Handbook of Career Studies


Edited by: Hugh Gunz & Maury Peiperl

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  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Part I: The Historical Origins and Current Structure of the Careers Field

    Part II: Main Currents in the Study of Career

    Part III: Synthesis

  • Introduction

    The Handbook of Career Studies brings together, for the first time in a single work, a comprehensive scholarly treatment of the major topics within the growing field of career studies. Drawing on the expertise of leading international scholars in each area of career studies, editors Hugh Gunz and Maury Peiperl have assembled a consummate set of writings, defining the field with a breadth of coverage and integration of topics not found elsewhere. Mapping the history of the field to a set of essays about the future of careers and work, this volume provides the most complete reference available on the role of careers in individual lives, institutions, and industries.

    This Handbook is an invaluable reference work for students, academics, and researchers in the areas of Careers, Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Social Psychology, Counseling, Sociology, and Organization Studies as well as for human resource practitioners interested in the state of knowledge of the field.


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    To Michael, Tim, and Barbara: You did it first.


    Career Research: Some Personal Perspectives

    In this overview foreword, I do not wish to repeat or elaborate on the excellent historical chapter provided by Moore, Gunz, and Hall but rather to make some comments based on my personal experiences in doing research on career dynamics and on my reactions to perusing this rather monumental Handbook. The issues I will raise are exemplified by various specific chapters but I will deliberately not comment on individual chapters. This brief essay is not a critique as much as a set of reactions based on half a century of observation.

    Growth and Diversification

    The first comment to be made is that the field of career studies has grown and diversified to an incredible degree. One need only peruse the table of contents of this volume to see both the depth and breadth of what is today labeled career studies. This is a healthy trend that reflects how much more important “careers” have become as the world has become more global, complex, diverse, and, most important, individualistic. With economic development comes individualism (Hofstede & Bond, 1988) and with that comes a decline in organizations managing the careers of their members. It is a normal evolution to be talking more about individuals being responsible for their own career partly because the reality for organizations is that they cannot predict or control career paths in the way that they used to be able to do.

    With the diversification of topics, we also see a diversification of research approaches—an inevitable and healthy trend. As one peruses the various chapters, it is striking how people from very different disciplines have entered the fray. There are the usual psychologists and sociologists, but increasingly we see an interest in careers from anthropology and from broader-based management scholars. Especially welcome is a more case-based clinical approach that reveals some of the inner dynamics of careers over time (Schein, 2001). Such an approach allows the reader to become familiar not only with the individual experience of careers but with the nature of the work itself, something that is often neglected in career studies.

    The career field has grown enormously since those early efforts in the 1960s by Thompson, Dalton, Derr, Driver, Bailyn, Van Maanen, Schein, Louis, Bray, Storey, Harrell, and many others, but it is far from integrated. Rather, a few paradigms built on individual developmental theories such as those of Super and Holland have dominated the field. Such lack of integration is not in itself a problem, but the disregard of researchers in one paradigm for the relevant work of researchers in another paradigm is a problem when each set of researchers presents their work as the final and correct analysis of a particular area. This Handbook is clearly an effort to overcome such provincialism, and the editors have commissioned a very useful set of integrative chapters for Part III. What lack of integration and pluralism of paradigms remains is but a reflection of the growing diversity that a popular field inevitably reflects.

    Career Dynamics at Different Stages and Ages

    Career research has broadened in several significant ways. At one time, it was just about selection coming out of the research on how to select pilots in World War I. This was an age where testing was coming into its own, so testing for selection when one had a clear criterion—a job with certain specific characteristics—was enormously successful. For a long time, the field limited itself to studying just careers where the job requirements were clear, such as accounting. And if the job could not be described, one could at least compare whether the profile of interests that a career candidate exhibited matched the profile of successful people in that career. The Strong Interest Inventory dominated the field.

    As the many chapters in this Handbook show, we now have more occupations to think about, and the whole testing and selection model, though still alive and well, has been supplemented by many other approaches to studying careers. In particular, in the selection of managers, researchers have had to acknowledge that it is not very clear what managers are supposed to do and what skill set will make the doing of it effective, so it is hard to design a test for managerial career success. We still try with various “competency” models, but the list of competencies is itself growing into hundreds, which should warn us that this approach may not be significantly better than the old aptitude testing approach. As organizations become more complex, more different kinds of careers become possible, and as more women enter careers, more patterns of career growth become visible, most notably Bailyn's concept of “slow burn” (Bailyn, 1993).

    With the evolution beyond the selection models also came the recognition that there were issues of mid-career and late career that needed research attention. The earliest research saw the career as an occupational label. As the reader of this Handbook will see, career dynamics within an occupation are increasingly becoming an important focus and the moving from one career to another or retiring altogether poses many important practical as well as psychological problems that are now receiving more research attention.

    Socioeconomic Variation and Late Careers

    Mid-career and late career studies such as those reviewed in this Handbook reflect yet another way in which the career field has grown and diversified. As the reader will find, we now have research on a wide variety of careers reflecting different socioeconomic levels, cultures, gender, and age cohorts. Expanding our understanding of the socioeconomic variations seems to me to be crucial in that the concept of career must be seen as independent of occupation, especially middle-class and professional occupations. There was a tradition in the Chicago School of Sociology under Everett Hughes that studied criminals, prostitutes, janitors, jazz musicians, cops, assembly line workers, and other representatives of the “underclasses” in our society, but for a long time, this kind of research lay dormant and is only now reappearing.

    Finally, it should be noted that we are discovering with the increase in longevity that between retirement at 60 or 65 and death, there is room for an entire other career that people are living. And this is not about moving to a sunshine state and playing golf. It is about people discovering new talents and new opportunities, about finding that staying occupationally active is good for physical health, and about a whole new industry arising to educate so-called retirees in new life routines.


    The good news is that the field of career studies is alive and well, growing rapidly, and moving forward with enthusiasm. This Handbook is testament to that reality and an excellent reference for those interested in knowing more about it. What I have tried to do in this foreword is to provide some perspective and to highlight some issues that are emerging as the career field leaves adolescence and appears fully grown on the research stage.

    Edgar H. Schein
    Bailyn, L.(1993).Breaking the mold. New York: Free Press. (2nd ed., 2006)
    Hofstede, G.Bond, M. H.The Confucius connection: From cultural roots to economic growth. Organizational Dynamics16(4)(1988). 4–21.
    Schein, E. H.(2001).Clinical inquiry and research. In P.Reason & H.Bradbury (Eds.), Handbook of action research: Participative inquiry and practice (pp. 228–237). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.


    How does one come to edit a work like a Handbook of Career Studies? In one sense the answer is simple: We were asked to do it. Al Bruckner, of Sage Publications, approached one of us (Gunz) out of the blue with the proposition: How would you feel about editing a handbook on careers? And because we had been planning for many years to develop some kind of synthesis of the careers field, but had never quite figured out what it should be, this seemed the ideal opportunity. Gunz contacted Peiperl, Peiperl swallowed hard and agreed, and that was that.

    But in another sense, it was, perhaps appropriately for a book on careers, a product of our backgrounds. Although both of us share a fascination with career studies, our own careers have been somewhat unusual for business academics working in the field. Gunz is a chemist by training and a former Shell technologist; Peiperl is an engineer and an ex-IBMer. Admittedly, we both legitimized ourselves, so to speak, by completing our PhDs in social science disciplines. But perhaps because of our initial education, we both tend to view the field from a perspective that is not that of someone trained ab initio in one of the social sciences. For the field of career studies has something of the Rorschach test about it. As we discuss in the Introduction (Chapter 1), it is broad almost to the point at which it is not a field at all but a perspective on social enquiry.

    We explain in Chapter 1 what we think that perspective is. Suffice it to say for the moment that it is, as Michael Arthur, Tim Hall, and Barbara Lawrence point out in their 1989 Handbook of Career Theory, one that covers virtually all the social sciences and a fair proportion of the humanities. So you can see in the inkblots of careers pretty much what you want to see. If you are a vocational psychologist, you are naturally likely to see careers first as being about choosing occupations; if you are a sociologist you are equally likely to see careers as fundamental to the way societies reproduce themselves. And so on. Once you have been working in the field for some years, however, your view may broaden, so that it is perhaps no accident (as we shall see later in this Handbook) that it is senior careers scholars who typically lead the way in arguing for integration across the disciplines.

    But if you are a chemist or an engineer, you lack the strong particular perspective that an initial training in a particular social science would have afforded, so your view of the inkblots is likely to be unpredictable and somewhat catholic. Someone says to you, “Careers are about occupational choice,” and you reply, “How fascinating!” Someone else says, “Careers are about the social reproduction of societies,” and you reply, “Of course, how intriguing!” This does not, obviously, lead to a profound understanding of every possible perspective on career; that would be a presumptuous claim. But it does create fertile ground for wanting to work with people who really do combine between them such a breadth of understanding, which is to say, editing a Handbook.

    Not that such a truly comprehensive project is possible, of course, without producing a whole set of volumes each the size of this or larger, and probably not even then. But we have tried at least to be as representative as we could of the main currents in the field and to bring together as many of the leading thinkers as we could, knowing that, inevitably, we were leaving out others. We apologize both to our readers and to those omitted scholars for these gaps. But we have found this journey utterly absorbing and fascinating and we hope you do, too. We have learned an immense amount from our authors about the state of the field of career studies; we can never thank them enough for their ideas, their unflagging hard work, and especially their patience.

    There are many others who helped us with this project. First among them are our wives, Elizabeth Badley and Jennifer Georgia, both of whom have quite overwhelming enough professional lives without husbands endlessly going on about their Handbook. We thank them profusely for putting up with it, and us, anyway. Gunz, in particular, is profoundly grateful to the Peiperl household for acting as such gracious hosts during what must have seemed to them interminable editing sessions.

    We learned a great deal about editing from, and, in fact, would never have embarked on this Handbook, without the interest and support of Michael Arthur, Tim Hall, and Barbara Lawrence, whose original Handbook helped to define the field.

    In addition to her role as author, Celia Moore assisted in many ways, not least in acting as rapporteur to the meeting of Part III authors in Lausanne, Switzerland, a meeting that would not have been possible without the financial support and hospitality of Dr. Peter Lorange and the faculty and staff of IMD, and especially the organizational efforts of Sonia Klose. We are also most grateful to Al Bruckner and MaryAnn Vail of Sage Publications for suggesting the project in the first place and helping us see it through to completion. The production phase of the book was orchestrated patiently and meticulously by Melanie Birdsall, for whom nothing was too much trouble however late the editors were in discovering things they should have noticed much sooner. Mike Badley made available to us, free of charge, the outstanding software package Unite-It, which facilitated enormously the business of planning and controlling such a complex project—in particular, keeping track of the myriad versions of each chapter, no matter who was editing it, or where. Finally, Slavka Murray kept things running smoothly in Gunz's department at the University of Toronto, which made his frequent absences on editing sessions in Maryland and Switzerland feasible.

    To all who worked with us and helped us on this project, we offer our profound thanks. The chapter authors as well as the editors will welcome readers' comments. The editors, of course, accept responsibility for any shortcomings.

    Bougy-Villars, Switzerland
    September 2006
  • Afterword Career Research: Some Issues and Dilemmas

    In this essay, I would like to revisit some of the trends that I identified in career research and to comment in a more critical vein on what is left out in the way research is being done today.

    As I noted in my Foreword, the field of career studies has grown and diversified to an incredible degree. At the same time, I am struck by the degree to which the division between sociological and psychological approaches seems as strong as ever. Disciplines don't come together easily, but in the career field, the continued isolation of disciplinary research streams hurts the overall understanding of what careers are ultimately all about. Specifically, as one goes through the various chapters of this Handbook, it is amazing how little overlap there is in the references at the end of each chapter. The psychological “selection bias” continues to be strong, as can readily be observed in noting that in the research aimed at identifying what careers people will select, there continues to be virtually no attention to the role that actual occupational experiences play in the selection process. Hardly anyone refers to the seminal work of Hughes, Becker, Van Maanen, and others who have noted that the nature of the work to be done is as important as the motivations and skills of the workers if one is to understand career dynamics in their fullest. But there seems to be a strong bias toward treating careers as an individual phenomenon to be analyzed psychologically rather than as a social phenomenon involving economics, political science, anthropology, and sociology.

    Many years ago, when I was writing my first book Career Dynamics (1978), I noted that the field was “summarized” by the psychologist Samuel Osipow in 1973 without a single reference to any of the sociology of occupations done by Everett Hughes and the Chicago School of Sociology. My observation is that we are not much better off today with various paradigms pursuing their own conception of what career research is without the slightest feeling of responsibility to connect their views to other researchers allegedly in the same field. This kind of compartmentalization is, of course, not limited to the career field, but it is ironic in that the concept of career is itself a bridging concept between the individual and the occupation or organization.

    Another disjunctive trend that I see has to do with the nature of research in this field. As much of the research reflects, one can study careers by locating relevant constructs, measuring some abstract surrogate of those constructs, and then correlating the measurements with each other and performing various statistical operations to tease out relationships. If the relationship reaches some criterion of statistical significance, it begins to be treated as significant in terms of practical implications, though the correlation may be so small that only a tiny portion of the variance in the thing being studied is actually explained. This paradigm is well established in the management field, generally, as is very evident in the Academy of Management's journal, where literally nine out of every ten articles use virtually identical research methods based on this paradigm of testing relationships between empirical measurements of abstract operational definitions. Research elegance is then often displayed by ever more refined statistical operations rather than careful checking of whether the original operational definitions really reflect the phenomena that the researcher is trying to study.

    The good news is that there are at least two other approaches to career research evident in the chapters of this Handbook, but they are not yet well integrated with the cross-sectional correlational approach. One important alternative is longitudinal research to discover patterns that occur over longer periods of time in a career. The massive project at AT&T by Doug Bray (Bray, Campbell, & Grant, 1974) was an early example of this kind of work.

    My own concept of career anchors (Schein, 1978, 2006) was only discovered by reviewing my data from a panel of MIT Masters alumni when they were 12 to 13 years into their career. The research was originally launched to discover evidence of corporate indoctrination, and it was only by interviewing my panel well into their careers that I discovered the working of career anchors and then also found that the anchors explained why some people adopted business and organizational values readily (the managerially anchored panelists), whereas others actually developed counter-business attitudes (some of the autonomy anchored panelists). Averaging them together as I had done originally obscured the clear patterns that emerged longitudinally (Schein, 1978).

    Another research approach is a more case-based clinical analysis focused either on particular career occupants, as exemplified in the Levinson and Vaillant studies, or on a particular occupational role, as exemplified by Becker's classic studies of doctors and Van Maanen's (1973) work on policemen. The bias toward the more popular psychological/cross-sectional/correlational approach reveals very little about the internal dynamics of how people forge their own work identities; neither does it reveal anything about the actual dynamics of the work that is to be done. In other words, correlating certain personality characteristics with success in accounting, for example, illuminates neither the internal psychological dynamics of being in that field with its ethical dilemmas, nor does it tell us anything about the organizational dynamics and variations of those dynamics in the companies in which that individual will work.

    Let me provide an example. In recent years, I have focused more on organizational culture, which led to some study of what has come to be called “safety culture” in high hazard industries such as nuclear plants. In that regard, I ran into Snook's (2000) study of the shooting down of a U.S. helicopter by U.S. fighters in the Iraq “no fly zone” in 1994. Twenty-six UN dignitaries were killed in this incident of “friendly fire.” What the post mortem of this tragedy reveals has surprising implications for career studies. Specifically, each of the main actors in the tragedy—the helicopter pilots, the fighter pilots, and the members of the overhead surveillance team on board the AWAC were doing their job as best they could, but what they were actually doing reflected what Snook calls “practical drift.” Over a period of years, each job occupant evolves ways of doing that job that is most practical and efficient, changing the technology and bending the procedural rules to fit his or her current reality. For example, both the helicopters and fighters changed their communication systems in terms of their immediate needs and did not notice that over a period of years they ended up with different frequencies, making it impossible for the helicopter to respond to the fighter's repeated inquiries of “Who are you, identify yourself.” Practical drift occurs in every occupation and represents the reality of how work actually gets done and how careers are actually played out; yet very little research is devoted to that reality.

    Another powerful example of a different kind of research comes from Connie Perin's (2005) analysis of a number of close calls in several nuclear plants. What her intense observations and extensive interviews show is that different occupational groups within the organization evolve different worldviews and use different “logics” for decision making. Executives and senior managers tend to be policy oriented and inevitably have to be worried about the financial survival of the organization (Schein, 1996). Though they espouse safety, their control logic must take productivity and reliability into account as well. The designers of the system and the design engineers working in the system use a different logic that I have observed repeatedly. They would like the system to function elegantly, minimize human intervention and, therefore, the possibility of human error, and overdesign for safety where possible. They would use a technical logic for decision making. Finally, there is the group that is actually operating the plant, and they have to deal with immediate reality, which often does not fit what they were trained for. Doing the job therefore is inevitably, to some degree, a matter of improvisation, which leads to practical drift and eventually the institutionalization of deviations from formally prescribed procedures (Vaughan, 1996). The point is that becoming an engineer, or an operator, or an executive involves complex career socialization, which the correlational approach to career research is ill equipped to discover.

    As a final example of a different kind of approach to career research, I would like to cite Monica Higgins's (2005) work on “career imprinting,” which shows how the strong socialization into one kind of organizational culture leads people who leave that organization to reproduce that culture in their new organizations. Some “originating” organizations can thus spawn a whole industry style through the imprinting of the first generation of employees. To discover such trends requires a combination of historical, ethnographic, and clinical research and enables one to find patterns of evolution over time that would not be visible otherwise. My own example was the analysis of how the culture of Digital Equipment Corporation both created a successful company and, in the end, was the cause of the financial failure of that company (Schein, 2003).

    Another divisive trend is the disjunction between career research clearly geared to young people/career selection and career research that deals with adult evolution and the role that career development plays throughout the lifetime. As I noted in my Foreword, this approach goes all the way back to pilot selection in World War I, and has grown and evolved to the point where interest inventories and aptitude tests have become mature and effective. What is often forgotten, however, is that selection through testing is only effective when the criterion to which you are predicting is clear. Pilot selection is thus effective because we know what skills, etc. a pilot must have. Selection of managers or leaders is less so, primarily because what managers or leaders are supposed to do and how one would judge whether or not they do it well is much less clear. This dilemma becomes clearest in the difficulty we have in helping organizations select their top executives.

    Even if those selection problems were solved, the developmental problems of entering and maintaining a career involving occupational or organizational socialization is a focus requiring very different research methods because what the occupation or organization is doing to the student/recruit requires a more sociological analysis. Research in this area highlights the fact that prediction of success is weakened by whether or not a particular organization or occupation actually values the skills that the aptitude test actually measures. Typically, these measures are based on statistical amalgamation of the results from many organizations. The implication for career incumbents is that they must not only choose an occupation or organization, but they must then diagnose whether the culture into which they are entering suits their own value system. One of the most salient characteristics of the early career is the frequency with which people switch organizations within the first few years of employment. The reasons for those switches that are given in exit interviews are usually “seeking a better job” or “higher pay.” My own research suggests that a more accurate reason is “My values and the values of the organization did not mesh.”

    Studies of different socioeconomic groups pose yet another set of issues. First of all, it is much harder to do research on this population than on career entrants. Second, the issues differ in different occupations, especially as a function of whether or not the career occupant is employed in a large organization or is to some degree self-employed. The level of education attained determines to a great degree the kind of career that is possible, and career research to be fully useful must make it a point to study both extreme groups—the educated wealthy elites and the working or unemployed poor. At these extremes, career research becomes political in the sense that the wealthy have things to hide and are, therefore, less accessible, whereas the poor immediately highlight some of the career injustices that society has created, putting the researcher in the difficult position of becoming an advocate.

    The problems of late career and retirement also highlight a very important individual psychological problem. Those whose identities have been tied up with organizations are much more vulnerable to depression postretirement than those who have engaged in work that can continue into the later ages. There is not nearly the same amount of late career counseling available as there is for career selection and career entry. And relatively little research has looked at what organizations do (if anything) to facilitate the retirement of their long-time employees. This problem has implications for society in that with the growth of life expectancy because of medical advances many adults have an entire career after retirement.

    In conclusion, the growing field of career studies must not only continue to diversify the content of what is studied but, more importantly, must develop more diversity in research approaches. The research methods must be linked more closely to the nature of the problems being studied, and we must get over the obsession with the correlational paradigm that has been overworked in psychology.

    Edgar H. Schein
    Bray, D. W., Campbell, R. J., & Grant, D. L.(1974).Formative years in business. Chichester: Wiley.
    Higgins, M. C.(2005).Career imprints. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Osipow, S. H.(1973).Theories of career development (2nd ed.). Norwalk, CT: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
    Perin, C.(2005).Shouldering risk. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Schein, E. H.(1978).Career dynamics. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
    Schein, E. H.Three cultures of management. Sloan Management Review38(1)(1996). 9–20.
    Schein, E. H.(2003).DEC is dead; Long live DEC. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.
    Schein, E. H.(2006).Career anchors (3rd ed.). San Francisco: Pfeiffer.
    Snook, S. A.(2000).Friendly fire. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Van Maanen, J.Observations on the making of policemen. Human Organization4(1973). 407–418.
    Vaughan, D.(1996).The Challenger launch decision. Chicago: Chicago University Press.

    Author Index

    About the Editors

    Hugh Gunz is Professor of Organizational Behaviour at the J. L. Rotman School of Management, University of Toronto and Chair of the Department of Management at the University of Toronto Mississauga. He trained as a chemist, first in New Zealand and later in the United Kingdom. After completing his PhD, he worked for some years in the petrochemicals industry and then returned to school to study business, which led to a second PhD and a tenured teaching appointment in organizational behavior at Manchester Business School. He joined the University of Toronto in 1989, serving in a variety of administrative positions, including as an Associate Dean of the Rotman School.

    His current research interests include the role of developmental relationships in the acculturation and career success of immigrant workers and the ethical dilemmas faced by professionals in organizational and commercial contexts. He has published articles on managers' careers, the professions, and management education in many scholarly and practitioner journals. He is the author of Careers and Corporate Cultures (published in 1989) and coeditor of Managing Complexity in Organizations (published in 1999). He is Co-Editor of M@n@gement and serves on the editorial boards of Academy of Management Journal, Journal of Managerial Psychology, and Emergence. A former general secretary and Coordinating Committee member of the European Group for Organizational Studies, he has also served as Program Chair and Division Chair of the Careers Division of the Academy of Management.

    Maury Peiperl is Professor of Leadership and Strategic Change at IMD in Lausanne, Switzerland, where he develops executive education programs for global organizations. He also teaches on the MBA program and chairs IMD's Business Advisory Council, a group of HR directors from around the world interested in the development of global executives. He is the author or editor of five books and numerous articles and case studies, primarily in the areas of careers, performance management, and leading change. These include Career Frontiers (2000), Career Creativity (2002), and the market-leading text Managing Change: Cases and Concepts (2003, second edition), as well as articles in Academy of Management Review, Human Resource Management, Harvard Business Review, and Organizational Dynamics, among others.

    He is a long-standing member of the Academy of Management, where he has served as Chair of the Careers Division, and a member of the International Programs Committee. He is a member of the Evian Group Brain Trust, an organization dedicated to promoting free and fair global trade, and also sits on the Alumni Council of the Harvard Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, as well as the boards of several companies. Outside his teaching and research, he is active in amateur radio contests and expeditions and has received numerous awards. He is also a pianist and musical director, most recently for Gypsy (in Maryland) and Follies (Geneva, Switzerland). He lives in Bougy-Villars, Switzerland, and Silver Spring, Maryland, with his wife, Jennifer Georgia, and their children, Evan and Julia.

    About the Contributors

    Michael B. Arthur is Professor of Management at Suffolk University, Boston, Massachusetts. His books include the Handbook of Career Theory, The Boundaryless Career, The New Careers, Career Frontiers, Career Creativity and Knowledge at Work: Creative Collaboration in the Global Economy (with Robert DeFillippi and Valerie Lindsay, 2006). He has also written widely in academic and professional journals and is a developer of the “intelligent career card sort” (ICCS), intended to help people manage their careers in contemporary times. His current work focuses on the relationships among careers, communities, and employment arrangements in the knowledge-based economy.

    Silvia Bagdadli, PhD in Management and Organization, is Associate Professor of Organization and Human Resource Management at Bocconi University and at SDA Bocconi School of Management where she is the Director of a Master of Science in Organization and HRM and the Director of an Executive Master in HRM. She is a member of the Academy of Management and of EGOS (coconvenor of the Career trackEGOS, Bergen, 2006). Her research and teaching are in the areas of HRM and career management where she is interested in the intersection of the individual and the organizational perspective and in understanding the relation between HRM, career management, and organizational performance.

    Lotte Bailyn is Professor of Management at MIT's Sloan School of Management and Codirector of the MIT Workplace Center. She has long studied and worked on careers as well as the connections of the structure, culture, and practices of work with family, community, and other personal interests and concerns of employees. She is the author of Breaking the Mold: Women, Men, and Time in the New Corporate World (1993) and its new and revised edition Breaking the Mold: Redesigning Work for Productive and Satisfying Lives (2006) as well as coauthor of Beyond Work-Family Balance: Advancing Gender Equity and Workplace Performance (2002).

    Richard E. Boyatzis is Professor in the Departments of Organizational Behavior and Psychology at Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, and Adjunct Professor at ESADE in Barcelona. He is the author of more than 150 articles and of several books, including The Competent Manager. He is the coauthor of the international best seller Primal Leadership with Daniel Goleman and Annie McKee, published in 29 languages, and Resonant Leadership with Annie McKee, published in 18 languages. He has a BS in aeronautics and astronautics from MIT and an MS and a PhD in social psychology from Harvard University.

    Jon P. Briscoe is Associate Professor in the Department of Management and Adjunct Professor in the Department of Psychology at Northern Illinois University. His research focuses on conceptualizing and measuring career orientations related to boundaryless and protean careers. Another key focus concerns the impact of international culture and generational differences on career transitions and career success. He has held leadership positions in the Careers division of the Academy of Management and is a founder and facilitator of the “5C” Group (The Collaboration for the Cross-Cultural study of Contemporary Careers). He received his DBA from Boston University.

    Peter Cappelli is the George W. Taylor Professor of Management at the Wharton School and Director of Wharton's Center for Human Resources. He is also a research associate at the National Bureau of Economic Research in Cambridge and the editor of the Academy of Management Perspectives.

    Wayne F. Cascio is U.S. Bank Term Professor of Management at the University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences Center. His research interests include staffing, development, performance management, compensation, and the economic impact of employee behavior. He has published 21 books and more than 125 articles and book chapters and is an elected fellow of the National Academy of Human Resources, the Academy of Management, and the American Psychological Association.

    Dawn E. Chandler is Assistant Professor at California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo. Her primary research interests include careers, mentoring, and action research. Dawn is particularly interested in developmental networksa group of people who take an active interest in and take action to advance a focal individual's careerand what she terms relational savvy, which she defines as “protégé adeptness at initiating and cultivating developmental relationships.” Prior to entering academia, she worked in Boston, Massachusetts, and San Jose, California, as a financial recruiter.

    Audrey Collin is Professor Emeritus of Career Studies, De Montfort University, Leicester, United Kingdom. She began her career in personnel management, had a family break, made a midlife career change to academia, and pursued her doctorate by part-time study (1984). That developed her interest in systems and interpretative approaches in the study of career, leading to many publications, including articles and two edited books in collaboration with Richard A. Young. She taught organizational behavior and organization studies to Business School postexperience graduate students until her retirement and contributed to an HRM textbook. She has a degree in English and a diploma in anthropology.

    Madeline Crocitto (PhD, Baruch College City University of New York) is Associate Professor in the School of Business at the State University of New York College at Old Westbury. She has published extensively in the field of careers and management education, has earned paper, reviewing, and teaching awards, and also consults in the area of health care and career development. She has served on the boards of the Careers Division of the Academy of Management and the Eastern Academy of Management and is a member of the Society for Human Resource Management.

    Caroline D'Abate is Assistant Professor of Management and Business at Skidmore College where she teaches organizational behavior, human resource management, introductory business, and the department's senior thesis/research methods course. Her research on employee development and mentoring relationships, the relationship between work/nonwork life realms, personal business on-the-job, careers and diversity, and other topics has been published in journals and presented at national conferences. She holds a PhD in organizational studies from the School of Business, University at Albany, State University of New York.

    C. Brooklyn Derr is currently the Staheli Professor in the Organization, Leadership, and Strategy Department at the Marriott School of Management at Brigham Young University, Utah. He has also taught at Harvard, University of California, Los Angeles, IMD (Switzerland), the University of Utah, the Naval Postgraduate School, and has authored 7 books and 60 scholarly articles. His research interests focus on internal career orientations and, in terms of the external career, managing high-potential employeesmostly from a global and cross-cultural perspective. He is also a permanent adjunct faculty member at the Lyon Graduate School of Management (EM Lyon) in France.

    Prashant H. Deshpande is a PhD candidate in Organizational Behavior at INSEAD. His research interests include social network analysis, organizational boundaries, and interorganizational relations. The focus of his dissertation is the effect of boundary spanners' social networks and relational styles on the effectiveness of interorganizational relationships. His current empirical research focuses on the role of relationship managers in offshore outsourcing of IT services.

    James R. Dillon is a PhD student in Organizational Behavior at Harvard University. His current research explores how group composition and processes lead to learning and performance outcomes in multifunctional teamsespecially teams of senior executives. He has a longstanding interest in the process of leadership development, including the effects of career experiences on the performance of leaders and their organizations. Previously, he was a business strategy consultant at Monitor Group and a Research Associate at Harvard Business School. He earned a BS in Accounting from Brigham Young University and an EdM in Mind, Brain, and Education from Harvard University.

    Mary B. Dunn is currently Lecturer in the Management Department at the McCombs School of Business at The University of Texas at Austin. Her research interests include professionals' social networks, socialization, and knowledge creation. In particular, she has studied how developmental networks help physician-scientists create scientific knowledge. She completed her PhD in Organization Studies at the Wallace E. Carroll School of Management at Boston College in 2006. She also received an MBA from the University of California, Irvine, and a BA from Colgate University in Hamilton, New York.

    Daniel C. Feldman is Synovus Chair of Leadership and Associate Dean for Research at the University of Georgia Terry College of Business. He has served as Editor-in-Chief of Journal of Management, Associate Editor for Human Resource Management and Journal of Organizational Behavior, and Chair of the Careers Division of the Academy of Management. He has published over 100 articles on career topics such as career indecision, socialization, job mobility, job loss, expatriation and repatriation, career plateaus, early retirement, and bridge employment. His most recent book is Work Careers: A Developmental Perspective (2002). He has a PhD from Yale University.

    Sharon Foley is a full-time student in the Chinese Language Program at Tsinghua University in Beijing, People's Republic of China. She has worked at universities in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Hong Kong. During the 2005 to 2006 academic year, she was a visiting scholar in the management department at The Chinese University of Hong Kong. Her research interests include the “glass ceiling” for women and minorities, organizational fairness, and management practices in the People's Republic of China. She earned her MBA from London Business School and her PhD in Management from University of Connecticut.

    Jeffrey H. Greenhaus is Professor and William A. Mackie Chair in the Department of Management at Drexel University's LeBow College of Business. His research focuses on work-family relationships and career dynamics. In addition to journal articles and book chapters on these topics, he has coauthored or coedited Career Management, now in its third edition (2000), Integrating Work and Family: Challenges and Choices for a Changing World (1997), Work and FamilyAllies or Enemies? What Happens When Business Professionals Confront Life Choices (2000), and the Encyclopedia of Career Development (Sage, 2006).

    David E. Guest is Professor of Organizational Psychology and Human Resource Management in the Department of Management at King's College, London. He has written, researched, and published extensively in the areas of human resource management, employment relations and the psychological contract, motivation and commitment, and careers. His current research is concerned with the relationship between human resource management and performance in the private and public sectors; the individual-ization of employment relations and the role of the psychological contract; flexibility, employment contracts, and worker well-being; partnership at work; and the future of the career.

    Douglas T. Hall is the Morton H. and Charlotte Friedman Professor of Management in the School of Management at Boston University. He has recently served as a visiting scholar at Boston College and as Visiting Erskine Fellow at the University of Canterbury in Christchurch, New Zealand. In 2007, he will be the Richardson Visiting Fellow at the Center for Creative Leadership. He is the author of several books and articles on careers and a recipient of the American Psychological Association's Ghiselli Award for research design, the Walter Storey Professional Practice Award from ASTD, and the E. C. Hughes Award from the Academy of Management. He is a fellow of the American Psychological Association and the Academy of Management.

    Monika Hamori is Professor of Human Resources Management at the Instituto de Empresa Business School in Madrid, Spain. Her current research focuses on executive career advancement and the role of executive search firms in executive careers. She received her PhD from the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania.

    Monica C. Higgins is Associate Professor at Harvard University. Her research focuses on leadership and career development. Her book Career Imprints: Creating Leaders Across an Industry (2006) focuses on the leadership development of executives in the biotechnology industry. In addition, she has a longitudinal project underway on the Harvard Business School Class of 1996. Before her academic career, she worked at Bain & Company and at Harbridge House, an international organizational change consulting firm. She earned her PhD in Organizational Behavior and MA in Psychology from Harvard's Graduate School of Arts and Sciences and her MBA from Tuck Business School.

    Herminia Ibarra is the INSEAD Chaired Professor of Organizational Behavior. Her research interests include identity dynamics, social networks, career development, and women's careers. Her recent book, Working Identity: Unconventional Strategies for Reinventing Your Career (2003), describes how people reinvent themselves. Her articles on these topics are published in leading journals, including Administrative Science Quarterly, Academy of Management Review, Academy of Management Journal, and Harvard Business Review. Prior to joining INSEAD, she had served on the Harvard Business School faculty for 13 years. She received her MA and PhD from Yale University.

    Kerr Inkson is semiretired and is Adjunct Professor of Management at the University of Waikato, New Zealand. He has had an academic career of more than 40 years, mainly in New Zealand's business schools. He has published more than 60 refereed journal articles, more than 30 book chapters, and 12 books. His latest books are Cultural Intelligence (with David C. Thomas, 2004) and Understanding Careers (Sage, 2007). In recent years, his research has focused on careers, and he was Chair of the Careers Division, Academy of Management, 2005 to 2006. He has a PhD from the University of Otago.

    Candace Jones is Associate Professor in the Organization Studies Department, Boston College. Her research interests focus on the intersection of creative industries and creative professionals. She examines the careers, social networks, institutions, and project-based organizing within creative industries and professions such as architecture and film. She has recently coedited special issues on creative and cultural industries in Journal of Organizational Behavior, Research in the Sociology of Organizations, Journal of Management Studies, and Creativity and Innovation Management. She has also published in Academy of Management Review, Academy of Management Executive, Organization Science, Organization Studies, and Human Resource Management.

    Karsten Jonsen is Researcher of Organizational Behaviour and International Management at IMD in Lausanne, Switzerland, where he directs a global research project comparing cultures across nations. His research interests and publications cover a variety of issues in human resource management, including team performance, executive education, virtual teams, stereotyping, and workforce diversity. He earned his bachelor's and master's degrees in organizational behavior and economics from Copenhagen Business School and an MBA from ESCP-EAP in Paris, France. Before coming to IMD in 2002, he held various management positions in the IT industry.

    Timothy A. Judge is the Matherly-McKethan Eminent Scholar in the Department of Management at the University of Florida. Previously, he served on the faculties of the University of Iowa and Cornell University. His research interests are in the areas of personality, leadership and influence behaviors, staffing and careers, and job attitudes. He holds a bachelor of business administration degree from the University of Iowa and masters and doctoral degrees from the University of Illinois. Prior to entering graduate school, he worked as a manager at Kohls Department Stores in Wisconsin and Illinois.

    John D. Kammeyer-Mueller works at the Warrington College of Business Administration at the University of Florida. His research has focused mostly on topics related to workplace adjustment, including the socialization and adaptation of new organizational members, mentoring, work withdrawal, turnover, and career planning. He has also made occasional research diversions into applied research methods, interpersonal relationships, and personality. His empirical research has appeared in the Journal of Applied Psychology, Personnel Psychology; the Journal of Vocational Behavior, Industrial Relations; and the International Journal of Selection and Assessment. He received his PhD from the University of Minnesota.

    Svetlana N. Khapova is Assistant Professor of Cross-Cultural Management and Organizational Behavior at the Faculty of Economics and Business Administration at the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. Her research interests include careers and career behaviors in the knowledge economy and in its related economic contexts of the Internet and the globe. Her publications have appeared in a number of books and in the Journal of Organizational Behavior. She holds a PhD degree from the University of Twente, an MBA from the University of Portsmouth, and an MSc (Cum Laude) in economics and management from North Caucasus State Technical University.

    Jennifer M. Kidd is Reader in the Department of Organizational Psychology, Birkbeck, University of London, where she is the course director for the MSc degree in career management and counseling. She is a coeditor of the British Journal of Guidance and Counselling and also a chartered occupational psychologist. Her writing and research in the field of career development and career management span 30 years. Her most recent book is Understanding Career Counselling: Theory, Research and Practice (Sage, 2006), and her current work focuses on career well-being and the role of emotion in careers.

    Sharon H. Kim is a PhD student in Organizational Behavior at the Cornell University School of Industrial and Labor Relations. Her research interests include creativity, organizational misbehavior, and careers.

    Maria L. Kraimer is Associate Professor and Reader at the University of Melbourne, Australia. Her research interests are in the areas of careers, international assignment success, and the employee-organization relationship. She has received a number of research awards from the Careers Division of the Academy of Management and from the Academy of Management Journal. She serves on the editorial board of the Journal of Applied Psychology and Administrative Science Quarterly. She has previously held academic positions at Cleveland State University and University of Illinois at Chicago. She received her PhD in human resource management from the University of Illinois at Chicago.

    Kathy E. Kram is Professor of Organizational Behavior at the Boston University School of Management and the Everett W. Lord Distinguished Faculty Scholar. In addition to her book Mentoring at Work, she has published in a wide range of academic and practice-oriented journals on the role of developmental relationships over the life course. She is currently exploring the nature of peer coaching, mentoring circles, and developmental networks. In addition, she is serving a second 3-year term as a member of the Center for Creative Leadership's Board of Governors. She received her BS and MS degrees from MIT Sloan School of Management and a PhD from Yale University.

    Barbara S. Lawrence is Professor of Human Resources and Organizational Behavior at the Anderson Graduate School of Management, University of California, Los Angeles. Her current research examines organizational reference groups, the evolution of organizational norms through perceptions, and organizational demography. She served as Chair of the Careers Division of the Academy of Management, was Senior Editor at Organization Science, was coeditor of the Handbook of Career Theory (with M. B. Arthur and D. T. Hall), and in 1998, received the Outstanding Publication in Organizational Behavior Award for her work on organizational demography. She received her PhD from the Sloan School of Management at MIT.

    Wolfgang Mayrhofer is Professor of Organizational Behavior and Management at the Interdisciplinary Unit for Management and Organisational Behaviour, Department of Management, Wirtschaftsuniversität (WU) Wien, Vienna, Austria. He has previously held research and teaching positions at the University of Paderborn, Germany, and at Dresden University of Technology, Germany. He conducts research in the area of comparative international human resource management and leadership, work careers, and systems theory and management and is a consultant to both private and public sector organizations regularly.

    Michael Meyer is Professor of Nonprofit Management at the Institute for Organisation Studies and Organisational Behaviour at Wirtschaftsuniversität Wien (WU), Vienna, Austria. He is the head of the Research Institute for Nonprofit Organisations (NPOs), the academic director of a professional MBA program in social management, and a member of the European network of excellence CINEFOGO (http://www.cinefogo.org). His current research is on NPOs, the third sector and civil society, careers in NPOs, the social theory of Pierre Bourdieu, text and discourse analysis, and organizational analysis.

    Philip H. Mirvis is a Senior Research Fellow of the Boston College Center for Corporate Citizenship. He is an organizational psychologist whose research and private practice concern organizational change and the workforce and workplace and has authored eight books, including The Cynical Americans, Building the Competitive Workforce, and Joining Forces. His most recent is a business transformation story, To the Desert and Back. He has taught at Boston University; Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China; and the London Business School. He has a BA from Yale University and a PhD in organizational psychology from the University of Michigan.

    Celia Moore is Assistant Professor of Organizational Behavior at the London Business School and is completing her PhD in organizational behavior at the University of Toronto's Rotman School of Management. Her research focuses on how power and its abuses are implicated in organizational life. Currently, she is studying how individuals who are morally disengaged navigate corporate hierarchies. Before returning to academia, she spent 8 years as a human resources consultant, working with organizations to build more supportive work environments. She has a master's degree from Columbia University.

    Nigel Nicholson is Professor of Organizational Behaviour and a former Research Dean at London Business School. His research and writing have been extensive and wide-ranging, including over 15 books and monographs and over 200 articles in leading academic and practitioner journals. He has been pioneering the application of evolutionary psychology to business, and his current research is on leadership and family business. In addition to his work in the careers field, he has studied absence from work, employee relations, behavioral risk in finance, leadership, and personality. He directs two major leadership programs at London Business School: High Performance People Skills and one of the world's most innovative programs, Proteus.

    Anshuman Prasad is Professor of Management at the School of Business, University of New Haven, Connecticut. He brings an interdisciplinary focus in his research, which deals with themes such as workplace diversity and multiculturalism, resistance and empowerment in organizations, strategic action and corporate legitimacy in the global petroleum industry, and epistemological issues. He is the editor of Postcolonial Theory and Organizational Analysis: A Critical Engagement (2003) and a coeditor of Managing the Organizational Melting Pot: Dilemmas of Workplace Diversity (1997). His articles have appeared in several scholarly journals. He obtained his PhD from the University of Massachusetts, Amherst.

    Pushkala Prasad is the Zankel Chair Professor of Management for Liberal Arts Students at Skidmore College. She has also worked at Lund University in Sweden and at the University of Calgary. Her research interests include the computerization of work, workplace diversity, postpositivist research, and organizational legitimacy. She has published widely in reputed journals such as the Academy of Management Journal, Organization Science, the Journal of Management Studies, and Research in the Sociology of Organizations. She is also a coedi-tor of Managing the Organizational Melting Pot and the Handbook of Workplace Diversity. Her most recent publication is Crafting Qualitative Research: Working in the Post-Positivist Traditions. She obtained her PhD from the University of Massachusetts, Amherst.

    Maria Alejandra Quijada is Assistant Professor in the Department of Management, Loyola Marymount University. Her research interests include work-family integration, careers, and the transformation of the employee-employer relationship. Her current research project looks to understand how issues such as acquisitions and globalization affect software engineers, their teams, and their relation to their employer and profession. She has a PhD in Organization Studies from MIT's Sloan School of Management.

    Mark L. Savickas is Professor and Chair in the Behavioral Sciences Department at the Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine and Adjunct Professor of Counselor Education at Kent State University. His 80 articles, 40 book chapters, and 500 presentations to professional groups have dealt with vocational behavior and career counseling. He has served as editor for the Career Development Quarterly (1991–1998) and is currently editor for the Journal of Vocational Behavior (1999-present). He is a fellow of the National Career Development Association, the American Psychological Society, and the American Psychological Association.

    Edgar H. Schein is currently Sloan Fellows Professor of Management Emeritus, MIT Sloan School of Management. After 4 years as a Research Psychologist at the Walter Reed Institute of Research, he joined the Sloan School of Management in 1956 where he taught until his retirement in 2004. His research and writing has concentrated on Organizational Psychology (1980), Organizational Culture and Leadership (1992, 2004), and Process Consultation (1999). His seminal research on careers has led to a third edition of Career Anchors (2006), a self-administering instrument for adult career development. He received his PhD in Social Psychology from Harvard University's Department of Social Relations in 1952.

    Scott E. Seibert is Associate Professor in the Department of Management and Marketing, University of Melbourne. He has held academic positions at the University of Illinois, Chicago, and the University of Notre Dame, Indiana. His research in careers is informed by his interest in personality, mentoring, and social networks. He has received a number of research awards from the Careers, Entrepreneurship, and Organizational Behavior divisions of the Academy of Management. He serves on the editorial board of the Academy of Management Journal. He received his PhD from the New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University.

    Holly S. Slay is on the faculty of the Rochester Institute of Technology's Saunders College of Business. Her current research examines the role of networks and identity in influencing career transition decisions, career decision making at midlife/mid-career, and the impact of race and gender on career behaviors (such as networking) and career outcomes. She received her PhD from University of Maryland's Smith School of Business. Before pursuing her PhD, she worked in industry for over 13 years in a number of diverse technical and management positions.

    Johannes Steyrer is Associate Professor of Organizational Behavior at the Institute for Organisation Studies and Organisational Behaviour at Wirtschaftsuniversität Wien (WU), Vienna, Austria. He is the academic director of a professional MBA program in health care management. His current research is on leadership behavior, with a special focus on charismatic leadership, and careers in for-profit and nonprofit organizations.

    Jane Sturges is Senior Lecturer in Organizational Behavior in the Department of Management at King's College, London. She has researched and published on individual and organizational perspectives of the career, including career success orientations, career capital, and career management. Her current research interests include the employment relationship, contemporary careers in organizations, the psychological contract, and work-life balance.

    Sherry E. Sullivan is the coauthor of The Opt-Out Revolt: Why People Are Leaving Companies to Create Kaleidoscope Careers (with Lisa Mainiero, 2006), the coeditor of Winning Reviews: A Guide for Evaluating Scholarly Writing (with Yehuda Baruch and Haze Schepmyer, 2006), and has published more than 100 journal articles on careers and gender. She is a Fellow of Southern Management Association, has served as the Careers Division Chair (1998) for the Academy of Management, and was recognized with the Academy of Management's Gender & Diversity in Organization Division's Janet Chusmir Award for mentoring and service (2002). She is the Director of the Small Business Institute, Bowling Green State University and earned her PhD from The Ohio State University.

    M. Susan Taylor is Dean's Professor of Human Resources and Co-Director of the Center for Human Capital, Innovation and Technology at the Robert H. Smith School of Business, University of Maryland at College Park. Her career interests include managerial career mobility and individuals' self-directed career transitions. Her current research views careers through the lens of the employment relationship and radical organizational change. She expresses her gratitude to the editors and her coauthor for the opportunity to continue learning about careers while preparing this chapter. In 1996, she was very fortunate to coedit The Rhythms of Academic Life with the late Professor Peter Frost.

    David C. Thomas is currently Professor of International Management in the Faculty of Business Administration at Simon Fraser University, Canada. He previously held positions at The University of Auckland, New Zealand, and at The Pennsylvania State University. He is the author of five books and numerous journal articles concerning cross-cultural interactions in organizational settings. He is currently Associate Editor of the International Journal of Cross-Cultural Management and serves on the editorial boards of the Journal of International Business Studies, the Journal of Management, and the Journal of World Business. He has a PhD from the University of South Carolina.

    Pamela S. Tolbert is Professor and current Chair of the Department of Organizational Behavior in the Industrial and Labor Relations School at Cornell University. She also serves as an associate editor for the Academy of Management Review and is on the editorial boards of several journals. Her research interests have focused on several areas: organizational change processes, occupations and organizations, organizational demography, and work/family relations. These interests are reflected in the articles that she has published in a number of journals, including Administrative Science Quarterly, Organization Studies, Work and Occupations, Industrial and Labor Relations Review, and International Journal of Human Resource Management, and in various book chapters. She received her PhD in sociology from the University of California, Los Angeles.

    Daniel Tzabbar is Assistant Professor of Entrepreneurship and Strategy at the School of Business Administration, University of Central Florida. His research focuses on creating and testing organizational and strategic theories related to the flow of inter- and intraorganizational knowledge, through R&D alliances, scientists' and executives' mobility, and the facilitation of learning and technological change. This research incorporates related interests such as exploring the ways in which individual career experiences, mobility, and network affect entrepreneurial firm competitive viability, strategic alliance formation, and decision-making processes leading to strategic change. He earned his PhD from the Rotman School of Management, University of Toronto.

    Monique Valcour is Assistant Professor in the Department of Organization Studies, Carroll School of Management, Boston College. Her research program focuses on career dynamics and on the integration of work and family roles. Her publications have appeared in Human Relations, Industrial Relations, and the International Journal of Human Resource Management as well as in several edited volumes. She earned PhD and MS degrees from the School of Industrial and Labor Relations at Cornell University, an MEd from the Harvard Graduate School of Education, and an AB from Brown University.

    Yoav Vardi has retired from the Department of Labor Studies at Tel Aviv University where he served since 1980. His main areas of interest are organizational careers and organizational misbehavior. His book on misbehavior (Misbehavior in Organizations: Theory, Research, and Management, coauthored with Ely Weitz) was published in 2004. His articles appeared in the Academy of Management Journal, Academy of Management Review, Journal of Vocational Behavior, Psychological Reports, Organization Science, and the Journal of Business Ethics. He received his PhD in Organizational Behavior from the New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University, where he recently spent his sabbatical as Visiting Professor.

    Celeste P. M. Wilderom is Professor of Management and Organizational Behavior in the Private and Public Sector (University of Twente, The Netherlands). Her main research focus is on effective organizational change, including leadership and culture. She publishes through a variety of outlets; she is one of the three editors of the award-winning Handbook of Organizational Culture & Climate (2000, Sage) and served as an associate editor of Academy of Management Executive, International Journal of Service Industry Management, and British Journal of Management. She obtained a PhD from the State University of New York, Buffalo, in 1987.

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