The SAGE Handbook of Architectural Theory
Publication Year: 2012
The SAGE Handbook of Architectural Theory documents and builds upon some of the most innovative developments in architectural theory over the last two decades. Bringing into dialogue a range of geographically, institutionally and historically competing positions, the book examines and explores parallel debates in related fields. The book is divided into eight sections. Creating openings for future lines of inquiry and establishing the basis for new directions for education, research and practice, the book organizes itself around specific case studies to provide a critical, interpretive and speculative enquiry into the relevant debates in architectural theory. A methodical, authoritative and comprehensive addition to the literature, the Handbook is suitable for academics, researchers and practitioners in architecture, urban geography, cultural studies, sociology and geography.
- Front Matter
- Subject Index
- Introduction – 1: Architectural Theory in an Expanded Field
- Introduction – 2: Reading the Handbook
- Section 1: Power/Difference/Embodiment
- Chapter 1: Introduction: Shifting Paradigms and Concerns
- Chapter 2: Architecture, Capitalism and Criticality
- Chapter 3: Interrogating Difference: Postcolonial Perspectives in Architecture and Urbanism
- Chapter 4: Tendencies and Trajectories: Feminist Approaches in Architecture
- Section 1 Bibliography
- Chapter 5: Citizenship
- Section 2: Aesthetics/Pleasure/Excess
- Chapter 6: Introduction: Architecture and Aesthetics
- Chapter 7: Architectural Phenomenology and the Rise of the Postmodern
- Chapter 8: Formalism and Forms of Practice
- Chapter 9: Art in (and of) Architecture: Autonomy and Medium
- Section 2 Bibliography
- Chapter 10: Consumption
- Section 3: Nation/World/Spectacle
- Chapter 11: Introduction: Enacting Modernity
- Chapter 12: Rethinking the Nation
- Chapter 13: Entangled Modernities in Architecture
- Chapter 14: Notes on the Society of the Brand
- Section 3 Bibliography
- Chapter 15: Heritage
- Section 4: History/Memory/Tradition
- Chapter 16: Introduction: Time's Arrows: Spaces of the Past
- Chapter 17: Preservation and Modernity: Competing Perspectives, Contested Histories and the Question of Authenticity
- Chapter 18: Collective Memory Under Siege: The Case of ‘Heritage Terrorism’
- Chapter 19: Concepts of Vernacular Architecture
- Section 4 Bibliography
- Chapter 20: Culture
- Section 5: Design/Production/Practice
- Chapter 21: Introduction: Architecture's Double-Bind
- Chapter 22: Prometheus Unchained: The Multiple Itineraries of Contemporary Professional Freedom
- Chapter 23: Manners of Working: Fabricating Representation in Digital Based Design
- Chapter 24: Plural Profession, Discrepant Practices
- Section 5 Bibliography
- Chapter 25: Flows
- Section 6: Science/Technology/Virtuality
- Chapter 26: Introduction: Technology, Science and Virtuality
- Chapter 27: Virtual Architecture, Actual Media
- Chapter 28: Technology, Virtuality, Materiality
- Chapter 29: Architecture, Technology and the Body: From the Prehuman to the Posthuman
- Section 6 Bibliography
- Chapter 30: Infrastructure
- Section 7: Nature/Ecology/Sustainability
- Chapter 31: Introduction: Whither ‘Earthly’ Architectures: Constructing Sustainability
- Chapter 32: The Ecology Question and Architecture
- Chapter 33: Beyond Sustainability: Architecture in the Renewable City
- Chapter 34: Tropical Variants of Sustainable Architecture: A Postcolonial Perspective
- Section 7 Bibliography
- Chapter 35: Landscapes
- Section 8: City/Metropolis/Territory
- Chapter 36: Introduction: Metropolis, Megalopolis and Metacity
- Chapter 37: The Contemporary European Urban Project: Archipelago City, Diffuse City and Reverse City
- Chapter 38: Slum as Theory: Mega-Cities and Urban Models
- Chapter 39: Common Lines of Flight towards the Open City
- Section 8 Bibliography
- Chapter 40: Housing
The Natural Home[Page ii]
SAGE has been part of the global academic community since 1965, supporting high quality research and learning that transforms society and our understanding of individuals, groups, and cultures. SAGE is the independent, innovative, natural home for authors, editors and societies who share our commitment and passion for the social sciences.
Find out more at: http://www.sagepublications.com
Introductions and Editorial Arrangements © C. Greig Crysler, Stephen Cairns and Hilde Heynen 2012
Chapter 1 © Hilde Heynen and Gwendolyn Wright 2012
Chapter 2 © Ole W. Fischer 2012
Chapter 3 © Jyoti Hosagrahar 2012
Chapter 4 © Jane Rendell 2012
Chapter 5 © Ines Weizman 2012
Chapter 6 © John Macarthur and Naomi Stead 2012
Chapter 7 © Jorge Otero-Pailos 2012
Chapter 8 © Sandra Kaji-OGrady 2012
Chapter 9 © Bart Verschaffel 2012
Chapter 10 © Ana Miljacki 2012
Chapter 11 © AbdouMaliq Simone 2012
Chapter 12 © Abidin Kusno 2012
Chapter 13 © Duanfang Lu 2012
Chapter 14 © Shiloh Krupar and Stefan Al 2012
Chapter 15 © Fernando Diez 2012
Chapter 16 © C. Greig Crysler 2012
Chapter 17 © Mrinalini Rajagopalan 2012
Chapter 18 © M. Christine Boyer 2012
Chapter 19 © Robert Brown and Daniel Maudlin 2012
Chapter 20 © Paul Walker 2012
Chapter 21 © Dana Cuff 2012
Chapter 22 © Paolo Tombesi 2012
Chapter 23 © Christopher Hight 2012
Chapter 24 © David Salomon 2012
Chapter 25 © Stephen Cairns 2012
Chapter 26 © Arie Graafland and Heidi Sohn 2012
Chapter 27 © N. Katherine Hayles and Todd Gannon 2012
Chapter 28 © Antoine Picon 2012
Chapter 29 © Jonathan Hale 2012
Chapter 30 © Delia Duong Ba Wendel 2012
Chapter 31 © Simon Guy 2012
Chapter 32 © Richard Ingersoll 2012
Chapter 33 © Peter Droege 2012
Chapter 34 © Jiat-Hwee Chang 2012
Chapter 35 © Kelly Shannon 2012
Chapter 36 © Brian McGrath and Grahame Shane 2012
Chapter 37 © Paola Vigan 2012
Chapter 38 © Vyjayanthi Rao 2012
Chapter 39 © Deborah Natsios 2012
Chapter 40 © Iain Low 2012
First published 2012
Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form, or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers.
SAGE Publications Ltd
1 Oliver's Yard
55 City Road
London EC1Y 1SP
SAGE Publications Inc.
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320
SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd
B 1/I 1 Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area
Mathura Road, Post Bag 7
New Delhi 110 044
SAGE Publications Asia-Pacific Pte Ltd
3 Church Street
#10-04 Samsung Hub
Library of Congress Control Number: 2010942920
British Library Cataloguing in Publication data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
Typeset by Cenveo Publisher Services
Printed by MPG Books Group, Bodmin, Cornwall
Printed on paper from sustainable resources
List of Contributors[Page ix]
Stefan Al is Director of the Urban Design Programme at the University of Hong Kong. He has edited the book Factory Towns of South China, and is currently writing a book on the Las Vegas Strip. As a practicing architect he worked on the 612-meter high Canton Tower. Al holds a M.Sc. in Architecture from Delft University of Technology, an M.Arch. from the Bartlett UCL, and a Ph.D. in City and Regional Planning from UC Berkeley.
M. Christine Boyer is the William R. Kenan Jr. Professor of Architecture and Urbanism, at the School of Architecture, Princeton University. She is the author of Le Corbusier, Homme de Lettres (Princeton Architecture Press, 2011), CyberCities: Visual Perception in the Age of Electronic Communication (Princeton Architectural Press, 1996), The City of Collective Memory: Its Historical Imagery and Architectural Entertainments (MIT Press, 1994), Manhattan Manners: Architecture and Style 1850–1890 (Rizzoli, 1985) and Dreaming the Rational City: the Myth of City Planning 1890–1945 (MIT Press, 1983). In addition, she has written many articles and lectured widely on the topic of urbanism in the 19th and 20th centuries. M. Christine Boyer received her Ph.D. and Master of City Planning from Massachusetts Institute of Technology. She also holds a Master of Science in Computer and Information Science from the Moore School of Electrical Engineering at the University of Pennsylvania.
Robert Brown is Professor of Architecture and Head of Architecture at Plymouth University, UK. He has over 20 years of experience in professional practice, having worked in urban regeneration and community development in the UK, USA, Africa and India. Recent publications include articles in Traditional Settlements and Dwellings Review (2011) and Open House International (2011), and with Daniel Maudlin he is editor of the forthcoming special issue of the Journal of Architecture ‘Intentionally Incomplete’.
Stephen Cairns is Professor of Architecture and Urbanism at the University of Edinburgh. He is also the Scientific Co-ordinator of the Future Cities Laboratory, a research initiative of ETH Zurich and the National Research Foundation of Singapore focused on urban sustainability in a global frame.
Jiat-Hwee Chang, Ph.D. (UC Berkeley), is Assistant Professor at the Department of Architecture, National University of Singapore. He has researched and published on colonial and postcolonial architectural history, socio-technical dimensions of sustainable architecture and design culture in Asia. He is the co-editor of Non West Modernist Past (World Scientific, 2011) and a special issue of Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography on “tropical spatialities” (2011).[Page x]
C. Greig Crysler is an Associate Professor in the Department of Architecture at the College of Environmental Design at UC Berkeley, where he teaches courses in design theory and criticism. His research interests include architecture and activism; globalization and the built environment; and the changing relationship between museums, memorials and citizenship. His first book, Writing Spaces: Discourses of Architecture, Urbanism and the Built Environment, 1960–2000, was published by Routledge in 2003.
Dana Cuff is a professor, author, and practitioner in architecture at the University of California, Los Angeles where she is also the founding Director of cityLAB, a think tank that explores design innovations in the emerging metropolis (http://www.cityLAB.aud.ucla.edu). Since receiving her Ph.D. in architecture from Berkeley, Cuff has published and lectured widely about modern American urbanism, the architectural profession, affordable housing and spatially embedded computing.
Fernando Diez is Professor at Universidad de Palermo, Buenos Aires. He graduated as an architect from Belgrano University (1979), and as Doctor in Architecture UFRGS, Brazil (2005). He is the Editorial Director of the journal Summa+. He is member of the Argentine Academy of Environmental Sciences, adviser for the National University Accreditation Council and government and public institutions. He is author of several books, among them Crisis de Autenticidad (2008), and is contributor on environmental issues to the op-ed section of La Nación newspaper in Buenos Aires.
Peter Droege, Professor and Chair of Sustainable Spatial Development, University of Liechtenstein taught at MIT, Tokyo and Sydney. A key member of many international policy and research bodies, he has edited and authored Intelligent Environments (Elsevier, 1998), The Renewable City (Wiley, 2006), Urban Energy Transition (Elsevier, 2008), 100 Percent Renewable – Energy Autonomy in Action (Earthscan, 2009) and Climate Design (ORO Editions, 2010). He is founding chair of the Liechtenstein Congress for Sustainable Development and Responsible Investing.
Ole W. Fischer is an architect, theoretician, historian and curator. Currently he serves as Assistant Professor for history theory at the University of Utah. Previously he has conducted research and taught at ETH Zurich, Harvard GSD, MIT and RISD. He is co-editor of Precisions – Architecture between Sciences and the Arts (Jovis, 2008), as well as Sehnsucht – a Book of Architectural Longings (Springer, 2010) and wrote the forthcoming Nietzsches Schatten (Gebr. Mann, 2011).
Todd Gannon is a registered architect and writer based in Los Angeles. He teaches history, theory and design studio at the Southern California Institute of Architecture, where he also coordinates the Cultural Studies curriculum. His published books include The Light Construction Reader and monographs on the work of Morphosis, Bernard Tschumi, UN Studio, Steven Holl, Mack Scogin/Merrill Elam, Zaha Hadid and Peter Eisenman.
Arie Graafland is Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Professor in Architectural Theory at the Tu-Delft. He has been visiting professor in Tokyo and Budapest and is Head of the Delft School of Design. He has lectured internationally and published extensively in the areas of architecture and urban theory. He is the author of books such as Architectural Bodies (1996) and The Socius of Architecture (2000). He is the editor of The Delft School of Design Series on Architecture [Page xi]and Urbanism with 010 Publishers. Together with Harry Kerssen he is principal of Kerssen Graafland Architects in Amsterdam.
Simon Guy is Professor of Architecture, Director of the Manchester Architecture Research Centre and Head of the School of Environment and Development at the University of Manchester, UK. His research explores the co-evolution of design and development strategies and socio-technical-ecological processes that mediate urban futures. His work engages with interdisciplinary approaches to sustainable urbanism, engaging with changing forms of architectural knowledge and practice and specifically with debates about buildings, networks and cities across diverse geographies.
Jonathan Hale is an architect, Associate Professor and Reader in Architectural Theory at the University of Nottingham, UK. His research interests include: architectural theory and criticism; phenomenology and the philosophy of technology; the relationship between architecture and the body; museums and architectural exhibitions. He has published books, chapters in books, refereed articles and conference papers in these areas and has obtained grants from the EPSRC, the Leverhulme Trust, British Academy, and the Arts Council. He is founder and Steering Group member of the international subject network: Architectural Humanities Research Association (http://www.ahra-architecture.org.uk/AHRA).
N. Katherine Hayles is Professor in the Literature Program at Duke University. Her interests include digital humanities; electronic literature; literature, science and technology; science fiction; and critical theory. She is the author of numerous books, including How We Became Posthuman: Virtual Bodies in Cybernetics, Literature and Informatics (1999), for which she won the Rene Wellek Prize. Her most recent publications are Electronic Literature: New Horizons for the Literary (2008), a primer of electronic literature; My Mother Was a Computer: Digital Subjects and Literary Texts (2005); Nanoculture: Implications of the New Technoscience (ed.) (2004).
Hilde Heynen is Professor of Architectural Theory and Head of the Department of Architecture, Urbanism and Planning at the University of Leuven, Belgium. Her books include Architecture and Modernity. A Critique (1999), Back from Utopia: The Challenge of the Modern Movement (co-edited with Hubert-Jan Henket, 2002) and Negotiating Domesticity: Spatial Productions of Gender in Modern Architecture (co-edited with Gulsum Baydar, 2005). She regularly publishes in journals such as Home Cultures, The Journal of Architecture and Technology and Culture.
Christopher Hight is an Associate Professor and Director of Undergraduate Studies at the Rice University School of Architecture, where he is pursuing design and research on architecture's potential at the nexus of social, natural and subjective ecologies within the built environment. A Fulbright Scholar, he obtained a masters degree in histories and theories of architecture from the Architectural Association, and a Ph.D. from the London Consortium at the University of London.
Jyoti Hosagrahar teaches at Columbia University, New York and is Director of Sustainable Urbanism International at Columbia University, and Bangalore, India. Since 2006 she has served as an expert for UNESCO in the areas of historic cities, urban sustainability, as well as culture and development. She is author of Indigenous Modernities: Negotiating Architecture[Page xii]and Urbanism (Architext Series, Routledge, 2005) and has led SUI in designing innovative strategies to integrate heritage preservation with social development in India.
Richard Ingersoll has taught sixteenth-century Italian architecture and surveys of Italian urbanism at Rice University, the ETH Zurich, Università di Ferrara, and Syracuse University's Florence programme. Ingersoll was the editor of Design Book Review and art director for the film Esther. His recent books include Sprawltown and Global Architecture 1900–2000, vol. I. His articles appear regularly in Arquitectura Viva, Il Giornale di Architettura, Harvard Design Magazine, Architecture, and Bauwelt.
Sandra Kaji-O'Grady is Professor of Architecture in the Faculty of Architecture, Design and Planning at the University of Sydney. Her research interests are in the cross-fertilization between architecture, science and art in the 1960s and 1970s. Kaji-O'Grady draws out the relationships between emerging sciences such as computerisation and robotics, the development of performance art and installation, and the architecture of the 1970s. She situates these exchanges in their historical and cultural contexts and alongside theoretical debates in and out of architecture. As a critic, she is concerned to assess the consequences of individual buildings for the discipline. Additionally, she researches notation and colour through her own art practice and is interested in supervising higher degree research by project.
Shiloh Krupar is an Assistant Professor in the Culture and Politics Program at Georgetown University's School of Foreign Service. She holds a Ph.D. in cultural geography from the University of California at Berkeley, and an M.A. in East Asian studies from Stanford University. Her research and teaching interests, which lie at the intersection of geography, architecture, and performance, have focused on the relations between spectacle and waste through case studies that range from exhibitions in postsocialist urban China to decommissioned military sites in the US West. The latter will be featured in her book Hot Spotter's Manifesto with the University of Minnesota Press. Krupar also has several articles published in major peer-reviewed journals, including Society and Space, Public Culture and Radical History Review.
Abidin Kusno is Associate Professor at the Institute of Asian Research at the University of British Columbia where he holds a Canada Research Chair in Asian Urbanism and Culture (Tier II). He is the author of The Appearances of Memory: Mnemonic Practices of Architecture and Urban Form in Indonesia (Duke University Press, 2010) and Behind the Postcolonial: Architecture, Urban Space and Political Cultures in Indonesia (Routledge, 2000).
Iain Low is Professor at the University of Cape Town where he convenes post-graduate programmes in architecture. He has worked in rural schools for a self-reliance project in Lesotho, and has designed an award winning installation for Iziko SA Museum's San Rock Art collection in Cape Town. His research area is space and transformation, specializing in the postapartheid city, with particular focus on agency in re-writing architectural type. He is editor of the Digest of South African Architecture.
Duanfang Lu is Senior Lecturer in the Faculty of Architecture, Design and Planning at the University of Sydney, Australia. She has published widely on modern Chinese architectural and planning history. Her recent publications include Remaking Chinese Urban Form (2006, 2011) and Third World Modernism (2010). She serves on editorial boards of the journals Architectural Theory Review and Traditional Dwellings and Settlements Review.[Page xiii]
John Macarthur is Dean and Head of the School of Architecture at the University of Queensland, Australia, where he directs the research group ATCH (architecture, theory, criticism, and history). He writes on the cultural history and aesthetics of architecture and his particular interest has been the picturesque and its relation to modern architecture, urbanism and visual culture.
Daniel Maudlin is Associate Professor of Architectural History and Theory, School of Architecture, Design and Environment, University of Plymouth, UK. He has published widely on architecture, everyday life and material culture, including papers in Journal of Architectural Education, Design History, Architectural History, Architectural Heritage, Buildings and Landscapes, Vernacular Architecture and Traditional Dwellings and Settlements Review. His book The Highland House Transformed: Architecture and Identity on the Edge of Empire was Scotsman Book of the Year, 2009.
Brian McGrath is an architect and founder of urban–interface, a design studio working at the intersection of urbanism, ecology and media. He is the Research Chair in Urban Design at Parsons The New School for Design and the Director of the Urban Design Research Group at the Baltimore Ecosystem Study. McGrath has served as a Fulbright Senior Scholar in Thailand and as a Fellow at the India China Institute.
Ana Miljački is an Assistant Professor of Architecture at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. She has previously taught studios and seminars at Columbia University, City College in New York and Harvard University Graduate School of Design. She holds a Ph.D. (2007) in history and theory of architecture from Harvard University, an M.Arch. from Rice University and a B.A. from Bennington College. Her research interests range from the role of architecture and architects in the Cold War era Eastern Europe, through the theories of postmodernism in late socialism to politics of contemporary architectural production.
Deborah Natsios is co-director with John Young of Cryptome, an open source of online documents that expose the repercussions of security practices on civil liberties. She has taught in architecture and urban design programmes at Columbia University and Parsons the New School for Design, among others. She is a principal of Natsios Young Architects in New York City.
Jorge Otero-Pailos is an architect, artist and theorist specialized in experimental forms of preservation. He is Associate Professor of Historic Preservation in Columbia University's Graduate School of Architecture, Planning and Preservation. His research and work rethinks preservation as a powerful countercultural practice that creates alternative futures for our world heritage. His installations have been exhibited at the Venice Art Biennial (2009), and the Manifesta European Contemporary Art Biennial (2008). He is the Founder and Editor of the journal Future Anterior, and the author of Architecture's Historical Turn: Phenomenology and the Rise of the Postmodern (University of Minnesota Press, 2010).
Antoine Picon is Professor of the History of Architecture and Technology at Harvard Graduate School of Design where he also co-chairs the doctoral programmes. He holds simultaneously a research position at the École Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées. He has published numerous books and articles mostly dealing with the complementary histories of architecture and technology, among which are: French Architects and Engineers in the Age of Enlightenment, Claude Perrault (1613–1688), L'Invention de L'ingénieur moderne, La ville territoire des[Page xiv]cyborgs, and Les Saint-Simoniens: Raison, Imaginaire, et Utopie. Published in 2010, Picon's most recent book, Digital Culture in Architecture proposes a comprehensive interpretation of the changes brought by the computer to the design professions.
Mrinalini Rajagopalan is Assistant Professor in the Department of the History of Art and Architecture at the University of Pittsburgh. Her recent publications include: ‘A Medieval Monument and its Modern Myths of Iconoclasm’ in, Reuse Value: Spolia and Appropriation in Art and Architecture, from Constantine to Sherrie Levine, edited by Dale Kinney and Richard Brilliant (Ashgate, 2011) and ‘From Loot to Trophy: The Vexed History of Architectural Heritage in Imperial India’ (Newsletter of the International Institute of Asian Studies, No. 57, Spring 2011, Leiden University Press).
Vyjayanthi Rao is Assistant Professor of Anthropology at The New School for Social Research. She works on cities after globalization, specifically on the intersections of urban planning, design, art, violence and speculation in the articulation of the contemporary global city. She is the author of numerous articles on these topics and is completing a book manuscript titled The Speculative City.
Jane Rendell is a writer and architectural historian/theorist/designer whose work explores interdisciplinary intersections between architecture, art, feminism and psychoanalysis. Her authored books include Site-Writing (2010), Art and Architecture (2006), and The Pursuit of Pleasure (2002), and she is co-editor of Pattern (2007), Critical Architecture (2007), Spatial Imagination (2005), The Unknown City (2001), Intersections (2000), Gender, Space, Architecture (1999) and Strangely Familiar (1995). She is Professor of Architecture and Art, and Vice Dean of Research at the Bartlett, UCL.
David Salomon has taught architectural theory, history and design at Cornell University, the University of Pennsylvania and Syracuse University. He is the co-author of the Architecture of Patterns (Norton, 2010). His essays have appeared in the journals Log, Grey Room, Harvard Design Magazine, The Cornell Journal of Architecture and the Journal of Architectural Education. He received his Ph.D. from the Critical Studies in Architectural Culture programme at UCLA.
Grahame Shane, A.A. Dip., M.Arch. (Cornell UD), Ph.D. in Architectural and Urban History with Colin Rowe. Since 1985 he has taught at Columbia University. He also teaches at the Cooper Union, New York, University College, London, the Milan Polytechnic and Venice IAUV. He published Recombinant Urbanism (2005) and Urban Design Since 1945; a Global Perspective (2011). He co-edited the AD Special Issue Sensing the Twenty-First Century City; Upclose and Remote (2005) with Brian McGrath.
Kelly Shannon received her Ph.D., which focused on landscape urbanism and cases in Vietnam, from the University of Leuven, Belgium, where she is now teaching. Her recent design research is focused on the interplays of water and urbanism in Asian cities. Publications include: The Contemporary Landscape of Infrastructure (NAi, 2010), Human Settlements: Formulations and (re) Calibrations (ed., Sun Academia, 2010), Reclaiming (the Urbanism of) Mumbai (ed., Sun Academia, 2009), Water Urbanisms (Sun, 2008).
AbdouMaliq Simone is an urbanist with particular interest in emerging forms of social and economic intersection across diverse trajectories of change for cities in the Global South. [Page xv]Simone is presently Professor of Sociology at Goldsmiths College, University of London and Visiting Professor of Urban Studies at the African Centre for Cities, University of Cape Town. Key publications include In Whose Image: Political Islam and Urban Practices in Sudan (University of Chicago Press, 1994), For the City Yet to Come: Urban Change in Four African Cities (Duke University Press, 2004) and City Life from Jakarta to Dakar: Movements at the Crossroads (Routledge, 2009).
Heidi Sohn is Assistant Professor of Architecture Theory at the Delft School of Design, Faculty of Architecture, TU-Delft. She is founder and programme director of the Urban Asymmetries research and design project, and academic coordinator of the Future Cities graduate programme of the DSD. She is a trained architect and holds an M.Sc. degree in urban planning. She received her Ph.D. in architecture theory from the Faculty of Architecture of the TU-Delft in 2006. She has lectured and published extensively.
Naomi Stead is a Research Fellow in the ATCH (Architecture | Theory | Criticism | History) Research Centre in the School of Architecture at the University of Queensland, Australia. She is a co-editor of Architectural Theory Review. Her research interests lie within the architectural humanities and the cultural studies of architecture, in both its production and reception. Current projects examine architectural criticism, experimental writing practices in architecture, and intersections between architecture and the other arts.
Paolo Tombesi is the Chair of Construction, Faculty of Architecture, Building and Planning at the University of Melbourne, Australia. He also was visiting professor at the University of Reading, UK and at the Polytechnic of Turin, Italy. His primary area of research is the relationship between the intellectual dimension of building and the socio-technical aspect of building procurement. His current work draws on microeconomics and political economy as well as labour and industrial theory to examine the relationship between design, built quality, technological innovation and construction markets.
Bart Verschaffel (1956) studied philosophy at the University of Louvain and since 2004 is full Professor in the Department of Architecture and Urban Planning at Ghent University Belgium. He has numerous publications in the fields of architectural theory, aesthetics and art criticism and philosophy of culture. His monograph publications include: Architecture is (as) a Gesture? (2001); à propos de Balthus (2004); Essais sur les genres en peinture. Nature morte, portrait, paysage (2007); Van Hermes en Hestia. Over architectuur (2010); De zaak van de kunst. Over kennis, kritiek, en schoonheid (2011).
Paola Viganò is full Professor of Urbanism at Università IUAV of Venezia and coordinator of the Ph.D. program in urbanism. Guest professor in several european schools of architecture, she is the author of I territori dell'urbanistica – Il progetto come produttore di conoscenza (Officina, Roma 2010). In 1990 she founded Studio, together with Bernardo Secchi, one of the 10 teams selected for the “Grand Paris project” in 2009. In 2010 she was nominated for the Grand Prix d'Urbanisme.
Paul Walker is Associate Professor of Architecture at the University of Melbourne. His publications include: Looking for the Local: Architecture and the New Zealand Modern, with Justine Clark (Victoria University Press, 2000); and chapters in Mark Crinson and Claire Zimmerman, eds, Neo-Avant-garde and Postmodern (Yale University Press, 2010); and Peter Scriver and Vikramaditya Prakash, eds, Colonial Modernities (Routledge, 2007).[Page xvi]
Ines Weizman is an architect and theorist based in London. She teaches at London Metropolitan University and the Architectural Association School of Architecture. In recent years, following the subject of her Ph.D. thesis she researched and published on the political and ideological spectacles enacted by Soviet-era architecture, particularly on the urban historiography of what was East Germany. This was also an attempt in understanding figures and practices of dissidence in architecture.
Delia Duong Ba Wendel is a Harvard University Ph.D. candidate who researches post-conflict and post-disaster rebuilding strategies, focusing on the relations between spatial and sociopolitical repair. This research is dually informed by postgraduate degrees in cultural geography and architectural history. Wendel was trained as an architect, spent several years in practice, researched for UN-HABITAT, and taught at the University of Edinburgh. She is the co-editor of a forthcoming Graham Foundation funded publication, the Design Politics Reader.
Gwendolyn Wright is Professor of Architecture at Columbia University. Her work has focused principally on American architecture and urbanism from the late-nineteenth century to the present day. She has also written extensively about transnational exchanges, especially colonial and more recent neo-colonial aspects of both modernism and historic preservation. Her newest book is USA, part of the Modern Architectures in History series from Reaktion Books.
Preface and Acknowledgments[Page xvii]
The firmly bound pages of this Handbook belie the dispersed sites and different media of its production. This is perhaps the case with all books involving multiple authors. Yet the Handbook format, seeking as it does an all-embracing coverage of the state of a disciplinary field, exaggerates (and exploits) the spatially dispersed and mediated nature of the contemporary academy.
Our editorial meetings have almost all been mediated electronically. The Handbook's incubation period (2006–2010) has been such that we have both witnessed and experienced the extraordinarily rapid development of electronic communication and collaboration technologies. Conference telephone calls, e-mail, a Yahoo chat room, Skype, and Google Documents have collectively provided the shifting electronic medium of this collection. This electronic space has, of course, intersected with numerous places too – conference halls, offices, studies, public libraries, cafés, art galleries, and airport departure lounges. The most architecturally striking of these were Diller Scofidio + Renfro's Institute of Contemporary Art (ICA) building (2001–2006), and Carrère and Hastings' New York Public Library (1897–1911). The café and galleries of the Boston ICA served as a stimulating site for a day-long meeting of the three editors, while the outlines of the two introductions were drafted in the reading rooms of the New York Public Library. Both buildings, and their speedy wi-fi connections, have been instrumental in the assembly of this Handbook.
The editorial work of the Handbook has involved a number of structured workshops. The first was generously hosted and funded by Arie Graafland at the Delft School of Design (DSD), TU Delft, in May 2007. This was a significant two-day event that allowed the wider editorial collective to meet and reflect upon the emerging shape of the collection. Many of the section and project editors worked together for the first time at this event. We are especially grateful to Arie and his team at the DSD for helping to build the project's momentum in this way. Further two-day workshops were held at the Radcliffe Institute, Harvard University, in January and June 2008. Draft material for the Handbook was discussed among a large group including many of the section editors at both events. We thank the Radcliffe Institute for providing Hilde Heynen with a fellowship that greatly facilitated the coordination of editorial activities in 2007–2008 and for the material support in organizing these workshops. We would also like to thank all of those section and project editors who participated in these events, some of whom travelled great distances. We are grateful to the various home institutions of these participants who supported their attendance.
In addition to these larger, structured meetings, the three Handbook editors have met at various locations and times. The offices of our publisher in London were often the venue for such meetings, starting in February 2006, when we first set out what would become the structure of the Handbook, and continuing until June 2010, when the last arrangements for the delivery of the manuscript were made. We met twice in New York, either using offices provided [Page xviii]by the Parsons New School of Design (September 2008) or the New York Public Library (November 2009). Intermittently some of us met in Leuven (September 2006), San Francisco (February 2008), Edinburgh (August 2009), and Guimarães (June 2010).
For the latter opportunity we thank Alona Nitzan-Shiftan and Carmen Popescu who chaired a session on ‘The spatial turn’ at the EAHN conference in Guimarães, and provided us with the opportunity to talk about the Handbook. We also benefited from the invitation to speak at the EAAE workshop on architectural theory in Hasselt (2006), where the structure and wider themes of the Handbook were aired. Hilde Heynen was hosted by Ralph Lerner at the Department of Architecture of the University of Hong Kong and its Study Center in Shanghai (April 2009), where she presented some of the material brought together in the volume.
The Handbook benefited enormously from the input of eleven anonymous readers who reviewed our original proposal. Each offered careful, insightful, and sustained responses to the proposal. Each one, perhaps knowing better than we as to what then lay ahead of us, were supportive and encouraging. Sibel Bozdogan made important contributions to the initial framing and conception of the Handbook, and contributed to editorial workshops at the Radcliffe Institute. Sarah Whiting was a valuable respondent to the original proposal, helping us better understand the possibilities and nuances of the thematic structure that we had proposed. We are grateful to Jane M. Jacobs, Katerina Ruedi, and André Loeckx for their insights and comments upon key aspects of the text.
In the course of the past five years, we have discussed aspects of the Handbook with a lot of people – colleagues, doctoral students, fellow participants in conferences – who offered us enthusiastic support and helpful suggestions. Without that extensive network we would not have succeeded in finding and building such effective working relationships with the various authors that now figure in this book. Armeet Panesar took some excellent photographs for the Handbook, not all of which were able to be included. Chris French helped with sourcing visual materials for the cover.
We appreciated very much the calm, supportive, and enabling work of the team at SAGE Publications. Much of our initial interest in this project – and our recognition of its potential to instigate, and in some ways change the terms of debate in architectural theory – was due in no small measure to our contact with Robert Rojek, the commissioning editor and publisher at SAGE who initiated this volume. For his wise guidance, generous support, and for the risk he took in commissioning a project operating in largely uncharted waters for SAGE, we thank him. Sarah-Jayne Boyd, the assistant editor at SAGE who worked closely with us from the early stages to completion, remained supportive and (heroically) patient throughout, providing consistently sound and thoughtful advice in relation to the many practical issues we encountered along the way. Completing a project of this scale would not have been possible without the intellectual and technical infrastructure provided by SAGE.
Finally, we thank the section editors, project editors, and contributors for the seriousness with which they engaged with the wider aspirations of the Handbook project, and the sustained intellectual energy they invested in it. We appreciate, too, their patience as we completed the final stage of the work., , and