendered sense of self and gendered sense of God.

    David C. Dollahite is professor of family life at Brigham Young University in Provo, Utah, where he is an Eliza R. Snow University Fellow. He has been a visiting scholar at the University of Massachusetts-Amherst and Dominican University of California. His research interests include religion and family life in Christian, Jewish, and Muslim families, Latter-day Saint (Mormon) family life, and fathering and faith in fathers of children with special needs. He has published approximately 40 scholarly articles and chapters on fathering, faith, and family life, and is editor of Strengthening Our Families (2000) and Helping and Healing Our Families (2005), both on Latter-day Saint families.

    Thomas M. Donnelly is a visiting assistant professor at Rutgers University in Camden, New Jersey. His interests cover a range of areas in cognitive and developmental psychology. At Rutgers, he is working with Daniel Hart, James Youniss, and Robert Atkins in analyzing large national databases to examine civic, moral, and spiritual development. At New York University, Tom is working with Doris Aaronson, studying the reading and mathematical processes and strategies of normal readers, dyslexics, and dyscalculics in college.

    Elizabeth M. Dowling is director of research for the ImagineNations Group, based in Pasadena, Maryland. She is responsible for designing and implementing strategies that capture the voices of young people around the world to engage them as critical stakeholders in program and policy development aimed at improving human lives. She received her Ph.D. in 2004 from Tufts University in child development. Elizabeth wrote her dissertation on spiritual and religious development in adolescence, and she has published numerous articles on the topic. She continues to pursue questions of meaning, purpose, and religiosity in her current work with young people around the world.

    Jacquelynne S. Eccles is the McKeachie Collegiate Professor of Psychology, Education, and Women's Studies at the University of Michigan. She has conducted research on topics ranging from gender-role socialization and classroom influences on motivation to social development in the family, school, peer, and wider cultural contexts. Her most recent work focuses on (1) ethnicity as a part of the self and as a social category influencing experiences and (2) the relation of self beliefs and identity to the transition from mid to late adolescence and then into adulthood.

    Robert A. Emmons is professor of psychology at the University of California, Davis. He is the author of nearly 80 original publications in peer-reviewed journals or chapters in edited volumes, including The Psychology of Ultimate Concerns: Motivation and Spirituality in Personality (1999) and The Psychology of Gratitude (2004). He is a former associate editor of the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology and has served as president of Division 36 (The Psychology of Religion) of the American Psychological Association. His research focuses on personal goals, spirituality, the psychology of gratitude and thankfulness, and subjective well-being.

    James W. Fowler is Charles Howard Candler Professor of Human Development, Candler School of Theology, and director of the Center for Ethics in Public Policy and the Professions at Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia

    Richard L. Gorsuch is professor of psychology at Fuller Theological Seminary in Pasadena, California, and is best known for his studies in the psychology of religion, substance abuse, social psychology, and statistics. He is the author of Factor Analysis (1983) and the developer of the statistical software program Unimult. Dr. Gorsuch is an active member of the Religious Research Association and a fellow of the Society for the Scientific Study of Religion and the American Psychological Association. He has been editor of the Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion. His most recent book is Integrating Psychology and Spirituality.

    Alma Gottlieb is a cultural anthropologist interested in religion, gender, young children, and Africa. She is the author of six books, including The Afterlife Is Where We Come From: The Culture of Infancy in West Africa (2004), and coeditor (with Judy DeLoache) of A World of Babies: Imagined Childcare Guides for Seven Societies (2000). The memoir she coauthored with Philip Graham, Parallel Worlds: An Anthropologist and a Writer Encounter Africa (1993), won the Victor Turner Prize in Ethnographic Writing. Gottlieb has held fellowships from the Guggenheim Foundation, National Endowment for the Humanities, Social Science Research Council, and others. She is professor of anthropology, African studies, and women's studies at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

    Pehr Granqvist is a postdoc and lecturer in the Department of Psychology, Uppsala University, Sweden. His current research interests include attachment theoretical research on adults and adolescents, developments in attachment methodology, the psychology of religion, and neurotheology. Some of his recent publications concern longitudinal predictions of religious changes in adolescence from attachment and changes in romantic relationship status; a review and meta analysis of attachment and religious conversions in adults; three experiments addressing the effects on religiousness from subliminal separation primes; and a debate concerning the “depth” approaches in the psychology of religion.

    Daniel Hart is professor of psychology and associate dean at Rutgers University in Camden, New Jersey. His research focuses on the development during childhood and adolescence of civic competence, personality, identity, and morality, particularly among urban youth. In one line of investigation, he uses national survey data to characterize the nature and development of civic competence. His second project focuses on the effects of stress on personality regulation. With Robert Atkins, Hart founded the STARR Program, which supports youth development through community service, sports, tutoring, and other activities. He also is cofounder of the Healthy Futures for Camden Youth Project, which seeks to increase enrollment among Camden's families in New Jersey's subsidized health insurance program for low-income families.

    Tobin Hart is a father, author, psychologist, and speaker. He serves as professor of psychology at the State University of West Georgia. He is cofounder and chair of the ChildSpirit Institute, a nonprofit educational and research hub exploring and nurturing the spirituality of children and adults (,). His work examines consciousness, spirituality, psychotherapy, and education. His latest books are From Information to Transformation: Education for the Evolution of Consciousness (2001) and The Secret Spiritual World of Children (2003).

    David Hay is a zoologist who worked for several years at the Religious Experience Research Unit set up in Oxford by the zoologist Sir Alister Hardy in 1969. After Hardy's death in 1985, Hay became director of the unit. Subsequently, he was appointed reader in spiritual education at Nottingham University, a post from which he retired in 2000. Currently he holds the posts of honorary senior research fellow in the Department of Divinity and Religious Studies in the University of Aberdeen and visiting professor in the Institute for the Study of Religion in the University of Krakow in Poland.

    Steve Hornberger, M.S.W., has more than 25 years’ experience in human services and community building as a social worker, grassroots activist, educator, consultant, and administrator. In his current position as founding director of the Behavioral Health Division for the Child Welfare League of America, Mr. Hornberger is responsible for identifying and creating evidence-based innovations to strengthen services and supports in the areas of alcohol and other drugs, mental health, and child welfare. He also teaches graduate-level courses in spirituality and social work. In March 2005, he coedited the special edition of Child Welfare on “Community Building and 21st Century Child Welfare Practice.” Mr. Hornberger is particularly interested in the expansion of the role of consumers in the design, delivery, and evaluation of services; the collaboration and integration of formal and informal systems of care; and the expansion of the role of civil society in fostering community life.

    Heidi Ihrke is a Ph.D. student in the Clinical Psychology Program at Bowling Green State University. Her research interests pertain to the psychology of religion with regard to family life and applied therapeutic techniques, specifically, religious appraisals of parental divorce, sanctification of marriage, and the integration of psychospiritual interventions into clinical practice.

    Carl N. Johnson is chair of the Psychology in Education Department in the School of Education at the University of Pittsburgh. His research interests include children's mental, supernatural, and metaphysical ideas. With Karl S. Rosengren and Paul L. Harris, he coedited Imagining the Impossible: Magical, Scientific, and Religious Thinking in Children (2000), which includes his review of the development of metaphysical thinking. He is a member of the international advisory aboard of the new Journal of Cognition and Culture.

    Roberta Furtick Jones has a master's in social work from New York University. She has worked with senior citizens, children, and families in a variety of social service venues. She is a practicing family therapist, has provided clinical training and supervision to social workers, and was the director of a family counseling center in Brooklyn, New York. Ms. Jones has also presented at conferences on spirituality and social work. Her practice and research interests include making spirituality an accessible resource to the helping professions and the healthy development of urban boys of African descent.

    Julie Dombrowski Keith received her master's degree from the Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs at Syracuse University. She has worked on studies of depression in young adults as well as in senior citizens, teenage childbearing, positive measures of adolescent well-being, and child care analysis. Beyond those topics, her research interests lie in education, development, family strengths, and the intersection of race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status in everyday life.

    Brien Kelley is a doctoral student in clinical psychology at Teachers College, Columbia University, New York. His interests include positive emotions and mental health, Buddhist contributions to psychotherapies, and spiritual development in adolescence. He is coauthor, with Lisa Miller, of a chapter in The Handbook of the Psychology of Religion (forthcoming).

    Aria M. Kirkland-Harris is an undergraduate psychology and political science major at Columbia University. She is involved in qualitative and quantitative research on rejection sensitivity in race-based relations involving African Americans and Latino youth and the professional experiences of African American CEOs and mental health professionals.

    Teresa T. Kneezel is a psychology graduate student at the University of California, Davis, and holds a bachelor's degree in psychology and religion from the University of Rochester. Primarily interested in religious motivation, personality integration, and well-being, she is currently examining the effects of approach-avoidance motivation in spiritual and sanctified goals on an individual's well-being. Kneezel has presented her work at the International Positive Psychology Symposium and the International Conference on Self-Determination Theory.

    Richard M. Lerner is the Bergstrom Chair in Applied Developmental Science and the director of the Institute for Applied Research in Youth Development in the Eliot-Pearson Department of Child Development at Tufts University. Dr. Lerner is the author or editor of 59 books and more than 400 scholarly articles and chapters. He edited volume 1, Theoretical Models of Human Development, for the fifth edition of the Handbook of Child Psychology. He is the founding editor of the Journal of Research on Adolescence and of Applied Developmental Science. He is known for his theory of, and research about, relations between life span human development and contextual or ecological change.

    Laura H. Lippman is area director for data and measurement and senior research associate at Child Trends in Washington, D.C., where she directs a variety of projects related to indicators of child and family well-being, early childhood, education, positive development, and international comparisons. Her recent publications include What Do Children Need to Flourish? Conceptualizing and Measuring Indicators of Positive Development (coedited with Kristin A. Moore) and “The Measurement of Family Religiosity and Spirituality” with Erik Michelsen and Eugene C. Roehlekepartain. Ms. Lippman was the lead staff person for the Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics in developing the first official government monitoring report on child well-being, America's Children: Key National Indicators of Well-Being.

    Douglas Magnuson is assistant professor of youth and human services at the University of Northern Iowa, where he teaches courses in youth work and youth development in the undergraduate and graduate programs. He is also the project manager for the National Study of Campus Ministries. His research interests are evaluation theory, moral development in youth organizations, and youth work practice models. For the past three years he has evaluated after-school programs, and he is writing a book about the experience. Dr. Magnuson is editor of the journal Child & Youth Services and coeditor of the journal Child and Youth Care Forum.

    Annette Mahoney is an associate professor at Bowling Green State University and a licensed, practicing clinical psychologist. Dr. Mahoney's primary research interests pertain to the psychology of religion, particularly with regard to family life. Her recent publications focus on the sanctification of marriage, parenting, family relationships, major life strivings, one's body, and premarital sexuality, as well as the psychological impact of perceiving negative life events as desecrations and sacred losses. Other research interests are links between marriage, parenting and child behavior problems, and physical aggression in families.

    H. Newton Malony is senior professor of psychology in the Graduate School of Psychology at Fuller Theological Seminary. A prodigious scholar, Dr. Malony's most recent publications include Living with Paradox: Religious Leadership and the Genius of Double Vision (1998). He has published broadly in the areas of the psychology of religion, religious intolerance, transactional analysis, and the integration of psychology and religion. A licensed psychologist and ordained United Methodist minister, Dr. Malony has also maintained professional involvement in the American Psychological Association, the California Psychological Association, the Society for the Scientific Study of Religion, and the American College of Forensic Examiners.

    Loren Marks is assistant professor of family, child, and consumer sciences in the School of Human Ecology at Louisiana State University. In collaboration with David Dollahite, he has conducted extensive qualitative research with more than 100 Christian, Jewish, Mormon, and Muslim families from around the United States and has authored or coauthored approximately 20 articles or chapters addressing religion in connection with parenting, marriage, and individual development.

    Ann S. Masten is Distinguished McKnight University Professor at the University of Minnesota. In 1986, she joined the faculty of the Institute of Child Development at Minnesota, later heading this department from 1996 to 2005. Her research is focused on risk, competence, and resilience in development, with the ultimate goal of reducing the burden and promoting better life chances for children threatened by family adversities, war, terrorism, homelessness, and other hazardous conditions. Dr. Masten is currently president of Division 7 (developmental) of the American Psychological Association.

    M. Kyle Matsuba is an assistant professor at the University of Northern British Columbia, Canada. He received his doctorate from the University of British Columbia in developmental psychology working with Lawrence Walker. Dr. Matsuba's research has focused on moral development and personality, psychosocial impact of technology, and assessing at-risk youth postintervention. In addition, he continues to work with Drs. Donnelly, Atkins, and Hart, studying the antecedents and consequences of volunteer work.

    Jacqueline S. Mattis is associate professor of applied psychology in the Steinhardt School of Education of New York University. Her research focuses on the meanings and functions of religion and spirituality for African Americans, the factors that inform African American religious and spiritual involvement, and the impact of religious and spiritual ideologies and practices on such positive psychological outcomes as altruism, volunteerism, forgiveness, and optimism. Her research has been published in numerous journals and texts, including the Journal of Community Psychology, the Journal of Adult Development, and Personality and Individual Differences.

    Lisa Miller is associate professor of psychology and education at Teachers College, Columbia University, New York. Dr. Miller's research and clinical orientation focus on spiritual experience and development throughout the life span, with a particular focus on childhood, adolescence, and parenthood. Recently she has contributed to The Handbook of the Psychology of Religion (forthcoming), Casebook for a Spiritual Strategy in Counseling and Psychotherapy (2004), and Spiritually Oriented Psychotherapy (2005); she also was involved with the production of Series IV (spirituality): Spiritual Awareness Psychotherapy, a DVD released by the American Psychological Association.

    Robert L. Miller Jr. explores the intersection of spirituality, social welfare, and public health. He has examined spirituality in the lives of African Americans affected by AIDS, including gay men and women over 50, as well as clergy and pastoral responses to AIDS. He also studies community health collaboration efforts between federally qualified health centers and urban churches. His recent publications include An Appointment with God: AIDS, Place and Spirituality; The Church and Gay Men: A Spiritual Opportunity in the Wake of the Clergy Sexual Crisis; Look What God Can Do: African American Gay Men, AIDS and Spirituality; and Spirituality and Professional Social Work: Implications for Practice, Research and Education. Dr. Miller is an assistant professor in social work at the University of Albany, State University of New York.

    Andrew B. Newberg, M.D., is assistant professor of radiology and psychiatry at the University of Pennsylvania Health System in Philadelphia. His primary research area is functional neuroimaging with a focus on religious and spiritual phenomena. He is coauthor of Why God Won't Go Away: Brain Science and the Biology of Belief (Ballantine).

    Stephanie K. Newberg, M.Ed., LCSW, is assistant director of Center City and Wynnewood Offices, and senior staff therapist for the Council for Relationships in Philadelphia. Her clinical and research interests include adolescent psychology and the relationship between psychology and religion.

    Rebecca Nye was the primary researcher for and coauthor, along with David Hay, of a study that became the groundbreaking book The Spirit of the Child (1998), one of the most frequently cited research studies in the children's spirituality movement. She is now the coordinator of a major children's spirituality research initiative at Cambridge University and is widely sought as a conference speaker. She is currently the research coordinator for the Godly Play approach to children's spirituality. She is the mother of three children, the third born as this book was being written.

    Doug Oman is adjunct assistant professor in the Maternal Child Health Program, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley. His research focuses on spirituality, religion, and health. He has studied psychological processes through which religion and spirituality are transmitted, how mortality is affected by religious involvement, and how health professionals can benefit from receiving training in a comprehensive nonsectarian spiritual tool kit. He is author (with Carl E. Thoresen) of “Spiritual Modeling: A Key to Spiritual and Religious Growth?” (2003) and (with J. D. Driskill) of “Holy Name Repetition as a Spiritual Exercise and Therapeutic Technique” (2003).

    Eboo Patel is the founder and executive director of the Interfaith Youth Core, a Chicago-based nonprofit that brings young people from different faith communities together to do service projects. He is also adjunct professor at Chicago Theological Seminary and president of the board of CrossCurrents magazine. Dr. Patel's research interests include religion in the contemporary world, progressive Islam, interfaith work, religious movements, and the religious identity of youth. He is coeditor (with Patrice Brodeur) of Building the Interfaith Youth Movement (forthcoming) and special editor of the spring 2005 issue of CrossCurrents magazine on contemporary issues in interfaith work.

    Sara Pendleton, M.D., is an assistant professor at Wayne State University and an academic general pediatrician at Children's Hospital of Michigan in Detroit. Dr. Pendleton currently conducts both qualitative and quantitative research on the role of religion and spirituality in coping with chronic childhood illness and the roles and boundaries of religion and spirituality in the physician-patient interaction. Her future research goals include creating valid and reliable measures of religiousness/spirituality in children to foster better understanding of the role that religiousness/spirituality plays in illness and health.

    Donald Ratcliff has spent more than a quarter of a century studying the religious concepts of children, as well as the latent emergent spirituality of children in natural settings. He has edited several graduate-level textbooks on religious education, including one on preschoolers, another on school-aged children, and a third on adolescents. He teaches at Vanguard University in Costa Mesa, California, and is the father of three children, including two boys in their twenties and one teenage daughter. He was the senior editor of Children's Spirituality: Christian Perspectives, Research, and Applications (2004).

    K. Helmut Reich is a former physicist who since 1984 has worked at the School of Education in the University of Fribourg, Switzerland. His main research interests are cognitive and religious development as well as the relation between science and religion and theology. In 1994 Dr. Reich was appointed professor at the (nonresidential) Stratford University International at Richmond (British Columbia) and Evanston (Wyoming) School of Consciousness Studies and Wisdom Traditions. Reich holds doctoral degrees in electrical engineering, physics, and theology. In 1997 he received the William James Award of the American Psychological Association, Division 36 (Psychology of Religion).

    Kevin S. Reimer is associate professor of psychology in the Department of Graduate Psychology at Azusa Pacific University in Southern California. He is also a Templeton fellow in science and religion at the University of Oxford. Reimer earned his Ph.D. in marriage and family studies from the Graduate School of Psychology, Fuller Theological Seminary, in 2001, receiving the David Allan Hubbard Achievement Award for academic excellence. He was a postdoctoral fellow with Lawrence J. Walker at the University of British Columbia. Reimer's research program focuses on the psychology of morality, altruism, and spirituality using discourse process analysis to explore symbolic representation in social systems. He has received research grants from the John Fetzer Institute and the John Templeton Foundation, and is ordained in the Presbyterian Church (USA).

    W. George Scarlett is an assistant professor of child development and deputy chair in the Eliot-Pearson Department of Child Development at Tufts University. His current research interests are reflected in his most recent writings, which include Trouble in the Classroom: Managing the Behavior Problems of Young Children (1998), Children's Play (2004, coauthored with S. Nadeau, D. Salonius-Pasternak, and I. Ponte), and the first ever chapter on religious and spiritual development in R. M. Lerner and W. Damon (eds.), Handbook of Child Psychology (2005)

    Kelly Dean Schwartz is assistant professor in the Department of Behavioural Science at Nazarene University College in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. His research interests are the social-developmental factors related to child and adolescent development (e.g., parents, peers, music), family and ecological systems theories, identity and positive youth development, and spirituality and religiosity across the life span.

    Daniel G. Scott is assistant professor and graduate adviser in the School of Child and Youth Care of the University of Victoria, and was recently awarded the 2004 Faculty of Human and Social Development Award for Teaching Excellence. His current research includes a participatory research project with a group of women who are exploring the spirituality expressed in their own adolescent diaries and journals. His recent publications include: “Retrospective Spiritual Narratives: Exploring Recalled Childhood and Adolescent Spiritual Experiences” (2004) and “Spirituality in Child and Youth Care: Considering Spiritual Development and ‘Relational Consciousness’” (2003).

    Madelene Sta. Maria is a professor in the Department of Psychology at De La Salle University in Manila, Philippines. She obtained her doctorate in psychology at the University of Cologne, Germany. Her research has focused on the organization of adolescent life in culture and society, on cultural psychological bases of peaceful and conflictual interactions, and on culture and emotions.

    Janice L. Templeton is a doctoral candidate in the Combined Program in Education and Psychology at the University of Michigan. Broadly defined, her research interests focus on positive youth development and on spiritual development from a life-span perspective. More specifically, her interests include (1) the development of personal and collective spirituality identities and their function in individual experience; (2) the relation of spiritual identities to beliefs, values, and life goals; and (3) individual, social and environmental well-being outcomes associated with spiritual identities.

    Carl E. Thoresen is professor emeritus in the School of Education and Departments of Psychology and Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at Stanford University. His initial research focused on the psychology of behavioral self-management in adolescents and adults. In the 1980s he conducted with others the first studies on changing Type A behavior and reducing coronary disease morbidity and mortality. Active in the emergence of behavioral medicine, he currently is studying the effects of spiritual practices on health, disease, and well-being.

    Michael Utsch has completed academic studies in theology and psychology. In his doctoral dissertation, he developed a synopsis of different psychological approaches to religiousness, focusing on their anthropological presuppositions. He was trained in Adlerian psychotherapy and maintains a small private practice. After working in different clinical settings, since 1997 he has collaborated with the Protestant Center for Worldviews in Berlin, which provides information on new religious and ideological movements.

    Suman Verma is chair of the Department of Child Development, Government Home Science College, Chandigarh, India. Her research and published works are in the areas of life experiences of street and working children, time use, leisure, adolescent family life, school stress, abuse, and life skills training.

    Donald Walker is a recent graduate of the Graduate School of Psychology at Fuller Theological Seminary. His research interests focus on the integration of religious and spiritual interventions in psychotherapy with children, adolescents, and their families. He has published most recently in Counseling and Values.

    Lawrence J. Walker is professor of psychology and director of the graduate program at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, Canada. Dr. Walker's program of research focuses on the psychology of moral development, including such topics as gender and cultural differences, family and peer contexts, developmental mechanisms, models of stage transition, moral personality and character, and moral exemplarity. He has been elected a fellow of both the Canadian and the American Psychological Associations; and has served as president of the Association for Moral Education, chair of the board of Carey Theological College, and a member of the editorial board for several psychology journals. He currently serves as associate editor for the Merrill-Palmer Quarterly.

    Margaret O'dougherty Wright, Ph.D., is an associate professor of psychology at Miami University in Oxford, Ohio. Her research focuses on the long-term consequences of trauma across the life span, with a particular emphasis on risks emanating from the family such as sexual, physical, and psychological abuse. She has examined protective factors that might mediate the relationship between childhood trauma and later resilience, including social support, spirituality, coping, and meaning-making strategies. She has also examined ways in which childhood trauma may be linked to further trauma exposure across the life span, with a focus on revictimization and intergenerational transmission of child maltreatment.

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