The International Handbook of Children, Media and Culture


Edited by: Kirsten Drotner & Sonia Livingstone

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  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Part 1: Continuities and Change

    Part 2: Problematics

    Part 3: Cultures and Contexts

    Part 4: Perspectives

  • Copyright

    View Copyright Page


    As editors, we would first like to thank our contributors for their enthusiasm and commitment in participating in this project. We are also most grateful to our International Advisory Board for suggesting possible contributors and, especially, reading draft chapters and offering constructive comments to the authors. Shenja van der Graaf has played an invaluable role in ensuring the whole project stays on track by chasing up contributors, reviewers and, indeed, us as editors. We thank Julia Hall, Gurdeep Mattu and their colleagues at Sage for supporting this project so positively, believing in our ambitions and being patient with our delays. Last, we thank our partners and children for their loving support and encouragement throughout the preparation and writing of this volume.

    International Advisory Board

    • David Buckingham, University of London, UK
    • Ulla Carlsson, Göteborg University, Sweden
    • André Caron, Université de Montréal, Canada
    • Renee Hobbs, Temple University, USA
    • Keval Kumar, Resource Centre for Media Education and Research, India
    • Dafna Lemish, Tel Aviv University, Israel
    • Dominique Pasquier, École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, France
    • Robyn Quin, Edith Cowan University, Australia
    • Jens Qvortrup, Norwegian Centre for Children's Research, Norway
    • Midori F. Suzuki, Ritsumeikan University, Japan
    • Ruth Teer-Tomaselli, University of Natal, South Africa
    • Patti Valkenburg, Universiteit van Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    • Sophia Wu, Center for Media Literacy and Education, Taiwan



    • Ch 2
      • Figure 2.1: Evening Standard, 30 December 2004. Courtesy Evening Standard, Picture Getty Images 37
      • Figure 2.2: Advertisement for the Barnardo's children's charity 2000. Courtesy Barnardo's and BBH 40
      • Figure 2.3: ‘Schools as prisons’ from ‘School Kids’ magazines, early 1970s 41
      • Figure 2.4: Sir Joshua Reynolds's The Age of Innocence, c. 1788. Courtesy Tate London 42
      • Figure 2.5: Bubbles as an advertisement for Pears Soap. John Everett Millais 1886. Postcard 1910 43
      • Figure 2.6: Enhanced frame from a security camera showing the abduction of James Bulger 1993. Courtesy Mercury Press, Liverpool 46
      • Figure 2.7: In the Gutter, published by Quartet 1978 46
      • Figure 2.8: JonBenet Ramsey. Courtesy Rex Features 47
      • Figure 2.9: The Sun, 9 March 2004. The Sun published Betsy Schneider's photograph of her daughter, on the right, alongside a picture from a pornographic website, without her permission Courtesy News International. Photograph Courtesy Besty Schneider 48
      • Figure 2.10: Party Pieces 2004 catalogue. Courtesy Party Pieces. Photograph Millie Pillaington 49
      • Figure 2.11: From Focus on Images 1991. Courtesy Save the Children Fund 51
    • Ch 3
      • Figure 3.1: An adaptation of Csikszentmihalyi's flow channel to position some of the 2005-06 movie tie-ins for King Kong (2005, dir. Peter Jackson) 67
    • Ch 4
    • Ch7
      • Figure 7.1: ‘Not real’: reasons for pausing the tape, by grade 130
    • Ch 13
      • Figure 13.1: Richard Johnson's ‘circuit’ of Cultural Studies (reproduced from Johnson (1985)) 222
      • Figure 13.2: Cultural Studies: a ‘naive’ theoretical model 223
    • Ch 15
      • Figure 15.1: Graphic representation of KNR-TV broadcasts (hours), 1990-2002. Figures are from Greenlandic Statistics for all years mentioned using my own calculations (Rygaard, 2004: 173) 261
      • Figure 15.2: Preferred TV programmes, 2004 survey (N = 319) 263
      • Figure 15.3: Preferences for TV or PC, 2006 survey (N = 41) 265
      • Figure 15.4: Favourite sites on the internet, 2004 survey (N = 271) 266
      • Figure 15.5: Preferred holiday destinations, 2006 survey (N = 39) 266
      • Figure 15.6: Greenlander or global? 2006 survey (N = 41) 267
    • Ch 16
    • Ch 22


    • Ch 5
      • Table 5.1: Binary oppositions between literary and media culture 101
    • Ch 7
      • Table 7.1: Children's awareness of TV illusions: percentage of true, untrue and not sure answers in each age group 128
      • Table 7.2: Children's awareness of real-life illusions: percentage of true, untrue and unsure answers, by age group 129
    • Ch 15
      • Table 15.1: Broadcasts of KNR-TV, 1990-2005, from Greenlandic Statistics 261
      • Table 15.2: Activities on PC; 2004 survey (N = 319) 265
    • Ch 16
      • Table 16.1: GDP in Europe. Source: Eurostat: Key Figures on Europe, Statistical Pocketbook 2006, p. 15 284
      • Table 16.2: ICTs in European households 2005. Source: Eurobarometer (E-communication, Household Survey, 2006) 285
      • Table 16.3: Evolution of households’ access to PCs and internet 2002-2005 286
      • Table 16.4: EU individuals’ computer use (population 16-74 having used a computer in the last 3 months) 287
      • Table 16.5: Internet usage in the EU. Source: (September 2006) 288
      • Table 16.6: Yearly average TV watching in Hungary for population over the age of 4 years. Source: AGB Hungary 288
      • Table 16.7: Average TV watching in Hungary in 2004 by age. Source: Kósa (2004) 288
      • Table 16.8: Proportion of PC users and Internet users in Hungary according to age group in 2004. Source: WIP 2005 288
      • Table 16.9: Spare-time activities of Hungarian youth (from 14 to 24) in 2000. Source: GfK Hungária PiackutatóIntézet 289
    • Ch 18
    • Ch 22
      • Table 22.1: Drawings: positive versus negative representations 378
      • Table 22.2: Letters and written messages: positive versus negative references 379
    • Ch 24
    • Ch 25
      • Table 25.1: Cognitive and technical skills measured by the ICT literacy assessment (Educational Testing Service, 2004) 434
      • Table 25.2: Primary outcomes for youth media programs (Education Development Center, 2006) 439
    • Ch 30

    The Editors

    Kirsten Drotner is a professor in the Department of Literature, Culture and Media Studies at the University of Southern Denmark and founding director of DREAM: Danish Research Centre on Education and Advanced Media Materials. Author or editor of 15 books, her research interests include media history, qualitative methodologies, and young people's media uses. Her most recent work focuses on media globalization as developed in out-of-school contexts.

    Sonia Livingstone is a professor in the Department of Media and Communications at the London School of Economics and Political Science. Author or editor of nine books, she specializes in the field of media audiences, examining the domestic contexts and public consequences of media use. Her recent work explores the experiences of children and young people in relation to new information and communication technologies. She currently directs EU Kids Online, a comparative European network on children's online use, risk and safety issues.

    The Contributors

    Amita Bhide is an Associate Professor, School of Social Work, Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai. She is engaged in both research and practice experience. Her recent work has focused on issues of community participation in a globalizing context. Her doctoral work brings together these twin interests in community and the media institutions. Recent publications include articles on civil society and participation in Social Development Initiatives, Microcredit as an instrument of mobilization in Indian Social Science Review and community participation in Slum Sanitation in the Economic and Political Weekly.

    Priscilla Boshoff lectures in the Department of Journalism and Media Studies at Rhodes University, South Africa. Her Master's research looked at the meanings that South African Indian youth at Rhodes University make of Bollywood movies.

    David Buckingham is Professor of Education at the Institute of Education, London University, where he directs the Centre for the Study of Children, Youth and Media ( He has directed several major research projects on media education, and on children's and young people's interactions with electronic media. His books include Children Talking Television, Moving Images, The Making of Citizens, After the Death of Childhood, Media Education and, most recently, Beyond Technology: Children's Learning in the Age of Digital Culture.

    Elizabeth Bullen lectures in the School of Communication and Creative Arts at Deakin University's Melbourne campus. Specializing in children's literature, her current research project focuses on representations of social class in recent children's print and screen texts and the implications for citizenship. She is a co-author of Haunting the Knowledge Economy (Routledge 2006) and Consuming Children: Education, Entertainment, Advertising (Open University Press 2001).

    André H. Caron is the Bell Chair in the Communication Department at Université de Montréal. He is Founding Director of the Centre for Youth and Media Studies and the Centre for Interdisciplinary Research on Emerging Technologies (CITÉ). His research interests include broadcasting policy, political and cultural appropriations of media and new technologies and mobile culture. Author of a number of publications in French, English, Italian, Spanish and Japanese, he is co-author of Moving Cultures: Mobile Communication in Everyday Life (McGill-Queen's University Press 2007)

    Letitizia Caronia is Professor of Media Education in the Department of Education at the University of Bologna (Italy). She is a visiting scholar at the Centre for Interdisciplinary Research on Emerging Technologies (CITÉ, Department of Communication, University of Montreal, Canada). Her research focuses on the use of the media as a situated activity and on the role of language, interaction and culture in people's making sense of the media. She has published a number of books, articles and essays on the relationship between everyday language and media socialization. Her most recent publications are Growing up Wireless: ‘Being a Parent’ and ‘Being a Child’ in the Age of Mobile Communication (2008) and Moving Cultures: Mobile Communication in Everyday Life (McGill-Queen's University Press 2007) with André H. Caron.

    Lynn Schofield Clark is Assistant Professor and Director of the Estlow International Center for Journalism and New Media at the University of Denver. She is author of From Angels to Aliens: Teenagers, the Media, and the Supernatural (Oxford 2003), co-author of Media, Home, and Family (Routledge 2004), and editor of Religion, Media, and the Marketplace (Rutgers 2007). She is currently writing a book on shifting relations of authority in the digital media environment based on interviews and observations with young people and the authority figures in their lives.

    Chas Critcher is Visiting Professor in Media and Communications at Swansea University and Emeritus Professor of Communications at Sheffield Hallam University. He originally co-authored Policing the Crisis (Macmillan 1979), a study of social reaction to mugging. His most recent publications include for the Open University Press Moral Panics and the Media (2003) and an edited collection Critical Readings in Moral Panics and the Media (2006). His current research interests include a range perceived threats to children, from the mass media to mass inoculation.

    Peter Dahlgren is Professor of Media and Communication at Lund University, Sweden. His research focuses on democracy, the evolution of the media and contemporary socio-cultural processes. At present he heads the Swedish participation in a seven-nation comparative EU-funded project on young citizens, new media technologies and democracy (CIVICWEB). He has published on journalism, television, the public sphere and civic culture. He recently published an edited collection, Young Citizens and the New Media; his Media and Civic Engagement is forthcoming in 2008.

    Máire Messenger Davies is Professor of Media Studies and Director of the Centre for Media Research in the School of Media, Film and Journalism at the University of Ulster, Coleraine. She is the author of a number of books on media audiences, including Television is Good for Your Kids (1989, 2001), Fake, Fact and Fantasy: Children's Interpretation of Television Reality (1997) and ‘Dear BBC: Children, Television Storytelling and the Public Sphere (2001). Her most recent book is Practical Research Methods for Media and Cultural Studies: Making People Count (2006) with Nick Mosdell.

    Stephanie Hemelryk Donald is Director and Professor of International Studies at the Institute for International Studies, UTS, Sydney. She is the author of Little Friends: Children's Film Culture in China, The State of China Atlas, Branding Cities on the West Pacific Rim: Tourism, Film and Urban Identity and Public Secrets, Public Spaces. She is currently writing on middle-class taste structures in contemporary China, with a focus on education and media. She is also working on the project ‘Mobile Me’ a study of young people s use of mobile technology in Sydney.

    Dan Fleming is Professor and Chair of Department in Screen and Media Studies at the University of Waikato in New Zealand. His published work ranges widely across media literacy, new technologies, critical pedagogy, film and children's culture. He is the author of several unsold screenplays, the designer of several unproduced toy lines, the writer of several unpublished hypertext fictions and the initiator of several unfinished schemes to improve how media studies is taught. Dan is also an alpaca farmer.

    James Paul Gee, formerly the Tashia Morgridge Professor of Reading at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, is now the Mary Lou Fulton Presidential Professor of Literacy Studies at Arizona State University. He received his PhD in linguistics in 1975 from Stanford University and has published widely in linguistics and education. His books include, among others: Sociolinguistics and Literacies (1990); An Introduction to Discourse Analysis (1999); What Video Games Have to Teach Us About Learning and Literacy (2003); and Situated Language and Learning (2004).

    Leslie Haddon is a part-time lecturer and a researcher at the London School of Economics. He has written numerous articles and authored, co-authored and edited three books about the production and consumption of information and communication technologies, including computers, the Internet, telephony, the mobile phone, cable TV and intelligent homes. He is currently working on the EU Kids Online project.

    Cees J. Hamelink studied philosophy and psychology in Amsterdam. He is Professor Emeritus of International Communication at the University of Amsterdam, Athena Professor of Globalization, Human Rights and Public Health at the Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam and Honorary Professor at the University of Queensland in Brisbane, Australia. He is the editor-in-chief of the International Communication Gazette. His current work includes projects on intercultural communication among children in EU countries (United Kids of Europe) and on broadcast programmes produced by children.

    Maria Heller is a sociologist and linguist. She is the Director of the Institute of Sociology of the Faculty of Social Sciences at Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest. Her fields of research encompass communications theory, media-sociology and sociolinguistics. Her recent work focuses on the theory of the public sphere and discursive norms and strategies. She has explored problems of the European public sphere and has done discourse analysis on public debates, advertisements and games.

    Renee Hobbs is a Professor at Temple University School of Communications and Theater in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, where she directs the Media Education Lab. She has worked closely with K-12 educators to integrate media literacy into the classroom and created print, video and online curriculum materials. She also conducts research on the effects of media literacy education on adolescents’ academic performance. Currently, she is exploring the impact of copyright regulations on the instructional practices of educators who use digital media and popular culture texts in the classroom.

    Patricia Holland is a writer and researcher, and currently is a senior lecturer at Bournemouth University. She has published widely in the fields of television, popular media and visual culture, and is especially interested in the imagery of childhood and family photography. She is co-editor with Jo Spence of Family Snaps (Virago 1991) and author of Picturing Childhood: The Myth of the Child in Popular Imagery (I.B. Tauris 2004). Her most recent book is The Angry Buzz: ‘This Week’ and Current Affairs Television (I.B. Tauris 2006).

    Stewart M. Hoover is Professor of Media Studies in the School of Journalism and Mass Communication at the University of Colorado at Boulder. The author or editor of nine books, his research centres on media audience and reception studies rooted in cultural studies, anthropology and interpretive sociology. Within this, he has concentrated on studies of media and religion, media in domestic spaces, media and civic engagement, and research methods.

    Mizuko (Mimi) Ito is a cultural anthropologist of technology use, focusing on children and youth s changing relationships to media and communications. She has been conducting ongoing research on kids’ technoculture in Japan and the USA, and is co-editor of Personal, Portable, Pedestrian: Mobile Phones in Japanese Life. She is a research scientist at the Annenberg Center for Communication and a visiting associate professor at Keio University in Japan.

    Anne Jerslev is a senior lecturer at the Section of Film and Media Studies at the Department of Media, Cognition, and Communication, University of Copenhagen. Anne Jerslev has published books on youth and media, on cult films, and on media and intimacy. She has edited and co-edited anthologies in Danish and English, and she has contributed to journals and anthologies with articles on youth and media, reality television and documentary. She is currently working on a project about makeover television.

    Jane Kenway (Professor, Education Faculty, Monash University, Australia). Her research expertise is in socio-cultural studies of education in the context of wider social and cultural change. Her most recent jointly written books are Masculinity Beyond the Metropolis (Palgrave 2006), Haunting the Knowledge Economy (Routledge 2006) and Consuming Children: Education - Advertising - Entertainment (Open University Press 2001). Her latest jointly edited books are Innovation and Tradition: The Arts and Humanities in the Knowledge Economy (2004) and Globalising Education: Policies, Pedagogies and Politics (2005).

    Joe F. Khalil is a PhD student at Southern Illinois University in Carbondale. He has more than 12 years of professional television experience as director, executive producer and consultant with CNBC Arabiya, MBC, MTV and Orbit. For 7 years, he was an instructor at the Lebanese American University where his teaching and research focused on transnational broadcasting, programming and production. He has consulted for various academic and professional organizations on issues pertaining to media in the Middle East. His dissertation is about youth-produced media in Lebanon and Saudi Arabia.

    Marwan M. Kraidy is Associate Professor of Communication at the Annenberg School for Communication at the University of Pennsylvania. He is a scholar of global communication and an expert on Arab media. Previously a Scholar-in-Residence at the Annenberg School, a fellow at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, and Director of the Arab Media and Public Life (AMPLE) project at American University, Kraidy has published two books, Global Media Studies: Ethnographic Perspectives (Routledge 2003) and Hybridity, or, The Cultural Logic of Globalization (Temple University Press 2005), and more than 40 articles and essays. Current projects include a book about reality TV and Arab politics, a reference work on the Arab television industries (under contract, British Film Institute) and a text on global media studies (under contract, Polity).

    Dafna Lemish (PhD, The Ohio State University, 1982), from the Department of Communication, Tel Aviv University, Israel, is editor of the Journal of Children and Media. Her research and teaching interests include children and media and gender representations and consumption. She has published extensively in academic journals and books. Her most recent books are Children and Television: A Global Perspective (2007); Media and the Make-Believe Worlds of Children (co-authored, 2005), and Children and Media at times of Conflict and War (co-edited, 2007).

    Rich Ling is a sociologist at Telenor's research institute and he has an adjunct position at the University of Michigan. He is the author of The Mobile Connection and New Tech, New Ties: How Mobile Communication is Reshaping Social Cohesion (due early 2008). He has a PhD in sociology from the University of Colorado. He is an associate editor for The Information Society and Norsk Mediatidskrift. He is interested in the social consequences of mobile communication.

    Usha S. Nayar is Deputy Director and Professor, Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai, India. Recipient of awards like Fellow, International Beliefs and Values, James Madison University, USA, Vidya Ratna, Dayanand Anglo Vedic Society, India, and designated by the World Health Organization as an Expert on Mental Health and Social Change. Her publications are in the field of marginalization, exclusion, globalization, media, information and communication technology, digital divide, child participation, inequity and bridging the gaps between research and policy for child and youth.

    Tobias Olsson is a senior lecturer in Media and Communication Studies at Växjö University, and a researcher at Lund University. His research focuses on political dimensions of new media, and he has published a number of journal articles and book chapters in the area. From 2003 to 2006 he was a researcher in the Swedish project ‘Young people, ICTs and Learning’ (the Swedish Knowledge Foundation), and his most recent research appointment is within the EU-funded project ‘Young People, The Internet and Civic Participation’ (CIVICWEB).

    David Oswell is a senior lecturer in the Department of Sociology, Goldsmiths, University of London. He is the author of Television, Childhood and the Home: A History of the Making of the Child Television Audience in Britain (OUP), Culture and Society (Sage) and The Sociology of Childhood (CUP). He specializes in cultural theory, social theories of technology, and media and communications history and regulation, with particular reference to children and childhood. His current research focuses on the national and transnational regulatory cultures concerning child protection, internet and mobile ubiquitous media.

    Dominique Pasquier is a sociologist and researcher at the National Centre for Scientific Research in France. She is also a professor at the EHESS (School for High Studies in Social Sciences) in Paris. Author or editor of seven books, she has been studying television professionals and media reception by young people. Her recent work examines the transformation of cultural practices and the articulation between social networks and cultural universes.

    Alan Prout is Director of the Institute of Education and Professor of Sociology and Childhood Studies at the University of Warwick. He was Director of the ESRC Research Programme ‘Children 5-16’. His publications include: Constructing and Reconstructing Childhood (FalmerRoutledge 1990/1997); Theorizing Childhood (Polity 1998); The Body, Childhood and Society (Macmillan 2000); Hearing the Voices of Children (FalmerRoutledge 2003) and The Future of Childhood (FalmerRoutledge 2005).

    Jette Rygaard is an Associate Professor and head of the department in the Department of Language, Literature and Media at Ilisimatusarfik, University of Greenland. She is author of several articles on youth culture, media and globalization in Greenland and editor - or on the editorial board on - Cultural and Social Research in Greenland/Ilisimatusarfik. Her recent work deals with transgressive methods and visual representation of children and youth executed in collaboration with Birgit Kleist Pedersen.

    Larry Strelitz is a Professor in the Department of Journalism and Media Studies at Rhodes University in Grahamstown, South Africa. His most current research has been in the field of media audience studies and his recently published book examined how a cross-section of South African youth responded to media texts which were produced internationally but broadcast locally.

    Toshie Takahashi is an Associate Professor in the Department of Communication and Media Studies at the Rikkyo University, Tokyo, Japan. She has an MA in Sociology from the University of Tokyo and a PhD in Media and Communications from the London School of Economics and Political Science. She is a media ethnographer and her recent research explores how, in their various ways of engaging with media and ICT in everyday life, Japanese audiences reflexively ‘create’ and ‘recreate’ their sense of self and the social groups to which they belong in the context of social changes and globalization.

    Jacqueline Reid-Walsh is a specialist in historical and contemporary children's literature, culture, and media and fascinated by girls' culture. In these areas she has published on topics ranging from early moveable books and Jane Austen s juvenilia to Nancy Drew mysteries and girls' websites. She is co-author of Researching Children's Popular Culture (Routledge 2002), co-editor of Seven Going on Seventeen (Peter Lang 2005), and of Girl Culture: an encyclopedia (Greenwood in press) with Claudia Mitchell. She is a beginning a new book project comparing historical and contemporary media for children and youth with Peter Lang. She teaches at Université Laval and Bishop's University, both in Quebec.

    Janet Wasko is the Knight Chair for Communication Research at the University of Oregon (USA). She is the author of How Hollywood Works, Understanding Disney: The Manufacture of Fantasy and Hollywood in the Information Age: Beyond the SilverScreen, editor of A Companion to Television and Dazzled by Disney? The Global Disney Audience Project, as well as other volumes on the political economy of communication and democratic media.

    Bu Wei is a Professor in the Institute of Journalism and Communication (IJC) at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (CASS), director in the Research Center for Children and Media, based in the IJC of CASS, author or editor of six books. She does mainly research on children's/youth's use of media and ICTs, feminist media studies, and empowering vulnerable (margining) groups through communication. Her recent work explores the communication campaigns from below by youth - to improve public health, reduce domestic violence, deliver social welfare and so on. She currently directs media strategy programmes on violence against children, children and HIV/AIDS campaigns in China as consultant for UNICEF China.

    Norbert Wildermuth is an Associate Professor in the Department of Media Studies at the University of Southern Denmark. He has worked and published on issues of media globalization, including a PhD on transnational satellite television in India. His recent work includes field studies in Zambia, Vietnam and Brazil with a focus on young people and their media uses, as part of ‘Youth and the City’, an interdisciplinary and comparative research project funded by DANIDA (Danish State Agency for Development Aid).

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